The Hudson Book
The Hudson Book
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The Hudson Book
Ed. 1.0
The Hudson Book
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Copyright © 2011 Oracle, Inc.
The Hudson Book
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Contents
1 Introducing Hudson
1.1
1
Continuous Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.1.1
A Hypothetical Development Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.1.2
Without Continuous Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.1.3
With Continuous Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
1.2
Minimizing Technical Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
1.3
Push it to Production with Hudson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.4
General Purpose Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.5
The Hudson Community at Eclipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.6
The Hudson Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.7
Hudson’s License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2 Installing and Running Hudson
2.1
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
9
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2.1.1
Software Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
2.1.2
Hardware Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
2.2
Installing Hudson with the WAR File Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
2.3
Deploy Hudson to a Servlet Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
2.4
Installing Hudson on Ubuntu/Debian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2.4.1
Hudson File-system on Ubuntu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
2.4.2
Starting and Stopping Hudson on Ubuntu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
2.4.3
Hudson Log Files on Ubuntu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
2.4.4
Hudson Configuration on Ubuntu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Installing Hudson on Redhat, CentOS, and Fedora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
2.5.1
Hudson File-system on Redhat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
2.5.2
Starting and Stopping Hudson on Redhat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.5.3
Hudson Log Files on Redhat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.5.4
Hudson Configuration on Redhat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.6
Installing Hudson on OpenSUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
2.7
Hudson Related Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
2.8
Backing up Hudson Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2.9
Upgrading Hudson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2.10 Running Hudson Behind a Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2.5
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3 Hudson Configuration
26
3.1
Global Hudson Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
3.2
Global Properties Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
3.3
Configuring JDK Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
3.4
Configuring Ant Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
3.5
Configuring Maven Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
3.6
Maven 3 Builder Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
3.7
Configuring the Shell Executable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
3.8
Configuring E-mail Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
3.8.1
E-mail Notification Via Gmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
Troubleshooting E-mail Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
3.9.1
Spam filter related problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
3.10 Managing Maven 3 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
3.10.1 Opening the Maven 3 Configuration Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
3.10.2 Managing Maven 3 Settings Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
3.11 Configuring Global and Individual Project List Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
3.12 Hudson Monitoring with RSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
3.12.1 Receiving Build Notifications via RSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
3.12.2 System Logs via RSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
3.9
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4 Securing Hudson
47
4.1
Security Settings Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
4.2
Miscellaneous Security Related Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
4.2.1
TCP port for JNLP slave agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
4.2.2
Markup Formatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
4.3
Authentication and Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
4.4
Configuring Security Realms: Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
4.4.1
Delegating to a Servlet Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
4.4.2
Relying on Unix Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50
4.4.3
Using the Hudson Internal User Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
4.4.4
Light-weight Directory Authentication Protocol (LDAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
Configuring an Access-control Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
4.5.1
Logged-in users can do anything . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
4.5.2
Matrix-based security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
4.5.3
Project-based Matrix Authorization Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
4.5.4
Anyone can do anything . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
Hudson Security Best Practises, Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
4.6.1
Common Setup - Internal matrix-based authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
4.6.2
Disabling security when locked out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
4.5
4.6
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5 Managing Hudson Plugins
59
5.1
Installed Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
5.2
Available Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
5.3
Plugin Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
5.4
Advanced Plugin Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
5.5
HTTP Proxy Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
5.6
Upload Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
5.7
Update Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
6 Creating Hudson Projects
65
6.1
Creating New Hudson Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
6.2
Configuring Common Job Configuration Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
6.2.1
Configuring General Project Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
6.2.2
Configuring Advanced Project Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
6.2.3
Configuring Source Code Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
6.2.4
Configuring Build Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
6.2.5
Configuring Post-build Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
6.2.6
Working with Cascading Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
6.3
Configuring Free-style Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
6.4
Configuring Multi-Configuration Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
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7 Working with Apache Maven Builds
84
7.1
Installing and Configuring Apache Maven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
7.2
Selecting Components of your Maven and Hudson Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85
7.3
Details of Configuring Maven 3 Build Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
7.4
Details of Configuring Maven 2 (Legacy) Build Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
8 Working with Apache Ant Builds
93
8.1
Installing Apache Ant for Hudson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
8.2
Configuring Apache Ant Builds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
9 Working with Source Control
9.1
9.2
95
Configuring Subversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
9.1.1
Global Subversion Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
9.1.2
Project-Specific Subversion Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
9.1.3
Minimal Basic SVN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.1.4
Subversion related environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Configuring Git . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.2.1
Global Git Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.2.2
Project-specific Git Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
9.2.3
Configuring the post-build action Git Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9.2.4
Minimal Basic Git Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
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9.2.5
9.3
9.4
Multiple branches and automated merging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Configuring Mercurial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.3.1
Global Mercurial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.3.2
Project-specific Mercurial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.3.3
Minimal Basic Mercurial Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Configuring CVS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.4.1
Global CVS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.4.2
Project-specific CVS Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
10 Tools Integration
117
10.1 Eclipse Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.1.1 Sonatype Hudson Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.1.2 Tasktop Mylyn Builds Connector for Hudson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
10.2 Oracle JDeveloper Team Productivity Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
10.3 Netbeans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
10.4 Jetbrains IntelliJ IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
10.5 Hudson Integration for Android . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
10.6 Firefox Add-on Build Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
A Creative Commons License
131
A.1 Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 US License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
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A.2 Creative Commons Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Abstract
Eclipse Hudson is a widely used, open source continuous integration server. The Hudson Book aims to be the authoritative and up to date resource about Hudson written by the community for the community.
The Hudson Book
i
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Oracle, Inc.. All rights reserved.
Online version published by Oracle, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065.
Hudson is a registered trademark of Oracle, Inc., in the United States and other countries.
Nexus™, Nexus Professional™, and all Nexus-related logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sonatype,
Inc., in the United States and other countries.
Java™ and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle, Inc., in the United
States and other countries.
IBM® and WebSphere® are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines, Inc., in the
United States and other countries.
Eclipse™ is a trademark of the Eclipse Foundation, Inc., in the United States and other countries.
Apache and the Apache feather logo are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks.
Where those designations appear in this book, and Oracle, Inc. was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have
been printed in caps or initial caps.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
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Foreword: 1.0
This book covers Hudson, the most widely used open source Continuous Integration Server. Oracle is excited to
support the continued development of Hudson as the Hudson community completes its transition to the Eclipse Foundation. An important part of making sure that Hudson offers a supportable, world-class experience to end users is
quality documentation.
If you have any feedback or questions, you are encouraged to post on the Hudson project mailing lists, or to contact
the authors directly via the Hudson project. We’re here to help, and we look forward to your feedback.
Manfred Moser, Tim O’Brien
August, 2011
Edition: 1.0
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Chapter 1
Introducing Hudson
What is Hudson?
Hudson is a powerful and widely used open source continuous integration server providing development teams with
a reliable way to monitor changes in source control and trigger a variety of builds. Hudson excels at integrating with
almost every tool you can think of. Use Apache Maven, Apache Ant or Gradle or anything you can start with a
command line script for builds and send messages via email, SMS, IRC and Skype for notifications.
In addition to providing a platform for continuous integration builds, Hudson can also be extended to support software
releases, documentation, monitoring, and a number of use cases secondary to continuous integration. In short, if you
can think it, Hudson can do it. From automating system administration tasks with Puppet and verifying infrastructure
setup with Cucumber, to building and testing PHP code, to simply building Enterprise Java applications - Hudson
stands ready to help.
1.1
Continuous Integration
Martin Fowler and Kent Beck are largely credited with the first use of the term "Continuous Integration" as applied
to software development with Beck’s seminal 1999 book Extreme Programming Explained being the first published
work touching upon the idea of creating systems to continuously build and test systems in response to changes in
source control. In the decade since this concept was introduced, continuous integration is now an established, standard
practice used across an entire industry.
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Note
Beck, Kent (1999). Extreme Programming Explained. ISBN 0-201-61641-6.
The idea, put simply, is that software development efforts are much easier to manage when test failures and other
bugs can be identified closer to the time they were introduced into a complex system. Let’s examine the differences
between a development effort using a Continuous Integration server, and a development effort not using Continuous
Integration.
1.1.1
A Hypothetical Development Team
Consider a hypothetical group of 20-30 developers working on a large enterprise application.
This development team consists of 20-30 developers divided into groups of 5-12 developers working on focused
features and components in a larger system. One group focuses on the database and a collection of APIs shared by
all other groups, one group focuses on a complex front-end web application, and another group focuses on back-end
systems such as billing and inventory which interface with a large Enterprise Service Bus (ESB).
In this environment the business drives a number of overlapping development schedules. The web application team
tends to work on two week development schedules, and the back-end group performs releases in response to changes
in the ESB. Any given month resemble a highly choreographed sequence of code freezes, development sprints, and
products releases with little room for error and inefficiency.
In summary, these 20-30 developers are under constant pressure to deliver, and the technical managers are tasked with
orchestrating the efforts of these various teams to deploy code to production on a regular schedule. This is what the
enterprise feels like in 2011: it’s very busy, and if you happen to find a bit of free time there is always someone who
can create a new requirement.
1.1.2
Without Continuous Integration
Without Continuous Integration the various teams have to factor in "integration time" into the schedule. Unit tests
might be run by individual developers, but integration tests are only executed when the system is ready to be deployed.
There’s nothing automatic about the process, and, very often only a handful of developers have the appropriate environment to build and deploy to production.
Each team, each group is responsible for testing the larger system and making sure that their changes don’t interfere
with another group’s changes. One week before a release, everything stops so that a single "release manager" can
build a canonical build on a single build machine and deploy this build to a testing environment.
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Each time one group needs to deploy a specific part of the system, every group needs to stop, synchronize, and test. If
the web application group needs to deploy to production, all of the other groups need to synchronize with that group
and make sure that all of the tests pass during a build.
This constant need to stop, integrate, and verify introduces a synthetic limit to the scale of development. As development teams scale and grow larger, and as systems become increasingly complex and intertwined your team spends
more time on integration and testing.
Without continuous integration, developing modern applications is practically impossible without dramatic inefficiency. There is too much unproductive down-time, and far too much waste. The development group described above
would be hard pressed to release anything more than a global update once a month.
1.1.3
With Continuous Integration
With Continuous Integration, the system completes a build, test, deploy, and integration in response to every single
commit. If a developer in the web application group checks in code at 2 AM, Hudson kicks off a build, runs unit tests,
deploys the code to a new server, and performs a set of integration tests. If this build fails or the tests encounter an
unexpected condition, everyone is notified of this failure.
With continuous integration, no one needs to drop everything and run a release build, these builds are generated every
single day, and in the most mature environments, a fully tested and verified system can be deployed to production
at any time. In other words, when you automate build, test, and verify using a tool like Hudson you can continue
developing your applications without having to wait (or synchronize) on some manual build, test, verify process.
Making these processes automatic has another important side-effect, it makes the development process more scaleable. When your teams don’t have to stop to actively test and collaborate with one another, it is much easier to add
additional developers to a project. Without continuous integration you have to stop and synchronize release schedules.
With continuous integration you reduce the risk associated with a particular software development cycle.
1.2
Minimizing Technical Debt
Another way to think about Hudson is in terms of technical debt.
When you amass "technical debt" you are making a decision that yields a short-term benefit while creating a problem
to be solved in the future. If you’ve developed code under strict time lines, technical debt is nothing new to you.
Every system has some form of technical debt. If you’ve ever sacrificed quality for the expedient solution, you’ve
experienced technical debt: "the code had to be deployed tomorrow and the deadline was fast approaching".
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From the perspective of builds and tests, it is much easier to develop a system without having to worry about unit
tests and integration tests. You could speed up implementation time for a feature by just skipping the tests, but you’ll
eventually pay for this approach ten-fold in the form of bug fixes.
Continuous integration along with a commitment to test-driven development helps minimize your exposure to risky
technical debt. Because you are running the unit and integration tests every few minutes, you don’t have the opportunity to let problems sit and fester unaddressed. When you develop without continuous integration, you are amassing the
potential for technical debt. You can choose to fix bugs as they are introduced, minimizing both the scope and severity
of defects by catching them early, or you can develop for weeks and run tests only at the end of the development cycle.
While you might only deploy to production once a month, your Hudson installation deploys once a commit, and when
you are dealing with increasingly complex systems this granularity makes sure that any glaring quality detours are
confined to a single commit.
1.3
Push it to Production with Hudson
The infrastructure that powers applications has grown more and more complex over time. The web application that ran
on a production network of 10 hefty Unix machines in 1999 has evolved into an architecture that can potentially span
hundreds (or thousands) of nodes on a computing grid. Companies like Apple and Oracle are deploying infrastructure
on a massive scale compared to where the industry was operating just a few years ago. This movement toward Cloudbased deployments and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) has meant that infrastructure is now more likely to be compiled
and deployed on an as-needed basis.
Organizations are using tools like Hudson to setup production deployments and automate the management of cloudbased infrastructure. This carries the idea of Continuous Integration forward into the realm of Continuous Deployment.
While the idea may sound risky if you work in a relatively slow-moving industry, social networks like Facebook and
social media services such as Flickr have been building complex developer/operations (devops) systems that allow
them to deploy code to production multiple times a day.
While this emerging trend is still confined to the largest deployments, the idea of connecting your Continuous Integration server directly to your production systems is gaining support. Hudson can be a critical part of automating
these approaches to continuous deployment. Proven integration with tools like Puppet and Cucumber allow innovative
devops staff to take continuous integration in some surprising directions.
1.4
General Purpose Scheduler
Hudson can also be viewed as a general purpose scheduler, a replacement for cron or Quartz in your production
network. While Hudson is generally viewed as development infrastructure, a class of infrastructure usually considered
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separate from the rarefied world of production, there’s nothing stopping you from using Hudson as a general purpose
scheduler or server running within a production network.
If you have a requirement for scheduled services or if you need to perform a set of on-demand jobs in a production
network, install Hudson and you’ve gained a friendly interface and a tool that can integrate with anything in the world.
There’s nothing stopping you from using Hudson in production.
1.5
The Hudson Community at Eclipse
Hudson has an evolving community of developers and organizations interested in taking Hudson to the next level of
stability and reliability. Following the creation of the Jenkins fork in early 2011, several members of the community
decided to commit themselves to reconstituting the Hudson community and moving the project to the Eclipse Foundation. This move promises to create a more stable approach to open source governance while creating a level playing
field for interested individuals and organizations.
Throughout its history the Hudson project lacked a formal structure and avoided process. Grown from a pet project, the
governance of Hudson was ad-hoc. While this ad-hoc approach scaled for a few years, as more organizations decided to
participate and contribute to the project the Hudson community identified a need for more formal procedures on issues
such as release management, code provenance, and general technical direction. It is now the desire of the Hudson
project to move toward a more formal process and structure with the end-goal of creating a healthy, open environment
with well-defined rules, as well as a development process and release processes for building a high-quality and reliable
continuous integration server.
Eclipse has a history of encouraging healthy environments for open source projects. It is an organization supported
and respected by millions of end-users, thousands of contributors, and hundreds of active companies. In addition to
being a great home for the Hudson project, Eclipse is also an important user of the software. Hudson has become an
integral part of the development infrastructure at Eclipse, and the requirements of the Eclipse Foundation mirror the
requirements of some of the largest enterprises in the world.
1.6
The Hudson Project
The main source of information about Hudson are the Eclipse Hudson website and the legacy website. The sites
contain links to resources like the wiki, an issue tracker, the user forum, a few mailing lists, the source code and more.
If you are looking for download Hudson or learn about participating in the, you can start with the Eclipse Hudson
project’s web site.
At the time this document was developed, the Hudson project at Eclipse was focused on the following tasks:
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• Improving the core of Hudson by bolstering the test harnesses,
• Creating a new performance harnesses allowing for more detailed performance assessment and testing.
• Developing a fully automated test and release infrastructure
Some of the larger, medium-term goals of the Hudson project are:
• Improving stability - The Eclipse project is investing in QA efforts to certify Eclipse to run on a set of standard
platforms. Improving the reliability and stability of Hudson will enable more predictable behaviour for end-users
and also enable an ecosystem of interested third-party providers of Hudson support services.
• Improving performance - The project is focused on addressing performance, especially for organizations using
Hudson to support large numbers of projects.
• Improving Maven 3.x integration - Sonatype has contributed a completely reworked Maven 3 plugin which takes
advantage of changes to Maven 3 which were made to increase the ease with which Maven could be integrate in
IDEs such as Eclipse and CI servers such as Hudson.
• Improve the UI - Prior to the migration to the Eclipse Foundation, the Hudson project had standardized on Jelly
as a UI technology. The Hudson is currently focused on moving the UI system way from Jelly and toward a more
modern approach to creating a solid, reactive user interface for Hudson.
• Closer Integration for Core Plugins - One of the first steps of the Hudson project during the transition to Eclipse
was to define a tiered set of Hudson plugins and establish a level of commitment and support to the most widely
used plugins. It is the intention of the Eclipse project to increase the level of support and integration for these core
plugins.
• A standard OSGi Run-time Model based on Eclipse Equinox - Hudson’s legacy architecture was full of issues
arising from the lack of a unified architecture. The Hudson project is work to move Hudson toward an OSGi model
based on Eclipse Equinox. This will not only lead to a more stable CI server, it will make it easier to integrate and
embed Hudson in systems like the Eclipse IDE and other, widely-used OSGi containers.
• Support the a standard component model using JSR 330 - Early efforts were made to move the plugin API
toward an approach compatible with JSR 330. This effort not only makes it easier to write and test Hudson plugins,
it also aligns Hudson will the way that Java is developed in 2011 using frameworks and libraries such as Google
Guice and VMWare’s Spring Framework.
• Standard web services using JAXRS - Many of the plugins and core systems in Hudson are being migrated to a
system that presents UI services as a collection of REST services. This foundational effort will set the stage for
Hudson to move toward a richer, more reactive UI architecture possibly involving a migration to a SOFEA approach
to user interface.
• Backwards Compatibility - Despite this list of ideas and plans, the Hudson community is also focused on supporting existing plugins and Hudson APIs.
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1.7
Hudson’s License
As Hudson has completed the transition to the Eclipse Foundation, the core of Hudson is covered by the Eclipse Public
License version 1.0. The Open Source Initiative categorizes the Eclipse Public License as a "popular and widely
used license with a strong community". The EPL is a limited copy-left license designed to be a "business-friendly"
alternative to the GPL. More information about the Eclipse Public License can also be found on Wikipedia.
If you have any questions about the Eclipse Public License, the Eclipse Foundation also maintains a helpful FAQ
about the license. A big reason for the move to the Eclipse Foundation was to make sure that the project was on solid
ground for licensing issues. Eclipse takes intellectual property and code provenance very seriously and maintains a
strict contribution review process to make sure that every project release complies with a set of licensing standards. If
you download it from Eclipse, if it is stored in Eclipse’s source control systems, it is released under the EPL.
Note
While the core of Hudson is licensed under the EPL, Hudson is a container for running various Hudson Plugins.
These plugins may be covered by a variety of licenses, and if you are redistributing Hudson along with a set of 3rd
party plugins, you should consult each individual plugin project to find a specific license.
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Chapter 2
Installing and Running Hudson
Hudson has a reputation for being both easy to install and very adaptable to running in a variety of environments. You
can run Hudson as a stand-alone web application, or you can run Hudson within an existing servlet container. The
Hudson project also maintains OS-specific packages for Redhat, Debian, Ubuntu, and other Linux distributions which
make installing Hudson on these platforms almost effortless.
The following sections detail the installation process for Hudson. There are two different approaches to installing
Hudson:
WAR File
The Hudson web site provides a Java web archive file (WAR) for download. This file can either be started
directly or used in an existing Java servlet container or application server.
Native Package
Besides the web archive you can download packages for Hudson suitable for the use with the native package
management systems on Ubuntu/Debian, Oracle Linux, Redhat/Fedora/CentOS and openSUSE.
It is a best practice to install Hudson as a service automatically started when an operating system boots. On a Windows
machine this can be as straightforward as configuring a new Windows Service, and on a Linux machine this is as easy
as dropping the appropriate script in /etc/init.d. The following sections outline the process for configuring Hudson as
a service on various operating systems.
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2.1
Prerequisites
While Hudson can run on a variety of machines under an almost infinite combination of JVMs, Operating System,
and infrastructure. The Hudson project is targeting a set of standard operating systems and Java versions. This section
outlines some of the expectations - the preconditions that are necessary to install and run a Hudson server.
2.1.1
Software Prerequisites
Hudson only has one prerequisite, a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) compatible with Java 6 or higher. Hudson is
most often run with the JRE that is bundled with a Java Development Kit (JDK) installation. We recommend using
the latest version of the JDK/JRE Java 6. If you are running on a modern Linux distribution such as Ubuntu, it is often
possible to install the OpenJDK 6 project using a tool like apt-get (or yum on a Redhat distribution).
Download Oracle Java 6 JDK
The latest version of Oracle’s JDK 6 is the officially supported runtime. To download the latest release of the
Oracle JDK, go to the Java JDK 6 Download Page, and download the latest Java 6 JDK.
Installing OpenJDK 6 on Linux
OpenJDK packages are available in both RPM and DEB format which should cover most Linux distributions.
Installing OpenJDK 6 on your Linux machine can be done by following the instructions OpenJDK project site.
2.1.2
Hardware Prerequisites
As there is such a wide variety of Hudson deployments, from the Hudson server that runs a single project once every
few days, to the Hudson server which serves as a master orchestrator of a hundred or more nodes in a massively distributed build grid, it is impossible to predict and recommend the necessary CPU power and disk space your particular
installation will demand. Your own builds and your own systems will often dictate the specific hardware and network
requirements for your Hudson instance.
What this section can do is provide a few recommendations that will help size and configure your infrastructure:
Network
If your Hudson server is very active you should make sure that there is sufficient bandwidth and low latency
between your Hudson server and your source control system. Hudson is configured to periodically test the source
control system and look for changes. In general, the critical components of your development infrastructure
should be co-located with one another. Your CI server should be next to your SCM server. If your Hudson
server is configured to automatically publish build artifacts to a repository manager, you should also make sure
that the network connection between these two machines can support the expected level of activity.
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CPU
In the absence of build activity, Hudson doesn’t consume very much in the way of CPU power. You can let
Hudson run in the background, waiting for a build to trigger without having to worry about consuming more
than a few processor cycles. With build activity, you should take the CPU requirements of your own development
workstation and use that as a baseline for your Hudson server. Multiply the power you use as a single developer
by the number of concurrent builds your Hudson server needs to handle. In general a two or four processor build
machine with a powerful processors is a good starting point for a medium-sized work-group of 5-10 developers.
Memory
Compilers can often eat massive amounts of RAM. As with CPU configuration, take your own development
workstation as a baseline and try to multiple that requirement by the number of expected concurrent builds. If
your local build can easily run with 2 GB of RAM and you expect three concurrent build threads at any given
time, then make sure that your Hudson instance can consume 6 GB of RAM on a server. You’ll have to use your
own builds as a guide, but 4-8 GB of RAM should be adequate for a medium-sized work-group.
I/O
As with Memory requirements, builds, compilers, and tools like Maven and Ant tend to make disk drives go
berserk with activity. If your builds are particularly I/O intensive, you are going to want to make sure that
Hudson has sufficient local storage (or high-speed SAN storage). If you try to run a massive build job using an
NFS mount to store output you are likely to see unacceptable build performance. Don’t "skimp" on hard drive
quality or available storage space. I/O is often the primary gating factor in a large enterprise-class builds. Builds
eat I/O.
Storage
You should be able to get off the ground with 5-10 GB, but once you start building your projects, you are
going to want to preserve some build history. This build history can provide invaluable insight into the trends
surrounding a particular build. If you were able to look at your project’s build history over a few weeks, you
might notice that one developer in particular continues to break the build for your team. Alternatively, you can
also configure Hudson to keep track of important metrics and trends such as test failures over time.
If you think that keeping build history around is important, you should configure Hudson with an appropriate amount
of disk space. What this number is is heavily dependent on the size of your projects and the size of the generated
binary artifacts. Larger projects with tens of thousands of lines of code can often get by with 60-100 GB, but the
largest Hudson installations can easily reach a TB or more depending on the activity in a given development group.
Again, these recommendations come with a caveat: the authors of this document are not familiar with your application’s build. If your tests generate a huge amount of I/O activity or if your builds are particularly difficult to compile,
you should use your best judgement. A good rule of thumb with Hudson deployments is to make sure that your Hudson
server can satisfy a reasonable number of concurrent builds. Should it be able to run two builds in parallel? How about
ten? This all depends on the size of your development and the frequency with which code changes are committed to
source control.
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Warning
Continuous Integration servers drive quality, and if they are seriously under-powered they tend not to work.
That tiny afterthought of a machine that management could spare for Hudson may end up taking several
hours to run a build that takes minutes on your workstation. If software is something you produce, and if you
value quality, you need to run a machine that will be able to keep up with your developers. If you treat the
hardware running your CI system as an afterthought, it you can’t afford to invest in the necessary hardware,
don’t be surprised if your quality, morale, and productivity take a nose dive.
2.2
Installing Hudson with the WAR File Distribution
The WAR file available for download on the Hudson web site is an executable WAR that has a servlet container
embedded within it. Once downloaded and copied to the desired directory, you can start Hudson with the following
command:
java -jar hudson.war
Tip
That’s it. The Hudson WAR ships with everything it needs to start itself.
This will start the servlet container as the current operating system user, inheriting access rights to the file system and
so on. The Hudson home directory will be set to the .hudson folder in the user’s home directory. Once started the
web-based Hudson user interface will be available at http://localhost:8080/hudson
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Figure 2.1: Hudson Application Window
Note
This approach is suitable for testing and exploring Hudson, but it is not recommended to run Hudson as an executable
WAR in production. Sure, it only took you a few seconds to download and start Hudson, but running dependable
development infrastructure usually requires more than just a developer running "java -jar" from the command-line. If
you really want to get serious about running Hudson, configure Hudson as a service on Windows or Linux.
2.3
Deploy Hudson to a Servlet Container
Conveniently the WAR file is suitable to be deployed in most commonly used Java servlet containers and application
servers. The detailed process differs for these containers but in general the required steps are as follows:
Set up HUDSON_HOME
Hudson locates its configuration files and all other data in one folder and a collection of sub-folders to hold Job
and build data. This folder should be configured by setting up an environment variable: HUDSON_HOME. The
application will pick up this setting and use the specified folder to store job and configuration data.
Deploy to the server
Depending on the application server and your access rights you can deploy the WAR file via a web-based
administration console or by copying the WAR into a deployment folder. The details of each servlet container
and application server are beyond the scope of this book.
When using Hudson on your application server, you should ensure that the server is set up as an operating system
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service. The details of this setup widely vary between operating systems and application servers. The Hudson project
provides helpful instructions for installing Hudson on Glassfish, WebSphere, JBoss, Jetty, Tomcat, Jonas, Weblogic
and Winstone. More information about different containers and their specific needs in terms of installing and running
Hudson is maintained on the Hudson wiki.
Note
The recommended installation process is to install Hudson as a stand-alone service on a dedicated host using the
operating system-specific packages supplied by the Hudson web site and documented in the following sections. If
you choose to run Hudson in an application server or a servlet container, you may need to perform complicated
configuration changes to ensure that Hudson adheres to a particular servers expectations.
2.4
Installing Hudson on Ubuntu/Debian
Hudson provides a package repository of deb files for users of Debian based distributions such as Debian, Ubuntu and
others. This package will install Hudson and set up the CI server as a service.
Step 1: Install Java runtime
In order to fulfil the prerequisite of an installed Java runtime on a Debian based distribution it is best to install the meta package default-jdk, which will install OpenJDK. Either use a graphical user interface like
synaptic or install from the command-line with apt-get using the following command.
sudo apt-get install default-jdk
If you prefer to use the Oracle Java runtime install it with the following apt-get command.
sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk
Step 2: Add Hudson repository URL to package management
The Hudson project hosts its packages in its own repository server. In order to use it you have to add its URL to
your list of package sources with the following command.
sudo sh -c "echo ’deb http://hudson-ci.org/debian binary/’ \
> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/hudson.list"
You can also add the APT line deb http://hudson-ci.org/debian binary/ in your GUI package manager as a repository URL. Future upgrades will not require this step to be repeated.
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Step 3: Update the list of available packages
Once you’ve installed Java and added the Hudson repository URL you can update the list of available packages
with the following command.
sudo apt-get update
This step has to be repeated whenever you want to check for the availability of upgrades. A common, best practice is
to run yum update on a regular basis using cron this will alert you to updates as they become available.
Step 4: Install Hudson
Once your list of available packages is updated, you can install Hudson with the following command:
sudo apt-get install hudson
As the hudson packages are signed with a key that isn’t trusted by default, the installation process requires your
confirmation. Once you have verified that you would like to install Hudson without verification, the installation
process will then proceed to install and start Hudson. Your console output will look similar to the following output.
$ sudo apt-get install hudson
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
hudson
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 4 not upgraded.
Need to get 38.8 MB of archives.
After this operation, 39.7 MB of additional disk space will be used.
WARNING: The following packages cannot be authenticated!
hudson
Install these packages without verification [y/N]? y
Get:1 http://hudson-ci.org/debian/ binary/ hudson 2.0.0 [38.8 MB]
Fetched 38.8 MB in 39s (981 kB/s)
Selecting previously deselected package hudson.
(Reading database ... 180192 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking hudson (from .../archives/hudson_2.0.0_all.deb) ...
Processing triggers for ureadahead ...
ureadahead will be reprofiled on next reboot
Setting up hudson (2.0.0) ...
Adding system user ‘hudson’ (UID 114) ...
Adding new user ‘hudson’ (UID 114) with group ‘nogroup’ ...
Not creating home directory ‘/var/lib/hudson’.
* Starting Hudson Continuous Integration Server hudson [ OK ]
As you can see from the output above, a hudson user was created. This user will run the Hudson server. The Hudson
home folder is configured to point to the /var/lib/hudson directory. This is an important directory to remember,
as it contains configuration, work-spaces, and other files related to your project’s builds.
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Note
Take note, if you are backing up Hudson, you will want to configure your backup systems to archive the contents of
/var/lib/hudson. Everything interesting that relates to your projects is contained in this directory.
Step 5: Upgrade Hudson
To upgrade Hudson when a new release is available you would run the following apt-get command.
sudo apt-get upgrade
This will stop the running Hudson server, upgrade Hudson and restart the server. Prior to upgrading you should always
backup your Hudson configuration and workspace data located in /var/lib/hudson.
2.4.1
Hudson File-system on Ubuntu
Running dpkg provides a list of the files installed by the Hudson DEB package. This list is a helpful guide for
Hudson administrators as it helps locate interesting configuration files and directories you will need to know about
when configuring and troubleshooting a Hudson installation.
$ dpkg -L hudson
/.
/var
/var/log
/var/log/hudson
/var/lib
/var/lib/hudson
/var/run
/var/run/hudson
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/hudson
/usr/share/doc/hudson/changelog.gz
/usr/share/doc/hudson/copyright
/usr/share/hudson
/usr/share/hudson/hudson.war
/usr/bin
/usr/sbin
/etc
/etc/apt
/etc/apt/sources.list.d
/etc/apt/sources.list.d/hudson.list
/etc/default
/etc/default/hudson
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/etc/init.d
/etc/init.d/hudson
/etc/logrotate.d
/etc/logrotate.d/hudson
2.4.2
Starting and Stopping Hudson on Ubuntu
When you installed the Hudson DEB package on Ubuntu the installation process configured Hudson as a service. You
can stop and start the service with the following commands:
sudo service hudson stop
sudo service hudson start
Alternatively, you can use the following commands:
sudo /etc/init.d/hudson stop
sudo /etc/init.d/hudson start
2.4.3
Hudson Log Files on Ubuntu
Following the Linux Standard Base conventions Hudson creates its log file in /var/log/hudson/hudson.log.
This log file will be rotated automatically in the same way your syslog files are rotated on a nightly schedule.
This log rotation schedule can be configured by altering the configuration in /etc/logrotate.d/hudson.
2.4.4
Hudson Configuration on Ubuntu
The list of files installed by the Hudson DEB package reveal that a configuration file /etc/default/hudson was
created. This file contains a number of configuration parameters that you might want to adapt to your needs. These
include:
JAVA_ARGS
Used to increase the memory allocation for Hudson
HTTP-PORT
Sets the Hudson port to a default of 8080.
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HUDSON_HOME
Defines the default location of Hudson’s working directory.
HUDSON_LOG
Defines the location of Hudson’s log file.
MAXOPENFILES
Defaults to 8192. This is an important configuration value for larger Hudson installations. If you are running
out of file handles you can increase this limit here.
AJP_PORT
This configuration parameter is disabled by default, but if you are planning on exposing your Hudson service
via a web server using mod_jk or mod_proxy_ajp, you can configure the AJP port in this configuration file.
JAVA
Defaults to /usr/bin/java. If you have a custom installation of Java, you can point your Hudson instance at a
specific executable here.
HUDSON_USER
The DEB installer creates "hudson" user. This value is configurable in case you need to run Hudson under a
different user.
Tip
If you modify this file to suit your needs, you should add it to your backup strategy.
2.5
Installing Hudson on Redhat, CentOS, and Fedora
Oracle Linux, Redhat Enterprise Linux, CentOS and Fedora all use the same RPM package provided by the Hudson
project. This package will install Hudson and set it up as a service.
STEP 1: Install Java runtime
In order to fulfil the prerequisite of an installed Java runtime on a Red Hat-based distribution it is best to install
the meta package java, which will install OpenJDK, with your preferred package manager user interface.
Either use a graphical user interface like Add/Remove Software or install from the command-line with the
following command.
sudo yum install java
STEP 2: Add Hudson repository URL to package management
The Hudson project hosts its packages in its own repository server. In order to reference these packages you
have to add the repository metadata to your list of package sources with the following command.
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sudo wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/hudson.repo http://hudson-ci.org/redhat/hudson.repo
Future upgrades will not require this step to be repeated.
STEP 3: Update the list of available packages
Once the prior steps are completed you can update the list of available packages in your graphical package
manager or using the following yum command.
sudo yum check-update
This step has to be repeated whenever you want to check for the availability of upgrades. A suggested best practice is
to run "yum check-update" on a regular basis and configure a system to notify you when your system is eligible for
updates.
STEP 4: Install Hudson
Once your list of available packages is updated, you can install Hudson with
sudo yum install hudson
This command will require your confirmation. Once you’ve confirmed that you want to install Hudson, yum will then
proceed to install and start Hudson. Your console output will look similar to the following output.
$ sudo yum install hudson
Loaded plugins: langpacks, presto, refresh-packagekit
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package hudson.noarch 0:2.0.1-1.1 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
======================================================================
Package
Arch
Version
Repository
======================================================================
Installing:
hudson
noarch
2.0.1-1.1
test
Transaction Summary
======================================================================
Install
1 Package(s)
Total download size: 37 M
Size
37 M
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Installed size: 37 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
Processing delta metadata
Package(s) data still to download: 37 M
hudson-2.0.1-1.1.noarch.100% [=======] 953 kB/s | 37 MB
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing : hudson-2.0.1-1.1.noarch
1/1
00:40
Installed:
hudson.noarch 0:2.0.1-1.1
Complete!
STEP 5: Upgrade Hudson
To upgrade Hudson when a new release is available run the following command:
sudo yum update
This command stops the running Hudson server, upgrade Hudson and restart the server. Prior to upgrading you might
want to backup your Hudson data configuration located in /var/lib/hudson and owned by the hudson user.
2.5.1
Hudson File-system on Redhat
Looking at the list of files installed by the package we see that this RPM created the following files.
$ rpm -ql hudson
/etc/init.d/hudson
/etc/logrotate.d/hudson
/etc/sysconfig/hudson
/usr/lib/hudson
/usr/lib/hudson/hudson.war
/usr/sbin/hudson
/var/lib/hudson
/var/log/hudson
As part of the install a hudson user was created . This user will run the Hudson server. The Hudson home folder
is configured to be located in /var/lib/hudson, which will contain configuration, work-spaces and so on and
should be added to your backup strategy.
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2.5.2
Starting and Stopping Hudson on Redhat
The install configured Hudson as a service so that you can stop and start the service with the following commands:
sudo service hudson stop
sudo service hudson start
2.5.3
Hudson Log Files on Redhat
Following the Linux standard base convention Hudson will create its log files into /var/log/hudson/hudson.log
and the log files will be rotated on a nightly basis to preserve disk space.
2.5.4
Hudson Configuration on Redhat
This rpm command reveals that a configuration file /etc/sysconfig/hudson was created. It contains a number
of configuration parameters that you might want to adapt to your needs. These include e.g. the HUDSON_JAVA_OPTIONS
that can be used to increase the memory allocation for Hudson or the HUDSON_PORT parameter set to the common
8080. If you modify this file to suit your needs, you should add it to you backup strategy.
2.6
Installing Hudson on OpenSUSE
OpenSUSE uses a special rpm package provided by the Hudson project. This package will install Hudson and set it
up as a service.
STEP 1: Install Java runtime
In order to fulfil the prerequisite of an installed Java runtime on openSUSE it is best to install the meta package
java, which will install OpenJDK, with your preferred package manager user interface. Either use a graphical
user interface like YaST or install from on the command-line with
sudo zypper install java
STEP 2: Add Hudson repository URL to package management
The Hudson project hosts its packages in its own repository server. In order to use it you have to add the
repository meta data to your list of package sources with
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sudo wget -O /etc/zypp/repos.d/hudson.repo http://hudson-ci.org/opensuse/hudson.repo
Future upgrades will not require this step to be repeated.
STEP 3: Update the list of available packages
Once the prior steps are completed you can update the list of available packages in your graphical package
manager or with
sudo zypper refresh
This step has to be repeated whenever you want to check for the availability of upgrades. Common practice is for the
update of the list to run automatically on a regular basis.
STEP 4: Install Hudson
Once your list of available packages is updated, you can install Hudson with
sudo zypper install hudson
This command requires you to confirm and will then proceed to install and start Hudson. Your console output will
look similar to this
$ sudo zypper install hudson
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following NEW package is going to be installed:
hudson
1 new package to install.
Overall download size: 37.1 MiB. After the operation, additional 37.1 MiB will be
used.
Continue? [y/n/?] (y):
Installing: hudson-2.0.1-1.1 [done]
Additional rpm output:
hudson
0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on
4:off 5:on
6:off
STEP 5: Upgrade Hudson
To upgrade Hudson when a new release is available you would run the following command:
sudo zypper update
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This command stops the running Hudson server, upgrade Hudson and restart the server. Prior to upgrading you might
want to backup your Hudson data configuration located in /var/lib/hudson and owned by the hudson user.
The install configured Hudson as a service so that you can stop and start the service with the following commands:
sudo /etc/init.d/hudson stop
sudo /etc/init.d/hudson start
Following the Linux standard base convention Hudson will create its log files into /var/log/hudson/hudson.log
and the log files will be rotated so you will no accumulate large log files using up disk space.
Looking at the list of files installed by the package
$ rpm -ql hudson
/etc/init.d/hudson
/etc/logrotate.d/hudson
/etc/sysconfig/hudson
/etc/zypp/repos.d/hudson.repo
/usr/lib/hudson
/usr/lib/hudson/hudson.war
/usr/sbin/rchudson
/var/lib/hudson
/var/log/hudson
This command reveals that a configuration file /etc/sysconfig/hudson was created. It contains a number of
configuration parameters that you might want to adapt to your needs. These include e.g. the HUDSON_JAVA_OPTIONS
that can be used to increase the memory allocation for Hudson or the HUDSON_PORT parameter set to the common
8080. If you modify this file to suit your needs, you should add it to you backup strategy.
As part of the install a hudson user was created . This user will run the Hudson server. The Hudson home folder
is configured to be located in /var/lib/hudson, which will contain configuration, work-spaces and so on and
should be added to your backup strategy.
2.7
Hudson Related Files and Directories
Depending on your installation method for Hudson using the standalone war, running it with an application server or
using one of the native packages, all files required by Hudson will be located in different locations on the file system.
In all cases however the main location for configuration of Hudson, plugins, builds and so on will be in your Hudson
home directory.
It is defined as HUDSON_HOME and visible in the administration interface as Home directory in Figure 3.2. With a
native package install this would typically be /var/lib/hudson. When running Hudson in an application server
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or from the standalone war it typically is the .hudson folder in the home folder of the user running the application
server or war file.
In addition you installation will include the Hudson war file itself as well as scripts for service start-up and log rotation.
These vary depending on your install method in location as well as content. The sections for the native installer include
details for these files. For application server based install or running from the standalone war file you will have set up
these individually files yourself and therefore know about their location.
The Hudson home directory itself contains a number of files and directories that we will examine now.
The main Hudson configuration is contained in config.xml. It contains large number of configuration settings for
Hudson itself including security and authorization details, views, nodes, JDK’s and other global parameters.
Further system-wide configuration specific to installed plugins are contained in numerous xml files, which represent a serialized form of the various plugin configuration settings. File names used vary widely, but include
hudon.tasks.*.xml, hudson.plugins.*.xml, hudson.scm.\*.xml and others like maven-installation
or rest-plugin.xml.
Plugins themselves are installed subfolder of the plugins folder. It typically contains the plugins as .hpi archives
as well as extracted in a folders using the plugin name.
Any build tools like Apache Ant, Apache Maven or a JDK installed by one of the Hudson installers will be installed
their own directories in the tools folder.
The fingerprints folder contains the fingerprint records created by build artifacts created and tracked by Hudson.
The users folder contains subfolders for each user of Hudson or committer on the projects built in a config.xml
file, that contains email configuration as well as configured views and other user specific data.
The userContent folder can contain static content that Hudson will serve in the userContent context. It can
be used to make e.g. software installation packages or web site content available to Hudson users without requiring a
separate web server.
Beyond all the global configuration described so far all the job related configuration and data is stored in individual
subfolder of the jobs folder. Each project has a folder using the project name as configured in Section 6.2.1. The
config.xml file within this folder contains all project specific configuration parameters. The workspace contains
the project as currently checked out from the used SCM. If the Maven 3 integration is set to use a private repository,
it will be located in the .maven/repo folder in the workspace. The individual build results, logs and artifacts are
stored in directories with date and time stamps as folder names within the builds folder. In addition symlinks with
build numbers are created to point to the time stamped folders.
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2.8
Backing up Hudson Data
A full backup would be the complete content of your Hudson home directory as explained in Section 2.7 and any
customized files for service start-up and log rotation.
This folder can also be used to migrated your Hudson instance to a different server by simply copying it over after
installing Hudson on the new machine.
For a limited backup you could e.g. omit some of the build history of various jobs or potentially large Maven repositories for the various builds.
Tip
The JobConfigHistory Plugin, the thinBAckup Plugin as well as the Backup Plugin can be used to simplify your
backup strategy, if you want to reduce the need for external tools. Some users are using a version control system
like Git or Subversion to track changes of the Hudson home directory. You could even use a Hudson job to e.g. do
regularly scheduled commits of config changes.
2.9
Upgrading Hudson
Since Hudson separates it’s configuration and data storage from the application, it is easy to upgrade an existing
Hudson installation. After a full backup of all configuration and data, you should be ready to proceed after notifying
your users about potential down-time. You might also want to disable all jobs before proceeding.
For native package users this will be handled transparently with their package management system. For WAR file
based installs, you only have to remove the old version WAR and replace it with the new version in your application
server.
Typically upgrading Hudson should include upgrading any used plugins as well to avoid incompatibilities.
2.10 Running Hudson Behind a Proxy
If you installed Hudson as a stand-alone application, Hudson is running on a high-performance servlet. From a
performance perspective, there is no reason for you not to run Hudson by itself without a proxy. Yet, more often than
not, organizations run applications behind a proxy for security concerns and to consolidate applications using tools like
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mod_rewrite and mod_proxy. For this reason, we’ve included some brief instructions for configuring Apache
HTTP. We assume that you’ve already installed Apache 2, and that you are using a Virtual Host for www.example.com.
Let’s assume that you wanted to host Hudson behind Apache HTTP at the URL http://www.example.com. To do this,
you’ll need to change the context path that Hudson is served from.
1. Need to explain how to run Hudson in the root context here
2. Restart Hudson and verify that it is available on http://localhost:8080/.
3. Clear the Base URL in Hudson Application Server Settings in the administration interface.
At this point, edit the HTTP configuration file for the www.example.com virtual host. Include the following to expose
Hudson via mod_proxy at http://www.example.com/.
ProxyRequests Off
ProxyPreserveHost On
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerName www.example.com
ServerAdmin admin@example.com
ProxyPass / http://localhost:8080/
ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:8080/
ErrorLog logs/example/hudson/error.log
CustomLog logs/example/hudson/access.log common
</VirtualHost>
If you just wanted to continue to serve Hudson at the /hudson context path, you would include the context path in your
ProxyPass and ProxyPassReverse directives as follows:
ProxyPass /matrix/ http://localhost:8082/matrix/
ProxyPassReverse /matrix/ http://localhost:8082/matrix/
Apache configuration is going to vary based on your own application’s requirements and the way you intend to expose Hudson to the outside world. If you need more details about Apache httpd and mod_proxy, please read the
documentation on the project website.
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Chapter 3
Hudson Configuration
To configure Hudson, click on the Manage Hudson link in the left-hand navigation menu, which will display the screen
shown in Figure 3.1. This chapter will focus on the Configure System section.
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Figure 3.1: Managing Hudson
Depending on the plugins installed and activated on your Hudson system, different sections will be available in the
system configuration section. These will either be explained below or with a plugin-specific section. For example the
source code management-related global configurations for the different SCM systems is available in Chapter 9.
3.1
Global Hudson Configuration
The first section in the Configure System screen contains options that allow you to configure global Hudson configuration attributes. This section is shown in Figure 3.2.
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Figure 3.2: Configuring Global Hudson Configuration
Home Directory
This parameter displays the absolute installation path of the currently running Hudson system. It is not a runtime
configurable parameter. It is set by the server on start-up. By default it will be the value of the HUDSON_HOME
environment variable or the .hudson folder in the home directory of the operating system user running Hudson.
The value is displayed here to allow the administrator to verify the correct setting.
System Message
This message is displayed by Hudson in the main screen above the list of projects. It can be used as a welcome
message or to e.g. broadcast upcoming maintenance to users of the Hudson instance via the user interface. It
supports plain text as well as HTML snippets for formatting and enriching the message with dynamic content.
# of Executors
This parameter controls the number of concurrent builds Hudson is configured to run. Optimal values in terms
of performance will depend on the number of CPUs, IO performance and other hardware characteristics of the
server running Hudson as well as the type of builds configured to run. A good starting point for experimentation
is the number of CPUs.
Quiet period
A Quiet Period as specified in this configuration causes Hudson to wait the specified number of seconds before
a triggered build is started. If your Hudson project is constantly "flapping" (switching between failure and
success frequently), you may want to set the Quiet period to achieve more build stability. Another scenario
this can be helpful is when large commits to your source control system are typically carried out in multiple
smaller commits within a short time frame, so that the committer has a chance to get everything in without a
build kicking off straight after the first commit causing a build failure. Setting this number to a large amount
can generally reduce the number of builds running for this project, which will reduce the overall load for your
Hudson server.
SCM checkout retry count
The SCM checkout retry count determines the number of attempts Hudson makes to check out any updates
when polling the SCM system for changes and finds the system to be unavailable.
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Enable Security
The Enable Security check box switches on the security system that will require user-name and password for
any access to run builds or change configurations of Hudson and build projects. A large number of configuration
options and security providers can be used and more information can be found in Chapter 4
Prevent Cross Site Request Forgery exploits
This feature will enable improved security against Cross Site Request Forgery exploits and is recommended to
be turned on when your Hudson instance is available to the public Internet. On the other hand it can be necessary
to have this feature disabled, when your Hudson web interface is embedded in a dashboard type interface that
also contains web content from other domains or even only internal server names or sub networks. In general
it will not be necessary to enable this feature on an internal network, where only trusted parties have access to
Hudson.
Help make Hudson better. . .
By selecting this feature to be enabled you agree for anonymous usage statistics about your Hudson installation
to be created and securely sent to the Hudson development team and made available to the user community. The
data sent consists of
• the Hudson version you are using
• operating system, JVM and number of executors for your master Hudson and any slaves being used
• the name and version of all activated plugins
• the number of each project type configured to run
• HTTP information as provided by your Hudson instance
3.2
Global Properties Configuration
The global properties configuration allows the definition of key-value pairs that are exposed to all running builds as
environment variables. Simply select the check box Environment Variables and add the desired name and value for
the property in the interface displayed in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3: Configuring global properties
Depending on the build system used they can be picked up with variables are populated by Hudson automatically.
These include job-related ones like JOB_NAME, BUILD_TAG or BUILD_NUMBER, Hudson node-related ones like
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NODE_NAME or more global ones like JAVA_HOME. A comprehensive list is available at env-vars.html on your
Hudson server e.g. http://localhost:8080/env-vars.html as linked from the in-line help for the properties configuration.
3.3
Configuring JDK Installations
Hudson can support one or more JDK installations used for running your builds. Setting up multiple JDK installs
allows the configuration of different projects being built by different Java versions in separate jobs. You can use this
to ensure e.g. that builds as well as test suites run fine on an older Java version to ensure compatibility. Another
application would be to run with JDK versions supplied by different vendors.
The most common configuration of a JDK is to point to the already installed instance as used for running Hudson
itself. This can be achieved simply by supplying a name like Open JDK 6 in the Name input field and the absolute
path in the JAVA_HOME input field in the screen as shown in Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.4: Configuring JDK Installations
Furthermore it is possible to configure a JDK to be installed automatically by specifying a name as before and then
selecting the Install Automatically check box. This exposes a drop-down labelled Add installer which lets you choose
from the options Install from Oracle, Extract *.zip/*.tar.gz and Run Command as visible in Figure 3.4.
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Warning
The automatic installation from Oracle is currently disabled, while Oracle implements a web service for JDK
installation.
All the automatic install configurations cause Hudson to wait for the first build, which is configured to use a named
instance of the JDK to initiate the JDK installation. The JDK will be installed into a folder in the tools directory in
Hudson home using the tool name specified as the folder name.
The option Install from Oracle brings up a drop-down to choose the version as well as a check box that needs to be
clicked to the Java SE license agreement.
If you select to use Extract *.zip/*.tar.gz as shown in Figure 3.5 you will be able to configure a Label, the
Download URL for binary archive and the Subdirectory of extracted archive.
Figure 3.5: Extract *zip/*.tar.gz archive Installer Configuration
If you specify a label, only Hudson nodes with the same label will use this installer. By using different labels it is
possible for example to get the same tool installed on different nodes with different operating systems from different
automatic install setups. The download URL specifies the full URL from which the JDK will be downloaded. The
actual download is run off the Hudson master, so that any Hudson nodes that need the JDK installed do not need to
have access to the URL location. After successful download the JDK will be installed in the specified sub directory in
the tools folder of the Hudson home directory.
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Figure 3.6: Run Command Installer Configuration
The last automatic installation option is the Run a command option displayed in Figure 3.6. The Label options works
the same as for the archive extraction based install. The Command input allows you to specify the shell command to
execute on the node for the install. Typically this is some package management invocation. The resulting tool directory
has to be specified in the Tool Home input box.
Once more than one JDK is configured in the global settings, each project configuration has an additional drop-down,
which allows the selection of the JDK to be used to build the project and is visible in Figure 3.5
3.4
Configuring Ant Installations
In a similar fashion to the JDK install Apache Ant can be installed in multiple versions to be available for your Hudson
configured builds. The default configuration is to supply a name like Apache Ant 1.8.2 for the Ant installation
and a value in the ANT_HOME input that is defined by the absolute path to the folder containing your pre-existing
local Apache Ant install e.g. /opt/apache-ant-1.8.2
Using a pre-installed Ant requires manual install or the use of your operating system package management system,
a provisioning system or as part of a virtual machine image management. To avoid this need Hudson can install a
required Apache Ant version automatically when needed.
The simplest way to achieve this is to select the Install automatically check box and select Install from Apache and
choose the desired version from the drop-down.
Similar to the JDK installation from Oracle it is possible to use Install from Apache to get Ant installed into a subdirectory of the tools folder in Hudson home. The options to install from an archive or by running a command are
available as well and work in the same way as for JDK installs. A use case for an install from a file would be a custom
Ant distribution with libraries for in-house tasks and maybe Ant contrib included as documented in detail in Chapter 8
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3.5
Configuring Maven Installations
One of the main uses cases for Hudson is building projects with Apache Maven. As explained in more detail in
Chapter 7 the preferred way to build Maven projects is the Maven 3 integration. It comes with a bundled Maven
3 install so you do not actually need to install Maven 3 at all to get started. However if you want, you can install
additional Maven 3 installs with the user interface displayed in Figure 3.7.
Figure 3.7: Configuring Maven 3 Installations
The legacy Maven project type and Maven plugin use a separate installer as displayed in Figure 3.8. In addition to the
same features as the Maven 3 installer it can be configured to download a Maven version from the Apache web site
when required.
Figure 3.8: Configuring Maven Installations
Both the Maven 3 and the Maven installation work in a similar way to the JDK and Ant installation options:
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Use an existing installation
Specify a Name and add the path to your Maven install in the MAVEN_HOME input control.
Automatically install from Apache
Select the Install automatically check box and Install from Apache in the drop-down and choose the Maven
version, you wish to install. This option is only available for the Maven installation.
Automatically install from an archive file
Select the Install automatically check box and Extract *zip/*.tar.gz and configure the installation as
documented in Section 3.3
Automatically install via a command
Select the Install automatically check box and Run Command and configure the installation as documented in
Section 3.3.
In general we recommend that you run your build using the latest Maven 3.0 release. With multiple Maven installations
configured a drop down in the project build step configuration will allow you to choose the desired Maven version.
Chapter 7 provides an in-depth documentation for using Maven with Hudson.
3.6
Maven 3 Builder Defaults
The Maven 3 integration allows for a set of default values to be defined that are used when a new build step for
invoking Maven 3 is added. These values can be defined in the section Maven 3 Builder Defaults in the global Hudson
configuration here. The individual fields and their purpose and usage are documented in Section 7.3.
3.7
Configuring the Shell Executable
Hudson allows for the ability to configure shell builds. If you have a build that requires the execution of shell scripts
Hudson will by default execute+/bin/sh+. For more complex builds scripts running on different *nix environments, this
can cause problems. /bin/sh often symlinks to a concrete shell like bash, ash, zsh or ksh. This setup of a specific
shell will change from operating system to operating system as well as from user to user. If your scripts depend on a
specific shell you should therefore specify your default shell in this input to e.g. /bin/bash. In a similar way you
can add the path to a cygwin install of e.g. bash on your Windows server to run unix scripts as part of your build.
Configuring Shell Executable
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3.8
Configuring E-mail Notification
Notification of build results and email-based notification specifically is a core feature of a continuous integration server.
This configuration section as displayed in Configuring Email Notification allows you to configure the SMTP-related
settings to connect to the server and send the emails.
Tip
In general it can be advantageous to configure all email recipients in Hudson as mailing list addresses. Combined with a mailing list management system available to your potential recipients e.g. development and QA team
members, this setup allows users to join any mailing list and therefore notifications for specific jobs without any
configuration changes on Hudson.
Configuring Email Notification
The following options can be configured:
SMTP Server
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The SMTP server configuration is typically the IP number of the mail server or a fully qualified name including
the domain e.g. smtp.example.com . If the mail server is reachable by host name or some alias e.g.
hermes from the Hudson server you can use it as the SMTP server configuration.
Default user e-mail suffix
This suffix is appended to the Hudson user names used to log in to Hudson and the result can be used for
e-mail notification. E.g. if the Hudson instance runs for example.com you could supply the suffix of
@example.com. A Hudson user with user name jane.doe would then receive email notifications at the
email jane.doe@example.com. This can be especially useful with security setups using an identity management system like LDAP for Hudson access as well as email address setup as documented in Chapter 4.
System Admin E-Mail Address
This is the email address used as the email sender in any E-mail notification sent by the server. When configuring
this email you should either ensure that emails sent back as a reply are monitored by somebody or bounced by
the server with some meaningful error message.
Hudson URL
The Hudson URL value will be used in the email notifications sent out to provide links to build results and so
on. Provide a URL that will be valid for the audience of your notifications. If all recipients will be on an intranet
or VPN you can use a non-public URL or IP number.
In addition to basic SMTP configuration parameters, you can click the Advanced Options button for further configuration that allows you to send email via servers that require authentication. Most SMTP servers will require at least
user name and password to be accessed.
Use SMTP Authentication
Clicking on the check box will reveal User Name and Password input fields. Depending on the server configuration your user name will be just the log-in name or the full email address or either.
Use SSL
Select this check box if your SMTP server supports connecting with SSL activated.
SMTP Port
This configuration allows you to specify a custom port for the communication with mail server. If the field is
left empty the default ports are used. These are 25 for SMTP and 465 for SSL secured SMTP. It is a common
practice to configure a different port, so be sure to check with the administrator of the mail server what port you
should be using.
Charset
The Charset configuration determines the character set used for the composed e-mail message.
Test configuration
Pressing this button will execute the current configuration for sending emails. Depending on your configuration
and network setup you should receive an email after a short while.
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3.8.1
E-mail Notification Via Gmail
In order to use GMail to send your emails you will need to configure the SMTP server to smtp.gmail.com. In
addition you will have to have a Gmail account and provide the GMail e-mail address, or any other email address
configured to be accepted in your Gmail account, as the User Name and configure the Password.
3.9
3.9.1
Troubleshooting E-mail Notification
Spam filter related problems
One of the common problems for build server notification emails not being received are spam filter settings on the
server and/or client side of the recipient. Most spam filter systems will allow you to access a list of filtered message
and configure a white list of senders. Adding the System Admin E-mail Address to the white list will ensure that your
build notifications reach you.
3.10 Managing Maven 3 Configuration
The Maven 3 integration of Hudson provides you with the ability to manage custom Maven configuration files directly
through the Hudson user interface. You can manage:
• Maven Settings Configuration
• Maven Toolchains Configuration
3.10.1 Opening the Maven 3 Configuration Page
To open the Maven 3 Configuration page, click on Manage Server in the left-hand Hudson menu, and then select the
Maven 3 Configuration item shown in Figure 3.1.
Once you select the Maven 3 Configuration option, you will see the page shown in Figure 3.9. If you have already configured Maven Settings or Maven Toolchains configuration documents they will appear in the list of documents shown
on this page. If you have not configured any Maven configuration documents, you will see the empty configuration
screen shown in Figure 3.9.
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Figure 3.9: The Maven 3 Configuration Page
To create a new Maven 3 Configuration document, click on the Add button. This will create a new configuration
document and display a form that will allow you to name the document, describe the document, select a document
type, and supply configuration content for a configuration document.
To remove an existing document, select the document from the list of documents shown and click on the Remove
button. This will load a confirmation dialogue. If the action is confirmed, the document will be permanently removed
from your Hudson instance.
Click the Refresh button in the interface to reload the Hudson configuration and display any configuration documents
which may have been altered since you first loaded this page.
3.10.2 Managing Maven 3 Settings Configuration
To create a new Maven 3 Setting configuration file which can be referenced by a Hudson Maven 3 build step, click
on the Add button as shown in Figure 3.9. Clicking on Add will display a form containing the ID, Type, Name,
Description, and Attribute fields as shown in Figure 3.10. Select SETTINGS for the Type field.
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Figure 3.10: Managing Maven 3 Settings in Hudson
The sample Maven 3 Settings configuration shown in Figure 3.10 define a General Maven 3 Settings file which configures all Maven 3 builds to read artifacts from a corporate Nexus repository. This sample XML was copied from the
Maven 3 Settings example in the Sonatype Nexus book and customized to reference a hypothetical server running on
nexus.sonatype.org:8081.
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Usage of the Maven 3 Settings configuration file in a Hudson job as well as Maven toolchains is documented in
Section 7.3.
3.11 Configuring Global and Individual Project List Views
Running a Hudson server or grid with many projects can make the list of configured jobs very long and therefore make
it difficult for users and administrators to gather the information they need at a glance and find their way to the job
they are interested in. To provide this needed ease of access Hudson supports the addition of globally visible as well
as user specific views to the main page displayed in Figure 2.1.
To add a new view simply click the + button beside the default list called All on top of the job list. If this button is not
visible you do not have the access right to create views. Creating a view this way will make it globally visible to any
user.
Logging in as a specific user shows the My Views option in the left hand navigation menu. When you select this option
the bread crumb navigation will contain your user name and the My Views option. Pressing the + button on the main
job list now will create a personal view only visible to the current user when logged in.
Each view can be given a description by clicking the edit description on the right side above the job list.
When adding a new global view as displayed in Figure 3.11 you have to provide a name and then select what type
of view you want to add. You can either add a My View, which will display all jobs the current users has access to
or you can add a List View, which is a highly configurable list of job types. The different configuration options are
documented below.
Figure 3.11: Adding a New Global View
After you have created the view you can configure the main filter properties displayed in Figure 3.12, configure,
add and delete job filters as displayed in Figure 3.13 and add and delete columns for the list view as displayed in
Figure 3.23.
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Figure 3.12: Main Properties for Adding a New View
Besides the name provided at creation you can add a description that will be displayed above the list of jobs and below
the title of the view. It can use HTML for e.g. hyperlinks to other related resources. The Filter build queue option
causes Hudson to only show jobs from the view in the build queue. The Filter build executors option causes Hudson
to only show build executors that could execute shows from this view.
The Job Filters configuration below as visible in Figure 3.13 shows the Status Filter, a list of all jobs and allows the
configuration of a regular expression for inclusion of jobs on the list view. The regular expression is applied to the job
name.
Figure 3.13: Configuring View Filters
The Status Filter has the option to use all selected jobs or only enabled or disabled builds from the list below or the
result of the regular expression configured. The Jobs list itself is an alphabetically sorted list of all jobs configured
with a check box for each job that you potentially want to include in the view. As an alternative to manually selecting
jobs from the list you can configure a regular expression to match on the job names. With a good naming convention
for the jobs this can be a good way to build the list. An example could be naming all release build jobs x-y-z-release
or naming all plugin builds Plugin-x and then using a regular expression like .*-release or Plugin-.* to select
them.
In order to have access to more powerful configuration options for your list views you have to install the View Job
Filters plugin. It will hook into the Job Filters section creating the Add Job Filter button and providing the filters
documented in the following.
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The filters will be applied in the order in the configuration screen. Each filter has a Match Type drop down selector
that allows you to include matched or unmatched jobs as well as exclude matched and unmatched jobs from further
filtering.
A myriad of combinations is possible allowing you to implement easy access to all your builds for all your users
catered to their varying needs
With the Build Statuses filter displayed in Figure 3.14 you can include or exclude builds that are currently building,
that have never been built or that are currently in the build queue.
Figure 3.14: Configuring the Build Status View Filter
The Job Statuses filter in Figure 3.15 allows you to combine Stable, Failed, Unstable, Aborted and Disabled statuses
to create a filter for including or excluding jobs from your view.
Figure 3.15: Configuring the Job Status View Filter
Similarly the Job Type filter in Figure 3.16 can be used to include or exclude based on the job being a free-style project,
a Maven2/3 project, a multi-configuration project or a monitor of an external job.
Figure 3.16: Configuring the Job Type View Filter
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The Other Views filter in Figure 3.17 has a selector for the other view which can be used for including or excluding
jobs to the current view being configured. This allows you to easily create negations of other views e.g. all non release
builds, or all non plugin builds or simply create a finer grained view of a different view. E.g. you could easily create
a view of all plugin builds that are currently with the job status Failed using a combination of the Other Views and the
Job Statuses filter. Another good use case for this filter is to use multiple Other Views filters to aggregate the content
of a number of other views.
Figure 3.17: Configuring the Other Views Filter
The Parameterized Jobs Filter in Figure 3.18 can be used to define a Name and Value that will match against the build
parameters.
Figure 3.18: Configuring the Parameterized Jobs View Filter
The Regular Expression Job Filter displayed in Figure 3.19 can be used to run a pattern matching against Hudson job
name, job description, job SCM configuration, email recipients or Maven configuration.
Figure 3.19: Configuring the Regular Expression Job View Filter
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The SCM Type filter allows you too filter based on the SCM used for your builds.
Figure 3.20: Configuring the SCM Type View Filter
The Unclassified Jobs view filter can be used to show all jobs that do not show up in any other view.
Figure 3.21: Configuring the Unclassified Jobs View Filter
The User Permissions view filter can be used to only show jobs with a specific permission for the currently logged in
user. A drop down allows you to define the matching used and the permissions are displayed below as check-boxes.
Figure 3.22: Configuring the User Permissions for Jobs View Filter
The All Jobs filter for simply adding all jobs and then using further filters to reduce the matches ending up in the view
list.
The section below the Job Filters allows you to configure the columns used in the list view. Add and delete columns
with the provided buttons as displayed in Figure 3.23. To change the order of columns you can drag the title and drop
them in the desired position.
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Figure 3.23: Configuring View Columns
When you are logged into Hudson as a user you can also create a different view type called My View. It automatically
contains all projects you currently have access to.
Figure 3.24: Adding a New Personal View (My View)
3.12 Hudson Monitoring with RSS
Hudson exposes various RSS feeds that you can subscribe to in your favourite RSS feed reader. The server needs to
be reachable via http by your RSS reader for this feature to be usable.
Various pages in the web interface feature RSS buttons in the bottom left corner as visible in Figure 2.1.
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3.12.1 Receiving Build Notifications via RSS
Build notifications are available on the default Hudson page. You can receive a feed of all builds at /rssAll, a feed
of failed builds at /rssFailed and a feed for latest builds at /rssLatest.
3.12.2 System Logs via RSS
If you access the Hudson logs exposed in the web interface at /log/all you will notice that you can subscribe to
All log messages or Severe and Warning level warnings with the URLs /log/rss, /log/rss?level=SEVERE
and /log/rss?level=WARNING.
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Chapter 4
Securing Hudson
Hudson’s security configuration can span a wide spectrum: from a simple Hudson instance running on a local network
with no configured security, to an instance of Hudson supporting thousands of developers and thousands of projects
with a security model providing isolation and access-control supporting a highly secured environment. Whether you
support a local team of developers accessing an unsecured Hudson instance or a distributed enterprise team involving
internal and external collaborators such as vendors and consultants, Hudson’s security supports almost any conceivable
use-case for authorization and access control.
This chapter provides an overview of the approaches to authentication and authorization in Hudson. After reading this
chapter you will be able to take a Hudson instance and secure it allowing only authorized users to administer, access,
and alter Hudson build jobs.
4.1
Security Settings Overview
Out of the box Hudson has no security enabled. To enable security, check Enable security in the global configuration
of Hudson as displayed in Figure 3.2. Once you have enabled security you will be able to set up your desired security
settings with the options visible in Figure 4.1 and documented in this chapter.
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Figure 4.1: Overview of the available security settings
4.2
4.2.1
Miscellaneous Security Related Settings
TCP port for JNLP slave agents
The port configuration should be set to Disable for Hudson deployments without any slave nodes. With slave nodes
you can set the port to the default Random port. Hudson will randomly choose a port avoid port collisions with other
services. When running Hudson cluster within a firewall-secured environment, you can choose a fixed port and then
ensure that the port is open on the respective servers.
4.2.2
Markup Formatter
Raw HTML is the default setting that causes Hudson to render any input data from text fields as HTML in the user
interface. This allows for added links and more, but also has the potential for cross site scripting XSS attacks. Currently
plugins that implement other markup are planned, but not yet available for Hudson.
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4.3
Authentication and Authorization
With security enabled, Hudson supports the following authentication security realms out of the box. Further options
are available as plugins.
• Delegate to servlet container
• Unix user/group database
• Hudson’s own user database
• LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Access-control schemes available are:
• Logged-in users can do anything
• Matrix-based security
• Project-based Matrix Authorizations Strategy
• Anyone can do anything
These security options can be seen in Figure 4.1 and are documented in detail below.
4.4
Configuring Security Realms: Authentication
The configuration of the security realm allows you to define where user names and passwords are stored and administered. Depending on your deployment it can be useful to tie into already existing systems or run a separate realm for
Hudson.
4.4.1
Delegating to a Servlet Container
The default setting for a Hudson instance is no security. If you are running Hudson from a servlet container you may
have access to management consoles that allow you to maintain and administer users and groups. Hudson can be
configured to both delegate authorization to a servlet container and use these users and groups for access-control.
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This feature can be especially useful if other application are already using the servlet container authorization and you
want to achieve a single-sign on for all applications running on this server or cluster of servers or you simply prefer to
manage your users from the application server user interface.
4.4.2
Relying on Unix Users and Groups
If you select this option, Hudson will consult the Unix user/group database on the machine it is running on. To do so
it will use Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM). The user running Hudson has to be able to access PAM and be
a member of the shadow group. As visible in Figure 4.2 the setup allows for the definition of a service name and test
via provided button.
Figure 4.2: Unix security configuration
Tip
If you get a stack trace about not being able to find the file libpam.so you may need to create a symbolic link using
the command line shown below.
sudo ln -s /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpam.so.0 /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpam.so
On most Unix systems, the users and groups are stored in /etc/passwd and /etc/group, but your results may
vary depending on the Unix/Linux version and the security setup of your specific machine. With this setup user and
group administration is entirely separate from your Hudson install. Use the your preferred administration tool on the
command line or a graphical user interface.
A consequence of using this security realm is that the Hudson instance and access details are tied to the specific server
Hudson is running on. This means that the user and group setup should be backed up in addition to the Hudson data
itself and security information can not be easily migrated unless some sort of single sign-on (SSO) is used across all
servers.
This approach is ideal for simple installations of Hudson on a single machine, or when you have integrated PAM with
a single sign-on solution such as LDAP.
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4.4.3
Using the Hudson Internal User Database
A convenient method to control access to Hudson without external dependencies is to use the internal user database of
Hudson itself. To activate this feature select Hudson’s own user database as displayed in Figure 4.3
Figure 4.3: Security settings for using the Hudson internal database
The option "Allow user to sign up" activates the Sign Up screen as displayed in Figure 4.4, which also displays a
captcha that is displayed when the option "Enable captcha on sign up" is activated. The option "Notify user of Hudson
account creation" will trigger an email to be sent to the new user, when a new account is created either by signup by
the user or an administrator.
Figure 4.4: Sign up screen for new users
By providing all details in the sign up form a user can create an account to access Hudson. Once a user is signed up
and logged in they can use then click on their user name in the top left corner and then on the Configure option in the
left hand menu to access their user configuration screen. A user’s configuration screen gives users the ability to reset
and change passwords as well as update contact information such as name, description, and email.
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Figure 4.5: User configuration
To manage users click on Manage Users in the global Manage Hudson screen displayed in Figure 3.1. In this management section the administrator has the option to create and manage users. The Create User link in the left-hand
navigation menu presents the Sign Up screen from Figure 4.4 without the captcha to the administrator allowing account creation to be controlled by an administrator rather than a self-serve signup. In addition this screen shows a
list of users already registered with Hudson and allows the administrator to delete users and edit them via the user
configuration screen from Figure 4.5.
4.4.4
Light-weight Directory Authentication Protocol (LDAP)
If you have an LDAP server, Hudson can be configured to use this server to authenticate users. The administration
interface in Figure 4.6 allows you to provide all the necessary details for Hudson to connect to your LDAP server.
You will be able to connect to most common LDAP servers. If you want to configure security with Microsoft Active
Directory you should also have a look at the specific plugin for Active Directory.
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Figure 4.6: Security settings for LDAP
Server
The server connection string is typically composed of a protocol of ldap:// or ldaps://, a server name and a
colon followed by a port. The default ldap protocol and port 389 can be omitted, so the simplest server
would be the server name or IP number only. Further valid examples are e.g. directory.example.com:1389
or ldaps://directory.example.com:1636. The default port for ldaps is 636.
root DN
Specify the root DN for you want to use for authentication. Typically this would be a value like dc=example,dc=com
User search base and User search filter
The user search base and use search filter fields allow you to define a sub-tree to look for user records within the
root DN. E.g the search base could be ou=people or ou=developers and the search with their email address. If
you need to further define your search user name in the search.
Group search base
Define the query to locate the list of groups for a user in this query that is typically just empty to search in the
root DN or for the user name replacement.
Manager DN and Manager Password
The Manager DN and password are required for Hudson to connect to your LDAP server to query for the user
details. The DN is only necessary if you server does not support anonymous bind and typically looks something
like this CN=MyUser,CN=Users,DC=mydomain,DC=com.
Beyond the standard settings LDAP configuration can require further tweaks documented in the following section.
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In general all the LDAP queries are space sensitive and their content is specific to your LDAP server configuration
which can differ widely depending on your specific organization’s LDAP configuration.
If log-in attempts result in "Administrative Limit Exceeded" or similar error message, any LDAP query but often
specifically the LDAP query to determine the group membership triggers it. A general tip in this situation is to try
setting the "Group search base" and other settings as specific as possible for your LDAP structure, to reduce the scope
of the query.
If the error persists, you may need to edit the WEB-INF/security/LDAPBindSecurityRealm.groovy file that is included
in in your LDAP for group membership, such as groupSearchFilter =
In general Hudson will prefix any LDAP group with the ROLE_ prefix. This has to be taken into account when
configuring access rights in a matrix based security realm. For example, the LDAP group developers (cn=developers)
would be used as ROLE_DEVELOPERS. In Hudson, Group names are translated to all uppercase and non-alpha
characters such as hyphen, space and comma are not supported.
Hudson’s LDAP integration currently does not support indirect group memberships.
4.5
Configuring an Access-control Strategy
Once you’ve selected a security realm for authorization you’ll know how users and groups are created and what has
to be done for a user to be able to log in to Hudson. As a next step you need to decide on your Hudson instance’s
approach to access-control. Access control settings determine what a user can do and see once they are logged in.
4.5.1
Logged-in users can do anything
This authorization strategy grants read access to Hudson to anonymous users, but restricts administrative access to
users with a valid account. Once the user is logged-in they have full access rights to everything including project
deletion and other critical functionality. You should be certain to have a good backup strategy in place for critical data
and that your users are capable of using Hudson in an administrative function before you opt to use this authorization
strategy.
4.5.2
Matrix-based security
For more fine grained control over what specific users or groups of users can do, you can configure Hudson to use
Matrix-based security as visible in a minimal configuration in Figure 4.7.
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Figure 4.7: Matrix based security
Using the input field for User/group you can create new rows in the security matrix. The matrix provides sections to
configure access rights for the following permissions categories:
• Overall - permissions which govern global activities such as administration rights
• Slave - permissions relating to the management of Hudson slave instances
• Job - job permissions whether a user can create, manage, edit, and delete jobs
• Run - permissions about specific build jobs
• View - permissions about build job views
• SCM - permissions related to source code management systems
A typical minimal configuration would be to grant all rights to an administrative user or group and only read access
for Overall and Jobs to anonymous users.
By adding further groups or individual users you can e.g. grant full administrative access rights to other trusted users
without sharing the main admin account.
Tip
A safe administrative use would be to grant full rights to a group of admin users without granting any Delete rights.
4.5.3
Project-based Matrix Authorization Strategy
Taking the concept of matrix based authorization as described in Section 4.5.2 a step further is Project-based Matrix
Authorization Strategy. The global configuration possible as displayed in Figure 4.8 works the same as matrix-based
security.
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Figure 4.8: Project-based Matrix Authorization Strategy
In addition you can enable project-based security in each project configuration individually for each project. Enabling
the option Enable project-based security will display a matrix of access rights as visible in Figure 4.9. It will allow
you to add users and groups just like for the global configuration and assign rights as desired.
Figure 4.9: Project specific authorization
Using groups accessing a group of projects you could e.g. enable administrative rights for a limited number of projects
to a specific user or user group.
4.5.4
Anyone can do anything
This option is something of a free for all - an uncontrolled Hudson instance with no access-control rules defined.
Setting your authorization strategy to the option "Anyone can do anything" effectively turns off security. In a scenario
where everybody able to access Hudson e .g. in a trusted intranet this setting is recommended as an alternative to
completely disabled security. The advantage for the users is that while they do not need to log-in to use Hudson and
everyone has access it is possible to log-in and customize Hudson by creating custom views and take advantage of
other personalization options.
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Warning
Older versions of Hudson have a legacy mode authorization that provides backwards compatibility for users
of early Hudson version, that have not migrated to the replacement of matrix authorization. It relied on hard
coded values and should not be used anymore. With the 2.2.0 release of Hudson this mode is removed.
4.6
4.6.1
Hudson Security Best Practises, Tips and Tricks
Common Setup - Internal matrix-based authorization
A common and useful setup is a combination of using Hudson’s internal user database with matrix-based authorization. It allows for a secure setup of a publicly available Hudson instance without the need for any further security
components beyond Hudson itself and can therefore be managed via the Hudson user interface without any additional
requirements beyond browser access.
1. Enable security in the global Hudson configuration
2. Activate the security realm for Hudson’s own user database and allow users to sign up
3. Set the authorization to "Anyone can do anything" and save the configuration
4. Sign up a new user e.g. with the name admin
5. Log-in in as the new user
6. Change the authorization to matrix-based security
7. Add the new user to the matrix
8. Grant all right to the new user as he will the be the administrator user
9. Save the configuration
Following these steps you will have secured Hudson and the new user will be the only user with access to Hudson. If
you want anonymous users to have read access you could add these rights in the matrix.
For further users you can create additional matrix rows and distribute rights as desired.
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4.6.2
Disabling security when locked out
When configuring security or when relying on external security realms, you can end up in situations where you do not
have any access to Hudson in the user interface. Reasons could be a forgotten admin password, offline LDAP server,
broken Unix authorization after server upgrade and so on. To be able to fix your setup you can edit the file config.xml
in your HUDSON_HOME and set
<useSecurity>false</useSecurity>
With this setting you will have full access to Hudson and be able to troubleshoot your configuration or change to a
new security realm and/or authorization.
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Chapter 5
Managing Hudson Plugins
Hudson plugin management is available via Manage Hudson and selecting the Manage Plugins link shown in Figure 3.1. This administration interface allows you see what plugin versions are currently installed, update them and
install new ones as well as manage some advanced settings to work with the multitude of plugins available for Hudson. Using plugins allows you to support many new features beyond a basic Hudson install as well as tweak the user
interface and morph Hudson into the CI server you need.
5.1
Installed Plugins
To get a list of installed plugins, click in the Installed tab. This will display a list all of the Hudson plugins currently
installed on your instance of Hudson system.
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Figure 5.1: The Installed tab for managing the installed plugins
The Enabled check box allows you to activate and deactivate specific plugins. After plugin updates your old plugin
version will remain accessible and you can downgrade to the older version by pressing the Downgrade to x.y.z button.
The pinned column will then be marked for this plugin so that automatic updates will not occur until you unpin the
version. Any changes will require you to restart Hudson by clicking the "Restart once no jobs are running button" as
displayed in Figure 5.2.
Figure 5.2: Install and update plugin progress screen ready to restart the server
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5.2
Available Plugins
This list of available plugins includes hundreds of useful utilities, tweaks, and feature sets which extend the core
feature set of Hudson. The list is separated into topics and contains a short description for each plugin as well as a
link to the plugin web site. In order to install a plugin, simply select the check box in the plugin row, press the Install
button on the bottom of the list. This will redirect to a progress reporting page. After a success message you will have
to restart Hudson by clicking the Restart once no jobs are running button for the new plugin to be available.
Figure 5.3: The Available tab for installing new plugins
5.3
Plugin Updates
Hudson regularly checks an available list of Hudson plugins on the Hudson web site and will notify if an update
becomes available. To see if any updates are currently available click on the Updates tab in the Manage Plugins
screen. Plugins eligible for an update will be displayed next to the available update version and the version which is
currently installed. To update a plugin select the check box in the Install column and press the Install button on the
bottom of the list. This will redirect to a progress reporting page. After a success message you will have to restart
Hudson by clicking the "Restart once no jobs are running" button for the new plugin to be available.
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Figure 5.4: The Updates tab displaying available updates of installed plugins
5.4
Advanced Plugin Settings
The Advanced tab as displayed in Figure 5.5 allows you to configure the proxy settings for Hudson to be able to
connect to the plugin repository on the Hudson web site, upload Hudson plugin files (*.hpi) manually, and specify
the URL for a custom update site.
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Figure 5.5: The Advanced tab for miscellaneous plugin management tasks
5.5
HTTP Proxy Configuration
Hudson retrieves a list of plugins and downloads plugins over the public Internet. If your server is behind a proxy
server, you will need to configure the proxy settings. Supply the necessary values to connect to your internal proxy
in the Server and Port fields. The No Proxy for field allows you to exclude host names from proxying by adding
them to a comma separated list. If your proxy server requires authentication you will have to select the Proxy Needs
Authorization check box and provide the User name and Password.
5.6
Upload Plugin
Hudson plugins are distributed as .hpi files and the the Advanced administration section allows you to upload them
with a file chooser. This feature is especially useful for installing custom developed plugins or commercially distributed plugins that are not available on the update site. You can also use it to install plugins you build from source
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during development or when helping by contributing fixes to open source plugins.
5.7
Update Site
Instead of using the public update site on the Hudson web site you can host your own plugin repository and you can
then add the URL in the available input field. This approach is useful if you need to maintain a secured Hudson
instance that cannot be affected by the day to day changes on an external Hudson plugin update site. If you use this
option, you can point your Hudson instance at a local copy of the public Hudson plugin update site and strictly control
the changes that are visible to your Hudson instance.
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Chapter 6
Creating Hudson Projects
Once you’ve downloaded, installed, and started Hudson for the first time, the next step is to start creating new Hudson build jobs. As you’ll learn in the following chapter, there are an innumerable number of options, plugins, and
extensions that can make the Hudson build job creation process a bit daunting to the first time user.
From SCM configuration to options relating to build triggers Hudson offers so many configuration points it is often
difficult for new users to make sense of the process. This chapter takes the mystery out of build job creation and
explores some of the options available when creating a new Hudson project. After reading this chapter, you’ll know
what fields matter (and which fields can be safely ignored), you’ll understand how to stand up a new Hudson build
job, and you’ll be ready to get started using the best CI server in the industry.
6.1
Creating New Hudson Projects
To create a new Hudson project, click on New Job in the left navigation menu, which will display the form shown in
Figure 6.1.
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Figure 6.1: Creating a New Job in Hudson
The most common way to create a new job using Hudson is to select "Build a free-style software project". If you are
creating a project that is similar to an existing Hudson build, you may also choose "Copy an existing job" and then
type in the name of the Hudson job in the Copy from text field. Once you have made your selection and provided a
name for the new job, click on OK to continue.
You can also configure Hudson to Monitor an external job which can then trigger and affect other jobs. The last job
type supported by Hudson is to Build a multi-configuration project, which can act like a container for a variety of
different job executions.
Warning
Your Hudson installation may provide an option to Build a Maven 2/3 project (Legacy). This feature has
numerous issues with the use of different Maven versions, and it is especially problematic when building
a project with Maven 3. The authors of this book recommend not to using the legacy Maven project type.
Instead, we encourage you to use the native Maven support which is available in a free-style software
project.
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Figure 6.2: Result of New Project Creation
Once your job has been created, you will see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 6.2, depending on your job
type selection. You can now proceed to configure your project. If you need to change any of these settings at a later
stage, navigate to a particular Hudson Project’s Summary page by clicking on the name of the project on the main
Hudson page. Once you are on a Hudson Project’s Summary page, click on Configure in the left-hand navigation to
load the Project Configuration screen.
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6.2
Configuring Common Job Configuration Settings
Independent of the job type you selected you will be able to configure a few common settings separated in the following
sections:
General Project Settings
Configure the project name, description and other general parameters
Advanced Project Options
Configure miscellaneous settings for advanced usage.
Source Code Management
Configure source code management-related parameters for various systems
Build Triggers
Configure how builds are started
Post-build Actions
Configure steps taken after a build completion
Depending on the job type you choose additional sections may be present in the project configuration screen. The
following sections provide an overview of some common project configuration options.
6.2.1
Configuring General Project Settings
The first section on the Project Screen is the general project information, which is shown in Figure 6.3.
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Figure 6.3: Configuring Project Information
The section shown in the previous figure contains the following fields:
Project Name
The Project Name should be a short descriptive name that easily allows your Hudson users to see what this
project is. Consider this to be the identifier that Hudson uses to keep track of everything associated to this
project. We recommend that your project names consist of simple alphanumeric characters and dashes. While
Hudson will save a Project name containing spaces, the file path of the workspace will also contain spaces. The
presence of spaces in a project name can cause unforeseen issues with builds and may results in build failure.
We suggest using e.g. underscores instead. The project name will be visible in the main Hudson page on the list
of jobs.
Cascading Project
The Cascading Project drop down allows you to select another Hudson project as a template to inherit settings
from. This feature is supported for free-style software as well as multi-configuration projects and is documented
in more details in Section 6.2.6.
Description
The Description should contain a paragraph that will inform Hudson users about the nature and purpose of a
given Hudson project. Useful information for the users could for example be various source code management
related parameters like branch or version or other parameters like target platform for the build artifacts. This
will widely vary and depend on your job type. The description is visible on the main project-specific page.
Discard Old Builds
If Discard Old Builds is not checked, Hudson will archive the results of all the builds it performs. Depending
on build log and artifact size this can produce considerable amounts of storage space being used, which should
in turn be monitored carefully. If Discard Old Builds is checked, the project configuration screen will display
additional input fields that allow you to specify the number of builds and the number of days to retain builds.
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After pressing the Advanced button you can provide for separate configuration for the number of days the build
artifacts are kept. Setting this value will cause older build artifacts to get deleted, without the logs, reports etc.
getting deleted. An additional advanced configuration allows you to set maximum number of builds to keep
including its artifacts.
This Build is Parameterized
Parameterized builds allow you to pass configuration to specific builds. For example, you can parametrize a
build to accept a free-form variable that selects a specific branch in SCM. This way, a Hudson user can trigger a build and supply the name of this branch to the Hudson build. Hudson supports different data types
adapting its user interface to it. The basic string parameter provides a simple input box. The password parameter will provide an input field with hidden characters. Boolean values are represented as check-box, while
a choice parameter is rendered as a drop down box. File parameters, run parameter and subversion tags are
other supported parameters. All these parameters need to be supplied when a project is build. Typically this
is done via the user interface provided by the parameters when a build is kicked off manually in the user interface. Parameters can also be passed to Hudson via remote invocation with a URL like http://server/job/myjob/buildWithParameters?PARAMETER=Value
Disable Build
If Disable Build is selected, no new builds will be executed until the project is re-enabled. This means that any
builds that might have been triggered by SCM activity or by a periodic schedule will not be executed. This
feature is very useful if you need to fix an issue with a build or build specific related infrastructure like source
code management system and you want to temporarily take a particular Hudson job offline without affecting the
rest of your Hudson setup and jobs.
Execute concurrent builds if necessary (beta)
If this check box is selected, Hudson will be able to execute more than one build for this project at the same
time. This can be useful if your project is parameterized, or if you have a longer build, which may need to run
multiple concurrent builds in response to independent changes to SCM. In many cases this setting is particularly
useful, when Hudson is set up as a build cluster.
JDK
This drop down allows the selection of a specific Java Development Kit (JDK) for the project. It will only be
available if multiple JDKs are configured in the global Hudson configuration as documented in Section 3.3.
Restrict where this project can be run
If Restrict where this project can be run is checked, Hudson will display options that will allow you to specify
the nodes on which a project build can be executed.
Warning
If you are creating a continuous integration build that will run frequently, don’t forget to check Discard Old
Builds and configure Hudson to free up drive space. If your project is built regularly due to frequent changes
in source control or small times between fixed schedule builds you can easily fill up even the largest hard
drive potentially resulting in your build server going offline.
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6.2.2
Configuring Advanced Project Options
The next section after the general project configuration is the Advanced Project Options section shown in Figure 6.4.
Figure 6.4: Configuring Advanced Project Options
This section contains the following fields:
Quiet period
The project-specific Quiet Period set in this section overrides the global configuration documented in Section 3.1
and has the same effect. This setting depends on your build trigger configuration as documented below.
Retry Count
The project-specific Retry Count overrides the global SCM checkout retry count and has the same effect.
Block build when upstream/downstream project is building
Hudson builds can be configured to have upstream as well downstream dependencies. Upstream dependencies
are projects upon which this particular project’s build depends. Downstream dependencies are projects that
depend on the current builds results. If Block build when upstream/downstream project is building is selected
this project will not start a build, if an upstream/downstream project is in the middle of a build or in the build
queue.
Use custom workspace
If this selection is checked, you can instruct Hudson to use a custom directory for this project’s workspace. If
this option is not checked, Hudson will automatically assign a workspace location that is based on the project’s
name. As such it can be used to have projects names with spaces or other characters potentially causing file
system level issues while using a save name for the workspace folder name.
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6.2.3
Configuring Source Code Management
Hudson is typically used in conjunction with the source of the project available in a source code management system.
Support for a large variety of SCMs is one the strengths of Hudson. This section allows for the configuration of
the respective settings for your SCM of choice. The available list of choices will contain all SCM systems provided
by Hudson and the installed plugins. Chapter 5 explains how to get support for your SCM installed, if it is not yet
available. Once installed each SCM configuration will have different parameters, which are documented in Chapter 9.
6.2.4
Configuring Build Triggers
The next section to configure is Build Triggers. A Hudson job can be configured to build in response to build activity
on a Hudson instance, in accordance with a regular schedule, or as a reaction to activity in an SCM system. Build
triggers are configured on a Project’s Configuration screen and the section is shown in Figure 6.5.
Figure 6.5: Configuring Build Triggers
The following types of build triggers can be configured:
Build after other projects are built
If this option is selected, Hudson will present you with a text field that accepts the names of one or more
projects. If this field is populated, Hudson will trigger this project’s build after a successful completion of one of
the projects listed in this text field. The reverse behaviour of triggering a different project based on this project’s
build completing can be configured in the Post-build Actions.
Trigger builds remotely (e.g. from scripts)
Enabling this option will allow you to define a authentication token for triggering a build by hitting a project
specific URL together with the defined token. The URL follows the patterns http://hudsonurl/jobs/project/build?token=mytoken&cause=mycause with hudsonurl replaced by the URL of your hudson server including
port number and context (e.g. http://buildserver:8080/hudson). mytoken will be the secret token you defined in
the Authentication Token field and mycause an optional text to submit as the cause. To allow users to hit the
URL you can e.g. host the link on a secured web page, send it via email or also use curl or wget from a script.
Build periodically
The Build periodically setting will cause Hudson to start a build of the project at regular intervals. Changes will
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be retrieved from the configured SCM, but a build will be triggered even if no changes were found. The interval
configuration in the exposed text field accepts the same cron syntax as the Poll SCM configuration.
Poll SCM
Selecting Poll SCM will cause Hudson to periodically poll your source code management system for changes
and trigger a build if changes have been found and successfully retrieved. Selecting this option displays a
text area, which accepts a standard cron expression. This allows for arbitrary polling interval from minutes
to weekly and way beyond. It is important to consider the impact of this polling frequency setting on your
SCM infrastructure, since it can cause significant load specifically when multiple projects with small polling
frequencies all access the same SCM server. This expression can also be useful to set up a schedule for a project
that only polls the SCM for changes e.g. outside office hours and therefore only builds then. Similar setup ups
can be used to do a nightly or a weekly build type setup.
Build when Maven dependencies have been updated by Maven 3 integration
Hudson projects using the Maven 3 integration can be configured to send out a notification to all projects that
Maven dependencies have been updated as post build action (see Section 6.2.5). When you activate this build
trigger a build of the project will be started once a such a notification is received. The projects triggering each
other in this set up needs to be configured to access the same Maven repository.
Build when Maven SNAPSHOT dependencies have been updated externally
Activating this setting allows you to specify a schedule in cron syntax to use for polling the local Maven repository for updated SNAPSHOT dependencies. When selecting the Exclude internally produced dependencies
option the regular check will only cause a build trigger firing when artifacts not built in a local Hudson job are
updated.
6.2.5
Configuring Post-build Actions
Post build actions are an important part of Hudson. They allow you to trigger a number of events upon build completion. These include the communication of the results of the build in various ways as well as chain other builds
to this build. As such these actions fulfil a crucial role of a continuous integration server as communication tool.
Other important actions allow you to deal with the various artifacts produced by the build in the form of test results,
documentation as well as actual executables or archives produced.
Beyond the core post-build actions documented in the following, various plugins will make additional actions available. Source code management-related plugin documentation can be found in Chapter 9. The minimum list of build
actions available is visible in Figure 6.6 and documented in more detail below.
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Figure 6.6: Configuring Project Post-build Options
Archive Maven 3 artifacts
If you activating this option Hudson will archive the artifacts built by the Maven 3 build steps during the build.
Selecting the Include generated POMs additional cause the pom.xml files to be archived. With the option Discard
old artifacts set, old artifacts will be removed after each successful build. This is a Maven 3 build step specific
automation of the option to Archive artifacts without the need to specify the artifacts. The artifacts will be made
available on the web interface like other archived artifacts. This option is especially useful in refactorings of
the project and the resulting artifacts, since all artifacts are always archived and name or folder changes do not
affect the archiving. Since there is no necessity to configure matching patterns, this option is more robust.
Record fingerprints of Maven artifacts
This option activated will trigger the Maven 3 integration of Hudson to record fingerprints of the created Maven
artifacts, which will allow Hudson to keep track of when these artifacts are produced and used.
Publish Javadoc
If your build produces Javadoc you can configure Hudson to make it available to users on the project page of
Hudson:
Figure 6.7: Configuring the Javadoc post build action
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Figure 6.8: Project page providing access to Javadoc and latest test results
To configure this you have to select the check box and provide the relative path to the Javadoc in the Javadoc directory
input field. Checking the Retain Javadoc for each successful build will keep the generated Javadoc for all successful
builds in the specified folder for older builds instead of overwriting the documentation with each build.
If a warning of No such directory is visible, it means that the current project workspace does not contain the specified
path. This is not a problem as long as your build will create the folder. The Console Output of a specific build contains
logging information started by Publishing Javadoc that can be used to debug any problems.
Aggregate downstream test results
This feature allows you to pull the test results of this project and any downstream projects together. This is
especially useful when long running test are set up as separate downstream projects. You can either let Hudson
figure out all downstream projects automatically or supply a specific list of projects in the Jobs to aggregate
input box.
Figure 6.9: Configuring the test result aggregation post build action
Publish JUnit test result report
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Activating this feature allows Hudson to interpret the JUnit test report format, produced by your test runs in the
project and produce historic test result trends, a web interface for viewing the reports accessible from the project
page as visible in Figure 6.8. The location of the produced xml files has to be specified in the text input box,
which allows the use of patterns to find files in multiple sub folders of the project.In addition it is possible to
retain the build log output by checking the Retain long standard output/error.
Figure 6.10: Configuring the JUnit test result report post build action
Archive the artifacts
With this feature enabled Hudson will keep the specified artifacts and make them available on the web interface.
Using a wild-card syntax in the Files to archive as well as the Excludes input boxes you can specify the artifacts
that should be saved after each successful build.The artifacts of the last successful build are available on the
project overview page as visible in Figure 6.12.
Figure 6.11: Configuring the artifacts archival post build action
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Figure 6.12: A project overview page for the Hudson book project with the latest build artifact available for download
In addition Figure 6.13 shows how the artifacts produced by a specific build can be accessed on build specific page.
Figure 6.13: A build specific page for the Hudson book build with build artifact available for download
This feature is useful to make release artifacts like war, ear or zip files available for retrieval by other users and for
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archival purposes. Hudson can be used as the reference storage place for these artifacts that are in turn used e.g. for
QA and production deployments or for distribution to customers.
If your artifacts are created by a Maven 3 based build using Maven 3 build steps, it might be a better option to activate
the option Archive Maven 3 artifacts for better archiving robustness as documented above in the respective section.
Recording fingerprints of files to track usage
The feature to Record fingerprints of files to track usage can help you track down, where files are used and
produced. It will allow you to determine the build number that created an artifact by looking at the fingerprint,
which is a unique identifier for the file that Hudson creates and keep track of.
Figure 6.14: Configuring the fingerprinting post build action
Build other projects
Building other projects after completion of the current project build, is one of the key features that allows you
to set up chains of project builds. They can then all be small in focus and build time. However in the bigger
picture you are able to to run a build for very large and complex systems. The input box Projects to build accepts
a comma-separated list of projects to build together with a check box that allows you to trigger the dependent
builds even if the current project build failed.
Figure 6.15: Configuring downstream builds post build action
Some examples for the usage of this feature are a main project triggering separate projects that invoke unit and/integration tests, shared libraries invoking server as well as client side application builds or build system plugin builds
triggering all projects that use the plugin.
E-mail Notification
A very valuable post-build action for a continuous integration build is the sending of build notification emails.
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Hudson can be configured to send out build failure notices to any email address. In most instances it will be
best to send the notices to an email list allowing the potential recipients to opt-in and out as well as access
archives. This email is one of the primary ways in which developers are notified of build failures. To configure
this feature, check the check box next to E-mail Notification and then specify the recipients email addresses
in Recipients separated by white-space. Selecting Send e-mail for every unstable build will instruct Hudson to
send an email for each build even if a build experience consecutive failures. Selecting Send separate e-mails
to individuals who broke the build will send email to all SCM committers that affected a build that broke. The
email will be sent with the configuration specified in Section 3.8.
Figure 6.16: Configuring the email notification post build action
Notify that Maven dependencies have been updated
When activating this option Hudson will notify all projects with a build trigger configured to watch for Maven
dependencies that have been updated (see Section 6.2.4). When the additional option Notify even when build is
unstable is selected this notification will occur even when an unstable build ran. A side-effect of this could be
that only some Maven dependencies have been updated, which could lead to further failures of the dependent
projects.
6.2.6
Working with Cascading Projects
Support for cascading projects is an addition to Hudson that makes managing a large number of projects easier by
implementing single inheritance of project setting from one project to one or many others.
Warning
This feature has been introduced with Hudson 2.2.0, so you will have to update to it or a newer version to
take advantage of it.
The Cascading Project drop down in Figure 6.3 is populated with all projects the current project can inherit settings
from. These have to be of the same type - free-style or multi-configuration and you will be prevented from introducing
cyclic inheritance.
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Select a project you would like to inherit settings from in the drop down and the complete project configuration will
be populated with the configuration values of the parent project.
If you change a configuration for the child project and save the configuration any setting that differs from the parent
project setting will be highlighted on the configuration screen and augmented with green arrow on the left side of the
input as visible in Figure 6.17. This arrow will revert any changes and reapply the configuration settings of the parent
project.
Figure 6.17: A Discard Old Builds configuration in a child project overriding the parent project configuration.
The parent and child projects are linked internal and an user will not be able to delete a parent project as long child
projects exist.
The inheritance works for general project parameters as well as builders, publishers, triggers and SCM related settings.
When updating a parent project parameters these changed values are propagated to all child projects that do not have
the values overridden.
Examples for useful applications of this feature among others are:
• a parent project for a main branch of a project and children for all other branches in the SCM system
• combination of different scheduling and build parameters e.g. for build with unit tests only vs with full integrations
tests vs a nightly regression build
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6.3
Configuring Free-style Projects
In addition to the common project configurations we discussed prior, a free-style Hudson project has a section for the
build definition that allows you to add individual build steps. Press the Add build step button in the Build configuration
section to set up one or multiple steps that define your build with the choices displayed in Figure 6.18 and documented
below.
Figure 6.18: Adding a free-style project build step
Execute shell
Executing a shell script as a build step is configured just like a Windows batch command. The unix convention
to use the first line with a #! and the path to an executable allows you to write shell scripts in many available
shell and scripting languages.
Invoke Maven 2 (Legacy)
A Maven 2 based build step can be configured as documented in Section 7.4. We recommend to use the Maven
3 invocation where possible.
Invoke Ant
Invoking an Ant target can be added just like a shell script task, but with more configuration options. Find out
more on how to configure Ant invocations in Section 8.2
Execute Windows batch command
The Command input allows you to specify the the name of the batch file to execute. The script has to return
an error level value of zero to be recognized as a build success by Hudson. The script will be executed with
the current workspace of the project as the directory. A number of environment variables about Hudson and the
current project are passed to the execution of the script and can be used from within the script.
Invoke Maven 3
A Maven 3 based build step can be configured as documented in Section 7.3
6.4
Configuring Multi-Configuration Projects
Multi-configuration projects have to be configured as such when initially creating the project as visible in Figure 6.1.
A multi-configuration project is a free-style project with additional parameters called axis defined. These axis values
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create a matrix of possible combinations. Each of these combinations is a possible build execution with the specific
combination of parameters passed to the build.
Figure 6.19 and Figure 6.20 show the general Configuration Matrix section as well as an example of some axes defined.
A pre-configured axis available offers the choice of JDK used for the project build. In the example two further axes
are defined. For for a database backend used for the build and another for the type of build to execute. Axis can be
added by creating the Add axis button and removed with the Delete button.
Figure 6.19: Configuration matrix parameters for multi-configuration project
Figure 6.20: Axis definition for multi-configuration project
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All these axis values create a configuration matrix on the project overview page as visible in Figure 6.21.
Figure 6.21: Configuration matrix display for multi-configuration project
The most important configuration steps is to define the axes that you will use for your project. The user-defined axis
definition allows you to define a name and multiple values. These values will be passed to your build execution as
variables and you have to ensure in your build configuration that they are e.g. used as Maven profile names in the a
build step or passed in as properties and picked up to select the correct database connection. The values have to be
separated by white-space in the values input field.
In addition you can configure the following settings.
Run each configuration sequentially
Selecting this option will cause Hudson to build each combination of axis values as sequential build invocations
rather than executing them concurrently. This is especially useful if concurrent execution could cause conflicts
when accessing resources needed by the build like a central database server.
Combination Filter
The combination filter input field allows you to define valid axis value combinations with a Groovy expression.
Only expressions returning true will be executed.
Execute touchstone builds first
By defining a filter you can set up a touchstone build. It will be executed first and the required result will have
to be met before any further combinations of the matrix configuration are executed.
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Chapter 7
Working with Apache Maven Builds
Apache Maven is the most widely used build tool for Java-based applications and beyond. It has excellent support in
Hudson and is employed by most Hudson users.
7.1
Installing and Configuring Apache Maven
In order to use Apache Maven for your project build you will have to configure one or more installs, as documented
in Section 3.5. Among the many factors that influence your choice of installation method you might want to consider
the following:
One or more Maven versions?
Depending on the variety of projects you aim to be building on Hudson, you might need to have more Maven
versions for building your projects available. This can be helpful to allow for a staged upgrade with one project
at a time to minimize down times due to broken builds with newer versions as well.
Variety of operating systems in build cluster
Your build cluster might be using different operating system versions, which can make some installation methods
harder or impossible to use. Reasons for using different operating systems in a cluster can be the need to run
tests on them, facilitating pre-existing e.g. desktop workstations at night, the need to build native packages on
their own platform or simply the fact that a certain build can only be done on a specific operating system.
Control software via Hudson or something else?
While Hudson has built in support to manage the JDK install as well as Apache Ant and Maven, your builds can
require any number of further software to work. If your build requires a high number of these additional software
packages installed, it will be increasingly difficult to keep your build cluster setup configured with all required
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components. If you or someone else in your company already uses a provisioning software or virtual machine
or operating system snapshots for similar purposes and it would make sense to reuse the existing facilities and
setup. Otherwise it might be worth getting a provision system suitable to your needs set up.
Available expertise
Your team or yourself might have pre-existing expertise with native package management, provisioning software, virtual machine snapshots or Hudson itself that can be an influencing factor on how to set up your Maven
installs.
Control Maven installation
Some installation methods like using a pre-existing Maven install from an operating system package rely on
third parties to create these installations at first. While convenient this implies a loss of control that might not
be desired and has to be weighed against the additional effort of different install methods.
With assessing these influencing parameters you will be able to derive a strategy for your Maven install(s), that will
work across the different machines in your build cluster and for all your projects. This strategy can potentially involve
different installation methods. When using the recommended Maven 3 integration no Maven install is necessary, since
a Maven 3 install is embedded with the plugin. Otherwise a minimal setup of one Maven install can be used to set up
your first project, that is built with Maven on Hudson.
7.2
Selecting Components of your Maven and Hudson Integration
The recommended way to configure a Maven build on Hudson is to create a free-style software project as documented
in Chapter 6 and then creating one or more build steps that Invoke Maven 3. More details on the specific configuration
options and more can be found in Section 7.3.
If you require Maven 2 for your build for some legacy reason, even though Maven 3 is a higher performing, drop-in
replacement you can fall back to using the Invoke Maven 2 (Legacy) build step documented in Section 7.4. Even
though this option exists, we recommend moving forward and migrating to Maven 3 and the Maven 3 build step.
Finally your Hudson install may contain a separate project type labelled Build a Maven 2/3 project (Legacy) available
when creating a new project. This feature has numerous issues with the use of different Maven versions and use cases,
especially Maven 3, and is not supported in Hudson. We recommend not to use this job type. If you do not need this
job type anymore after migrating to the Maven 3 build step and want to avoid the accidental creation of projects with
this type, you should disable the Hudson:: Maven(legacy) :: Plugin. Read more about managing your
plugins in Chapter 5.
Both the Maven 2/3 project type as well as the Maven 2 build step are part of Hudson as legacy components and are not
the focus of active development and improvements. If your existing jobs use either of these we recommend migrating
to Maven 3 build step based free-style projects.
In order to be able to keep existing legacy build around without cluttering to user interface or have inexperienced
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users create builds with the legacy systems, you can enable the blacklist plugin to disable certain views within Hudson
without completely disabling the still required plugins.
7.3
Details of Configuring Maven 3 Build Options
After configuring the general project options as documented in Chapter 6, you can configure one or more build steps.
To add a build step, click on the Add build step button as shown in Figure 7.1. To configure a Maven build, select
Invoke Maven 3.
The basic and advanced options for configuring a Maven 3 build steps are shown in Figure 7.1 and Figure 7.2 . When
adding a new Maven 3 build step all parameters are pre-populated with the default parameters defined for Maven 3
build steps. These are configured in the global Hudson configuration documented in Chapter 3 in Section 3.6.
Figure 7.1: Configuring a Maven 3 Build Step - Default Options
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Figure 7.2: Configuring a Maven 3 Build Step - Advanced Options
Maven Version
Your Hudson installation may have one or more Maven 3 installations configured as part of the global Hudson
configuration. This drop-down allows you to specify the version of Maven 3 to use with the current build step.
By default the Maven 3 integration will use a bundled version of Maven 3, that is installed as part of the Maven
3 integration itself.
Goals
This field allows you to specify the goals and phases you would like to use for the Maven 3 invocation, separate
by spaces and in order of desired invocation just like you would use Maven 3 on the command-line. Typically
these would be clean install, but depending on your project and build step others may apply. The plugin
with automatically show the Maven version and operate in batch mode equivalent to the -V and -B options.
It is also to specify other specific Maven to command-line options like -P for profile selection, selection of a
specific settings.xml file, -X for debugging logging and so on. However this is not recommended since
there are specific configuration settings for most parameters in the Advanced section. If you specify them in
their dedicated option it will be easier to carry out programmatic changes e.g. via scripts in the Hudson console
across all projects defined in your Hudson instance.
Properties
You can pass one or more properties to the Maven process. This field accepts a list of properties with lines in a
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key=value format. These properties will be passed into the Maven build step invocation using the standard way
of passing properties of -Dkey1=value1 -Dkey2=value2.
POM File
If your project uses the standard pom.xml file-name, there is no need to specify a POM. If your project uses a
POM with an alternative name or path other than directly in the project root, you can specify that file name and
path here. This setting is equivalent to the command-line option -f pomfilepath or—file pomfilepath. The path
specified has to be relative to the project root. It is also necessary to specify the path to the POM file here if you
SCM setup causes the POM file to be located in a sub-folder and not in the top level workspace folder.
Private repository
By default a Maven invocation will use a private repository in the project workspace in a .maven/repo folder.
This ensures that other project builds do not have any side effects. However it can cause considerable usage of
storage space, which consequently should be monitored carefully. If this option is disabled the standard Maven
repository location in the current users home directory will be used. The user will the operating system user
running Hudson and therefore invoking Maven 3 via the plugin.
Private temporary directory
When this option is activated the java environment variable java.io.tmpdir will be set to a folder .maven/tmp
in the project-specific workspace. This is useful when your build accesses the temporary directory for storage
of artifacts or any temporary files e.g. used while running tests. When using the option with builds that produce
large amounts of data in the temporary folder it is important to monitor the size of the folder and potentially add
a clean up routine to the host operating system regular scheduled jobs.
Offline
Activating this option causes Maven to be run with the -o offline option enabled and it will therefore not access
any remote repositories.
Profiles
Adding a comma or space separated list of profile names causes the Maven 3 integration to pass them to the
invocation with the -P parameter.
Show Errors
Enabling the Show Errors option is equivalent to use the -e command-line parameter, which will cause Maven
to output any errors in the console.
Verbosity
Configure the verbosity of the log output to the console by Maven to be at normal, quiet or debug levels. These
levels are equivalent to no option and the -q and -X options for Maven command-line invocation.
Checksum Mode
Configure the strictness of the check-sum validation when downloading artifacts from repositories to be at
normal, lax or strict levels. These levels are equivalent to no option and the -c and -C options for Maven
command-line invocation.
Snapshot Updates
The Snapshot Updates option provides control over the way Maven treats SNAPSHOT artifacts. The NORMAL
activates the standard Maven behaviour, where as FORCE and SUPPRESS will activate the -U and -nsu
options.
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Recursive
Just like for normal Maven invocation this option is activated by default, which means that nested modules in
a multi-module project will be build. Deactivating this feature is equivalent to the non-recursive command-line
option -N.
Projects
The Projects option allows you to specify the projects that should be added to the reactor during build. You can
either specify them by the relative path in your project workspace or by artifactId and optionally groupId
in a groupId:artifactId format. The equivalent command-line option is -pl.
Resume From
The Resume From uses the same syntax as the Projects and sets the -rf command-line option to resume the
build from the specified artifact.
Fail Mode
The Fail Mode option supports the modes NORMAL, FAST, AT_END and NEVER that determine how your
Maven build proceeds in case of any failures. The equivalent command-line options are no option, -ff, -fae
and -fn. This can have considerable impact on the load on your Hudson server e.g. by not proceeding past
failed tests but instead failing the build so that developer can fix it before a long running build needs to be kicked
off again.
Make Mode
The Make Mode option can be used to enable Make-like build behaviour of Maven. The options are the default
behaviour equivalent to NONE and DEPENDENCIES, DEPENDENTS and BOTH respectively -am, -amd
and -am -amd.
Threading
This input takes the value for the -T command-line option that enables the experimental support for parallel
builds in Maven 3. A value of 4 enables four threads for the build. A value of 2.5C would enable 2.5 threads
per CPU core. When activating this feature, keep the experimental nature of this feature as well as the not yet
wide spread support for this feature in the various plugins in mind. Read on the Maven Wiki to find out more
about this feature and the current status.
Settings
This option corresponds to the -s command-line option for Maven 3 and supplies a Maven 3 build step with
a custom settings configuration file. The drop down for this field is populated with the Maven 3 Settings files
configured in the Hudson Maven 3 Configuration page as shown in Figure 3.10.
Global Settings
This option corresponds to the -gs command-line option for Maven and isn’t used as frequently as the -s
option. This option allows you to reference a custom global configuration file that is an alternative to the global
settings file that ships with Apache Maven.
Tool Chains
Tool chains for Maven 3 build steps can be configured globally for your Hudson install as documented in
Section 3.10. The drop allows you to select one of these configured tool chains for to be used for the build step.
Tool chains are a very useful, but lesser known feature of Maven and more documentation can be found in the
mini guide on the Apache web site.
JVM Options
If your build requires specific JVM options, they can be set in this field. The options are passed straight through
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as MAVEN_OPTS and use the normal java command-line options syntax. A common configuration for complex
builds is to specify a larger memory for the JVM running Maven via -Xmx1024m.
7.4
Details of Configuring Maven 2 (Legacy) Build Options
If for some reason you are still using Maven 2 and cannot upgrade to Maven 3 and therefore take advantage of the
advanced performance and features of Maven 3 and the Maven 3 integration of Hudson offers you, you should use
the Maven 2 (Legacy) integration in a free-style project build step. After configuring the general project options (see
Chapter 6), you can configure one or more build steps. To add a build step, click on the Add build step button as shown
in Figure 7.3. To configure a Maven build, select Invoke Maven 2 (Legacy).
Figure 7.3: Configuring Project Build Options
The basic and advanced options for invoking a Maven 2 (Legacy) target are shown in Figure 7.4.
Figure 7.4: Advanced Configuration of a Maven 2 (Legacy) Build Step
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Maven Version
Your Hudson installation may have one or more Maven installations configured as part of the global Hudson
configuration. This drop-down allows you to specify the version of Maven for usage with the current build step.
Goals
This field allows you to specify the command-line parameters used for the Maven invocation. These are phases,
plugin goals as well as specific Maven command-line options like -P for profile selection, selection of a specific
settings.xml file and so on.
POM
If your project uses the standard pom.xml file-name, there is no need to specify a POM. If your project uses a
POM with an alternative name or path other than directly in the project root, you can specify that file name and
path here. This setting is equivalent to the command-line option -f pomfilepath or—file pomfilepath. The path
specified has to be relative to the project root.
Properties
You can pass one or more properties to the Maven process. This field accepts a list of properties with lines in a
key=value format. These properties will be passed into the Maven build step invocation using the standard way
of passing properties of -Dkey1=value1 -Dkey2=value2.
JVM Options
If your build requires specific JVM options, they can be set in this field. The options are passed straight through
as MAVEN_OPTS and use the normal java command-line options syntax. A common configuration for complex
builds is to specify a larger memory for the JVM running Maven via -Xmx1024m.
Use private Maven repository
By default a Maven invocation will use a local repository in the current users home directory taking any further
repository configuration done in settings.xml into account. Depending on the necessary separation of the different jobs running on Hudson it can be useful to have a separate Maven repository for each project. Activating
this feature will cause the creation of a separate Maven repository in a .repository folder in the projects
workspace. This can cause considerable usage of storage space, which consequently should be monitored carefully.
The standard way of invoking a Maven build is to run the clean and install life cycle phases in a command-line call
like mvn clean install. This can be easily achieved by adding a Maven build step and adding clean install as a Goals
parameter. If so desired these two life cycle phases can also be invoked separately by creating two Maven build steps
with separate clean and install parameters. This would cause two separate invocations of Maven in sequence equivalent
to mvn clean; mvn install Breaking up the invocations allows you to add further build steps in between and build an
arbitrarily complex sequence of Maven and other invocations with completely separate parameters and so on.
You could for example slip a plugin goal invocation in between the clean and install invocations, that prepares the
execution environment for your build for example by setting up a test environment like an emulator or a specific
database and content. Since you can do this in a separate build step you can invoke a shell script or an Ant target for
such tasks, in case it is not automated via a Maven plugin or configuration.
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Figure 7.5: Configuring two build steps as top-level Maven invocations
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Chapter 8
Working with Apache Ant Builds
8.1
Installing Apache Ant for Hudson
The general configuration for Apache Ant installs on Hudson is available in Section 3.4. You can read about influencing
factors for your Apache Maven install, that apply to your strategy for installing Ant as well in Section 7.1.
A common scenario for Apache Ant installs is the requirement of a build to have access to Ant tasks as provided in
Ant-Contrib like For or If or to have some required libraries like JSch for secure copying with scp available on the Ant
class-path. Custom developed Ant tasks can be needed in a similar fashion. A convenient way to achieve this, is the
creation of a custom archive containing the Ant install as well as additional libraries necessary. This archive can then
be used with the Extract from *.zip/*.tar.gz option to get a fully working Ant and dependencies installed
on all build cluster nodes.
8.2
Configuring Apache Ant Builds
After configuring the general project options as documented in Chapter 6, you can configure one or more build steps.
To add a build step, click on the Add build step button and select Invoke Ant.
The basic and advanced options for invoking Ant are shown in Figure 8.1.
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Figure 8.1: Configuring an Ant Build Steps
Ant Version
Your Hudson installation may have one or more Ant installations configured as part of the global Hudson
configuration. This drop-down allows you to specify the version of Ant for usage with the current build step.
Targets
This field allows you to specify the command-line parameters used for the Ant invocation. These are all options
and targets supported by the specified Ant and the current Build File. If nothing is specified in this field, the build
step will invoke Ant without parameters. With a default target specified in the build file, this can be sufficient
for a full build depending on your build file.
Build File
If your project uses the standard build.xml file-name, there is no need to specify a Build File If your project
uses a build file with an alternative name or path other than directly in the project root, you can specify that file
name and path here. This setting is equivalent to the command line option -f buildfilepath. The path specified
has to be relative to the project root.
Properties
You can pass one or more properties to the Ant process. This field accepts a list of properties with lines in a
key=value format. These properties will be passed into the Ant build step invocation using the standard way of
passing properties of -Dkey1=value1 -Dkey2=value2.
Java Options
If your build requires specific Java options, they can be set in this field. The options are passed straight through
as ANT_OPTS and use the normal java command-line options syntax. A common configuration for complex
builds is to specify a larger memory for the JVM running Ant via -Xmx1024m.
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Chapter 9
Working with Source Control
One of the most important parts of the Hudson project configuration are the settings that connect your Hudson project
to source control. Any software development project should be managed in a source control management system,
many of which are open source software and have large user communities. Hudson has support for all common SCM
systems as well as many of the less popular ones. Most likely you will find support for your SCM already installed
or available as a plugin for installation in the Source Code Management section of available plugins in the plugin
management as displayed in Figure 9.1. Read more about available plugins and their management in Section 5.2 in
Chapter 5.
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Figure 9.1: The beginning of the list of Source Code Management plugins
By default Hudson has support for Git, Subversion and CVS pre-installed. This chapter will document usage of the
respective Hudson plugins as well as the plugin supporting the popular open source SCM system Mercurial.
Each of these plugins can be configured in the global Hudson configuration setting in its specific section added by the
plugin.
After the global settings for the desired source management system are configured, you can configure the projectspecific settings. Simply load the project’s configuration page and scroll down to the Source Code Management
section. In this section, you must then select one of the radio buttons for the source code management system you are
using as visible in Figure 9.2
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Figure 9.2: Selecting an SCM in the project configuration
After this selection you will be able to configure the parameters specific to the selected SCM and the current project.
9.1
Configuring Subversion
The Subversion Plugin for Hudson and therefore support for the popular Subversion SCM system is part of the default
install of Hudson. It is therefore not necessary to perform any further plugin installation to use Subversion for your
project.
9.1.1
Global Subversion Configuration
In order to use Subversion successfully, you need to set up the global configuration in the Hudson Server configuration
screen displayed in Figure 9.3.
Figure 9.3: Global Subversion Configuration
The following parameters need to be configured as desired:
Subversion Workspace Version
Subversion uses different formats for storing data in a checked out location. Ideally you should have the same
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Subversion version installed on the SCM server as well as on the Hudson server and specify that version here. If
your Hudson project tasks only require read access to the Subversion repository it is safe to use a higher version
on the Hudson server and specify it here. However if you are automating a release process or any other tasks that
will write to the Subversion repository e.g. by creating tags or branches or editing files and checking them in, you
should make sure to use the same format on the Hudson server as on the Subversion server since mismatches can
produce problems in the Subversion repository and potentially break expected behaviour. An important issue
related to this setup is that you can not support different Subversion servers with different versions accessed
from one Hudson instance. It is advisable to update the Subversion servers and Hudson installed clients before
proceeding.
Subversion Revision Policy
The default revision policy is Queue time, which will cause a build to be run off the revision present in the
repository when the job is added to the Hudson build queue. The Build time policy one the other hand
will use the revision in the repository found when the build actually starts . The Head revision policy will
use the HEAD revision in the repository. Finally these settings are overridden if a revision is specified in the
subversion URL or as a revision parameter in a parameterized build.
Exclusion revprop name
This parameter can be used to cause the plugin to exclude revisions with the specified revision property from
triggering new builds. This is useful for builds that cause a commit so that this commit done by Hudson will not
in turn trigger the execution of another build. The commits carried out by Hudson as part of the build have to be
configured to use the same property.
Validate repository URLs up to the first variable name
With this setting activated subversion URLs will only be validated up to the first variable. A variable in a URL
would be preceded by a $ character.
9.1.2
Project-Specific Subversion Configuration
Selecting Subversion under the Source Code Management section will display the configuration options shown in
Figure 9.4. Clicking on the Advanced button will reveal the advanced configuration parameters shown in Figure 9.5.
Figure 9.4: Configuring project-specific Subversion settings
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Figure 9.5: Configuring advanced project-specific Subversion settings
The following parameters can be configured:
Modules
Hudson can check out one or more Subversion modules from a Subversion repository. To configure a repository
location, supply a Subversion URL in the Repository URL text field. This field supports Subversion repository
URLs including revisions specified with @number as well as subversion keywords for revisions and dates. The
link Update credentials navigates you to the SVN authentication screen documented below.
If you are checking out more than one Subversion module, you can also supply a Local module directory that Hudson
will check out the specified module to. If you leave the Local module directory blank, Hudson will check out the
specific module to the root of the project’s workspace.
The Repository depth option allows you to specify the depth for the checkout of this module, with the default being+infinity+, which means that all nested directories of the repository will be checked out. This is useful to limit the
size and scope of your checkout.
You can add a new module with the Add more locations button and remove it with the Delete button.
Check-out Strategy
The Check-out Strategy option determines the subversion commands issues prior to starting a build.
The default value of Use svn update as much as possible will cause the least load on the Subversion server by only
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issuing an update command on top of the existing checkout in the project workspace.
The option Use svn update as much as possible, with svn revert before update will do minor cleanup of the workspace
by reverting any local modifications.
The option Emulate clean checkout by first deleting unversioned/ignored files, then svn update provides a good compromise between performance and thoroughness, since it closely resembles a clean checkout without the performance
and load implications for the Subversion server as well as Hudson.
Finally the option Always check out a fresh copy will delete the workspace content and perform a fresh checkout for
each build. Choosing this option should be considered carefully since it can put a significant load on the Subversion
and Hudson servers.
Repository Browser
Hudson supplies valuable information about a build and about the SCM activity and changes that contribute to a
specific build. When Hudson displays information about a Subversion commit or a file that has been modified, it
can be configured to link to a Repository browser, which provides a rich web view of the source code repository.
Hudson supports the repository browsers CollabNet, Sventon 2.x, ViewSVN, FishEye, WebSVN and Sventon
1.x as options in the the drop-down. The (Auto) option will attempt to automatically detect the used browser.
You can navigate to the Subversion Authentication screen by clicking the Update credentials link, which will display
as visible in Figure 9.6.
Figure 9.6: Configuring subversion authentication Subversion settings
The subversion plugin can be configured to use authentication with:
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User name/password authentication
Provide the user name and password in the supplied input fields.
SSH public key authentication (svn+ssh)
The Private Key control allows you to upload a key file for which you can provide the User name in the respective
input field. If you key is encrypted with a password you need to add it in the Pass phrase input.
HTTPS client certificate
For HTTPS based authentication you can upload a Public Key Cryptography 12 (PKCS12) file and provide a
password in the provided controls.
By default the above configuration will override any global configuration. This behaviour can be deactivated by
selecting no in the Override global credentials option.
Beyond these basic configuration options the Subversion plugin supports advanced options to provide more parameters
to your Subversion commands used for the build.
Excluded Regions, Included Regions
These fields provide you with the option to either specifically include or exclude files and directories to determine
if a build should be triggered. If Included Regions is set, Hudson will only trigger a build if a matching file has
been altered. If Excluded Regions is set, Hudson will not trigger a build if a file matching an excluded pattern
is matched. These options are useful if you are only interested in a subset of files and directories contained in a
Subversion module to trigger a build on Hudson. An example would be if documentation files contained in the
repository should not trigger a new build.
Both parameters support usage of regular expression patterns to specify the desired files as well as multiple lines to
configure larger sets of files and directories to match.
Excluded Users
If this field is populated and Hudson is configured to poll subversion as a build trigger, Hudson will not trigger
builds for commits from the specified users. This can be used to avoid builds to be triggered by commits done
by Hudson or other systems that commit changes that should not trigger a build.
Excluded Commit Messages
Similar to the option Exclude users this field contains a regular expression and will cause Hudson not to trigger
a build for commits with a matching commit message.
Exclusion revprop name
A Subversion revision can be associated with a property. If Hudson encounters a revision with the specified
property, it will not trigger a build from an SCM commit, similar to the behaviour for the options Excluded
Users or Excluded Commit Messages
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9.1.3
Minimal Basic SVN Configuration
In order to build a project controlled in subversion you only need to configure the repository URL in the project
configuration using an URL available for anonymous read access to the repository.
9.1.4
Subversion related environment variables
The subversion plugin exports the following environment variables for your usage in build scripts and others:
SVN_REVISION
The repository revision.
SVN_URL
The URL used to access the repository.
If multiple modules are defined these environment variables get and index appended in to their names and all revisions
and URLs of the modules will be exported as SVN_REVISION_1, SVN_REVISION_2, SVN_REVISION_n and
SVN_URL_1, SVN_URL_2, SVN_URL_n.
9.2
Configuring Git
Git is the most successful, modern distributed version control system and has gained wide acceptance in the open
source community and beyond. and repository hosting services available from multiple suppliers for commercial and
open source usage.
The Hudson Git Plugin and therefore support for Git is available in default Hudson installs from version 2.1 onwards.
If it is not installed in your Hudson instance, simply find the plugin in the Source Code Management section of the
available plugins and install it like any other plugins as documented in Chapter 5.
9.2.1
Global Git Configuration
The global configuration for using Git is set up in the Git section of the Hudson Server configuration screen as
displayed in Figure 9.7.
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Figure 9.7: Configuring Git Installations
Name
A name for your Git installation can be specified to distinguish between multiple installs.
Path to git executable
If the git command is available on the operating system PATH or the PATH for the user running Hudson, you
can simply specify git. Otherwise an absolute path can be used as well.
In addition to using an already installed git, the Git plugin facilitates the tool installer from Hudson that allows Run
Command and Extract from *.zip/*.tar.gz based installs similar to the JDK installs documented in details
in Section 3.3. The Ant and the Maven plugins installers described in Section 3.4 and Section 3.5 use the same installers
and you can find more hints of its usage there.
A further global configuration for git can be done in the Git plugin section displayed in Figure 9.8. Specifying Global
Config user.name Value and Global Config user.email Value values will cause the plugin to issue git config commands
setting these options for each project that is configured to use git. The specific project configuration allows you to
override these setting for each project individually.
Figure 9.8: Configuring Git user name and email values
9.2.2
Project-specific Git Configuration
Once you have configured Git in the global Hudson configuration you can configure project-specific Git settings.
Selecting Git under the Source Code Management section of your project configuration will display the configuration
options shown in Figure 9.9.
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Figure 9.9: Basic Git source control information
The section shown in Figure 9.9 contains the following options for the basic configuration of git in your project
configuration:
Repositories
Specifying one or more repositories to access for your project can be considered the main configuration of the
git details for your project. The minimum configuration is to provide a valid value for URL of repository. The
typical protocols http://, ssh:// and git:// are all supported. Advanced configuration as displayed in
Figure 9.10 allows you to provide a name of the repository as well as a refspec. Providing multiple repositories
only makes sense when they are clones or instances off the same repository, since they will be used for merging
together the content prior to the build.
Branches to build
In this section you can specify one or more branches that should be built. The default of an empty branch
specifier causes the git plugin to track all branches and build the latest changed branch.
A common configuration would be to specify the main branch in the repository e.g. master. This would ensure
that the build is only triggered for changes committed to master. If you want to have other branches built as well it is
advisable to create separate Hudson projects for the different branches.
The advanced usage of this feature would be to specify multiple branches. These branches would be used for a merge
prior to a build and could be configured to push the merge result back to the remote repository after a successful build.
Repository browser
The default Auto option will cause the plugin to attempt to detect a web-based user interface to access the git
repository. Selecting one of the supported repository browsers gitweb, redmineweb and githubweb lets you
provide a base URL to the repository browser. With the browser URL specified the changes view of each build
will have added links to the repository.
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Figure 9.10: Configuring repository specific Git configuration
In many use cases you will be able to configure everything necessary with regards to git using the basic configuration
options documented above. For more complex cases the plugin provides various advanced parameters as displayed in
Figure 9.11, which become accessible by pressing the Advanced button and documented below.ex
Figure 9.11: Configuring advanced Git configuration
Excluded Regions
This configuration allows you to specifically exclude files and directories to determine if a build should be
triggered. If set, Hudson will not trigger a build if only files and directories matching the patterns have been
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changed. This option is useful if you are only interested in a subset of files and directories contained in a Git
repository to trigger a build on Hudson. An example would be if documentation files contained in the repository
should not trigger a new build. The configuration supports usage of regular expression patterns to specify the
desired files as well as multiple lines to configure larger sets of files and directories to match.
Excluded Users
If this field is populated and Hudson is configured to poll git as a build trigger, Hudson will not trigger builds for
commits from the specified users. This can be used to avoid builds to be triggered by commits done by Hudson
or other systems that commit changes that should not trigger a build.
Checkout/merge to local branch (optional)
Supplying a value here causes git to create a local branch to checkout to. All the branches specified in the
configuration above would be merged into that local branch.
Local subdirectory for repo (optional)
You can specify the name of the subdirectory to checkout a git project to. If you omit this subdirectory, the git
repository will be checked out into the workspace directory.
Config user.name Value
This option allows you to cause git to set the user.name property prior to checkout and build. It overrides the
global git configuration of the same property
Config user.email Value
This option allows you to cause git to set the user.email property prior to checkout and build. It overrides
the global git configuration of the same property
Merge options
When you activate the option Merge before build the configuration parameters displayed in Figure 9.12 become
accessible. This powerful option can be used to specify a repository to merge from in Name of repository .
The content of the repository will be merged to the branch specified in Branch to merge to and if the operation
succeeds the build will proceed. The merge can then be pushed back to the remote repository by configuring a
Git publisher post build action as documented in Section 9.2.3
Figure 9.12: Configuring Git merge options
Prune remote branches before build
Selecting this option will cause the build to run the command git remote prune before each build . This is
especially useful if remote branches are created and removed regularly allowing the local checkout in Hudson
to stay in sync and only build the branches that also exist remotely.
Skip internal tag
Selecting this option will cause Hudson to omit the tagging of the local repository after each checkout, which
performed by default.
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Clean after checkout
This option causes git to remove all untracked files after each checkout and prior to the build.
Recursively update submodules
With this option selected and a new enough Git version installed submodules will be updated as part of the
update prior to building.
Use commit author in changelog
Selecting this option changes the display of the changelog to show the commits author, rather than the default
committer.
Wipe out workspace before build
This option will cause a complete wipe of the workspace prior to each build. Use caution when activating this
option since it can have a significant impact on data transfer and time for the checkout and therefore build. For
Maven projects it potentially wipes the local repository as well causing further increases in build time. The other
options for keeping the workspace cleaned documented above are more advisable to be used in most cases.
Choosing strategy
This drop down will have only a Default option available with a default Hudson install. It determines which
revision of the specified repositories and branches to build. For one branch and one repository HEAD will be
built. For multiple branches and repositories a more refined strategy is used selecting revisions that have not yet
been built and are on the specified branches. Other plugins can implement a different choosing strategy e.g. the
Gerrit Plugin enables a Gerrit change set based strategy effectively allowing verified, pre-tested commits.
Git executable
This drop-down allows you to select a specific git executable used for all operations on this project’s build.
Configuration of the executables is documented in Section 9.2.1.
9.2.3
Configuring the post-build action Git Publisher
The git plugin adds the post build action Git Publisher as displayed in Figure 9.13 to the project-specific configuration.
It can be used to push merges done prior to the build back out to a remote repository after a build.
Figure 9.13: Configuring Git Publisher options
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Push Only If Build Succeeds
Selecting this option will cause Hudson to skip publishing any changes via push if the build failed.
Merge Results
With this option activated Hudson will push any merge results done prior to the build back to the remote origin.
Tags
The Add Tag button allows you to configure one or more tags to push to and potentially create.
Branches
The Add Branch button allows you to configure one or more branch and remote combinations to push to.
When configuring the Git Publisher you can specify Tags in fields displayed in Figure 9.14.
Figure 9.14: Configuring Tags for Git Publisher
Tag to push
This input allows you to provide the name for the tag to use. It supports the expansion of environment variables
as part of the tag e.g. Hudson-Build-123. Read Section 3.2 for more information about defining properties and
available predefined ones.
Create new tag
This check box determines if the tag to push to as provided above should be created as a new tag or be used as
an existing tag.
Target remote name
The name of the remote to push the tag to. The name needs to be configured as a repository in the SCM section
for this project. Configuring branches to push to is done in the user interface displayed in Figure 9.15.
Figure 9.15: Configuring Branches for Git Publisher
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Branch to push
This parameter specifies the branch the changes get push to after the build completes.
Target remote name
The Target remote name specifies the remote repository to which a push will be done and needs to be one of the
names configured as a repository in the SCM section
9.2.4
Minimal Basic Git Configuration
In order to build a project controlled in git you need to have a git installation configured in the global configuration.
In terms of project specific configuration you only need to specify the public URL of the repository. We recommend
to specify the branch to build as well since the default setup without a branch specified will examine all branches in
the repository and build the latest changed branch. In a normal project this might adversely affect the stability of the
build and potentially cause a confusing history for the project. We suggest to set up separate projects for each branch
you want to track and build on Hudson.
9.2.5
Multiple branches and automated merging
The recommended basic usage with the git plugin is to configure the project branch for the build e.g. master, which
will be automatically configured if the field is left blank. Alternative you can specify a different branch name or use
**. This option causes all branches to be monitored for changes and the branch with the last changes will be built.
This will cause your project build history to be comprised of builds from all the different branches individually in the
order of changes received and potentially even omit builds if changes hit multiple branches between builds.
However together with configuring Merge Options it allows for a automated merge from whichever branch to have the
latest changes to the target branch e.g. master and proceed with the build after the merge.
Now you can activate the Git Publisher post-build action Push Only If Build Succeeds and Merge Results to have the
remote repository updated with the successful merge results.
This approach can be configured with specific branches rather than the default empty specification of branches to have
better control of the source branches to merge from. It can also be combined with multiple repositories to pull changes
in from.
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9.3
Configuring Mercurial
Mercurial, also known as hg, is a successful, modern distributed version control system and has gained wide acceptance
in the open source community and beyond used for large projects like OpenJDK and Netbeans and repository hosting
services available from multiple suppliers for commercial and open source usage.
The Hudson Mercurial Plugin and therefore support for Mercurial needs to be installed on your Hudson instance.
Simply find the plugin in the Source Code Management section of the available plugins and install it like any other
plugins as documented in Chapter 5.
9.3.1
Global Mercurial Configuration
To configure Mercurial, find the Mercurial section in the Hudson Server configuration screen as displayed in Figure 9.16, press the Add and configure the parameters for your Mercurial install. If Mercurial is already installed on
your Hudson server and the hg is available on the path, you do not need to configure a Mercurial installation. The
plugin will pick up the installed version.
Figure 9.16: Configuring Mercurial Installations
Name
The Name will be displayed in the drop down to select your Mercurial install in the project configuration. Use
a name that includes the version to be able to identify the Mercurial install you desire to use in the project
configuration, especially when using multiple installs.
Installation directory
Specify the absolute path to the Mercurial installation .
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Executable
This is the path to the actual hg executable. The field is pre-filled with INSTALLATION/bin/hg, which
is the correct value if you use a manual install of hg. If you are using binary package as provided by your
operating system package management system the correct value is likely just hg, since the command would be
on the PATH. Another common option is the absolute path of the executable e.g. /usr/bin/hg.
Use Repository Caches
Enabling this option triggers the Mercurial plugin to establish a repository cache on the Hudson master that will
be used by the slave nodes as well. This considerably improves performance and reduces load on the Mercurial
server.
Debug Flag
As the name suggest activating this option, triggers debug output of any Mercurial command execution. This is
especially useful for trouble shooting your configuration.
Download Forest extension
Using one of the suggested values in the on-line help for this option you can get the forest extension to work with
multiple repositories installed automatically. This is especially useful if you can not easily install the extension
with the same mechanism you installed Mercurial itself e.g. if no native package for the extension is available.
In addition, the Mercurial plugin facilitates the tool installer from Hudson that allows Run Command and Extract
from *.zip/*.tar.gz based installs similar to the JDK installs documented in details in Section 3.3. The Ant
and the Maven plugins installers described in Section 3.4 and Section 3.5 use the same installers and you can find
more hints of its usage there.
9.3.2
Project-specific Mercurial Configuration
Selecting Mercurial under the Source Code Management section will display the configuration options shown in
Figure 9.17.
Figure 9.17: Configuring Mercurial Source Control Information
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The section show in Figure 9.17 contains the following options:
Mercurial Version
This drop down lets you choose from the configured Mercurial installations. In most cases the Default will be
fine.
Repository URL
Specify the URL of the project to build.
Branch
By default a branch named default will be checked out for the project build. This input allows you to specify
and therefore build any other branch.
Advanced - Modules
The advanced setting Modules allows you to specify a folder and its contents, known as module, within the
repository to be the exclusive source for changes triggering a build.
Advanced - Clean Build
Activating the Clean Build option causes Mercurial to remove any untracked files prior to the build.
Advanced - Subdirectory
By default the repository is checked out into the workspace. Supplying a value in the Subdirectory option will
cause the repository to be checked out into a subdirectory in the workspace.
Advanced - Forest Extension
This experimental features triggers the activation of the Mercurial forest extension, which will treat the workspace
as the root of a forest.
Repository Browser
The default Auto option will cause the plugin to attempt to detect a web-based user interface to access the
Mercurial repository. Selecting one of the supported repository browsers hgweb, bitbucket, googlecode, kilnhg
and fisheye lets you provide a URL to the repository browser. With the URL specified the changes view of each
build will have added links to the repository.
9.3.3
Minimal Basic Mercurial Configuration
In order to build a project controlled in Mercurial you need to install the Mercurial plugin and have a hg installation
configured in the global configuration.
In terms of project specific configuration you only need to specify the public URL of the repository.
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9.4
Configuring CVS
If your Hudson Jobs rely on CVS there is no plugin configuration necessary, as the Hudson CVS Plugin and support
for the CVS system is included as a part of the default Hudson distribution.
9.4.1
Global CVS Configuration
To configure CVS, find the CVS section in the Hudson Server configuration screen as displayed in Figure 9.18. From
the Hudson start page, click on Manage Hudson, then click on Configure System, and scroll down to the CVS section
of this configuration form. If CVS is already installed on your Hudson server and the cvs is available on the path, you
do not need to configure a CVS installation. The plugin will pick up the installed version.
Figure 9.18: Global CVS Configuration
The CVS configuration section allows you to configure the following properties:
cvs executable
If the cvs executable is not available on the PATH, you can configure an absolute path to it in this input field.
cvspass file
Specify the path to the .cvspass file that contains the user credentials.
Disable CVS compression
Activate this option to disable CVS compression.
9.4.2
Project-specific CVS Configuration
Selecting CVS under the Source Code Management section will display the configuration options shown in Figure 9.19.
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Figure 9.19: Configuring CVS Source Control Information
Figure 9.20: Configuring CVS Source Control Information
The section show in Figure 9.19 and Figure 9.20 contain the following options:
CVSROOT
This is the CVSROOT parameter for your source. You would enter in the same information here that you would
use if you were checking out source code use the CVS client. The format for the URL is
<protocol>:<user>:<password>@<servername>:<serverpath>
Each component in the CVSROOT parameter
protocol
The protocol defines the way the CVS client communicates to the repository. Supported protocols are :local:
for local or net file system level connection, :pserver: as the standard unsecured protocol, :ext:, :ssh:
and :extssh: for secure shell based connections and :sspi: for Windows based access.
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Note
Due to concurrency and additional load on the repository, we recommend avoiding the local protocol for CI builds.
Using the local protocol in Hudson often results in problems if too many clients are trying to access a CVS repository
at the same time.
Warning
Please also keep in mind that the pserver protocol is insecure. If you storing sensitive data or code in a CVS
repository, avoid the pserver protocol and use ssh as an alternative.
user
Supply the user name for the client-server protocol used.
password
Specify the password when using the :pserver: or :sspi: protocol.
servername
The server name of the repository server as reachable via the network. It can be a fully qualified server and
domain name, a server name only or an IP number. The character @ is required at the beginning of the server
name.
serverpath
The path to the repository on the server pre-pended by :. The path itself can be either unix style like /opt/data/cvsre
or Windows style like C:\cvs\repository.
An example for a valid URL with a module is shown below.
:pserver:anonymous@tortoisecvs.cvs.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/tortoisecvs
Module(s) and Branch
Here you can provide specific modules and specific branches to be checked out by Hudson. Multiple module can
be specified using a space separated list and with a parameterized build job parameters can be used to specify
branch or module.
CVS_RSH
If you are using CVS over SSH, you can specify options and parameters in this variable.
Use update
Hudson can be configured to do a full checkout on each build or to use cvs update. Selecting this option will tell
Hudson to use update instead of performing a clean checkout. For most reasonably sized projects you should
activate this option.
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Repository browser
The default Auto option will cause the plugin to attempt to detect a web-based user interface to access the CVS
repository. Selecting one of the supported repository browsers ViewCVS and FishEye lets you provide a URL
to the repository browser.
Excluded Regions
If the module you are checking out contains some files that you need to exclude from triggering a build when
changed, you can exclude regions by populating this field with the respective patterns.
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Chapter 10
Tools Integration
The default way of interacting with Hudson is the web-based user interface. In addition Hudson ships with web service
interfaces, that enable integration with others tools such as integrated development environments. The following
section will detail some of these integrations, with links to further tools available on the Hudson wiki.
10.1 Eclipse Integration
As a top level Eclipse project it is only fitting that Hudson has great integration with the Eclipse development environment. Historically there are various independently developed integrations that are currently available. Most notably
Tasktop’s Eclipse Mylyn includes Hudson integration as of release 3.6 and Sonatype provides a Hudson integration as
well. Other integrations have mostly stalled and we recommend to use either of these two. Both Sonatype and Tasktop
are project members of the Eclipse Hudson project and going forward a merge of the two integrations is planned.
10.1.1 Sonatype Hudson Integration
Installation of the Hudson integration is currently with the update site URL https://repository.sonatype.org/content/repositories/forge-sites/m2eclipse-hudson/0.13.0/S/0.13.0.20111015-0033/ following the usual install process. Source
code for the integration can be found on github.
To open up the Hudson Jobs view in Eclipse, go to Window → Show View → Other. . . . Selecting this menu item
will display the dialogue shown in Figure 10.1.
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Figure 10.1: Opening the Hudson Jobs View in Eclipse
Once you have selected this Hudson Jobs view, you have to configure the Build Server URL in the Subscribe to Build
Notifications dialogue displayed in Figure 10.2 that can be reached via the blue sphere icon on the top left of the
Hudson Jobs view in Figure 10.3.
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Figure 10.2: Subscribe to Build Notifications Dialogue
Optionally provide user name and password and then press Load Jobs to have the list of jobs on the bottom of the
dialogue populated.
After you select the desired jobs and exit the dialog with OK, you will see the list of jobs in the Hudson Jobs view in
Figure 10.3. This list is retrieved directly from Hudson using Hudson REST services. To refresh the list of jobs, click
on the refresh icon.
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Figure 10.3: Hudson Jobs View in Eclipse
Once you’ve loaded a list of Hudson jobs in Eclipse, you can click on one of these Build Jobs to view a detailed
snapshot of the project status and any associated builds like in Figure 10.4. In this dialog you can see that the job
detail window contains general information about the Job in Job Properties, information about specific Job Builds in
Build Properties and also links to alternative configuration for Build Jobs. If you need to get more information about
the Job’s workspace in order to trouble shoot a build, you can also click on View job workspace. Clicking on this link
will load the project’s workspace in a browser window as another Eclipse tab.
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Figure 10.4: Hudson Jobs Summary
There are some very useful ways in which you can view the results of a build. They are viewing a build’s JUnit test
results, viewing the SCM changes associated with a specific build, and viewing a build’s console output. These views
of a particular job are the main ways in which you can understand and diagnose issues with continuous integration
builds.
To view a build job’s unit test results, load the job detail page and click on the Test Results link shown in Figure 10.4.
Clicking on this link will load the view shown in Figure 10.5. This level of visibility into the continuous integration
machine gives you insight into code-level issues happening on a remote build machine without requiring you to exit
out of Eclipse and fire up a web browser.
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Figure 10.5: Viewing JUnit Test Reports from Eclipse
To view a specific build’s SCM changes. Load the project detail view and click on the SCM Changes tab shown in
Figure 10.4. This particular view of a project combines the changelog of every single build into an easily navigable
interface. From that view you can see what code changes trigger individual builds and you can get a sense for what
activity and which committer are responsible for build successes and failures.
Viewing a specific build’s console output is often the quickest way to get to the bottom of a build failure. To open a
build’s console output, select the project from the Hudson jobs view, select an individual project build, and then click
on the Console Output link shown in Figure 10.4 and you will see the the raw console output from the Hudson build.
The test results, console output and other features can also be accessed by right clicking on a job in the jobs list view
and selecting from the context menu as visible in Figure 10.6.
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Figure 10.6: Contex Menu for a Specific Hudson Job
Once you’ve connected Eclipse to Hudson, you can also configure the tool to notify you of build failure events.
Figure 10.7 shows an Eclipse installation which has been configured to receive notifications of specific build failures.
Eclipse will periodically poll Hudson to check for build failures.
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Figure 10.7: Hudson Notifications in Eclipse
10.1.2 Tasktop Mylyn Builds Connector for Hudson
The Mylyn Builds Connector can be found in the standard update sites that are pre-configured with any Eclipse install.
To open up and configure the Builds view in Eclipse, go to Window → Show View → Other. . . , find the Builds view in
the Mylyn section visible in Figure 10.8 and click the Create a build server link or the blue New Build Server Location
icon.
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Figure 10.8: Selecting the Builds View in the Show View Dialog
After selecting Hudson in the wizard you will be able to configure the server in the Hudson Server Properties dialog
in Figure 10.9.
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Figure 10.9: Hudson Server Properties Configuration
Provide the Server URL, a label and optionally user and password and press Refresh to see a list of available Build
Plans. Selecting plans and pressing Finish will close the dialog and show the build plans in the Builds view as visible
in Figure 10.10.
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Figure 10.10: Builds List View
With the same process you can add further Hudson servers to monitor by pressing on the New Build Server Location
button.
If you select a specific plan the icons in the top left corner of the builds view give you access to the job page directly
on Hudson in a browser window in Eclipse and the console output and the test results of the last build in an Eclipse
windows. You can start another build with the Run Build button.
A context menu for each build plan like displayed in Figure 10.11 provides access to the build history and integration
into the Mylyn task management.
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Figure 10.11: Context Menu for an Individual Build Plan
The individual builds overview page visible in Figure 10.12 displays various details about the build and provides
access to test results, artifacts, changes and console output with further integration to the task management.
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Figure 10.12: Individual Build Overview Display
10.2 Oracle JDeveloper Team Productivity Center
The Oracle JDeveloper Team Productivity Center optionally includes the Hudson Plugin for integration with Hudson
in the IDE. The plugin pushed build and test results from Hudson via the Team Productivity Center server to the
JDeveloper IDE.
10.3 Netbeans
The Netbeans IDE can use the Hudson support plugin to provide integration of Hudson in the IDE.
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10.4 Jetbrains IntelliJ IDEA
IntelliJ IDEA users can install the Hudson Build Monitor plugin for integration with Hudson in the IDE.
10.5 Hudson Integration for Android
The Hudson Monitor for Android application or Hudson2Go can be used to access build details on your Android based
mobile phone or tablet.
10.6 Firefox Add-on Build Monitor
The Firefox Add-on Build Monitor provides access to Hudson as a browser plugin.
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Appendix A
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</div>
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If no ported version of the Creative Commons license exists for a particular jurisdiction, this work shall be covered
by the generic, unported Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works version 3.0 license
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A.1
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