Duende Product Manual 1.0rev1
Owner’s manual
Download the most up-to-date manual from www.solid-state-logic.com/duende
Download the most up-to-date Duende software from www.solid-statelogic.com/music/duende_downloads.html
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Visit SSL at URL: http://www.solid-state-logic.com
© 2006 Solid State Logic
All Rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions
Solid State Logic, SSL and Duende are trademarks of Solid State Logic
All other product names and trademarks are the property of their respective owners
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or
By any means, whether mechanical or electronic, without the
written permission of Solid State Logic, Oxford, England
Duende Version 1.0 Revision 1A, June 2006
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Table of Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Safety and Installation Considerations
Product Specification & System Requirements
Introduction
Connection & Installation
Operational Overview
5.1. Duende Preference Panel
5.2. Launching a Duende Plugin
5.3. DSP Resource Management
5.4. Plug-In Delay Compensation
5.4.1. Compensating for latency in Protools LE
5.5. Automatic Latency compensation in Protools HD
Duende EQ & Dynamics Channel Strip
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Filter Section
6.3. Equaliser Section
6.4. Dynamics Section
6.4.1. Compressor/Limiter
6.4.2. Expander/Gate
6.5. Advanced Signal Routing Options
6.5.1. Channel Processing Order
6.5.2. Side Chain Processing Order
Duende Bus Compressor
Support & FAQs
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Warranty information
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1. Safety and Installation Considerations
This section contains definitions, warnings, and practical information to ensure a safe working environment.
Please take time to read this section before installing or using this unit. Please do not dispose of these instructions.
General Safety
Power Safety
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Read these instructions.
Keep these instructions.
Heed all warnings.
Follow all instructions.
Do not use this apparatus near water.
Do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture.
Clean only with dry cloth.
Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat
registers, stoves
or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
There are no user-adjustable, or user-servicable items, inside
this apparatus. Do not remove the covers of this apparatus;
doing so will invalidate your warranty.
Refer all servicing to qualified personnel. Servicing is required
when the power supply has been damaged in any way, liquid
has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the
apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not
operate normally or has been dropped.
Adjustments or alterations to this apparatus may affect the
performance such that safety and/or international compliance
standards may no longer be met.
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Installation Notes
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This apparatus is supplied with a universal power supply,
approved and certified for operation with this apparatus –
adaptors are supplied to enable use world-wide, as required.
There are no user-replaceable fuses.
Where the universal power supply is required, use only the
SSL-provided power supply. Use of any other power supply is
not covered by your warranty and may cause fire or explosion.
Any external power supply may become hot during normal
operation of the unit. Use care when handling the power
supply.
Do not attempt to modify the power supply unit in any way –
other than to fit the appropriate power adaptor, as required (see
overleaf).
if an extension power cable or adaptor is used, ensure that the
total power rating of the power cable and/or adaptor is not
exceeded.
The power socket used for this apparatus should be located
nearby and be easily accessible.
Unplug this apparatus during an electrical storm or when
unused for long periods of time.
When installing this apparatus, place the apparatus on a secure
level surface.
Ensure that no strain is placed on the cables connecting to this
apparatus.
Ensure also that such cables are not placed where they can be
stepped on, pulled or tripped over.
Do not operate this apparatus whilst it is covered or boxed in
any way.
A high quality IEEE1394/Firewire 400 cable is supplied. Use of alternative, inferior cables may result in reduced performance,
including increased susceptibility to external interference.
Although IEEE1394/Firewire permits ‘hot-plugging’ there are persistent reports of permanent damage caused to either host or
peripheral equipment by this practice. Therefore, Solid State Logic strongly recommends that IEEE1394/Firewire connections are made
only when both the host and Duende units are unpowered.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to
part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to
radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
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Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/ TV technician for help.
Instructions for Disposal of WEEE by Users in the European Union
The symbol shown here is on the product or on its packaging, which indicates that this product must not be disposed of
with other waste. Instead, it is the user’s responsibility to dispose of their waste equipment by handing it over to a
designated collection point for recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment. The separate collection and
recycling of your waste equipment at the time of disposal will help to conserve natural resources and ensure that it is
recycled in a manner that protects human health and the environment. For more information about where you can drop
off your waste equipment for recycling, please contact your local city office, your household waste disposal service or
where you purchased the product.
Standards Conformance
For CE conformance, this apparatus conforms to the following standards:
EN 60950 Safety for information technology equipment, including electrical business (IEC 60950) equipment
EN 55022 Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics (CISPR 22) of information technology equipment
EN 55024 Information technology equipment – immunity characteristics – (CISPR 24) limits and methods of measurement
With reference to regulations in the following directives: 73/23/EEC, 89/336/EEC
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2. Product Specifications & System Requirements
Physical *
Environmental
Depth 165mm / 6.5 inches casing only
235mm / 9.25 inches inc’ connectors
Height 44.5mm / 1.75 inches (1 RU)
Width 438mm / 17.25 inches casing only
482mm / 19 inches inc’ rack ears
Weight 1.8kg / 4 pounds
Power < 6 Watts
Boxed size 320mm x 550mm x 80mm
12.75" x 21.75" x 3.25"
Boxed weight 2.6kg / 6 pounds
Temperature Operating: +5 to 30 Deg. C
Non-operating: –20 to 50 Deg. C
Max. gradient: 15 Deg. C/Hour
Relative Operating: 20 to 80 %
Humidity Non-operating: 5 to 90 %
Max. wet bulb: 29 Deg. C
(non-condensing)
Vibration Operating: < 0.2 G (3 - 100Hz)
Non-operating,
power off: < 0.4 G (3 - 100Hz)
Shock Operating: < 2 G (10mSec. Max.)
Non-operating: < 10 G (10mSec. Max.)
Altitude Operating: 0 to 3000m
(above sea level) Non-operating: 0 to 12000m
* All values are approximate
Performance
System Requirements
CPU 32bit ARM7 RISC Processor
DSP 4 x 333MHz SHARC® DSP
40bit Floating Point
Connection IEEE1394/Firewire 400
(1 x in/out, 1 x loop-through)
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Mac G4 or G5 1 Ghz or higher
512Mb RAM (1Gb recommended)
Mac OS X (Version 10.4.4 or greater)
1 spare IEEE1394/Firewire 400 port
60Mb Hard Disk space
AudioUnits, VST or RTAS* compatible host application
One available Firewire port (1394A / 400 Mbit )
17” or larger color monitor with screen resolution of 1024 x
768 or higher recommended
Internet Connection (for product registration and to download
software updates)
Approved Audio Interface
RTAS is supported through the integrated FXPansion VSTRTAS wrapper, a product developed by FXpansion Ltd.
For more info visit www.fxpansion.com
An up-to-date list of tested configurations can be found at http://solid-state-logicen.custhelp.com
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3. Introduction
Hi – and thank you for purchasing Duende – the SSL processing solution for your audio
workstation.
As you’re sat here reading this, chances are that you have a pretty good understanding of who
we are and our outstanding reputation in audio recording technology. How did we get here?
Well, there were no great plans to make SSL into a major manufacturer of mixing consoles when
it all started back in the seventies - the company began with nothing more than an enthusiasm
for music and the concept of recording. Along the way that spirit, coupled with a passion for
excellence in music recording tools, helped build a multi-million dollar international business.
The SSL HQ may be a little bigger now than it was in the Seventies, but passion and innovation
still lies at its heart.
In 2005, we decided to embark on a technology project to figure out how we could take the
processing power of a console and squeeze it into a 1-u rack, so we could serve up the SSL
sound to home and project studio owners who don’t have the budget (or the floor space!)
required to install a large-format console.
Drawing on our unique understanding of audio processing and years of DSP know-how, our
team of engineers set about creating the SSL processing solution for your DAW environment.
We knew we needed serious DSP horsepower to accommodate our powerful algorithms, and
we knew it had to come in a package that could integrate seamlessly with the most popular
workstations.
And so Duende was born.
Based on the digital technology behind SSL’s C-Series consoles, Duende delivers the complete
SSL mix experience – powerful channel and dynamics processing and the legendary Bus
Compressor.
Duende offers complete integration into the most popular workstation environments with one
simple FireWire cable connection. The different processing blocks appear as VST/AU/RTAS
plug-ins – and include an authentic SSL channel strip with filters, E and G series EQ and
dynamics processing, as well as the legendary SSL Bus Compressor.
Oh, you’re probably wondering about the name, right? It was a hot day, someone in the team
had bought in a CD of flamenco guitar music and one of the tunes, ‘Duende’, just kind of hung
in the air. Something inspired us to find out that in flamenco culture, Duende is a word for spirit,
soul, it’s the force that inspires the music. And that just seemed to sit well as a description for
the 1-U silver box before us.
We hope you will enjoy mixing your music with Duende.
For product news and software updates please register at www.solid-state-logic.com/duende
And don’t forget to join the www.mixbuss.com community – the online resource for sharing
knowledge on better music production.
The SSL Team
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4. Connection and Installation
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5. Operational Overview
Once your Duende hardware and software has been properly installed, Duende
plug-ins are accessed and used just like you would operate any host-based plugin. You can run Duende plug-ins simultaneously with your other host based
plug-ins in any combination.
All Duende Plug-ins support up to 40 bit 96 kHz operation. Please note that
Duende plug-ins use twice as much DSP resources at 96 kHz.
Duende parameters are changed by dragging, rotating or clicking knobs and
buttons, whose behavior varies slightly depending on which software is being
used to host the plug-ins. Generally the further away the mouse pointer is from
the knob, the more resolution is available for parameter adjustment.
The black box at the top of the channel strip gives the current parameter value,
so as you move a knob its value is updated in this box.
For very fine adjustment, hold 'shift' whilst dragging.
To reset a knob to its default value hold 'command' whilst clicking on that
knob.
Every Duende plug-In parameter can be automated so long as parameter
automation is supported by the host application. The method for recording and
editing automation varies from host to host. For specific instructions on using
automation with the host consult your host application documentation.
5.1 Duende Preferences Panel
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The Duende Preferences Panel shows information about your Duende such as
serial no, firmware version and driver version. It also displays DSP resource
information and allows you to easily see how much DSP you have available at
any time.
The panel can be found by navigating to 'Apple Menu>System Preferences>SSL
Duende'. Each mono plug in loaded into Duende will take up one slot, a '1'
representing a used slot and a '- ' representing an unused slot. At 44.1 and
48kHz there are 32 slots available and at 88.2 and 96kHz there are 16 slots
available. A stereo version of a plug in will take up 2 slots.
5.2 Launching a Duende Plug-In
Each host application has its own particular methods for instantiating
(launching) a plug-in. Consult the host application documentation for specific
instructions on loading and using plug-ins within the application.
Launching a Duende channel strip in Logic 7:
5.3 DSP Resource Management
Due to the nature of Duende having 4 DSP chips, a minimal amount of resource
management should be done when running Duende at high load.
If there are, for example, 2 slots free and you wish to load a stereo plug-in,
Duende will under certain conditions notify you that you are out of DSP
resources. This will only happen if the two slots are on different DSP chips as
Duende is not able to load a stereo plug-in across 2 chips. This may well occur
because you have filled up all the resources and subsequently unloaded 2 mono
plug-ins. This situation can be seen in the diagram below:
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As you can see above the two remaining slots reside on different DSP chips and
in this case when you attempt to load a stereo plugin you will encounter the
afore mentioned situation.
The way to handle this is as follows:
1. Save your project/song
2. Close your project/song
3. Re-open project/song
When this has been done Duende will be forced to reload all the plug-ins but
will do so in the most economical way possible. The 2 free slots will now reside
on the same DSP chip allowing the loading of a stereo plug-in.
5.4 Delay Compensation
When Duende plug-ins are used, the audio data to be processed by Duende is
sent to the Duende DSP engine by the host application. The audio is then
processed by the DSPs and sent back to the host application.
This transfer of audio data produces latency (delay) in the audio signal being
processed. Latency time is dependant on the sample rate, type of plug-in(s)
loaded and the audio interface buffer setting.
If this latency is not compensated, the processed audio will arrive late in relation
to the unprocessed audio. The more processing that takes place on a particular
signal, the later it will arrive back in the host.
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Most host applications automatically compensate for this latency by simply
turning on the Plug-in Delay Compensation (PDC) or similar, usually found in
the applications preferences. Some hosts even provide full plug-in delay
compensation throughout the entire signal path, including sends, groups, and
buses.
The location of the settings for the PDC option within some common host
applications is as follows:
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Cubase SX 2/3, Nuendo 2/3: Always on unless the ‘Constrain Delay
Compensation’ feature is used to disable delay compensation on
individual plug-ins: Devices Menu>Plug-in Information>Use Delay
Compensation
Logic Pro: Preferences>Audio>General
MOTU Digital Performer 4.5+: Setup menu>Configure Audio
System>Configure Studio Settings...
Ableton Live: Options>Delay Compensation
Important: Delay compensation is fully automatic and requires no user
intervention when Duende plug-Ins are used in hosts that support Full Plug-in
Delay Compensation.
PDC
Steinberg Cubase SX 2 & 3
Steinberg Nuendo 2 & 3
Logic 7.1 or higher
Digital Performer 4.5 & higher
Protools HD 7 or higher
No PDC
Final Cut Pro
Soundtracks Pro
Garageband
Protools LE 7
Depending on the host application implementation, the delay compensation
feature may not provide automatic compensation when Duende plug-ins are
inserted on sends, groups, or buses. In this situation, the solution is to manually
compensate for the plug-ins.
These explanations of delay compensation apply primarily to playback only.
5.4.1 Compensating for latency in Pro Tools LE
Because Protools LE 7.1 and before does not feature PDC it must be done
manually when Duende plug-ins are used. Due to the use of firewire and the
nature of how signals are sent to and from Duende, a latency is introduced
which will delay an audio track, aux input, master fader or instrument track by a
specified amount.
Tracks that use no Duende plug-ins or less than the track with the most Duende
plug-ins will need to be delayed so they are all in time. Because this latency is
reported by Pro Tools it is easily compensated for.
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Here’s how:
The track with the most Duende plug-ins will introduce the most latency, those
with 1 or 2 plug-ins will introduce less and those with no Duende plug-ins will
introduce no latency (providing other plug-ins that introduce latency are not
used).
To find out the latency introduced on a particular track by Duende plug-ins, go
to the channel in the mixer and ‘command+click’ twice in the green text below
the fader (normally showing vol). The value shown (dly) is the latency
introduced on that track in samples.
Now load the ‘Digidesign Time Adjuster Long’ plug-in on, for example, a track
with no Duende plug-ins. Double click on the delay box and type in the latency
value of the track that has the most Duende plug-ins. The track with the most
Duende plug-ins and the track with none will now be perfectly in sync on
playback.
Any tracks that have a smaller latency than the maximum must also be delayed
but by a smaller amount (i.e. tracks with 1 Duende plug-in where the maximum
has 3). The delay value for these will be maximum latency minus the latency
reported by that track.
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5.5 Automatic Delay Compensation in Pro Tools HD
Pro Tools HD users have the luxury of being able to use Automatic Delay
Compensation, as opposed to the manual method required in Pro Tools LE.
However, there are still some considerations to be taken into account to make
sure all your Duende plug-ins get compensated for and everything stays
perfectly in sync.
To turn on ADC in PTHD go to ‘Setup>Playback Engine’ whilst Pro Tools is
stopped and you will see a box labeled ‘Delay Compensation Engine’. Change
the setting here to ‘Long (4095 Samples per channel)’.
Pro Tools will then tell you that it will close and re-open your session after
clicking the OK button in the dialogue box; therefore make sure you have saved
your session prior to doing this. Also put the CPU usage limit to 85%.
Pro Tools will now automatically compensate for any introduced latency of
4095 samples or less.
This means that you can generally use up to 2 Duende plug-ins per channel
without considering latency issues, but this will depend on the buffer size set in
Pro Tools, the sample rate and which Duende plug-ins are loaded.
Note that if an audio track with 1 Duende plug-in is routed to an aux channel
with 2 Duende plug-ins the total latency for that audio getting to the mix bus
will equal 3 plug-ins; this will however be clearly shown by Pro Tools.
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To view the latency introduced by plug-ins go to the
bottom left hand corner of the Mix view, click on the
small
black/grey
box
and
select
‘Delay
Compensation’.
Here you will find 2 values; ‘dly’ is the amount of latency
introduced by the plug-ins on that channel and ‘cmp’ is
the number of samples Pro Tools is delaying the other
channels by. If the ‘dly’ value is less than the 4095 set in
the Delay Compensation box then you don’t need to
worry and everything will be compensated for.
As you can see in the picture above the ‘kc merged’
channel has 1 Duende channel strip loaded onto it,
therefore Pro Tools is automatically delaying the other
channels by that amount (1028 samples) to ensure all
audio is kept in sync.
If the total latency on a channel exceeds this maximum value the text will be
red indicating that Pro Tools cannot compensate for this much latency. In this
scenario the additional latency which Pro Tools cannot compensate for will
have to be dealt with manually.
The value of this will be the maximum latency minus maximum latency Pro
Tools can compensate for, ie 4095 samples. In this case it is:
4108 (shown in red) – 4095 (Pro Tools maximum) = 13 samples
Please refer to the ‘Compensating for latency in Pro Tools LE’ found in this
manual for information on how to do this manually.
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6. Duende EQ and Dynamics Channel Strip
6.1 Introduction
The Duende EQ and Dynamics Channel Strip plug-in is based on the EQ and
compressor sections of the XL9000K console. SSL were the first manufacturer to
feature dynamics and EQ on every channel on an in-line console with the
4000B in 1977. The plug-in includes separate high and low pass filters, a four
band parametric equalizer, an independent compressor/limiter and
gate/expander as well as an output gain adjustment knob. Let’s have a closer
look at each section in detail.
6.2 Filter Section
The Filter Section of the Duende Channel Strip plug-in includes a 12dB/Octave
low pass filter and an 18dB/Octave high pass filter. The low pass filter operates
from 3kHz to 22 kHz and the high pass filter operates from 20Hz to 500Hz. In
addition, each filter has an OUT position which bypasses the filter.
There are three positions where the Filter Section can be placed: after the
equalizer, before the equalizer or in the side chain of the dynamics section.
When no buttons in the Filter section are pressed, the filters come after the
Equalizer section. When the INPUT button is pressed, the filters come before
the Equalizer section. And when the DYN SC button is pressed, the filters are
switched into the side chain of the Dynamics section. The term side chain and
the process of side chaining will be discussed in greater detail in the overview of
the Dynamics section.
6.2.1 Using Filters
DYN SC: The Filters are switched into the side chain of the Dynamics section.
The Equaliser can be switched into the side chain independently. Note that
DYN SC overrides the INPUT function (see below).
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INPUT: Moves the Filters to put them in circuit immediately after the Channel
Input section. This allows the Filters to be used to clean up signals before
compressing them. Selecting Dynamics ‘PRE EQ’ will allow the compressed
signal to be EQ’d.
INPUT
²t
²t
Freq Hz
Freq kHz
HPF
LPF
acw
OUTPUT
acw
18dB/Oct
12dB/Oct
6.3 Equaliser Section
±dB
Freq kHz
±dB
G
INPUT
Freq kHz
Q
±dB
Freq kHz
Q
Freq kHz
BELL
BELL
LF
±dB
LMF
HMF
HF
OUTPUT
6.3.1 Operation
The equaliser included with the Duende EQ and Dynamics Channel Strip plugin is a four band parametric EQ. Based on the XL 9000K EQ circuit, this plug-in
includes two distinct EQ curves, one based on the SSL G series EQ and another
based on the latest version of SSL’s classic E series EQ.
The plug-in includes high and low frequency shelving equalizers (which can be
switched to peaking curves via the BELL button) and two overlapping equalizers
with adjustable Q.
The LF section operates over a frequency range of 40Hz - 600Hz and is capable
of up to 16.5dB of cut or boost. The HF section operates over a frequency range
of 1.5 kHz - 22 kHz and is capable of up to 20dB of cut or boost.
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Normally these shelving curves have a degree of overshoot/undershoot
(depending on whether you are boosting or cutting) below the selected HF
frequency or above the selected LF frequency. De-selecting the G button
removes the overshoot/undershoot effect and provides a slightly gentler slope.
Selecting BELL in either mode switches the equaliser to a peaking curve.
The LMF section operates over a frequency range of 200Hz - 2 kHz and is
capable of ±20dB of gain with a continuously variable Q from 0.5 to 2.5.
The HMF section operates over a frequency range of 600Hz - 7 kHz and is
capable of ±20dB of gain with a continuously variable Q from 0.5 to 2.5.
Normally, at any Q setting, the bandwidth of the HMF and LMF sections varies
with gain, whereby an increase in boost or cut increases the selectivity of the
EQ. This type of EQ can sound effective when used at moderate settings; the
gentle Q curve lends itself to the application of overall EQ on combined sources
and subtle corrective adjustments to instruments and vocals.
When the EQ is switched to ‘E’ operation, the bandwidth of the HMF and LMF
sections remains constant at all gains, so at lower gains the EQ curves are
comparatively narrower for a given Q setting. This is particularly useful for
drums, since relatively high Q is available at low gain settings. However, it is
not so suitable for overall EQ or subtle corrections, as you need to adjust the Q
to maintain the same effect when the gain is changed.
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Normal (G type) curves with the ‘E’ switch OUT, have a modified slope
with a degree of overshoot/undershoot for increased selectivity
‘E type’ curves with the ‘E’ switch IN follow conventional cut or boost
characteristics
The two parametric bands have selectable characteristics which affect
the relationship between frequency bandwidth and gain (see the lower
plot, opposite):
With the ‘E’ switch OUT, the frequency bandwidth reduces with
increased gain, thereby increasing the selectivity of the EQ as the gain is
increased.
With the ‘E’ switch IN, the frequency bandwidth is constant at all gains
At full boost or cut both are identical
There are three buttons associated with this section of the plug-in.
EQ IN : Switches the EQ section into circuit.
E : Switches the EQ from ‘G’ operation to ‘E’ operation - see below.
DYN SC : Switches the EQ section into the side chain of the Dynamics section.
The Filter section can be switched independently of the EQ section. If both Filter
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and EQ sections are assigned to the dynamic side chain the EQ section precedes
the Filter.
6.4 Dynamics Section
The Dynamics section comprises a compressor/limiter and an expander/gate.
Both sections work independently, but can be operational at the same time,
providing sophisticated control of signal levels. The Filter and/or the equaliser
section can be assigned to the dynamics side chain allowing for advanced
processes like de-essing etc.
Dynamics Section Diagram
The Dynamics section has a few routing buttons associated with it.
DYN IN – Switches the Dynamics section into the signal path post EQ.
PRE EQ – Switches the Dynamics section pre the EQ section (but post the Filter
section if the Filter INPUT switch is pressed).
6.4.1 Compressor/Limiter
Introduction
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The Duende Channel compressor/limiter section has a number of key features
including a variable compression ratio from 1:1 to Infinity:1, a variable
threshold from -20dB to +10dB, auto sensing attack time (or selectable 1ms
attack time), and a variable release from 0.1 to 4 seconds.
The Compressor/Limiter has
their names suggest these
incoming signals or on their
compression and limiting
compression characteristics.
two modes of signal detection, Peak and RMS. As
modes of detection either act on peaks of the
RMS levels. This gives two very different modes of
with Peak Mode giving far more dramatic
Detailed Parameter Description
RATIO – When turned to 1:1, the Compressor/Limiter section is inactive.
Turning the control clockwise increases the compression ratio to give a true
limiter at the fully clockwise position.
The compressor normally has an ‘over-easy’ characteristic. Selecting PK
changes this to peak sensing, and replaces the ’over–easy’ characteristic with a
hard knee, providing an alternative for some instruments.
THRESHOLD – Whenever a signal exceeds the level set by this control, the
compressor will start to act at the ratio set by the RATIO control. This control
also provides automatic make-up gain, so as you lower the threshold and
introduce more compression, the output level is increased, maintaining a steady
output level regardless of the amount of compression.
RELEASE – Sets the time constant (speed) with which the compressor returns to
normal gain settings once the signal has passed its maximum.
FAST ATT – Provides a fast attack time (3mS for 20dB gain reduction). When off
the attack time is program dependent (3mS – 30mS).
The yellow and red LEDs, on the bottom of the LED display area, indicate the
amount of gain reduction (compression).
6.4.2 Expander/Gate
The gate/expander section contains a number of useful features including a
variable range from 0 to 40dB, a variable threshold from -30dB to +10dB, a
fixed attack time (switchable to Fast Attack of 100 micro seconds), a variable
hold time from 0 to four seconds and a variable release time from 0.1 to 4
seconds.
The side chain signal is sourced from the signal feeding the dynamics section
and the filters and/or equaliser can be inserted in this side chain. The green
LEDs indicate the amount of gain reduction on the expander/gate.
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By default, the Gate/Expander section functions as an Infinity:1 gate. When the
EXP button is pressed, the section becomes a 2:1 expander.
Detailed Parameter Description
RANGE – Determines the depth of gating or expansion. When turned fully
anticlockwise (Range = 0), this section is inactive. When turned fully clockwise,
a range of 40dB can be obtained.
THRESHOLD – A Variable hysteresis is incorporated in the threshold circuitry.
For any given ‘open’ setting, the Expander/Gate will have a lower ‘close’
threshold. The hysteresis value is increased as the threshold is lowered. This is
very useful in music recording as it allows instruments to decay below the open
threshold before gating or expansion takes place.
RELEASE – This determines the time constant (speed), variable from 0.1- 4
seconds, at which the
Gate/Expander reduces the signal level once it has passed below the threshold.
Note that this control interacts with the Range control.
FAST ATT – Provides a fast attack time (100µs per 40db). When off, a controlled
linear attack time of 1.5ms per 40dB is selected. The attack time is the time
taken for the Expander/Gate to ‘recover’ once the signal level is above the
threshold. When gating signals with a steep rising edge, such as drums, a slow
attack may effectively mask the initial ‘THWACK’, so you should be aware of
this when selecting the appropriate attack time.
HOLD – Determines the time after the signal has decayed below the threshold
before the gate closes.
Variable from 0 to 4 seconds.
Note that when the Dynamics section is not in circuit, its side chain input is also
bypassed.
Output Section
The Output section consists of a ±20dB output gain control, and a 6-segment
LED meter.
S/C LISTEN
Pressing the Side chain listen switch routes the side chain directly to the output,
so you can monitor the side chain signal
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6.5 Advanced Signal Routing Options
DYN
S/C
EQ
DYN
S/C
EQ
IP
FILTERS
IN
EQ
IN
DYN
PRE
S/C
LISTEN
dB
Delay
²t
±dB
²t
Input
Output
Eq
Dynamics
Filters
S/C IN
²t
²t
LINK
SIDE CHAIN LINK
EXT
S/C
Key Input
6.5.1 Channel Processing Order
There are two switches that control the order of the signal processing elements.
These are Filters to INPUT and Dynamics PRE EQ. The table below shows the
effect of these:
Switch 1
Filters to
INPUT
Dynamics
PRE EQ
Filters to
INPUT
Switch 2
Processing
Order
Dynamics
PRE EQ
Equaliser
Filters
Dynamics
Filters
Equaliser
Dynamics
Dynamics
Equaliser
Filters
Filters
Dynamics
Equaliser
6.5.2 Side Chain Processing Order
The EQ and filter sections can be assigned to the dynamics side chain using the
DYN S/CH switches in the respective sections. The table below shows the
sidechain source and processing for the various combinations of these:
Switch 1
EQ to Dyn
S/C
Filters to DYN
S/C
EQ to Dyn
S/C
Switch 2
Filters to Dyn
S/C
SC Source
Dynamics
Input
Dynamics
Input
Dynamics
Input
Dynamics
Input
22
Side Chain Processing order
Equaliser
Filters
Equaliser
Filters
7. Duende Stereo Bus Compressor
Introduction
The Stereo Bus Compressor plug-in is a
stereo version of the legendary bus
compressor found on the XL 9000 K
series console. It provides high quality
stereo compression, giving you critical
control over the dynamic range of audio
signals.
Uses may include inserting the bus comp
over a stereo mix which has the effect of
'gluing' the mix together whilst still
maintaining a big sound. The dynamics
of drum overheads or whole drum kits
can be controlled very effectively with
the bus comp. As it is available as either
a stereo or mono plugin the bus comp
can be used for practically any
application
that
requires
superior
compression.
Detailed Parameter Description
Compression Meter
Shows Gain Reduction
Threshold
Continuously variable -20dB to +20dB
Attack
Six switchable ranges 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 , 10 and 30mSec.
Release
23
Five switchable ranges 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2sec and ‘Auto’ (Release time dependant
upon the duration of the signal peak).
Make-Up
Gain Make-Up to compensate for compressor action - continuously variable
from -5dB to +15dB
Compressor IN
Switches the Compressor IN/OUT of the signal path
24
8. Duende Support
Support FAQs
To access the latest support information on Duende, please visit our new online
support site. The information there is kept up to date by our support staff to
make sure all information is accurate. All information is available to you 24/7
URL: http://solid-state-logic-en.custhelp.com
If you can’t find your answer or a solution to your issue, you can submit a
question on the site to our support staff for resolution.
25
9. Warranty
Warranty Period
The warranty period for this unit is 12 months from date of purchase.
In Warranty Repairs
In the event of a fault during the warranty period the unit must be returned to
your local dealer or distributor who will arrange for it to be shipped to Solid
State Logic for repair. All units should be shipped to Solid State Logic in their
original packaging. Solid State Logic can not be held responsible for any
damage caused by shipping units in other packaging. In such cases Solid State
Logic will return the unit in a suitable box, which you will be charged for.
Please do not send manuals, power leads or any other cables - Solid State Logic
can not guarantee to return them to you. Please also note that warranty returns
will only be accepted as such if accompanied by a copy of the receipt or other
proof of purchase.
Out of Warranty Repairs
In the event of a fault after the warranty period has expired, return the unit in its
original packaging to your local distributor for shipment to Solid State Logic.
You will be charged for the time spent on the repair (at Solid State Logic's
current repair rate) plus the cost of parts and shipping.
26
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