Level 2 VRQ`s in Sound and Music Technology

Level 2 VRQ`s in Sound and Music Technology
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and
Music Technology (7603)
Qualification handbook
7603-21 - Awards
7603-22 - Certificates
7603-23 - Diplomas
www.cityandguilds.com
September 2012
Version 1.2
About City & Guilds
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across a wide range of industries, and progressing from entry level to the highest levels of
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Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
www.cityandguilds.com
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2
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and
Music Technology (7603)
Qualification handbook
Version 1.2
7603-21 - Awards
7603-22 - Certificates
7603-23 - Diplomas
Qualification title
Qual
Number
Accreditatio
n number
Level 2 Award in Sound Engineering and Music Technology
7603-21
501/0242/4
Level 2 Certificate in Sound and Music Technology ( Sound Engineering)
7603-22
500/9890/1
Level 2 Certificate in Sound and Music Technology (Sound and Composition)
7603-22
500/9890/1
Level 2 Certificate in Sound and Music Technology ( Technical Assistant)
7603-22
500/9890/1
Level 2 Diploma in Sound and Music Technology
7603-23
500/8806/3
Version and date
1.1 Feb 2012
Change detail
Removed End dates and replaced with a
reference to the City & Guilds Catalogue.
Sections
Introduction to the
qualification
1.2 Sep 2012
NOS references added to units and
appendix
7 Units
8 Appendix
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Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
4
Contents
1
Introduction to the qualification
7
2
About the qualification
8
3
Candidate entry and progression
12
4
Centre requirements
14
5
Course design and delivery
21
6
Assessment
23
7
Units
24
Unit 201
Employment opportunities, roles and responsibilities in music and sound
industries
25
Unit 202
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound industries
30
Unit 203
Mixing and recording consoles
37
Unit 204
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
42
Unit 205
Equalisation for music and sound industries
49
Unit 207
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
64
Unit 208
Sampling and synthesis technology for music and sound industries
70
Unit 209
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound industries
77
Unit 210
Development of studio recording equipment
84
Unit 211
Audio analysis for sound engineers
91
Unit 212
Session management for sound engineers
96
Unit 213
Music technology hardware and software
102
Unit 214
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
107
Unit 215
MIDI operations
112
Unit 216
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
117
Unit 217
Studio sound synchronisation (computer games)
122
Unit 218
Web-based sound and music technology
127
Unit 219
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
134
Unit 220
DJ technology and sound equipment
144
Unit 221
Soldering and wiring for music and sound industries (maintenance)
151
Unit 222
Audio electronics for music and sound industries (maintenance)
158
8
Appendix 1 NOS Mapping
167
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
5
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Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
6
1
Introduction to the qualification
This document contains the information that centres need to offer the following qualifications:
Qualification titles
City & Guilds
qualification
numbers
Ofqual
accreditation
numbers
Last
registration
date
Last
certification
date
7603-21
501/0242/4
Consult the Walled
Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
Level 2 Certificate in Sound
and Music Technology (
Sound Engineering)
7603-22
500/9890/1
Consult the Walled
Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
Level 2 Certificate in Sound
and Music Technology
(Sound and Composition)
7603-22
500/9890/1
Consult the Walled
Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
Level 2 Certificate in Sound
and Music Technology (
Technical Assistant)
7603-22
500/9890/1
Consult the Walled
Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
7603-23
500/8806/3
Consult the Walled
Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
AWARD,
Level 2 Award in Sound
Engineering and Music
Technology
CERTIFICATES
DIPLOMA
Level 2 Diploma in Sound and
Music Technology
This document includes details and guidance on:
• centre resource requirements
• candidate entry requirements
• information about links with, and progression to, other qualifications
• qualification standards and specifications
• assessment requirements.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
7
2
About the qualification
2.1 Aim of the qualifications
These qualifications will appeal to a wide range of learners who wish to develop their knowledge
and skills in Sound Engineering and Music Technology, suitable for learners who wish to enter into
or progress in employment or who wish to progress into education and training. These
qualifications are flexible and can be delivered either part-time or full-time.
Accreditation details
These qualifications are accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority at Level 2 of the
QCF.
The aims of these qualifications are to:
• meet the needs of learners who wish to develop their Sound and Music skills and techniques
• meet the needs of learners who work or want to work in the Sound and Music industry
• allow learners to learn, develop and practise the skills required for employment and/or career
progression in the Sound and Music industry
• to provide bite size chunks of learning, allowing learners to progress at their own pace
• be flexible in terms of delivery as they can be delivered either part-time or full-time
• to encourage progression by providing a framework for learners
• to meet the needs and objectives of those employed in the industry wishing to broaden their
knowledge and skills
• to support the skills required within the Sound and Music industry
• contribute to the knowledge and understanding towards the related Level 2 VRQ in Sound and
Music, whilst containing additional skills and knowledge which go beyond the scope of the NOS.
See the N/SVQ Relationship mapping in 6.1 for further details.
• to increase participation and retention in education and training and to help overcome social
exclusion
• to widen and increase participation in lifelong learning
• to combat fears of failure by ensuring that all achievement is recognised.
Specialist Learning (SL) offers young people the opportunity to study a particular topic in more
depth or broaden their studies through complementary learning. This qualification has been
approved as SL by the SSC/DDP and OfQual for the Certificate/Diploma in Creative and Media. It has
been designed to:
•
complement principal learning within the Foundation/Higher/Advanced Diploma in Creative
and Media.
•
provide a broad background understanding of the Creative and Media sector and an
introduction to the practical skills and knowledge required
•
provide an awareness of the range of jobs and work settings in the Creative and Media
sector
•
enable learners to make an informed assessment of their own aptitude for work in this
sector and to make informed decisions about careers
•
encourage learners to reach a level of knowledge and skills that will facilitate progress into
further vocational learning or to potential employment in the sector
•
introduce learners to the discipline of the working environment and to encourage mature
attitudes to the community in general
•
encourage learners to value continued learning and remain in the learning process
•
allow learners to learn, develop and practise selected skills required for progression in the
sector
•
provide opportunities for progression to the Foundation/Higher/Advanced Diploma in
Creative and Media. and other related qualifications in the sector.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
8
2
About the qualification
City &
Guilds
unit
number
Unit title
Credit
GLH
WBA no
201
Employment opportunities, roles and responsibilities in
music and sound industries
6
40
F6013019
202
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound industries
6
40
L6013024
203
Mixing and recording consoles
6
40
K6013029
204
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
6
40
K6013032
205
Equalisation for music and sound industries
7
40
J6013037
206
Dynamics and effects equipment for music and sound
industries
8
40
J6013040
207
Music instrument digital interface (MIDI)
4
40
Y6013043
208
Sampling and synthesis technology for music and sound
industries
6
40
M6013047
209
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound industries
8
40
T6013051
210
Development of studio recording equipment
6
40
Y6013057
211
Audio analysis for sound engineers
6
40
H6013059
212
Session management for sound engineers
8
40
D6013061
213
Music technology for hardware and software
4
40
M6013064
214
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
6
40
R6013073
215
MIDI operations
4
40
D6013075
216
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
4
40
H6013076
217
Studio sound synchronisation (computer games)
6
40
M6013078
218
Web-based sound and music technology
8
40
K6013080
219
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
6
40
T6013082
220
DJ technology and sound equipment
6
40
A6013083
221
Soldering and wiring for music and sound industries
(maintenance)
4
40
L6013086
222
Audio electronics for music and sound industries
(maintenance)
6
40
Y6013088
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
9
2
About the qualification
2.3 The structure of the qualifications
To obtain the full certificate for the Level 2 VRQ’s in Sound Engineering and Music Technology,
candidates must achieve one of the combinations outlined below:
Ofqual No:
Qualification title
AWARD
7603-21
Structure
Credit
GLH
Qual
number
Cert
Claim
unit
501/0242/4
Level 2 Award in Sound
Engineering and Music
Technology
2x mandatory units
from 201-222
(maximum of 12
credits)
8-12
80
7603-21
N/A
Ofqual No:
Qualification title
CERTIFICATES
7603-22
3x Pathway
structures
Credit
GLH
Qual
number/
Cert
Claim
unit
500/9890/1
Level 2 Certificate in Sound and
Music Technology ( Sound
Engineering)
5x mandatory units
202-206 (33 credits)
33
200
7603-22
901
500/9890/1
Level 2 Certificate in Sound and
Music Technology (Sound and
Composition)
6x mandatory units
208, 213-217 ( 30
credits)
30
240
7603-22
902
500/9890/1
Level 2 Certificate in Sound and
Music Technology ( Technical
Assistant)
6x mandatory units
202, 210,211,219,221
and 222 (34 credits)
34
240
7603-22
903
Ofqual No:
Qualification title
DIPLOMA
7603-23
Structure
Credit
GLH
Qual
number
Cert
Claim
unit
500/8806/3
Level 2 Diploma in Sound and
Music Technology
6x mandatory units
201-206 (39 credits)
plus five optional units
from 207-222
59
440
7603-23
N/A
Certificate Claim Unit Numbers
The pathways for the certificates have the same qualification number therefore to ensure you
receive the right certificate when you register your learners please use the certificate claim
numbers listed in the tables’ far right hand column.
You must enter the relevant Certificate Claim Unit Number as a P or X in Walled Garden in order to
claim the correct Certificate. For example, enter Cert Claim Unit 901 if you are entering your
learners for the Level 2 Certificate in Sound and Music Technology (Sound Engineering)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
10
2.4 Relevant sources of information
Support Materials
City & Guilds also provides the following publications and resources specifically for these
qualifications:
Description
How to access
Qualification Handbook
www.cityandguilds.com
Assessment pack for centres
www.cityandguilds.com
Sample work
www.cityandguilds.com
Learner Guides
www.cityandguilds.com
Contacting City & Guilds by e-mail
The following e-mail addresses give direct access to our Customer Relations team.
e-mail
Query types
[email protected]
All queries related to this suite of qualificaitons
[email protected]
all learner enquiries, including
• requesting a replacement certificate
• information about our qualification
• finding a centre.
[email protected]
all centre enquiries
[email protected]
all enquiries relating to the Walled Garden,
including
• setting up an account
• resetting passwords.
City & Guilds websites
Website
Address
Purpose and content
City & Guilds
main website
www.cityandguilds.com
This is the main website for finding out about the
City & Guilds group, accessing qualification
information and publications.
Walled Garden
www.walled-garden.com
The Walled Garden is a qualification
administration portal for approved centres,
enabling them to register candidates and claim
certification online.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
11
3
Candidate entry and progression
Candidate entry requirements
Candidates should not be entered for a qualification of the same type, content and level as that of a
qualification they already hold.
There are no formal entry requirements for candidates undertaking these qualifications. However,
centres must ensure that candidates have the potential and opportunity to successfully gain the
qualifications.
Age restrictions
There are no age limits attached to candidates undertaking the qualifications unless this is a legal
requirement of the process or the environment.
Other legal considerations
Data protection and confidentiality
Data protection and confidentiality must not be overlooked when planning the delivery of this
qualification.
Centres offering these qualifications may need to provide City & Guilds with personal data for staff
and candidates. Guidance on data protection and the obligations of City & Guilds and centres are
explained in Providing City & Guilds qualifications.
Protecting identity
It is extremely important to protect the identity of the service users encountered by candidates in
the work setting, eg customers and clients.
Confidential information must not be included in candidate portfolios or assessment records.
Confidential information should remain in its usual location, and a reference should be made to it in
the portfolio or assessment records.
Images of minors being used as evidence
If videos or photographs of minors (those under 18) are used as the medium to present evidence as
part of the qualifications, both centre and candidate have responsibilities for meeting child
protection legislation.
It is the responsibility of the centre to inform the candidate of the
• need to obtain permission from the minor’s parent/guardian prior to collecting the evidence
• reasons and restrictions for using photographs or video recordings as evidence
• period of time for which the photographs or video recordings may be kept
• obligation to keep photographs or video recordings secure from unauthorised access
• secure electronic storage requirements of photographs or video recordings
• associated child protection legislation.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
12
Progression
On completion of this qualification candidates may progress into employment or to the following
City & Guilds qualifications:
• Level 3 VRQ Qualifications in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603-03)
• Level 3 VRQ Qualifications in Media Techniques (7601).
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
13
4
Centre requirements
4.1 Obtaining centre and qualification approval
This section outlines the approval processes for Centres to offer these qualifications and any
resources that Centres will need in place to offer the qualifications including qualification-specific
requirements for Centre staff.
Centres not yet approved by City & Guilds
To offer these qualifications, centres will need to gain both centre and qualification approval.
Please refer to our website for further information.
Existing City & Guilds centres
To offer these qualifications, centres already approved to deliver City & Guilds qualifications will
need to gain qualification approval. Please refer to our website for further information.
Centres already offering City & Guilds qualifications in this subject area
Centres approved to offer Level 2 7503 qualifications may apply for approval for the equivalent
qualifications in Sound Engineering and Music Technology (7603) using the fast track approval
form, available from the City & Guilds website:
The 7603 Sound Engineering and Music Technology qualifications are the 7503 Sound Engineering
and Music Technology migrated onto the QCF (Qualifications and Credit Framework). If you
currently offer a L2 7503 Sound Engineering and Music Technology qualifications you can apply for
free fast-track approval for the equivalent in 7603 Level 2 Sound Engineering and Music
Technology.
Centres may apply to offer the new qualifications using the fast track form
• providing there have been no changes to the way the qualifications are delivered, and
• if they meet all of the approval criteria specified in the fast track form guidance notes.
Fast track approval is available for 12 months from the launch of the qualification. After this time,
the qualification is subject to the standard Qualification Approval Process. It is the centre’s
responsibility to check that fast track approval is still current at the time of application.
The standard form is called Form FTAP, and is available from the City & Guilds website:
www.cityandguilds.com or email [email protected]
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
14
4
Centre requirements
4.2 Resource requirements
Physical resources
Centres must have access to sufficient equipment in the centre or workplace to ensure candidates
have the opportunity to cover all of the practical activities. It is acceptable for centres to use
specially designated areas within a centre for some of the units. Centres must have a
software/hardware facility to be able to convert .wav audio files supplied by City & Guilds for
assignments 106, 209 and 211 and create playback audio CDs for candidates use.
Unit 201
Legislation, union and legal documentation, updated act amendments, industry
links, examples of industry staff employment contracts, examples of freelance/short
term contracts, producer/mix engineer contractual terms, (points/advances
breakdown) terms of payments, royalties, intellectual property (IP), media
publications, example CV for media industries, breakdown mapping of sound,
music,media, promotional, legal, live sound, agency, management, recording
publisihng and touring industries, employer sectors, industry links, website
information.
Unit 202
Access to a full range of professional analogue and digital leads, connectors and
adaptors included in unit 202 range specifications, ability to connect equipment and
match signals with un-normalled, semi-normalled, normalled patchbay(s) system(s),
recording chain signal path, monitoring and meterage in place. Would also suit
recommended installed kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 2
Unit 203
Access to digital,split or inline recording and mixing console to include gain
structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console block design
diagrams, routing and patching, bussing routing matrix, channel solo’s, pans, mutes,
EQ sections, sub, master and VCA group layouts, phase, metering, faders, monitor
section, aux’s, channel strip, signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects and
assigns, groups, busses, amps, monitors, 2 track stereo returns, layout of
digital,split or inline console types and usage, specification information and
literature on uses of live sound recording, PA, broadcast TV/AV/Radio consoles.
Would also suit recommended installed kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the
minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2 with suitable digital,split or inline
recording console.
Unit 204
Access to drum kit microphone array including bass drum mic, snare mic, toms,
overheads, hi-hat, lead guitar cab (mic’d up amplifier), bass guitar cab, keyboard
cab, vocal mic, and basic stereo pair on any acoustic source, dynamic, condenser
and ribbon microphones, good selection of professional transformer balanced,
electronic, active, passive DI Boxes/racks. Would also suit recommended installed kit
list 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2
with suitable microphone collection.
Unit 205
Access to Graphic equalisers, parametric equalisers, semi-parametric equalisers,
valve equalisers, digital (paragraphic) equalisers, shelving and notch filters, active
and passive equaliser circuits. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 2 and 3
(see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2 with suitable
microphone collection.
Unit 206
Access to professional dynamic processing including compressor, noise gate and
limiter hardware units and access to delay, reverb, chorus, flanging, phasing
hardware effects units. Software plug-ins of processing and effects units must be
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
15
available for practical comparisons and use. Would also suit recommended installed
kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2
with suitable dynamic and effect unit hardware, patchbay system and recording
mixing console with insert circuit, aux sends and returns routing system.
Unit 207
Access to GM, XG and GS MIDI equipment hardware and software, professional
DAW/MIDI software. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see
below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 208
Access to GM, XG and GS MIDI equipment and sampling hardware and software,
professional DAW/MIDI software, access to subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis,
FM synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, wavetable synthesis, granular synthesis,
wavetable synthesis, sample-and-synthesis, physical modelling. Would also suit
recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 209
Access to near-field, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo, passive, active, two way (biamping), three way (tri-amping) monitoring and amplification systems and
professional headphone units are required for aural assignments/outcomes and
ability and access to configure control room or listening environment monitoring
equipment is required. Access to recording studio environments to analyse design
fundamentals. Ability to play and monitor frequency ranges (20-20,000Hz) test tones
through professional monitoring systems, create and record charts of test tone level
readings, good selection of mono and stereo sound sources such as CD, CD-R, DAT,
DVD, DVD-R, MD, analogue tape, digital media, studio monitor test CDs, website
research for studio design layouts. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 2
and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2.
Unit 210
Handouts and detailed information outlining important stages of recording
equipment development from late 1800s to current and emerging technology, with
a particular focus on the rapid technical development period of the 1950s – present,
including the influence of key artists, musicians, producers and engineers, important
recording events, defining moments in recording equipment development, historical
online archives, IT resources. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and
3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 211
Access to broad selection of main music genres including rock, urban, classical,
acoustic, blues, indie/alternative, electro, electronica, dance, reggae, dub, jazz,
world music, instrumental, live recordings, access to any digital and analogue audio
material with various audio problems to be identified and located, such as drop
outs, clicks, glitches, distortion, peaks, in/out phase, noise, level differences,
missing instrumentation, audio spillage/bleeding, imprint, bad starts, bad ends, bad
fade-up, fade-down problems, sonic clarity, mono, stereo imaging. Access to nearfield, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo, monitoring and amplification systems and
professional headphone units. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2
and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1 with
professional studio monitoring (2 fields) in place, professional headphones, stereo,
mono, left right speaker cut/mute.
Unit 212
Access to IT equipment and office software, 24 track recorded audio information,
ability for studios/centres to be able to safely put in place equipment/cables/wiring
with known faults for candidates to identify and locate, maintenance log book and
fault reporting procedures, near-field, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo, monitoring
and amplification systems and professional headphone units, full multi-track project
recall status with stereo mastering and archiving in place. Would also suit
recommended installed kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 2.
Unit 213
Handouts and detailed information outlining important stages of music technology
hardware and software development from late 1800s to current and emerging
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
16
technology, with a particular focus on the rapid technical development period of the
1950s – present, including the influence of harpsichord, piano, organ, variations on
chime-bar style pianos, electrical instruments with pickups (eg Hammond & Rhodes),
early electronic (eg Theremin and Martinot), hammond organ, home organs, home
keyboards, pro and semi -pro synths, equipment development, historical online
archives, IT resources. Specification information and literature on uses of common
manufacturers of pro, semi-pro and home use equipment. Candidates are required
to understand the limitation and status of Pro and semi- pro equipment. Would also
suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 214
Access to variety of MIDI sound modules, synthesis equipment and sampling
hardware and software, professional DAW/MIDI software, IT resources including
office software and music theory handouts. Would also suit recommended installed
kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit
list 1.
Unit 215
Access to variety of MIDI sound modules, synthesis equipment and sampling
hardware and software, professional DAW/MIDI software, IT resources including
office software. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see
below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 216
Access to video, DVD, film clips, a variety of MIDI sound modules, synthesis
equipment and sampling hardware and software, professional DAW/MIDI software,
IT resources including office software. Would also suit recommended installed kit list
1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 217
Access to video, DVD, gaming/animated scene clips, a variety of MIDI sound
modules, synthesis equipment and sampling hardware and software, professional
DAW/MIDI software, IT resources including office software. Would also suit
recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 218
Access to interactive web site media, a variety of MIDI sound modules, synthesis
equipment and sampling hardware and software, professional DAW/MIDI software,
IT resources including web design and office software, online research, audio file
encoding/decoding conversion and playback software. Digital Rights Management
(DRM) information, online music distributers (OMD’s), access to OMD contract types,
various storage and playback devices. Would also suit recommended installed kit list
1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 219
Access to handouts and detailed information regarding the structure and biological
make-up of the human ear, health and safety data, candidates must be informed on
hazardous sound levels and intensity and refer to SPL charts, the nature of sound
and soundwaves, open and closed end air column instruments, string, brass,
woodwind and percussion familiy of instruments, ability and access to make basic
acoustic room measurements, research sound reinforcement system designs,
speaker systems, live sound PA systems IT resources including design and office
software, online research. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 2 and 3
(see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2.
Unit 220
Access to DJ equipment and PA live sound system, DJ skills mentoring and
workshops. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below),
however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 221
Soldering tools and equipment, handouts and safety awareness, isolated
working/maintenance area, full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit , electrical
pro-audio toolkit including full range of test equipment. Would also suit
recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit 222
Handouts and detailed information regarding sources of energy and power, voltage,
current, resistance and impedance, conductors and insulators, electronic
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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components and the construction of electronic equipment and different types of
electrical measurements, 13 amp wiring, plugs, fuses, sockets, soldering tools and
equipment, handouts and safety awareness, isolated safe working maintenance
area, full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit , electrical pro-audio toolkit
including full range of test equipment, ability to make different types of electrical
measurements, IT resources including design and office software, online research,
access to electrical circuit symbol library. Would also suit recommended installed kit
list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1,
various electrical components and contructional items.
Kit List Level 1
IT basic editing and recording workstations
Per student per class to include: PC/MAC keyboard/mouse, 17”+ screens, 350mb-1Gb of RAM, proaudio software licences for: Logic, Pro-tools and Cu-Base (loop based software is not approved for
linear based audio editing), speakers, amplification, 8 channel mixing console, 8 track recording
device, headphones, dynamic microphones, AD-DA breakout box, MIDI sound modules/software,
synthesis, samplers, instruments, cables, amplification and the means to record single pass or solo
parts, DI boxes mastering and archiving (safety copy back-up equipment), APRS/SPARS tape label
system in place. DJ equipment, full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, maintenance
electrical/audio toolkit including test equipment, soldering tools and equipment, oscilloscope, test
tones. I.T online access with basic office software for candidates.
Kit List Level 2
Per student per class to include: K1 list plus addition of studio recording area including minimum 24
channel recording and mixing console, 24 track hardware recording machine with remote, selection
of transformer balanced, electronic, active, passive DI boxes, SMPTE/MIDI synchronisation
equipment, 6 –10 MIDI sound modules/units, several virtual software plug-in, synthesis, samplers,
un-normalled, semi-normalled, normalled patch-bay system, processing equipment, effects/FX
units, good selection of professional dynamic, condenser and ribbon microphone types,
oscilloscope, professional monitoring speaker and amplification equipment, professional mastering
equipment, APRS/SPARS tape label system in place. Ownership or access to a public address (PA)
sound/DJ system, full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, maintenance electrical/audio toolkit
including test equipment, soldering tools and equipment, oscilloscope, test tones.
Kit List Level 3
Per student per class to include: K1 & K2 list plus addition of centre area/equipment ideally to be
incorporated into fully floated and AC fitted recording environment to include acoustically designed
live performance area, vocal booth, additional live area/separation booths, isolated from control
room, 24-96 channel pro recording/mixing console (see unit range lists), 24-48 track software and
hardware recording machines plus remotes and full break-out AD-DA hardware, full range of
professional monitoring speaker and amplification system, equipment broad selection of
professional transformer balanced, electronic, active, passive DI boxes/racks, fold-back systems,
professional processing equipment (see unit range lists), broad range of industry virtual software
plug-ins, synthesisers and good range of synthesis types, samplers, professional effects/FX units
(see unit range lists),broad selection of professional dynamic, condenser and ribbon microphones
(see unit range lists), 6-10 professional studio headphones, AV software and synchronisation
equipment to AV edit within logic pro, pro-tools and Cu-Base, DVI screen, AV EDL off-line pre & post
editing. Ownership or access to a public address (PA) sound system and DJ system, professional
range of digital and analogue mastering stereo equipment, APRS/SPARS tape label system in place.
Full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, full maintenance electrical/audio toolkit including test
equipment, soldering tools and equipment, oscilloscope, test tones. Ability for candidates to
control, record, mix and master solo artist, band or orchestral and ensemble pieces professionally
within recording environment is an ideal equipped facility standard.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Human resources
Staff delivering these qualifications must be able to demonstrate that they meet the following
occupational expertise requirements. They should:
•
•
•
•
be technically competent in the areas for which they are delivering training and/or have
experience of providing training. This knowledge must be at least to the same level as the
training being delivered
have verifiable and relevant current industry experience and competence of their occupational
working area at or above the level being assessed.
have recent relevant experience in the specific area they will be assessing
have credible experience of providing training.
Centre staff may undertake more than one role, eg tutor and assessor or internal verifier, but must
never internally verify their own assessments.
Assessors and internal verifiers
Assessors’ and Quality Assurance Co-ordinators’ experience and competence could be evidenced
by:
• curriculum vitae and references
• possession of a relevant NVQ/SVQ
• corporate membership of a relevant professional institution
• continuing professional development (CPD).
While the Assessor/Verifier (A/V) units are valued as qualifications for centre staff, they are not
currently a requirement for the qualifications.
Continuing professional development (CPD)
Centres are expected to support their staff in ensuring that their knowledge remains current of the
occupational area and of best practice in delivery, mentoring, training, assessment and verification,
and that it takes account of any national or legislative developments.
External quality assurance
External quality assurance for the qualifications will be provided by City & Guilds external
verification process.
External Verifiers are appointed by City & Guilds to approve centres, and to monitor the assessment
and internal quality assurance carried out by centres. External verification is carried out to ensure
that assessment is valid and reliable, and that there is good assessment practice in centres.
To carry out their quality assurance role, External Verifiers must have appropriate occupational and
verifying knowledge and expertise. City & Guilds External Verifiers attend training and development
designed to keep them up-to-date, facilitate standardisation between verifiers and share good
practice.
External Verifiers:
The role of the External Verifier is to:
• provide advice and support to centre staff
• ensure the quality and consistency of assessments within and between centres by the use of
systematic sampling
• regularly visit centres to ensure they continue to meet the centre and qualification approval
criteria
• provide feedback to centres and to City & Guilds.
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4
Centre requirements
4.3 Quality assurance
Internal quality assurance
Approved centres must have effective quality assurance systems to ensure optimum delivery and
assessment of qualifications.
Quality assurance includes initial centre approval, qualification approval and the centre’s own
internal procedures for monitoring quality. Centres are responsible for internal quality assurance,
and City & Guilds is responsible for external quality assurance.
National standards and rigorous quality assurance are maintained by the use of:
• City & Guilds online examinations
• City & Guilds assignments, marked by the centre according to externally set marking criteria
• internal (centre) quality assurance
• City & Guilds external verification.
Full details and guidance on the internal and external quality assurance requirements and
procedures, are provided on the website.
In order to fully support candidates, centres are required to retain copies of candidates’ assessment
records for three years after certification.
External quality assurance
External verifiers are appointed by City & Guilds to approve centres, and to monitor the assessment
and internal quality assurance carried out by centres. External verification is carried out to ensure
that assessment is valid and reliable, and that there is good assessment practice in centres.
To carry out their quality assurance role, external verifiers/moderators must have appropriate
occupational and verifying knowledge and expertise. City & Guilds external verifiers attend training
and development designed to keep them up-to-date, to facilitate standardisation between verifiers
and to share good practice.
External verifiers:
The role of the external verifier is to:
• provide advice and support to centre staff
• ensure the quality and consistency of assessments within and between centres by the use of
systematic sampling
• regularly visit centres to ensure they continue to meet the centre and qualification approval
criteria
• provide feedback to centres and to City & Guilds.
External quality assurance for the qualification will be provided by the usual City & Guilds external
verification process. This includes the use of an electronically scannable report form which is
designed to provide an objective risk analysis of individual centre assessment and verification
practice.
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5
Course design and delivery
Recommended delivery strategies
Centre staff should familiarise themselves with the structure, content and assessment requirements
of the qualification before designing a course programme.
In particular, staff should consider the skills and knowledge related to the national occupational
standards.
Provided that the requirements for the qualification are met, centres may design course
programmes of study in any way that they feel best meets the needs and capabilities of their
candidates. Centres may wish to include topics as part of the course programme, which will not be
assessed through the qualification.
Relationship to other qualifications and the wider curriculum
City & Guilds recommends centres address the wider curriculum, where appropriate, when
designing and delivering the course. Centres should also consider links to the National Occupational
Standards, Key/Functional Skills and other related qualifications.
Health and safety
The requirement to follow safe working practices is an integral part of all City & Guilds qualifications
and assessments, and it is the responsibility of centres to ensure that all relevant health and safety
requirements are in place before candidates start practical assessments.
Should a candidate fail to follow health and safety practices and procedures during an assessment,
the assessment must be stopped. The candidate should be informed that they have not reached the
standard required to successfully pass the assessment and told the reason why. Candidates may
retake the assessment at a later date, at the discretion of the centre. In case of any doubt, guidance
should be sought from the external verifier.
Data protection and confidentiality
Centres offering this qualification may need to provide City & Guilds with personal data for staff and
candidates. Guidance on data protection and the obligations of City & Guilds and centres are
explained in Providing City & Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre and qualification (scheme)
approval.
Images of minors being used as evidence
It is the responsibility of the approved centre to inform the candidate of the:
• need for the candidate to obtain permission from the minor’s parent/guardian prior to collecting
the evidence
• purpose of the use of photographs or video recordings
• period of time for which the photographs or video recordings are to be kept
• obligation to keep photographs or video recordings secure from unauthorised access
• storage of the photographs or video recordings which are kept electronically, and the
associated security of using electronic systems
• associated child protection legislation.
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Initial assessment and induction
Centres will need to make an initial assessment of each candidate prior to the start of their
programme to ensure they are entered for an appropriate type and level of qualification.
The initial assessment should identify any specific training needs the candidate has, and the support
and guidance they may require when working towards their qualification.
City & Guilds recommends that centres provide an induction programme to ensure the candidate
fully understands the requirements of the qualification they will work towards, their responsibilities
as a candidate, and the responsibilities of the centre. It may be helpful to record the information on
a learning contract.
Equal opportunities
It is a requirement of centre approval that centres have an equal opportunities policy (see Providing
City & Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre and qualification (scheme) approval ).
The regulatory authorities require City & Guilds to monitor centres to ensure that equal opportunity
policies are being followed.
The City & Guilds equal opportunities policy is set out on the City & Guilds website, in Providing City
& Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre and qualification (scheme) approval, in the Directory of
qualifications, and is also available from the City & Guilds Customer Relations department.
Access to assessment
City & Guilds’ guidance and regulations on access to assessment are designed to facilitate access
for assessments and qualifications for candidates who are eligible for adjustments to assessment
arrangements. Access arrangements are designed to allow attainment to be demonstrated. For
further information, please see Access to assessment and qualifications, available on the City &
Guilds website.
Appeals
Centres must have their own, auditable, appeals procedure that must be explained to candidates
during their induction. Appeals must be fully documented by the quality assurance co-ordinator and
made available to the external verifier or City & Guilds.
Further information on appeals is given in Providing City & Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre
and qualification (scheme) approval. There is also information on appeals for centres and learners
on the City & Guilds website or available from the Customer Relations department.
JAMES Industry Accreditation
The industry organisation JAMES represents education matters for the Association of Professional
Recording Services (APRS), the Music Producer’s Guild and the UKScreen Association. These are the
recognised industry organisations representing the recording, music production, music technology
and audio post-production for film industries.
At JAMES we have been extremely pleased to work with City & Guilds on the development and
update of these new qualifications and will continue to be involved with their effective evolution.
Our professional contributions have helped to ensure that the qualifications will be relevant to our
industry for years to come.
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6
Assessment
For these qualifications, candidates will be required to complete the following assessments:
• one assignment for each unit
Time constraints
The following time constraint must be applied to the assessment of this qualification:
• It is anticipated that an assignment should take no longer than fifteen hours, in total, to
complete. Centre staff should guide candidates to ensure excessive evidence gathering is
avoided. Centres finding that assignments are taking longer, should contact the external verifier
for guidance.
Grading and marking
Assessments will be graded pass, credit or distinction. Detailed marking and grading criteria are
provided in the Marking Criteria section of each assignment in the assessment pack.
Accreditation of prior learning and experience (APEL)
Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) and Accreditation of Prior Experience and Learning (APEL) are
approaches used to recognise the contribution a person’s previous experience might contribute to
a qualification.
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7
Units
Availability of units
The units for this qualification follow.
They may also be obtained from the centre resources section of the City & Guilds website.
Structure of units
The units in this qualification are written in a standard format and comprise the following:
• level
• credit
• title
• unit reference number
• rationale
• statement of guided learning hours
• connections with other qualifications, eg NVQs
• assessment details
• learning outcomes in detail expressed as practical skills and/ or underpinning knowledge
• range
• notes for guidance.
City & Guilds
unit numbers
Unit title
201
202
Employment opportunities, roles and responsibilities in music and sound
industries
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound industries
203
Mixing and recording consoles
204
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
205
Equalisation for music and sound industries
206
Dynamics and effects equipment for music and sound industries
207
Music instrument digital interface (MIDI)
208
Sampling and synthesis technology for music and sound industries
209
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound industries
210
Development of studio recording equipment
211
Audio analysis for sound engineers
212
Session management for sound engineers
213
Music technology for hardware and software
214
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
215
MIDI operations
216
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
217
Studio sound synchronisation (computer games)
218
Web-based sound and music technology
219
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
220
DJ technology and sound equipment
221
Soldering and wiring for music and sound industries (maintenance)
222
Audio electronics for music and sound industries (maintenance)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 201
Level:
Employment opportunities, roles and
responsibilities in music and sound industries
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit develops candidates’ knowledge of creative employment roles within the creative music
industries. The unit introduces candidates to a variety of creative roles such as producer, sound
engineer, re-mixer and musician/writer so that candidates understand the full roles and
responsibilities of each role and the skills required to work within the competitive music industry.
Candidates need to understand how these roles differ, to consider the boundaries and overlaps
between the roles and how the employee may need to draw upon or adopt expertise from other
areas.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Outline creative roles in the creative music sectors
• Explain the creative roles
• Outline creative occupations and related job opportunities in the creative music sectors
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT4 Research relevant occupational roles and employment in music and sound
recording sectors
• CCSMT5 Evaluate personal skills to work with others in the music and sound industries
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 201
Outcome 1
Employment opportunities, roles and
responsibilities in music and sound industries
Outline creative roles in the creative music sectors
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research common creative roles within the creative music sectors
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List the creative music sectors
2
List the common creative roles in the creative music sectors
Range
Common creative roles
Record producers, recording engineers, mix engineers, re-mixers, studio programmers, writers,
A&R, artist and development roles, technical research and development (R&D), graphic artist, web
designers, advertising and promotional roles
Creative music sectors
Record labels, publishing companies, management companies, production companies, recording
studios, equipment hire companies, sound equipment manufacturing companies, public relations
companies, artwork and design agencies and departments, booking agencies and venues
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 201
Outcome 2
Employment opportunities, roles and
responsibilities in music and sound industries
Explain the creative roles
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research the duties of the common creative roles
2
Research the options for combining creative roles
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Outline the duties of the common creative roles
2
Outline the typical combinations for creative roles
3
Identify skills required to work successfully in creative roles
Range
Duties
Project duties, tasks, decisions, creative responsibilities
Combinations for creative roles
Producer/writer, producer/recording engineer, producer/re-mixer, DJ/remixer, artist/producer,
artist/writer, writer/programmer, writer/producer, arranger/producer, A&R/producer
Skills
Interpersonal: social interaction, timekeeping, respect for others, delegation, work alone,
teamwork, investment of artistic talent
Technical: recording skills, engineering skills, general technical /IT skills, musicianship, terminology,
musical awareness, arrangement skills, awareness of artistic talent, IP management
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 201
Outcome 3
Employment opportunities, roles and
responsibilities in music and sound industries
Outline creative occupations and related job
opportunities in the creative music sectors
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research employment opportunities in the creative music sectors
2
Access sources of information on all occupational backgrounds
3
Present a ‘pitch’ for creative work positions
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify types of companies that employ staff in creative music sectors
2
Identify where jobs are advertised
3
List the general skills required to apply or ‘pitch’ for creative work positions
Range
Creative jobs and occupations
Record producers, engineer/producers recording engineers, mix engineers, re-mixers,
programmers, writers, A&R, artist and development roles arrangers
Types of companies
Recording and publishing companies, artist management, multi-media, production companies,
producer/management companies, DJ management
Where jobs are advertised
Publications (eg Music Week, Broadcast), internet, internal, agencies, networking
General skills required
Networking, CV generation, showreel/demo, presentations, appreciation of technical skills for job
role, communication, dress codes, identification of skills still requiring further training
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 201
Employment opportunities, roles and
responsibilities in music and sound industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The unit will focus on and clarify common specific creative roles in the music industry sectors.
Candidates will be asked to research a particular creative role and provide evidence of such
research. They will be encouraged to analyse the skills required within a specific industry sector and
particular job roles associated with these skills.
Candidates will be encouraged to evaluate their own interests and analyse their current skills prior
to any creative pathway options. They will be given resources for applying for specific part-time or
full-time employment posts inside the creative industry sectors from an informed perspective.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Level:
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit develops candidates’ knowledge of basic connector identification and lead types, and
awareness of studio wiring and routing conventions. Candidates will learn the importance of
interconnection protocols in order to maintain a clean analogue signal path. They will need to
understand the importance of connecting equipment correctly to maintain good quality signal flow
along the analogue or digital audio chain. Candidates will identify and rectify faults in audio setups.
Learning outcomes
There are five outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Examine types of connectors
• Explain the requirements for equipment interconnection
• Explain common uses of patchbay systems
• Carry out basic signal flow logical fault finding exercises
• Explain the advantages of using a balanced audio interconnection
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT6 Identify, test and use basic professional audio equipment connections and
interfaces
• CCSMT15 Set up and dismantle professional MIDI equipment and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
• CCSMT20 Carry out advanced studio routing and wiring for music and audio industries –
patchbays & tie lines
• CCSMT30 Carry out basic repairs and maintenance of sound equipment
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Outcome 1
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
Examine types of connectors
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify different types of connectors
2
Assess characteristics of connectors
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify different types of connectors
2
Explain requirements for separate conductors for each signal path
3
Explain the electrical characteristics for mono, stereo, balanced and un balanced
analogue and digital connectors
4
Describe the requirements for strength and durability of connectors
Range
Types of connectors
XLR in line socket, XLR in line plug, ¼” mono jack plug, ¼” stereo jack, ¼” in line stereo jack socket,
RCA/phono plug, 5 pin DIN plug, BNC word clock
Requirements
Identification of separate areas of electrically conducting metalwork from back to front of
connector, proximity of connectors to each other, insulation between conductors within design of
connector, keep bare wires separate within body of connector
Electrical Characteristics
Different conductors and signal paths required for each signal, common use of shared earth pin
within many connectors, insulation between different conductors in close proximity, use of
insulating tape or shrink-wrap inside connector to increase security of insulation
Strength and Durability
Methods of strain relief inside common connectors including metal grabs, plastic and metal clamps
and other types, strain relief for the cable leaving the connector (eg rubber grommets and metal
coils around the lead), overall build quality, size and strength, differing requirements depending
upon frequency of use, differing versions for semi-pro/pro markets
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Outcome 2
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
Explain the requirements for equipment
interconnection
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Observe types of interconnection
2
Follow correct wiring procedures between pieces of equipment
3
Route analogue signals between pieces of equipment
4
Route digital signals between pieces of equipment
5
Observe and analyse the setup of common audio wiring configurations
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to
1
Explain common connections in the audio setups of equipment
2
Describe types of adaptors
Range
Setup
Wiring configurations, linking signal chain to actual end use or procedures
Common connections
Signal chain between pieces of equipment, types of interconnecting lead between pieces of
equipment, choice of single leads or looms
Adaptors
Conversion between balanced ¼” jack and XLR, unbalanced ¼” jack and phono, male to female
converters, ¼” TRS Jack to two unbalanced send/return ¼” jacks (Insert Lead), in line one piece
convertors (eg jack to phono converter), mini-jack to 1/4” jack stereo headphone converter,
unbalanced jack to XLR lead (eg microphone to unbalanced jack input), one piece adaptors, lead
based adaptors
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Outcome 3
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
Explain common uses of patchbay systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to
1
Use patchbay systems to route signals between pieces of equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to
1
Explain the advantages and disadvantages for using patchbay wiring to rationalise the
studio environment
2
State types of patchbay connectors and leads
3
State the uses of patchbay configurations
Range
Patchbay wiring
Advantages: brings all audio equipment wiring to one location in the studio, patching is all done
using the same type of connector (patch lead), increases the flexibility of inter-equipment routing in
the studio, allows the set-up of a studio specific ‘normal’ or standard wiring configuration at the
patchbay
Disadvantages: increases number of potential weak points in signal chain, requires more
maintenance than fixed wiring, may increase susceptibility to signal degradation or interference due
to long cable runs, can be difficult to patch phantom power over patchbay
Types
Unbalanced ¼” Type A Jack, Balanced ¼” Type A Jack, Balanced Type B Jack (Post Office), Bantam
Jack, XLR, MIDI
Uses
Normalling equipment to ‘most-used’ configuration, extending inputs/outputs to a manageable
location, insert points, auxiliary sends & returns, desk L&R out to mastering recorder, multitrack
recording machine routing including group outputs
Patchbay configurations
Un-normalled, semi-normalled, normalled
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Outcome 4
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
Carry out basic signal flow logical fault finding
exercises
Practical skills
The candidate must be able to:
1
Carry out continuity tests between electrical conductors
2
Measure signal presence at key points
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate must be able to
1
Explain the correct procedures for testing the continuity of a signal between two points
2
Explain the methods used to verify a signal has arrived at its destination within the audio
signal chain
Range
Procedures
Using a multimeter, testing using either audio continuity buzzer or using analogue/digital ohmmeter
to check resistance, setting suitable range on a multimeter, adjusting ohmmeter to zero setting
where appropriate, identifying points to check between, checking for continuity while placing
lead/connector under stress
Methods
Verification by visual means (metering), verification by audio means (signal present at speaker)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Outcome 5
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
Explain the advantages of using a balanced audio
interconnection
Practical Skills
The candidate must be able to:
1
Use balanced audio connections
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate must be able to:
1
Explain the process that a transmission of balanced audio signals follow
2
Identify points in the audio chain at which a signal may be balanced or unbalanced
Range
Process
Signal starts unbalanced, signal is balanced using either transformer or electrical circuit, unbalanced
signal is a inverted copy of the original signal, both copies of the audio signal are sent down the
same cable, earth path is shared by both inverted and normal signal – XLR = Earth Live Return,
cancellation of interference takes place as inverted signal is re-reversed and combined (added) with
the normal signal
Points in the audio chain
Analogue devices generate unbalanced signal, signal balanced at microphone output, DI box
output, mixer output, etc, signal re-inverted to unbalanced at point of use (eg mixer input or other
input circuitry)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 202
Studio routing and wiring for music and sound
industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Contemporary studio engineers or music technology practitioners require a good working
knowledge of various different types of interconnection protocols in order to maintain a clean
analogue signal path. They also need to know about different digital audio routing issues in order to
allow pieces of digital equipment to talk to each other whilst maintaining a good quality digital
signal.
In this unit candidates will extend their knowledge of wiring and routing by implementing
connections between various types of analogue and digital equipment. By the end of the unit they
will be expected to be able to troubleshoot audio setups and to have a good knowledge of the
requirements needed to connect together a wide variety of audio equipment.
At this level candidates are expected to be able to identify names of connectors, to be aware of
common connections between types of equipment and to be able to put this knowledge into
practice and to identify faults. They should also be aware of some of the technical background to
various types of signals and routing as this will improve their ability to carry out good quality signal
flow along the analogue or digital audio chain. Patchbay wiring will be investigated as part of this
module.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 203
Level:
Mixing and recording consoles
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit introduces candidates to features and the operation of mixing and recording consoles.
Recording engineers are required to work with different types of recording setup and to be familiar
with a range of studio layouts and mixing and recording consoles.
This unit will focus on an overview of the signal chain of professional mixing and recording consoles.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Route and exit signals through mixing and recording consoles
• Examine specific features of common mixing consoles used in the recording industry
• Identify the sector requirements for different types of recording and mixing consoles
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT16 Operate analogue and digital equalisation for music and audio industries
• CCSMT19 Operate analogue and digital mixing and recording consoles
• CCSMT20 Carry out advanced studio routing and wiring for music and audio industries –
patchbays & tie lines
• CCSMT42 Use audio mix automation and control surfaces
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 203
Outcome 1
Mixing and recording consoles
Route and exit signals through mixing and
recording consoles
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce charts representing elements of signal flow
2
Route and exit signals through professional mixing and recording consoles
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Explain how signals can enter, route through and exit mixing and recording consoles
2
Identify common signal routing stages of mixing and recording consoles
3
Describe the relationship between the stereo master section and a single channel
Range
Elements of signal flow
Phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console block diagrams, routing and patching,
bussing matrix, console solo’s, EQ sections, sub, master and VCA group layouts, phase, metering,
fader, monitor section, channel strip
Route and exit signals
Patch or connect any audio mono source to a channel of a professional mixing console, a mono
signal tone via an oscillator at 1 kHz, or 2kHz, signal to noise (S/N), dynamic range, electrical signal
routing, gain structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console routing and patching,
bussing matrix, console solo’s, EQ sections, sub, master and VCA groups, phase, metering, fader,
monitor section, channel strip
Mixing and recording console
SSL, AMS NEVE, API, AMEK, Trident, Soundtracs, MTA, Euphonics, Studer, DDA, Audient, TLA, Allen
& Heath, Harrison, Calrec, Soundcraft, Oram, Neotek, Yamaha, Tascam, Behringer, Panasonic, Sony
Professional, Mackie, Logic
Signal routing stages
Line and mic level connections, signal routing, cuts, mutes, selects and assigns, groups, busses, preamps, DI boxes
Relationship
Series of linked mono channels panned across the master stereo buss
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 203
Outcome 2
Mixing and recording consoles
Examine specific features of common mixing
consoles used in the recording industry
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Examine console layouts on professional industry recording and mixing consoles
2
Operate mixing and recoding console
3
Locate features of split, in-line and digital console layouts
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List types of professional mixing and recording consoles
2
Describe features of different professional recording consoles
Range
Console layouts
Split design layout, in–line design layout, hybrid digital designs and layouts
Professional mixing and recording consoles
SSL, AMS NEVE, API, AMEK, Trident, Soundtracs, MTA, Euphonics, Studer, DDA, Audient, TLA, Allen
& Heath, Harrison, Oram, Neotek, Yamaha, Tascam, Behringer, Panasonic, Sony Professional,
Mackie, Logic
Features of different professional recording consoles
Gain structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console routing and patching, bussing
matrix, pans, solo’s, mutes, EQ sections, sub, master and VCA groups, phase, metering, fader,
monitor section, auxilliaries, channel strip, signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects and
assigns, groups, busses, amps, monitors, 2 track stereo returns
Features of split, in-line and digital console layouts
Split: gain structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console routing and patching,
bussing matrix, pans, solo’s, mutes, EQ sections, sub, master and VCA groups, phase, metering,
fader, monitor section, auxilliaries, channel strip, signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects
and assigns, groups, busses, monitors, 2 track stereo returns
In-line: gain structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console routing and patching,
bussing matrix, pans, solo’s, mutes, EQ sections, sub, master and VCA groups, phase, metering,
fader, monitor section, auxilliaries, channel strip, signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects
and assigns, groups, busses, amps, monitors, 2 track stereo returns
Digital: gain structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console routing and patching,
bussing matrix, pans, solo’s, mutes, EQ sections, sub, master and VCA groups, phase, metering,
fader, monitor section, auxilliaries, channel strip, signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects
and assigns, groups, busses, amps, monitors, 2 track stereo returns
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 203
Outcome 3
Mixing and recording consoles
Identify the sector requirements for different types
of recording and mixing consoles
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to
1
Research requirements for recording and mixing console types in related music
industry sectors
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to
1
State the types of console different music and sound sectors require
2
List the main sector manufacturers of equipment for recording and mixing
studios/programming
3
List the main sector manufacturers of equipment for broadcast/TV/AV/radio
4
List the main sector manufacturers of equipment for live mobile recording,
theatre/performance and live sound/PA venues
Range
Recording and mixing console types
Analogue recording and mixing consoles, digital recording and mixing consoles,
broadcast/transmission consoles, live sound/PA consoles, mobile and custom recording and mixing
consoles, mastering/monitoring consoles, radio broadcast consoles
Related music industry sectors
Recording studios, production companies, publishing and record company studios, venues, sound
to picture facilities, pre and post production companies, project/programming studios, gaming
sound suites, 5.1/surround mix suites, mastering studios, radio broadcasting studios,
TV/AV/satellite/cable broadcast studios, PA, OB recording, live recording/mobile studios
Main sector manufacturers
Recording and mixing studios/programming: SSL, AMS NEVE, API, AMEK, Trident, Soundtracs,
MTA, Euphonics, Studer, DDA, Audient, TLA, Allen & Heath, Harrison, Oram, Neotek, Yamaha,
Tascam, Behringer, Panasonic, Sony Professional, Mackie, Logic
Broadcast/TV/AV/OB/radio: API, Euphonics, Studer, Harrison, Sony Professional, audio
developments, Audix, ADT, Harris, TBC, Seemix, Crest audio, Eela, Lafont, D&R, Cooper,
Wheatstone
Live venues: Sprit, Harrison, Midas, Soundcraft, Audient, Cadac, Digico
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 203
Mixing and recording consoles
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Recording engineers will be required to work with many different types of recording set-up and will
need to be able to operate a diverse range of mixing consoles, understanding different layouts and
hybrid combinations of split console and in-line analogue and digital mixing consoles.
The aim of this unit is to focus candidates on all sections of the mixing console and to help them
understand why recording studios require a certain configuration of mixing console. Introducing
candidates to different features associated with a range of mixing consoles, it is important for
candidates to understand the different aspects of mixing and recording consoles for the recording
industry, broadcast radio, television/film and Club DJ sectors.
Candidates will study the technical and practical rationales behind such features as input channels,
metering, routing, EQ sections, monitor sections, groups, auxiliaries, fold back and master sections.
A specific focus of the recording and playback signal chain of a standard 24-96 channel mixing
console found in music recording studios will be a prime aim of this unit.
Candidates will understand the need to maintain proper gain structures and follow procedures on
the mixing console which will allow it to function properly without damage.
Candidates will learn the basic theoretical background to the operation of a mixing console before
being expected to master practical use.
Candidates will be required to show evidence of this understanding by making use of relevant
equipment. They will also familiarise themselves with a range of recording console designs and
layouts and will be asked to identify the main differences between split, in-line and digital recording
and mixing consoles.
The minimum size console for candidates to complete this unit should be a 24-48 channel frame
with a fully wired patch bay. Software based virtual mixing environments alone do not fulfil the
learning requirements for this practical unit.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 204
Level:
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit will develop the candidates’ understanding of microphone setup and operational
techniques. It will look at the importance of positioning microphones and the effects that this may
have on the sounds of voices and instruments being recorded. Candidates will carry out practical
tests using microphones and DI boxes. They will gain an appreciation of the factors which determine
choice between microphone and DI recording.
Learning outcomes
There are five outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Use standard microphone set up techniques
• Examine constructional characteristics of common types of microphone
• Analyse the sounds produced by types of microphone
• Examine the impact of moving microphones relative to sound sources
• Examine the difference in sound between direct inject (DI) and microphone usage
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT37 Set up and use microphones and direct inject (DI) boxes
• CCSMT38 Use advanced stereo microphone techniques
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 204
Outcome 1
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
Use standard microphone set up techniques
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Place microphones in set configurations
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Explain the requirements for separation between microphones when setting up around
sound sources
Range
Set configurations
Drum kit microphone array including bass drum mic, snare mic, toms, overheads, hi-hat, lead guitar
cab (mic up amplifier), bass guitar cab, keyboard cab, vocal mic, and basic stereo pair on any
acoustic source
Requirements for separation
Between drum mics (eg snare/hi-hat) between drum kit and all other sound sources, between vocal
mic and all other sources including spill from headphones, use of guide vocal - spill is not necessarily
as important
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 204
Outcome 2
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
Examine constructional characteristics of common
types of microphone
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Assess constructional characteristics of microphones
2
Interpret frequency response and polar pattern diagrams with respect to different
microphones
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe basic principles of electromagnetic induction with respect to dynamic
microphone construction
2
Describe basic principles by which condenser microphones work
3
Describe the practical implications of the constructional characteristics of types of
microphones
Range
Diagrams
Frequency response diagram: bandwidth (eg 20Hz to 20kHz), range (eg +/- 2dB) scale – Hz and dBs
Polar response charts: relationship to front axis of microphone, requirement to record HF sound ‘on
axis’, ability to switch polar response in the case of some microphones, scale in dBs and degrees,
cardioid, hypercardioid, fig-eight, omni-directional pick-up patterns
Electromagnetic induction
Principles of generating current flow moving wire through magnetic field, increase in efficiency due
to many turns of wire, strength of magnet affects power output, construction of dynamic
microphone capsule, amount of movement of diaphragm related to voltage output related to
volume/dynamics, ribbon microphone as dynamic mic with single turn on the coil
Principles
Principles of charging two separated plates to form a condenser/capacitor, tiny signal created
requires head-amp close to diaphragm, requirement for external powering to polarise capsule and
power head amp, back-electret microphone pre-polarised with high voltage charge at factory
Characteristics
Dynamic mics: rugged, rich warm sound due to HF rolloff, not very sensitive to HF, good for live use,
reliable
Ribbon mics: lighter diaphragm gives better HF response but still warm rich sound
Condenser mics: more fragile, usually require external power, can exhibit excellent frequency
response, can be constructed so as to be very small
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 204
Outcome 3
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
Analyse the sounds produced by types of
microphone
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out practical tests on microphone types
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the quality of sounds from microphone types
2
Describe the importance of analysing sounds from different microphone types in the same
position
Range
Microphone Types
Dynamic, condenser
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
45
Unit 204
Outcome 4
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
Examine the impact of moving microphones
relative to sound sources
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out practical tests relating to changing microphone positions
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the differences in quality of sound from microphones in different positions
2
Describe the importance of analysing the sounds from microphones in different positions
Range
Practical tests
On-axis, off axis, proximity effect, phase
Microphones
Dynamic, condenser
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 204
Outcome 5
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
Examine the difference in sound between direct
inject (DI) and microphone usage
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out comparative tests to measure the difference in sound between microphone and DI
boxes
2
Use microphones to monitor the sound from amplified electric instruments
3
Use DI boxes to monitor sound directly from electric instruments
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Explain the difference between transformer balanced and electronic DI boxes
2
Describe the factors which influence choice between microphone and DI recording
techniques
Range
DI Boxes
Transformer balanced, electronic, active, passive, power requirements
Factors
Using a chosen mic and DI box, careful comparison of the quality of electric instruments such as
guitar, bass guitar and keyboard recorded straight to multitrack as opposed to the same
instruments sent into amplifiers and mic’ed up through the cabs
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 204
Microphones and direct inject (DI) techniques
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
At this level candidates are expected to develop an appreciation of the requirements for finding the
‘sweet spot’ of an instrument along with an awareness of the alteration of tonal colour and room
reflections which occur as the microphone is moved in relation to the sound source. They should
also be able to identify the differences between the sound signatures of some well known
microphone types including reasonable quality dynamic and condenser microphones. The nature of
microphone and DI techniques will be explored and evaluated.
Candidates will participate in listening tests in which they evaluate the difference between the
sounds of microphones in different positions as well as the sound quality of different types of
microphone.
Candidates will learn how to position microphones around a standard drum kit so as to maintain as
much separation between different microphone parts as possible. They will be given the
opportunity to experience the implementation of standard instrumental microphone positioning as
well as the chance to try out their own techniques.
The use of DI boxes will be covered in theory and in practice, in order to maintain an optimum
quality of signal from the sound source onto a recorded track. Comparisons will be made between
the use of a microphone to record an electrically amplified instrument and the same instrument
DI’ed straight into the desk/recording device. Candidates will use microphone to monitor sound
from amplified electric or acoustic instrument or source. They will also use DI box to monitor sound
from a direct source.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
48
Unit 205
Level:
Equalisation for music and sound industries
2
Credit value: 7
Rationale
It is important for studio engineers to understand the types of equalisation and equalisation
processing equipment. This unit helps candidates understanding of the equalisation section of a
mixing console and other processing equipment external to the desk.
Candidates will balance audio signals and adjust equalisation. They will use listening techniques in
order to evaluate effective equalisation on audio material.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Examine equalisation (EQ) systems
• Use equalisation sections on a mixing console
• Examine effects of equalisation on audio material
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT16 Operate analogue and digital equalisation for music and audio industries
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 205
Outcome 1
Equalisation for music and sound industries
Examine equalisation (EQ) systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research functions and features of types of equalisation systems
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the types of equalisation systems used
2
Describe the features of equalisation systems
3
Define equalisation system terminology
Range
Types of equalisation systems
Graphic equalisers, parametric equalisers, shelving and notch filters
Features
Peaking filter, band, bandwidth, boost, centre frequency, cut, cut-off frequency, filter, filter slope,
EQ cut ON/OFF switch, bypass, gain, headroom, high pass filter (HPF), low pass filter (LPF), octave, Q
value, resonance, shelving filter, swept filter, notch filter, Q, 1/3rd-octave, 2/3rd-octave, pass band,
stop band, band pass filter, sweep mid, bell, shelf, HF (high frequencies), LF (low frequencies), Mid
(midrange frequencies)
Terminology
Kilohertz (KHz), hertz (Hz), cycles per second, decibel (dB) attenuate, peaking filter, band,
bandwidth, boost, centre frequency, cut, cut-off frequency, equaliser, filter, filter slope, EQ cut
ON/OFF switch, bypass, gain, graphic equaliser, headroom, (HPF) high pass filter, (LPF) low pass
filter, octave, parametric equaliser, Q value, resonance, semi-parametric equaliser, shelving filter,
swept filter, notch filter, Q, 1/3rd-octave, 2/3rd-octave, pass band, stop band, band pass filter,
sweep mid, bell, shelf, HF (high frequencies), LF (low frequencies), Mid (midrange frequencies)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 205
Outcome 2
Equalisation for music and sound industries
Use equalisation sections on a mixing console
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Operate EQ sections on professional recording and mixing consoles
2
Make adjustments and changes via the equalisation section on all channels
3
Assess the uses of equalisation
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe EQ system types found on professional recording and mixing consoles
2
Describe the elements and uses of equalisation
2
Describe the subtractive and additive uses of EQ systems
3
Describe the functional differences of EQ systems
Range
EQ sections
Parametric equalisers, semi-parametric equalisers, valve equalisers, digital (paragraphic) equalisers,
filters
Recording and mixing consoles
SSL, AMS NEVE, API, AMEK, Trident, Soundtracs, MTA, Euphonics, Studer, DDA, Audient, TLA, Allen
& Heath, Harrison, Calrec, Soundcraft, Oram, Neotek, Yamaha, Tascam, Behringer, Panasonic, Sony
Professional, Mackie, Logic hui
Adjustments and changes
Gain, cut, boost, attenuate, filters, HPF, LPF, notch filters, sweep filters, bandwidth, shelving, slope,
Q, volume/level balance
Uses of equalisation
Frequency band, bandwidth, boost, centre frequency, cut, cut-off frequency, filter, filter slope, EQ
cut ON/OFF switch, bypass, gain, headroom, (HPF) high pass filter, (LPF) low pass filter, octave, Q
value, resonance, shelving filter, swept filter, notch filter, Q, 1/3rd-octave, 2/3rd-octave, pass band,
stop band, band pass filter, sweep mid, bell, shelf, HF (high frequencies), LF (low frequencies), Mid
(midrange frequencies)
EQ system types
Parametric equalisers, semi-parametric equalisers, valve equalisers, digital (paragraphic) equalisers,
filters
Uses
Cut, boost, attenuate, filters, HPF, LPF, Gain, notch filters, sweep filters, bandwidth, shelving, slope,
Q, EQ cut/mute switches
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 205
Outcome 3
Equalisation for music and sound industries
Examine effects of equalisation on audio material
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce frequency guide equalisation charts
2
Evaluate the effects of equalisation use on audio signals
3
Complete written records of changes made to audio materials
4
Make improvements to selected multi-track audio material in line with requirements
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State common frequency ranges associated with instruments and vocals
2
Describe how to use equalisation to solve or improve multi-track audio material
Range
Common frequency ranges
Kick drum
60-80 Hz - 2-5 kHz
Snare drum
240 Hz - 3kHz
Hi-hat/cymbals
200 Hz - 7.5 kHz
Rack toms
80-240 Hz - 5 kHz
Floor toms
80-120 Hz - 5 kHz
Bass guitar
60-80 Hz - 2.5 kHz
Electric guitar
240 Hz - 2.5 kHz
Acoustic guitar
80-120 Hz - 2.5-5kHz
Electric organ
80-120 Hz - 2kHz
Acoustic piano
80-120 Hz - 2-3kHz
Horns
120-240 Hz - 5-6kHz
Strings
240 Hz -7-10 kHz
Percussive drums
200-240 Hz - 5kHz
Vocals
800 - 4kHz
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
52
Unit 205
Equalisation for music and sound industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The aim of this unit will be to expose candidates to industry standard equalisation systems that they
will use in professional studios when working with audio. Candidates will research and evaluate the
different equalisation systems available and the reasons the studio engineer makes full use of each
system.
Candidates will need to have a basic understanding of when to use equalisation and when to leave
the signal unprocessed. Candidates will provide evidence in this unit of good aural analysis skills as
shown by the correct use of equalisation in a range of different systems. They will explore hardware
and software equalisation systems.
Candidates will make a detailed study of the balance of different elements of an audio mixdown with
respect to relative volume levels. Equalisation and volume balance are interdependent from the
perspective of the mix engineer. In this unit candidates will adjust both of these qualities in relation
to the overall mix.
Candidates must all research and sketch out their own frequency chart that can be referred to as an
operational learning guide to all instruments and vocals and their suggested placement within the
frequency spectrum. They will:
• Use EQ on multi-track recorded audio content such as drums, instruments, vocals, spoken word.
• Use of EQ section on a professional recording and mixing console to reflect good knowledge
and use of EQ Section to restore or solve a pre determined problem with multi-track audio
material such as drums, instruments, vocals, spoken word.
• Understand and identify usual audio references of EQ for instruments and vocals (sweet spots)
plot these key areas of reference into the 20Hz-20,000Hz audio spectrum.
• Produce A/B recordings (60 seconds) reflecting improvement through use of EQ section.
Candidates will work on pre-determined assignments and basic examples of audio problems
with multi-track instruments or vocals set by tutor/centre.
• Produce A/B recordings (60 seconds) reflecting summing/balance improvement through use of
EQ section. Candidates will work on pre-determined assignments and with a multi-track
recording of instruments or vocals set by tutor/centre. Multi-track Safety copy of known artist or
song as audio content is extremely useful.
• Carrying out equalisation exercises on computer-software based systems alone is not
considered sufficient to achieve the learning required for this unit.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
53
Glossary of useful terms
ATTENUATE: reduction of a signal level.
PEAKING FILTER: a filter boosting a specific band of frequencies.
BAND: a single filter within an equaliser unit.
BANDWIDTH: measures the width of the frequency range altered by a peaking filter.
BOOST: to increase a signal's level using a filter.
BAND PASS FILTER: A filter section that reduces both high and low frequencies.
BELL: An EQ with a peak in its response.
CENTRE FREQUENCY: the frequency at which a peaking filter applies maximum gain.
CUT: to reduce a signal's level using a filter.
CUT-OFF FREQUENCY: the frequency at which a high-pass or low-pass filter has attenuated a
signal, where a high or low frequency filter on the EQ section starts to take effect.
EQUALISER: a combination of different filters to alter the balance of frequencies in an audio signal.
EQ ON/OFF/mute BUTTON: high end console feature.
FILTER: alters the level of a limited range of frequencies.
FILTER SLOPE: gain changes (per octave) of a high-pass or low-pass filter.
FILTER: An EQ section of the following types:
HIGH PASS FILTER: A filter section that reduces low frequencies.
LOW PASS FILTER: A filter section that reduces high frequencies.
GAIN: the amplified amount by which a filter circuit alters a signal. Either a positive ('boost') or
negative ('cut' or 'attenuation'). The value of boost or cut applied by the equaliser.
GRAPHIC EQUALISER: equaliser unit with a large number of regularly spaced, fixed-frequency
filters, with a gain fader.
GRAPHIC EQ: An equaliser with a number of slider controls set on one or third octave frequency
centres.
HEADROOM: the maximum signal level that an equaliser's circuitry can handle.
(HPF) HIGH PASS FILTER: a filter circuit which will attenuate frequencies below a certain
frequency.
HF: High frequencies.
LF: Low frequencies.
(LPF) LOW PASS FILTER: a filter circuit which will attenuate frequencies above a certain frequency.
MID: Midrange frequencies.
NOTCH FILTER: A filter that cuts out a very narrow range of frequencies.
OCTAVE: a doubling of the selected frequency.
PARAMETRIC EQ: An EQ section with controls for frequency, gain and Q.
PARAMETRIC EQUALISER: equalisation with swept peaking filters with bandwidth control.
PASS BAND: The frequency range that is allowed through a filter.
PEAKING FILTER: a filter boosting a specific band of frequencies.
Q: How broad or narrow the range of frequencies that is affected.
Q VALUE: the value of the width/breadth of the frequency range altered by a peaking filter.
RESONANCE: another term for Q value (see Q).
SEMI-PARAMETRIC EQUALISER: equalisation with at least one swept peaking filter.
SHELVING FILTER: filter circuit design to alter the level of all signals beyond a certain frequency by
a definable amount.
SHELF: A high or low frequency EQ where the response extends from the set or selected frequency
to the highest or lowest frequency in the audio range.
SLOPE: The rate at which a high or low frequency EQ section reduces the level above or below the
cut-off frequency. Slope value usually in 6, 12, 18 or 24dB/octaves.
STOP BAND: The frequency range attenuated via a filter.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
54
SWEPT FILTER: a filter which allows the user control over a chosen frequency.
SWEEP MID: A middle frequency EQ section with controls for frequency and gain.
THIRD-OCTAVE: a regular spacing of the filters on a graphic equaliser, where a filter occurs every
third of an octave across the audio spectrum.
TREBLE: see HF.
TOPS: professionals’ word for treble.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
55
Unit 206
Level:
Dynamics and effects equipment for music
and sound industries
2
Credit value: 8
Rationale
This unit will introduce candidates to dynamics processing and effects units. Effects and dynamics
processor use will be examined from the perspective of the creative manipulation of sound and as
well as their use as more subtle ‘sweeteners’ to allow elements to sit better in the mix.
This unit will introduce candidates to the use and connection of compression, limiting, gating, delay,
reverb and chorus effects. Candidates will be shown how dynamic and effects hardware units
interact with connections and controls on the mixing console.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain the controls of common dynamics processing units
• Explain the parameters of common effects units
• Connect and route signals through dynamics processors via mixing consoles
• Connect and route effects units via mixing consoles
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 206
Outcome 1
Dynamics and effects equipment for music
and sound industries
Explain the controls of common dynamics
processing units
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research technical information on the controls of common dynamics processing units
2
Inspect controls and identify parameters of dynamics processing units
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Explain the and parameters and controls of compressor units
2
Explain the and parameters and controls of noise gate units
3
Explain the and parameters and controls of limiter units
4
Describe the benefits of dynamics software in the recording process
Range
Controls
Rotary controls, cursor menus, potentiometers (pots), soft pots, mechanical pots, linear
switches/faders, selector switches, push buttons
Dynamics processing units
Audient, Altec, Avalon, Calrec,Buzz Audio, Crane song, Oram, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon,
API,TLA, Millenia, GML, Shepstone, Prism, Chandler, Pultec, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley
Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro, Joe Meek. Yamaha, DRS, Smart Research, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer,
Roland, Orban, Langley, Aphex, Antares, Summit Audio, TC Electronics, Empirical Labs, SPL, UREI.
Controls of compressor units
Threshold, ratio, attack, release, gain makeup, hard knee, soft knee, envelope, input/output levels,
gain reduction
Controls of noise gate units
Threshold, attack, release/decay, hold, range, key filter/frequency, envelope, input/output levels
Controls of limiter units
Threshold, peak limit, ratio, attack, release, gain makeup, limit, input/output levels
Benefits of dynamic and effect software
Automation, read/look ahead, save and recall, upgrade, patch library, edit, cost effective, multiple
use
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 206
Outcome 2
Dynamics and effects equipment for music
and sound industries
Explain the parameters of common effects units
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research technical information on the parameters of common effects units
2
Inspect controls and identify parameters of effects units
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Explain the controls and parameters of delay units
2
Explain the controls and parameters of reverb units
3
Explain the controls and parameters of chorus units
4
Explain the controls and parameters of flanger units
5
Explain the controls and parameters of phaser units
6
Describe the benefits of effects software in the recording process
Range
Parameters
Rotary controls, cursor menus, potentiometers (pots), soft pots, mechanical pots, linear
switches/faders, selector switches, push buttons
Effects units Alesis, Eventide, Antares, Digitech, TC Electronics, SPL, Lexicon, Bel, Kurzweil, Avalon,
Calrec, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon, API, TLA, Millenia, GML, DRS, Tubetec, Amek, Prism,
MTA, Manley Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Yamaha, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer, Roland, Orban, Langley,
BRICASTI
Parameters of delay units
Time (milliseconds), width, depth amount, speed, rate, pre-delay, tape delay, delay time, feedback,
modulation, input/output levels, mix
Parameters of reverb units
Time (milliseconds), width, depth amount, speed, rate, tape delay, pre-delay time, room, ambience,
input/output levels, plate spring (no pre-delay time), mix
Parameters of chorus units
Time (milliseconds), width, depth amount, speed, rate, pre-delay, tape-delay, delay time, feedback,
modulation, input/output levels, mix
Parameters of flanging units
Width, depth amount, speed, rate, feedback, modulation, input/output levels, mix
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Parameters of phasing units
Width, depth amount, speed, rate, feedback, modulation, input/output levels, mix
Benefits of effects software
Automation, save and recall, upgrade, patch library, edit, cost effective, multiple use
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 206
Outcome 3
Dynamics and effects equipment for music
and sound industries
Connect and route signals through dynamics
processors via mixing consoles
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Connect dynamics processors to mixing consoles
2
Send signals through dynamics processors using insert points of mixing consoles
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State types of dynamics processors
2
Explain how dynamics processors interact with mixing consoles
3
List types of cables used
4
Describe the terminology associated with each dynamics system
Range
Send signals
Directly connected via input/outputs of unit to insert on channel strip (ideally using a patchbay); OR
routing & inserting dynamics processing units across channel strip, channel path, monitor path,
stereo bus
Dynamics processors
Compressors, limiters, gates, noise gates, exciters, expanders
Interact with mixing consoles
Auxiliaries master busses, pre/post, auxiliary sends/returns, patch bay, inserts, routing, assign,
grouping, monitor path, channel path, signal input, signal return, bypass, balanced, unbalanced,
male XLR’s, female XLR’s, TRS cables, bantam jacks, mono ¼’’ jacks
Types of cables
Balanced, unbalanced, male XLR’s, female XLR’s, TRS insert cables, bantam jacks, mono ¼ jacks
Terminology
Ducking, limiting, side chain, key trigger, gating, noise gating, peaks, expand, threshold, attack,
ratio, release/decay, hold, range, key filter/frequency, envelope, gain, hard knee, soft knee, peak
limit, limit, input/output levels, gain reduction, boost, send, return, bypass
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 206
Outcome 4
Dynamics and effects equipment for music
and sound industries
Connect and route effects units via mixing consoles
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Connect effects units to mixing consoles
2
Send and return signals through effects units using mixing console auxiliaries and insert
points
Underpinning Knowledge
The Candidate will be able to:
1
State types of effects units
2
Explain how effects units interact with mixing consoles
3
List types of cables used
4
Describe the terminology associated with each effects unit
Range
Send and return signals
Directly connected either via auxiliary sends or using channel insert point (ideally using a patchbay);
OR routing effects unit to an auxiliary master bus to send/return on channel strip, channel path,
monitor path, stereo bus
Effects units
Delay, reverb, chorus, flanging, phasing, echo, distortion
Interact with mixing consoles
Auxiliaries master busses, pre/post, auxiliary sends/returns, patchbay, inserts, routing, assign,
grouping, monitor path, channel path, signal input, signal return, bypass, balanced, unbalanced,
male XLRs, female XLRs, TRS cables, bantam jacks, mono ¼’’ jacks
Types of cables
Balanced, unbalanced, male XLRs, female XLRs, TRS cables, bantam jacks, mono ¼’’ jacks
Terminology
Sends, returns, edit, damp, send, return, time (milliseconds), width, depth amount, speed, rate, pre
delay, tape delay, delay time, bpm, time domain effects, feedback, modulation, echo, dub, reverb,
LFO, ADT, slapback, room, ambience, phase, input/output levels, bypass, plate, spring
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 206
Dynamics and effects equipment for music
and sound industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The aim of this unit is to expose candidates to industry standard studio dynamic processing and
effects units that they would be required to use when working with audio signals in a professional
environment. Candidates will research the main aspects of common dynamics and effects units and
how and why the recording engineer uses them.
Candidates will develop the audio analysis skills necessary to evaluate when there is a need to use
dynamics and effects processors. Candidates will generate evidence of implementing basic
connectivity and use of compression, gating and effects.
Candidates will make a critical evaluation of the creative differences between software and
hardware implementations of effects and dynamics processing.
In the examination of dynamics processing and effects units it is important that candidates are given
access to the level of professional processing units found in current 24 & 48 track recording studios
and mixing suites.
Professional dynamics units
Audient, Altec, Avalon, Calrec,Buzz Audio, Crane song, Oram, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon,
API,TLA, Millenia, GML, Shepstone, Prism, Chandler, Pultec, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley
Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro, Joe Meek. Yamaha, DRS, Smart Research, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer,
Roland, Orban, Langley, Aphex, Antares, Summit Audio, TC Electronics, Empirical Labs, SPL, UREI.
Professional effects units
Alesis, Eventide, Antares, Digitech, TC Electronics, SPL, Lexicon, Bel, Kurzweil, Avalon, Calrec,
Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon, API, TLA, Millenia, GML, DRS, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA,
Manley Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Yamaha, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer, Roland, Orban, Langley,
BRICASTI
Dynamic and effect software and plug-ins
PC/MAC, AU/MAS/VST/RTAS/HDTM/TDM/Stand-alone, SONNOX, Cedar Audio, Summit, Sony Oxford,
TL Audio,IK Multimedia, Aphex Sound, Black Water Music, Bismark, Universal Audio, Camel Audio,
Lone Electron, Mathons, Creed, Waldorf, Super Destroy FX, Drawmer, Wavemachine Labs, Prosoniq
Audioware, Line 6, Emagic, Music Foundation, FabFilter, Levelground Media, Analog Industries,
Focusrite, MC DSP, GleetchPlug, Laidman & Katsura, Ten by Ten, Heizenbox, Sound and Form,
Massenburg, DesignWorks, TriTone Digital, Sonomatics, Elemental Audio, JK Audio, Lexicon,
Luxonix, DUY TDM, McDSP, MDA-VST, Antares, ApulSoft, Arne Knup, Audio Ease, Elemental Audio,
Sonic Studio, Bitshift, Audio Expert sleepers, Yamaha, Cycling '74, Wave Arts PSP, Ohmforce, Db
Audioware, Sonicflavours, Plogue, Eventide, Tobybear, Nomad Factory, Audio Ease, Audio Damage,
Prosoniq, SpinAudio Software, Akai, Silverspike, Serato, SFX Machine, Electronic Music Foundation
(GRM), Sound and Form, SonicBirth, Sound designers, Spectral Suite, PowerFX, BIAS App,
Pro BIAS, Source Elements, MHC, Greenoak, Metric Halo, Tom Erbe, PolyFractus, Izotope,
SoundToys, Airy André, Native Instruments, Jonas Norberg, VST Pro, SRS Labs, Princetondigital,
Smartelectronix, Waves, Sonalksis, Digidesign, TC Electronic, Bomb Factory, Ndc Plugs,
Digitalfishphones, Trillium Lane Labs, sonic foundry, m-audio, URS, Arboretum, Access Music GmbH,
Kind of Loud, Mark of the Unicorn, SPL, CreamWare, TC Works, Zero G
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
63
Unit 207
Level:
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
2
Credit value: 4
Rationale
MIDI is used extensively for the creation of musical performances and the control of complex
processes in the sound and media related industries. It is an established format which can
communicate between a wide range of different types of equipment.
This unit develops candidates’ understanding of MIDI language, protocols and applications. They
will gain an understanding of MIDI connections and configurations, and create MIDI sequences.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Describe MIDI features
• Save and archive MIDI files
• Connect and configure MIDI equipment
• Create short MIDI sequences
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT7 Use basic functions of MIDI sequencing on professional DAWs
• CCSMT10 Develop key MIDI and DAW audio techniques
• CCSMT15 Set up and dismantle professional MIDI equipment and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 207
Outcome 1
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
Describe MIDI features
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Use MIDI control devices
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the basic features of control voltage systems
2
Describe the basic features of MIDI control systems
3
Explain the differences between control voltage and MIDI control
4
Explain the differences between types of MIDI messages
5
Identify common extensions to the MIDI language
Range
MIDI control systems
Uses digital binary system, serial language, similarity to piano-roll on player piano, language of
control rather than direct (analogue) control, use of conventions to build a language of
instructions
Control voltage
Analogue control voltage principals, CV keyboard, VCO, LFO
MIDI messages
Channel messages (eg voice, mode), system messages, common, Real-Time, Exclusive, the MIDI
Detailed Specification 1.0
Extensions
General MIDI (GM) instrument list, GM drum mapping, general MIDI files, other general MIDI
specifications, extensions to general MIDI, reasons for extensions, Yamaha XG implementation,
Roland GS implementation
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
65
Unit 207
Outcome 2
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
Save and archive MIDI files
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Save and archive MIDI files in different formats
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe formats of MIDI files
2
Describe save and archive procedures
Range
Save and Archive
Saving from sequencer as general MIDI file type 0 and/or type 1, saving and archiving to a secure
location
Formats
MIDI files saved as specific sequencer type (eg MIDIfile.cpr), general MIDI file type 0 and type 1, XG
file, GS file
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
66
Unit 207
Outcome 3
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
Connect and configure MIDI equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Independently connect and configure MIDI equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Explain how to configure MIDI equipment for use in MIDI sequencing
Range
Configure MIDI equipment
MIDI in/out connections thru, local on/off switch, master keyboard (mother board) MIDI OUT,
sequencer MIDI IN, sequencer MIDI OUT, to either independent MIDI sound module/device/drum
machine/plug in or master keyboard (mother board) MIDI IN
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 207
Outcome 4
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
Create short MIDI sequences
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Create original MIDI sequences using MIDI processing parameters
2
Operate MIDI controller and editing parameters
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe MIDI controller parameters
2
Describe MIDI musical parameters
3
Describe editing parameters
Range
Controller parameters
Entering MIDI data into edit pages (eg pianoroll/keyedit/score), adjusting volume and panning (eg
from main front (project) window), from dedicated MIDI mixer or combined audio/MIDI mixer
window
Musical parameters
Transforming MIDI input in real time or after entry, pitch transposition, velocity range
(compression), quantising, assigning voices (eg entry by program and bank number, entry by menu
of patch names)
Editing parameters
Adjusting note pitches, adjusting note lengths, adjusting velocity values, adjusting note timings
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
68
Unit 207
Music instrument digital interface (Midi)
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
MIDI is used extensively for creation of musical performances and the control of complex processes
in the sound and media related industries. It is an established format which can communicate
between a wide range of different types of equipment. This unit establishes a solid grounding of
MIDI theory and practice to understand the opportunities and limitations of the MIDI protocol.
Candidates will become familiar with the connections of MIDI equipment and will use this
information to facilitate the creation of MIDI based compositions or short pieces to further illustrate
the nature of the creative use of the MIDI language.
Candidates will be shown various features of the MIDI language which relate to contemporary
creative practice. Issues relating to file types, storage and archiving will be addressed, as well as
matters of compatibility between computer type and different MIDI sequencer applications.
Candidates will be encouraged to appreciate the language of MIDI to the point where there is a
fundamental understanding of the difference between analogue or digital audio signals and the
function of the MIDI control data stream.
Issues relating to file types, storage and archiving will be addressed as well as matters of
compatibility between computer type and between different MIDI sequencer applications.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Technical papers/media assets from the Producers & Engineers wing
Pro Tools:
http://charlesdye.com/ptguidelines2.0.pdf
General Deliverables/media sheets/archiving assets:
http://www2.grammy.com/Recording_Academy/Producers_And_Engineers/Guidelines/
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
69
Unit 208
Level:
Sampling and synthesis technology for music
and sound industries
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
Sampling and synthesis are processes used to produce audio materials. Samplers are used to
trigger audio material. Synthesisers are generally either used to reproduce and edit the sound of
traditional instruments or to create more diverse electronically based sounds or effects. Sound
engineers need to understand both processes.
Candidates will develop understanding of the features, operation and applications of samplers and
synthesisers. Candidates will make a detailed study of subtractive synthesis and associated
parameters. Candidates will evaluate the relative merits of software and hardware implementations
of sampling and synthesis with MIDI sequencers.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Operate synthesisers
• Describe the sound characteristics of a range of synthesis types
• Operate samplers
• Use samplers and synthesis with MIDI sequencers
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT11 Produce audio materials using sampling and synthesis technology for music and
sound industries
• CCSMT12 Create a sample and audio file library - archive digital content
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
70
Unit 208
Outcome 1
Sampling and synthesis technology for music
and sound industries
Operate synthesisers
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Adjust parameters of subtractive synthesisers
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the function of parameters of subtractive synthesisers
2
List various common types of synthesis
Range
Parameters of subtractive synthesisers
Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO): waveform selector, pulse width control, freq-course, freqfine, tuning offset between two or more oscillators, signal in/out, controller voltage (CV_
modulation in
Voltage controlled filter (VCF): filter freq/cut-off, resonance, signal in/out, CV modulation in
Voltage controlled amplifier VCA: overall volume adjustment, signal in/out, CV modulation in
Envelope generator (EG): attack, decay, sustain, release (ADSR) controls, trigger in, CV out
Low frequency oscillator LFO: waveform selector, depth rate, trigger in, CV out
Types of synthesis
Subtractive, additive, frequency modulation (FM), phase distortion, wavetable, granular synthesis,
sample-and-synthesis, physical modelling
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
71
Unit 208
Outcome 2
Sampling and synthesis technology for music
and sound industries
Describe the sound characteristics of a range of
synthesis types
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Monitor differences in sound from different types of synthesis
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the differences in sound between types of synthesis
Range
Types of synthesis
Subtractive, additive, FM, phase distortion, wavetable, granular, wavetable, sample-and-synthesis,
physical modelling
Differences in sound
Characteristic frequency balance/components, characteristic dynamics/volume envelopes of notes
or patches characteristic of synthesis genre, other subjective impressions characteristic of the type
of synthesis, (eg bass lines & strong synth lead or warm pads/textures through to FM bell-like and
brassy sounds)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 208
Outcome 3
Sampling and synthesis technology for music
and sound industries
Operate samplers
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Adjust parameters of samplers
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe sampler functions
Range
Sampler functions
Record and edit section (eg auto-record/threshold record facility), set start point, set end point, trim
unwanted material before/after start and end of sample, set sustain loop point, normalise volume,
program mode (eg keygroups, keygroup crossfading, velocity zones inside keygroups, velocity zone
crossfading), multimode (eg assigning programs to MIDI channels, saving data, saving a set of
programs as a multi)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 208
Outcome 4
Sampling and synthesis technology for music
and sound industries
Use samplers and synthesise with sequencers
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Connect samplers to the output of MIDI sequencers
2
Connect synthesisers to the output of MIDI sequencers
3
Save and load sampler patches
4
Save and load synthesiser patches
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe advantages and disadvantages of hardware based and software based
synthesisers
2
Describe advantages and disadvantages of hardware based and software based
samplers
3
Describe how systems are implemented to integrate a MIDI sequencer, sampler and
synthesiser
Range
Connect samplers/synthesisers
Use rewire or other native protocols to load up software sampler/synth, trigger from MIDI channel in
sequencer and monitor audio back through audio section of computer MIDI/audio sequencer OR
connect MIDI OUT of computer sequencer setup to MIDI IN of sampler/synth and monitor back
audio from sampler through appropriate monitoring facility (eg mixing desk and studio monitors
Advantages of hardware based synthesisers
Portability, durability, reliability, user interface is ‘real’ and can in some cases be easier to use in live
performance, sound quality is very good with the exception of unreliable oscillators in early
analogue synthesisers
Disadvantages of hardware based synthesisers
Initial unit cost more expensive or, in the case of sought after older synthesisers, either very
expensive or not available, sound patches can be bought on ROM cards which is reliable but
expensive if available, early analogue synthesisers will not save patches on power-down
Advantages of software based synthesisers
Usually substantially cheaper, reliable tuning, easily integrated with MIDI sequencing packages,
portable, all patches can usually be saved
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Disadvantages of software based synthesisers
Sound quality reliant on quality of plug-in programming, sometimes unreliable when driven to
extremes, in live use dependent upon laptop technology for portability and then prone to unreliability of computer operating system
Advantages of hardware based synthesisers: portability, durability, reliability, compatibility
with like systems
Disadvantages of hardware based synthesisers: initial unit cost often expensive, branded
peripherals cost (eg memory) also expensive, limited expansion options, less upgradeability,
machinery dedicated to single purpose, limited GUI, some older models limited in overall sample
time to RAM memory installed
Advantages of software based synthesisers: upgrades usually cheap and easy, computer often
already purchased as part of studio setup, cost-effective, expansion options can be cheaper and
more flexible, often samples/files can be managed on hard disk, superior GUI, samples can often be
streamed straight from hard disk giving unlimited sample time
Disadvantages of software based synthesisers: less stable/reliable overall, portability requires
more expensive laptop equipment and associated hardware expansion, more choice of software
can lead to reduced compatibility between users with different programs.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
75
Unit 208
Sampling and synthesis technology for music
and sound industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Candidates will acquire skills allowing them to gain confidence when working with both samplers
and synthesisers. This will be achieved through a mixture of lecture based sessions and practical
work using a MIDI sequencer to trigger samplers and sequencers. Candidates will be taken through
a basic historical perspective, which will explain the development of synthesisers and samplers and
their transition more recently from hardware devices to more flexible software implementations.
The use of a MIDI keyboard to trigger samples presents a different set of creative opportunities to
candidates than simply locating sounds on the screen of an audio/MIDI sequencing package.
Samplers will be used creatively to trigger audio material such as loops, sound effects, musically
pitched notes or other traditional instrumental sounds. Synthesisers will be used to reproduce and
edit the sound of traditional instruments or to create more diverse electronically based sounds or
effects.
Save and load patches from synth and sampler either via internal software systems or by using MIDI
Dump where necessary. MIDI Dump will be covered when using hardware systems to ensure the
security of parameters held in internal memory systems.
Candidates will evaluate the relative merits of software and hardware implementations of samplers
and sequencers. Candidates may use software based samplers and synthesisers if appropriate to
the learning environment. Alternatively hardware devices may be used if a reasonably full range of
facilities is available.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
76
Unit 209
Level:
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound
industries
2
Credit value: 8
Rationale
This unit introduces candidates to the fundamentals of acoustics and explains how they help to
inform the way in which professional recording studios are designed and built. It looks at the
relationship between the acoustic environment of the recording studio control room and the way in
which sounds are monitored using near-field and far-field monitor systems.
Candidates will learn about studio and control room design, acoustics and sound proofing and how
these areas are related to a desirable monitoring environment.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Examine studio monitoring systems
• Research studio control-room designs
• Examine the relationship between acoustics and studio monitoring
• Use aural skills in analysing monitoring and acoustics
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT25 Develop techniques for mastering and restoring audio using critical listening skills
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
77
Unit 209
Outcome 1
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound
industries
Examine studio monitoring systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research technical information on studio monitoring systems
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe types of monitoring and amplification systems
2
Describe uses of monitoring systems
3
Describe the terminology associated with monitoring systems
Range
Types of monitoring and amplification systems
Monitoring: Near-field, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo, passive, active, two way (bi-amping), three
way (tri-amping)
Amplification: Alice, byston, carver, crest, crown, dacs, drawmer, ominiphonics, rane, samson, SBS,
sonifex, sony, tapco, tascam, XTA, yamaha, denon, quested, Mc2
Uses of monitoring systems
Studio monitoring, foldback monitoring systems, live recording/broadcast monitoring,
mastering/critical monitoring systems, surround
Terminology
Near-field, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo, passive, active, crossover, driver, cabinets, enclosure,
baffle, port, woofers, tweeters, cones, horns, bi-amp, tri-amp, wave properties, wavelengths,
frequency, velocity, period, amplitude, velocity, sound waves, power, sound pressure levels (SPLs),
decibels (dB), phase, cables, mains, signals, connectors, soundstage, imaging, precedence effect,
on-axis, off-axis, dispersion, directivity, depth, sweet spot, bandwidth, equalisation, band,
spectrum, distortion, sensitivity, flat response, dynamic range, two way,(bi-amping), three way, (triamping), surround sound
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
78
Unit 209
Outcome 2
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound
industries
Research studio control-room designs
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research information on various recording studio designs
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe types of recording studio designs
2
Describe the terminology associated with acoustic design
Range
Recording studio designs
Early sound scattering (ESS), live end/dead end, anechoic areas, critical listening room,
programming room/suite, mastering room/suite, live performance areas, isolated instrument and
vocal booths
Terminology
Location, floor plan, walls, ceilings, doors, windows, floating floors/walls, isolation, drum booths,
vocal booths, performance areas, furniture, ventilation, wiring and access, lighting, working
ambience, elimination of echoes, flutter, standing waves, materials and co-efficient values, live and
dead areas, acoustic principles, sound, velocity, waves, frequency, wavelengths amplitude,
relationship of acoustics and recording process, reverberation, noise, leakage, structural, damping,
absorption, echo, sound diffusion, front wall, monitoring, reflections, delays
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
79
Unit 209
Outcome 3
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound
industries
Examine the relationship between acoustics and
studio monitoring
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research information on acoustics and studio monitoring
2
Carry out basic frequency response tests in a studio monitoring environment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List factors affecting acoustics and studio monitoring
2
Describe how design characteristics affect acoustics
Range
Acoustics and studio monitoring
Elimination of echoes, flutter, standing waves, resonance, vibration, materials and co-efficient
values, live and dead areas, acoustic principles, sound, velocity, waves, frequency, wavelengths
amplitude, relationship of acoustics and recording process, reflections, delays, reverberation,
noise, leakage, structural, damping, absorption, echo, sound diffusion, front wall, flat frequency
response, monitoring
Frequency response tests
Play and monitor ranges (20-20,000Hz) of test tones through monitoring systems, create and record
charts of test tone level readings
Design characteristics
General working rules and common mistakes, sound, decibels, amplitude, sound isolation; control
of room acoustics, studio monitoring systems, surround sound, room response, live-end, dead-end
approach, impacts on control rooms with installation of console and studio furniture, the monitoring
image field, design values and the build limitations, build materials
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
80
Unit 209
Outcome 4
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound
industries
Use aural skills in analysing monitoring and
acoustics
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Use monitoring systems in control room environments
2
Listen to and identify mono and stereo sound sources
3
Assemble monitoring systems
Underpinning Knowledge
The Candidate will be able to:
1
Identify studio monitoring sound fields
2
Identify listening positions within studio environments
3
List professional monitoring systems, headphones and amplification
Range
Monitoring systems
ADAM Audio Acoustech Labs, Acoustic Energy Limited, Acoustic Reality Inc, Acoustic Research
Speakers, Acoustic Technologies, Alesis, ATC, Audix, B & W, Behringer, Blue Sky International,
BMS Audio Systems, BOSE Corporation, Celestion International Limited , Crane Audio Ltd ,
Dynaudio, Exigy, Eastlake, Electro-Voice, ETC, Event Electronics, FAR, Fostex, Genelec, Harbeth
Audio,HK AUDIO , Hothouse Pro, JBL Professional, KRK Systems , Klein-Hummel, Leema Acoustics ,
M-Audio, Mackie, Miller & Kreisel, Meyer, Mission, Munro Acoustics, PMC PSI Audio, Quested ,
Roland, Samson , Studio Precision, Tannoy, Trans Audio, Urei, Westlake Audio, Wharfedale,
Yamaha, Yorkville
Sound fields
Near-field, mid-field, far-field monitoring
Mono and stereo sound sources
Aural observation using CD, CD-R, DAT, DVD, DVD-R, MD, analogue tape, digital media, studio
monitor test CDs, playback and monitoring observation/listening of mono and stereo sources
Listening positions
Stereo imaging, horizontal and vertical positioning, height, distance, presence, sweet spot, dead
spot, on axis, off axis appreciation of all monitoring systems
Headphones
Beyerdynamic, AKG, Sennheiser, Ultrasone, Sony
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
81
Amplification
Alice, Byston, Carver, Crest, Crown, Dacs, Drawmer, Ominiphonics, Rane, Samson, SBS, Sonifex,
Sony, Tapco, Tascam, XTA, Yamaha, Denon, Quested, Mc2
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
82
Unit 209
Acoustics and monitoring for music and sound
industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
This unit aims to bring various aspects of control room design to the attention of candidates
including choice of monitoring system.
In this unit candidates will provide evidence of research into the basics of studio design and
acoustics and their connection to monitoring audio signals. Candidates will take part in a costing
evaluation of the approximate build, acoustic soundproofing and monitor specifications for a small
studio.
Candidates must be given access to properly designed control rooms to make observations about
the nature of the interaction of the different pieces of equipment and acoustic characteristics
studied in this unit.
It is intended that this unit should also support their critical listening skills as required for other
units. Candidates will identify the difference between the near, mid, and far sound fields. Candidates
will explain the rationale behind designing a studio control room that can be used professionally to
monitor recordings, track laying and mixing. Candidates will study acoustic and design terminology.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
83
Unit 210
Level:
Development of studio recording equipment
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit establishes the range and diversity of different types of studio recording equipment, both
hardware and software based. It will help candidates to make an examination of the progression of
recording equipment from a developmental and creative perspective.
Candidates will be encouraged to research the background to pieces of equipment and the ways in
which they came to be used in different settings and creative scenarios. It will include study into
different manufacturers prominent in the field and examine the changing face of the studio
equipment manufacturing industry with particular respect to consoles, multi-track recording
machines, monitoring and mastering equipment.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Outline the development of studio recording equipment
• Examine the impact of commercial trends on the development of recording equipment
• Explain industry standard brands of recording equipment
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT41 Demonstrate a knowledge of the history and development of studio recording
equipment
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
84
Unit 210
Outcome 1
Development of studio recording equipment
Outline the development of studio recording
equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research the development and progress of recording equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List important stages of recording equipment development
Range
Progress of recording equipment
Microphones, recording consoles, recording and multi-track machines, the early phonograph
recordings through to modern discrete recording (software/hardware), dynamic processing, effects
units, guitar pick –ups and amplification, BASF, RCA, API, MCI, EMI, Ampex, Otari, Magnecord,
Nagra, Scully, Studer, Dynavox, Revox, AEG Telefunken, Acoustic Research, Philips, Sony, Pultec,
Ashley, Allison, Universal Audio, Cadac, Melotron, Les Paul, Fender, Marshall, Ampeg, Orange,
Peavey, API, MCI, DDA, AMS Neve, SSL, Fairlight, Atari, Microsoft, Apple, Pro- Tools/Digidesign
Stages of recording equipment development
Dance hall, private performances, Leon Scott, Thomas Edison, BASF, RCA, Ampex, AEG Telefunken,
Victor company, HMV, EMI, through to API, Cadac, DDA, AMS Neve, SSL, Apple/Logic/Cu-Base, ProTools/Digidesign
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
85
Unit 210
Outcome 2
Development of studio recording equipment
Examine the impact of commercial trends on the
development of recording equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research information on recording trends
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List trends that have impacted on the development of studio equipment development
2
Describe the impact and influence of key musicians, producers and engineers on the
development of recording equipment
Range
Recording trends
First mono recording, mono playback mediums, first stereo recording, stereo playback mediums,
the first multi-track recording (2 and 3 track), the first 8 track recording, the first 16 track recording,
the first 24 track recording, the first 48 track recording, first tape-less recording, syncs, CV gates,
CV sequencers, SMPTE, MIDI, computerised sequencers, M-LAN
Key artists, producers and engineers
Enrico Caruso, Nora Bayes, Bessie Smith, Bing Crosby, Carter family, Les Paul, Muddy Waters, Elvis
Presley, The Beatles, The Beach Boys, Jimmy Hendrix, Sun studios, Motown studio A, Abbey Road,
Olympic studios, Berry Gordy Jr, Sir George Martin, Rupert Neve, Joe Meek, Peter Gabriel.
Other key influential Producer/Engineers:
Gus Dudgeon, Arif Mardin, Sir George Martin, Mickie Most, Joe Meek, Brian Wilson, Robin Millar
(CBE) ,Muff Winwood, Brian Eno, Geoff Emerick, Keith Grant, Mick Glossop, Hugh Padgham, Haydn
Bendall, Tony Platt, Steve Levine, Pip Williams, Phil Harding, Nicky Graham, Pete Waterman, Paul
Borg, Trevor Horn, Mike Hedges, Mike Howlett, Holland Dozier and Holland, John Leckie, Chet
Atkins, Ashford and Simpson, Roy Thomas Baker, Jeff Barry, Roy Wood, Norman Smith, Phil Spector,
Phil Ramone, Leonard Chess, Gil Norton, Bob Clearmountain, Chuck Ainlay, Gerry Bron, Nile
Rodgers, Dangermouse, Rhett Davies, Babyface, Tony Visconti, Puff Diddy, Bob Ezrin, Nigel Godrich,
Jazzie B, Nelle Hooper, Glyn Johns, Jam and Lewis, Quincy Jones, Pharrel Williams, Tony Mansfield,
Steve Lipson, George Massenburg, Chris Kimsey, Steve Lillywhite, Andy Green, Jeff Lynne, Nick
Lowe, Dr Dre, Dave Edmunds, Jimmy Miller, George Clinton, Adrian Sherwood, The Neptunes, Norrie
Paramour, Prince, Todd Rundgren, Sam Phillips, Norman Petty, Martin Hannett, Ken Scott, Billy
Sherrill, Stephen Street, Norman Cook, Shel Talmy, Timbaland, Chris Thomas, Butch Vig, Tony
Visconti, Steve Power, Greg Haver, Phil Wainman, Norman Whitfield, Bernard Butler, Cenzo
Townshend, Paul Epworth.
This list kindly provided by the Music Producers Guild UK 2010 is not exhaustive nor in any particular
order. www.mpg.oprg.uk
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
86
Unit 210
Outcome 3
Development of studio recording equipment
Explain industry standard brands of recording
equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research information on manufacturers ranges of recording equipment
2
Classify recording equipment specifications into low, mid and high ranges
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the important information to look for when choosing recording equipment
2
List the common manufacturers of equipment
Range
Information
Brand names, model numbers, function, audio quality, analogue/digital, connectivity, cost,
predecessors
Equipment
Microphones, recording and mixing consoles, multi-track recorders, outboard equipment (studio
dynamic & effects units), general instruments, monitors, DAW’s
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
87
Unit 210
Development of studio recording equipment
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Whereas other units look at processes and procedures from a modern perspective this unit seeks to
place studio equipment and related recording practices into a historical perspective with special
regard to the way in which this changing situation has had an effect on the creative production
process.
Candidates will study common categories of studio recording equipment including consoles, multitrack and mastering recording machines and monitoring systems. Candidates will also gain a wider
understanding of trends in the recording equipment manufacturing industries, study the
progression and changing cost of types of studio recording equipment and evaluate current
industry standards and anticipate possible future developments with a focus on the migration of
many hardware studio devices to software platforms. The inter-relationship with the field of music
technology hardware and software will be covered at a basic level.
Defining moments in recording equipment development: the first phonograph recording,
early tape recording, early live performance recording, early recording consoles, recording and
mixing consoles, microphone designs, introduction and development of processing and effects
units, CD, DAT, HD,BASF, EMI, BTR (BBC) RCA, API, MCI, Ampex, Otari, Magnecord, Nagra, Scully,
Studer, Dynavox, Revox, AEG Telefunken, Linux, Fostex, Roland, Tascam, Soundcraft, Mitsibishi,
Sony ,Acoustic Research, Philips, Sony, Neuman, Western Electric, Vitaphone, Bell Labs, Shure,
Altec, Amperite, Electro-Voice, Ellis, Kellog Electric, Astatic, Acos, Grundig, RTF, Ronnette, Turner,
Universal, Tesla, AKG, EMT, Sanken, AEA, Tripp, Coles, Nady, Audix, Calrec, Neve, Urei, partnerships
of industries
Important recording events: how and where recording was enabled, dance hall, private
performances, early phonograph recordings through to modern discrete studio multi-track
recording (software/hardware), Enrico Caruso, Nora Bayes, Bessie Smith, Bing Crosby, Carter family,
Les Paul, Muddy Waters, Elvis Presley, The Beatles, The Beach Boys, Sun studios, Abbey road, BBC,
events associated with trends in music recording and manufacturing of technology, the ethos of
recording producers and engineers inventing products that were not available, George Martin, Joe
Meek, Rupert Neve, Peter Gabriel, The Edge (U2)
Year
dB
Hz
device
Low/high-Hz
1897
28
1832
Shellac Disc
168-2000
1925
30
4900
Orthophonic
Disc
100-5000
1931
30
8875
Optical Film
1
25-9000
1931
60
9970
Cellulose
Disc
30-10000
1946
60
14920
Decca FfRR
Disc
80-15000
1947
60
14950
Ampex 200
Tape
50-15000
1972
75
19980
Laserdisc
20-20000
1980
90
19980
Compact
Disc
20-20000
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
88
1991
120
19995
Dolby Ac3
5-20000
1998
144
96000
Dvd Audio
0-96000
Recording consoles
SSL, AMS NEVE, API, AMEK, Trident, Soundtracs, MTA, Euphonics, Studer, DDA, Audient, TLA, Allen
& Heath, Harrison, Oram, Neotek, Yamaha, Tascam, Behringer, Panasonic, Sony Professional,
Mackie, Logic
Recording machines
EMI, BTR (BBC) RCA, API, MCI, Ampex, Otari, Studer, Revox, Fostex, Roland, Tascam, Soundcraft,
Sony, Teac, Korg, Zoom, Alesis
Equalisers
Audient, ALTEC, Avalon, Calrec, Oram, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon, API,TLA, Millenia, GML,
Shepstone, Chandler, Pultec, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro,
Joe Meek, Crane Song, Drawmer, Summit Audio, Prism, DBx, Lang
Dynamics
Audient, ALTEC, Avalon, Calrec,Buzz Audio, Crane song, Oram, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon,
API,TLA, Millenia, GML, Shepstone, Prism, Chandler, Pultec, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley
Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro, Joe Meek. Yamaha, DRS, Smart Research, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer,
Roland, Orban, Langley, Aphex, Antares, Summit Audio, TC Electronics, Empirical Labs, SPL,
Thermionic Culture
Effects
Alesis, Eventide, Antares, Digitech, TC Electronics, SPL, Lexicon, Bel, Kurzweil, Avalon, Calrec,
Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon, API, TLA, Millenia, GML, DRS, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA,
Manley Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Yamaha, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer, Roland, Orban, Langley, Zoom,
BRICASTI
Microphones
AKG, ART, Audio Technica, Audix, Brauner, Behringer, Beyerdynamic, Blue, Coles, CAD, Crown,
Earthworks, Electro-Voice, Ion Audio, Joemeek, Konig and Meyer, Lumineze, M-Audio, Nady,
Neumann, Octavia, Peavey, Red Audio, Rode, Roland, Royer Labs, RCA, Telefunken, Samson, Se
Electronics, Sennheiser, Shure, Soundelux, Soundfield, Yamaha, SE electronics,
Speakers
ADAM Audio Acoustech Labs, Acoustic Energy Limited, Acoustic Reality Inc, Acoustic Research
Speakers, Acoustic Technologies, Alesis, ATC, Audix, ,B & W, Behringer, Blue Sky International,
BMS Audio Systems, BOSE Corporation, Celestion International Limited , Crane Audio Ltd ,
Dynaudio, Exigy, Eastlake, Electro-Voice , ETC, Edirol, Event Electronics, FAR, Fostex, Genelec,
Harbeth Audio,HK AUDIO , Hothouse Pro, JBL Professional, KRK Systems , Klein-Hummel, Leema
Acoustics , M-Audio, Mackie, Miller & Kreisel, Meyer, Mission, Munro Acooustics, PMC PSI Audio,
Quested, Roland, Samson , Studio Precision, Tannoy, Trans Audio, Urei, Westlake Audio,
Wharfedale, Yamaha, Yorkville
Headphones
Beyerdynamic, AKG, sennheiser, ultrasone, sony
Amplification
Alice, byston, carver, crest, crown, dacs, drawmer, ominiphonics, rane, samson, SBS, sonifex, sony,
tapco, tascam, XTA, yamaha, denon, quested, Mc2
Dynamic and effect software and plug-ins
PC/MAC,AU/MAS/VST/RTAS/HDTM/TDM/Stand-alone, SONNOX, Cedar Audio, Summit, Sony Oxford,
TL Audio,IK Multimedia, Aphex Sound, Black Water Music, Bismark, Universal Audio, Camel Audio,
Lone Electron, Mathons, Creed, Waldorf, Super Destroy FX, Drawmer, Wavemachine Labs, Prosoniq
Audioware, Line 6, Emagic, Music Foundation, FabFilter, Levelground Media, Analog Industries,
Focusrite, MC DSP, GleetchPlug, Laidman & Katsura, Ten by Ten, Heizenbox, Sound and Form,
Massenburg, DesignWorks, TriTone Digital, Sonomatics, Elemental Audio, JK Audio, Lexicon,
Luxonix, DUY TDM, McDSP, MDA-VST, Antares, ApulSoft, Arne Knup, Audio Ease, Elemental Audio,
Sonic Studio, Bitshift, Audio Expert sleepers, Yamaha, Cycling '74, Wave Arts PSP, Ohmforce, Db
Audioware, Sonicflavours, Plogue, Eventide, Tobybear, Nomad Factory, Audio Ease, Audio Damage,
Prosoniq, SpinAudio Software, Akai, Silverspike, Serato, SFX Machine, Electronic Music Foundation
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
89
(GRM), Sound and Form, SonicBirth, Sound designers, Spectral Suite, PowerFX, BIAS App, Pro BIAS,
Source Elements, MHC, Greenoak, Metric Halo, Tom Erbe, PolyFractus, Izotope, SoundToys, Airy
André, Native Instruments, Jonas Norberg, VST Pro, SRS Labs, Princetondigital, Smartelectronix,
Waves, Sonalksis, Digidesign, TC Electronic, Bomb Factory, Ndc Plugs, Digitalfishphones, Trillium
Lane Labs, sonic foundry, m-audio, URS, Arboretum, Access Music GmbH, Kind of Loud, Mark of the
Unicorn, SPL, CreamWare, TC Works, Zero G
Software clones
Universal Audio(UA), Arturia, Sonalksis, Massenburg Design Works, Pultec, Unique Recording
Software (URS), Kjaerhus Audio, Moog Synths, Moog Effects, Minimoog, Sequential Circuits,
Joemeek, Digidesign/Bomb Factory, G-Force-ARP Odyssey, Oscar, Mellotron, Crane Song, Trillium
Lane Labs, Eventide, Soundtoys, McDSP, Line 6, Aphex, Drawmer, TC Electronic, Focusrite, Serato
Audio Research, Fairchild, Lexicon, Native Instruments, Nomad Factory
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
90
Unit 211
Level:
Audio analysis for sound engineers
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
In this unit candidates will develop aural skills while listening to fine degrees of difference regarding
frequency balance, volume balance, effects usage, dynamics effects (gating & compression) and
components of the mix which change over time. They will encounter the differences between
listening to stereo and mono programme materials, in addition to problems with phase cancellation
effects when listening to poorly mixed stereo materials, or when collapsing a stereo mix down to a
mono signal.
Candidates will be introduced to basic parameters of music in order that they can make judgements
about tracks which they may be involved in recording or producing. Simple elements of music
theory such as tempo, key and time signature will be studied through practical examples and
listening exercises.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Examine music and production components
• Identify problems in recorded material
• Repair or eliminate audio problems
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT21 Edit sound and spoken word using both analogue and digital systems
• CCSMT25 Develop techniques for mastering and restoring audio using critical listening skills
• CCSMT39 Carry out software sound and audio manipulation
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
91
Unit 211
Outcome 1
Audio analysis for sound engineers
Examine music and production components
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Evaluate basic characteristics of pieces of music from different genres
2
Assess recording and production techniques used for different genres
3
Aurally identify aspects of basic music theory
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the recording techniques and instrumentation used in different genres
2
Describe production considerations used in different genres
3
Describe audio analysis
4
Identify aspects of basic music theory
Range
Genres
Pop, rock, urban, classical, acoustic, blues, indie/alternative, metal, electro, electronica, dance,
reggae, dub, jazz, world music, instrumental, live recordings
Recording and production techniques
Re-mix, acoustic, live, lo-fi, stereo, mono, over dubbed, drop ins/drop outs, multi-track, surround
sound, programmed music and beats, mixing balance, frequency balance, volume balance, effects
usage, dynamics effects (gating and compression), stereo imaging, instrument placement, panned
audio, movement and position of audio, levels
Music theory
Time signatures, musical note pitch/key and duration, dynamics, tempo, rests, root key
Recording techniques and instrumentation
Performances, players, artists, session musicians, guest appearances, microphones, samples,
edited materials, live sound and mixing, band recording, click tracks, orders of recording, recording
approaches, acoustic, live, lo-fi, stereo, mono, over dubbed, drop ins/
Production considerations
Production approaches used, scale of production detail, points of interest, depth of production,
considerations of artist, sensitivity to artist requirements, arrangement of material
Audio analysis
Breadth, depth, width, space, ambience, energy, image, scope, scale, mono, stereo, pristine, lo-fi,
clarity, tempo, phasing, mix, re-mix, version, texture, transients, HF, LF, bottom end, tonal and
tones, colouration, noise, decibel, gain, levels, frequency
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
92
Unit 211
Outcome 2
Audio analysis for sound engineers
Identify problems in recorded material
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Aurally evaluate problems during analysis of audio materials
2
Precisely locate areas of audio that have identifiable problems
3
Use aural observation techniques to identify sonic problems
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe various audio problems
Range
Problems
Drop outs, clicks, glitch, distortion, in/out phase, noise, level differences, missing instrumentation,
crosstalk, bad starts, bad ends, fade in/out problems, mono vs. stereo
Precisely locate
Hour, second, 100th of second, frame, ABS (absolute) time clock, check and cue start and end
position of audio problem
Aural observation
Listen, cue, monitor, analyse, rewind, check, specify area, observe through use of professional
studio monitoring (2 fields), professional headphones, stereo, mono, left right speaker cut/mute
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
93
Unit 211
Outcome 3
Audio analysis for sound engineers
Repair or eliminate audio problems
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Repair or eliminate audio problems
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe permissible solutions for repairing audio problems
2
Describe irresolvable audio problems
Range
Audio problems
Drop outs, clicks, glitch, distortion, in/out phase, noise, level differences, missing instrumentation,
crosstalk, bad starts, bad ends, fade in/out problems, mono vs. stereo
Permissible solutions
Repair, re-do, cut ,copy, paste, delete, noise reduction, automated phase reverse, re-fade, EQ,
attenuation, tweek frequencies, additive and subtractive EQ’ing, compression, noise gate, peak
limitation
Irresolvable audio problems
Distortion, missing audio, noise, phase polarity, glitches, drop-outs, audio spillage/bleeding, imprint,
print-through, cross talk
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
94
Unit 211
Audio analysis for sound engineers
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
This unit covers two areas of good listening and analysis practice. The first area is the close study of
existing commercial music tracks from the perspective of the analysis of recording techniques and
production methodology. The second is a critical evaluation of both audio materials which have
been created by candidates and existing material supplied by the tutor that includes instances of
bad practice which need to be identified.
The unit is also designed to allow candidates to take part in peer review of each others work and
allow the development of critical analysis skills while part of a co-operative team. While engaged in
critical analysis candidates will be encouraged to develop a positive approach to evaluating audio
materials which acknowledges different artistic perspectives.
Candidates should complete this unit within a professional monitoring environment in order to carry
out critical listening and identify audio problems correctly. In all instances of critical listening,
candidates are expected to be able to identify problems and suggest ways of repairing or adjusting
the audio materials if required.
Candidates will make use of both near and far field studio reference monitor speakers and
professional quality headphones to evaluate particular audio problems.
Candidates will evaluate the differences between mono and stereo signals and in phase and out of
phase signals in the signal chain.
Candidates will identify bad tuning or pitch performances on a multitrack recording, with a clear and
precise location of the source of the problem and the track number of the defective part. Using
these skills candidates will conform to good professional practice in locating problems so that they
can instantly and accurately replay a series of problems to others.
Candidates will also undertake a series of listening studies of commercially recorded materials and
analysis of basic musical parameters of tracks as well as more complex production elements.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
95
Unit 212
Level:
Session management for sound engineers
2
Credit value: 8
Rationale
In this unit candidates will learn about management of recording sessions. Candidates will cover
record keeping with respect to the booking of musicians, session track sheets, equipment checking,
storing of all recallable session information, hire accounts, remix co-ordination, recording deadlines,
basic maintenance and the ordering of spares.
Candidates will learn the importance of handing over to or from other studio engineers as the
recording session progresses. Responsibility lies with individual engineers in ensuring that all
information relating to the session is correctly archived and can be accessed immediately by others
at the start of a new session.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Plan for session management and archiving
• Implement procedures for fault management reporting
• Use archived material to recall 24 track recording sessions
• Make stereo mix-downs using archived material
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT15 Set up and dismantle professional MIDI equipment and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
• CCSMT26 Apply techniques for archiving and recalling audio materials – session
management
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
96
Unit 212
Outcome 1
Session management for sound engineers
Plan for session management and archiving
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce detailed records of media and content for archiving
2
Manage archived information for recordings
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List the audio-related information of 24 track recording sessions
2
Identify synchronisation information
3
List the full records of media and content used in recording sessions
Range
Track sheets
Song title, working title, artist, producer, engineer, studio room, date, time, format, machines used,
tape speed (ips) , digital recording/sampling rates , master, slave, type of session, recording ,
overdub, mixing, programming, vocals, spoken word, stereo, mono, groups, effects, scratch sheets,
any session costs/activities, booking of musicians, hire accounts, notes/comments, detailed
reference to session recall information
Manage archived information
List of archived information, securely locate information, save digital parameters, provide recall
templates for analogue settings
Audio-related information
Instrumentation and vocals, programmed materials, tape speed (ips), digital recording/sampling
rates
Synchronisation information
SMPTE, word clock, MIDI clock, MIDI time clock (MTC), M-LAN, tape speed (ips), storing of all digital
session recall information relating to: automation, mutes, cuts assigns, synthesisers, drum
machines/click tracks, samplers, software programming, sound modules, rewire usage, patches and
settings saved
Records of media and content
Titled versions/formats for all 2’’ multi-track analogue tape, hard disk, B-Wav format, DVD-R, DVD,
DAT, ½’’ analogue tape, ¼’’ analogue tape, CD-R, CD, MD, digital recording/sampling rates , cassette
tape, any other digital formats (eg MP3,Wav files), work to APRS/SPARS tape label system (TLS),
session tape, original master, production master, production master copy/clone, PQ encoded tape
master, safety copy/clone, not for production, media version, storing of all session recall
information
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
97
Unit 212
Outcome 2
Session management for sound engineers
Implement procedures for fault management
reporting
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify faults with equipment
2
Complete fault recording procedures
3
Remove or clearly identify faulty items
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State the importance of reporting faults with equipment to team members
2
State the importance of fault recording procedures
Range
Fault recording procedures
State date and time of problem, make associated notes in studio maintenance book
Remove or identify faulty items
Remove power supply, remove from recording chain, provide clear “not in use” notice to others if
equipment removal is not possible
Team members
Line/facility manager, studio manager, engineers, producers, artists, maintenance staff, reception
staff
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
98
Unit 212
Outcome 3
Session management for sound engineers
Use archived material to recall 24 track recording
sessions
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Check information and prepare for recall of 24 track recording sessions
2
Fully recall 24 track recording sessions
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State the information required to recall 24 track recording sessions
2
Assess synchronisation information to fully recall 24 track recording sessions
Range
Information
Session sheet, scratch sheets, song title, working title, artist, producer, engineer, studio room, date,
time, format, machines used, tape speed (ips) , digital recording/sampling rates , master, slave, type
of session, recording , overdub, mixing, programming, vocals, spoken word, stereo, mono, groups,
effects, playback and balance of all audio materials from master digital/analogue project reel, listed
console information, scratch/scribble tags/sheets per channel, effects and processing if needed or
used
Synchronisation information
SMPTE, word clock, MIDI clock, MIDI time clock (MTC), M-LAN, tape speed (ips), storing of all digital
session recall information relating to: synthesisers, drum machines/click tracks, samplers, software
programming, sound modules, rewire usage, automation, mutes, cuts assigns, patches and settings
saved
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
99
Unit 212
Outcome 4
Session management for sound engineers
Make stereo mixed-downs using archived material
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce and monitor stereo mix-downs of recalled sessions
2
Label and record stereo mix-downs of recalled sessions
3
Reset and tidy studio environment
Underpinning Knowledge
The Candidate will be able to:
1
Describe how to make different formats of stereo mix-downs using archived material
2
Describe the importance of accurately recording and labelling stereo mix-downs
produced from archived material
Range
Reset and tidy
Health and safety good practice, reset environment and recording equipment, remove and store all
cables, wiring looms, instruments
Formats
DVD-R, DVD, DAT, ½’’ analogue tape, ¼’’ analogue tape, CD-R, CD, MD, WAV.AIFF, MP3
Recording and labelling
Work to APRS/SPARS tape label system to include: session tape, original master, production master,
production master copy/clone, safety copy/clone, not for production
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
100
Unit 212
Session management for sound engineers
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
This unit will emphasise to candidates the high standards which need to be maintained in relation to
detailed recording session management and record keeping. Candidates will be encouraged to
understand exactly what needs to be confirmed and in place prior to making a studio booking. For
example, session players or backing singers will need to have confirmed availability. Candidates will
need to understand the process of hiring additional equipment that may have been requested for a
particular recording session such as rare guitar amplification.
Candidates will be given a project remit and undertake the exercise of providing a timetable of
events for the given recording project. They will generate a checklist ensuring that detailed
information is created before during and after sessions which will include a recorded log of events
including all session costs/activities and a timetable of deadlines.
All candidates will complete a track sheet relating to a 24 track audio recording and create a
method of archiving all settings on the desk and associated equipment during the mix-down
process. Electronic recall data should be archived in a suitable location which is referenced from
the track sheet. Candidates will make a basic stereo master DAT/CD-R/DVD of the recalled session
and correctly title and archive this master mix-down. They will reference archived information with
working session: total recall complete, ready for any adjustments or new work, ready to make basic
stereo mix-down for archiving.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised
Technical papers/media assets from the Producers & Engineers wing
Pro Tools:
http://charlesdye.com/ptguidelines2.0.pdf
General Deliverables/media sheets/archiving assets:
http://www2.grammy.com/Recording_Academy/Producers_And_Engineers/Guidelines/
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
101
Unit 213
Level:
Music technology hardware and software
2
Credit value: 4
Rationale
In the creative sound and media industries there are a wide range of different processes and
applications which have been facilitated by various pieces of equipment. This unit sets out the
emergence of music technology equipment with a detailed overview of control systems for creating
music and integration with audio recording technologies in the studio.
This unit establishes the range and diversity of different types of music technology hardware and
software equipment. It will enable candidates to undertake an analysis of the development of music
technology equipment from a creative perspective.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Examine the commercial development of keyboard based instruments
• Examine the development of music technology equipment
• Examine industry standard brands of music technology equipment
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT15 Set up and dismantle professional MIDI equipment and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
• CCSMT23 Carry out multi track and stereo tape machine alignment and maintenance
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
102
Unit 213
Outcome 1
Music technology hardware and software
Examine the commercial development of keyboard
based instruments
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research the development of commercial keyboard instruments
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the development of keyboard-based instruments
2
List mass produced keyboard-based instruments
3
Explain factors in the development of keyboard-based instruments
Range
Development
Harpsichord, piano, organ, variations on chime-bar style pianos, electrical instruments with pickups
(eg Hammond and Rhodes), early electronic (eg Theremin and Martinot)
Mass Produced
Hammond Organ, Home organs, Home Keyboards, pro/semi-pro Synths
Factors
Production cycle, research and development, other commercial factors, competition, patenting
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
103
Unit 213
Outcome 2
Music technology hardware and software
Examine the development of music technology
equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research the design and functions of music technology equipment
2
Produce a timeline of music technology development relating to MIDI production equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe commercial factors influencing the development of music technology equipment
2
Describe changes in music technology equipment functionality
3
List emerging technologies in music technology equipment
Range
Commercial factors
Origins in one-off prototyping, small-scale hand made instruments, small scale basic mass
production, move from craft based (wood and metal) to plastics and printed-circuit based methods
of production, printed circuit boards and discrete components move to integrated circuits, recent
moves towards surface mount technology and subsequent lack of potential for servicing, design by
one-off entrepreneurs (eg Moog) changes to corporate teams of designers (eg Yamaha), design
costs are often high, emphasis on many different versions/re-branded products from a single new
product innovation, change from selling instruments as life-long companions to a renewable
product cycle where newest sounds are associated with the latest model, marketplace for items
with a mass appeal to be available cheaply, items with smaller user base (eg MIDI guitar controllers
or MIDI wind controllers) more expensive
Changes
Origins in specialised and expensive devices for small number of major studios, often bespoke
equipment sometimes designed in house, change to factory then mass production introduced
economies of scale, progression towards digital equipment achieving very low price points along
with very high quality, functionality of equipment moved through analogue control with associated
hardware controls for every function, towards trimmed down consumer versions factory made for a
wider audience, digital technology allowed for multiple parameters but there was an extended
period of very poor GUI through single line menu systems, recent movements towards touch
screens, bigger screens, software front-ends or plug-in VDU or flat screen monitors have improved
the interface substantially
Emerging technologies
Software emulation and cloning/wireless technology/multi functional control surfaces, portability,
size/footprint reduction, networked audio, virtual studios
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
104
Unit 213
Outcome 3
Music technology hardware and software
Examine industry standard brands of music
technology equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research the uses of industry standard brands of music technology equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List industry standard brands of MIDI technology production equipment
2
Describe the uses of MIDI technology production equipment
3
List industry standard brands of recording studio related technology equipment
Range
MIDI technology production
Hardware synthesisers, software synthesisers, hardware samplers, software samplers, desktop
computer systems, laptop computer systems, audio/MIDI sequencers, fader/controller panels,
gestural controllers, MIDI instrument controllers, VST instruments & plug-ins
Recording studio related technology equipment
Mixing desks, multitrack recorders, 2-track mastering recorders, playback devices, desktop
computer systems, laptop computer systems, effects units, gates, compressors, headphones,
reference monitors, patchbays
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
105
Unit 213
Music technology hardware and software
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Candidates will be encouraged to research the background to pieces of equipment and the ways in
which they came to be used in creative scenarios, identify common manufacturers of pro, semi-pro
and home use equipment, identify uses and limitations of items of equipment, and identify market
leaders in terms of price and performance in each area.
Candidates will study the common categories of music technology equipment including electric
instruments and synthesisers, samplers, sequencers and MIDI control devices. They will gain a
wider understanding of the progress of different types of music technology equipment over the
years, to evaluate the current state of the art and to anticipate possible future developments with
especial regard to the migration of many hardware devices to software version. The
interrelationship with the field of studio recording equipment will be covered at a basic level.
This unit seeks to place creative practice in a continuum of changing technological systems. It will
include study into different manufacturers prominent in the field and examine the changing face of
the music technology equipment manufacturing industry with particular respect to instruments,
sound sources and sequencers.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
106
Unit 214
Level:
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
In this unit candidates will adopt creative strategies for developing new and original pieces of sound
and music. They will take the combined approach of listening to existing commercial popular music
recordings and applying principles of composition based in basic music theory. Candidates will also
create a finished original composition using MIDI-based music technology equipment from multiple
sources.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain basic music theory related concepts
• Create audio materials with music technology equipment
• Produce finished original compositions using MIDI-based music technology equipment
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT15 Set up and dismantle professional MIDI equipment and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
• CCSMT32 Produce surround sound for film and audio
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
107
Unit 214
Outcome 1
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
Explain basic music theory related concepts
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Analyse features of music which incorporate substantial use of MIDI based music
technology equipment
2
Develop new audio materials using MIDI-based music technology which demonstrates
application of basic musical principles and theory
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe basic musical principles and theory
Range
Features
Time signature, tempo, main root key, instrumentation, vocal lines, music technology, MIDI-based
equipment use, location of main instruments/vocals in stereo field, other key production devices,
arrangement, meaning/theme of lyrics (where applicable), impact or the ‘x-factor’
Musical principles and theory
Time signatures, key signatures, musical note pitch and duration, dynamics markings, tempo, rests,
identification of root key (basic method)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
108
Unit 214
Outcome 2
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
Create audio materials with music technology
equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce creative pieces of sound or music using hardware and software processes
2
Apply the creative stages to develop a piece of sound or music using music technology
equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe how to manipulate parameters of hardware and software processes to create new
audio materials
2
Describe stages whereby sound or music is made using music technology equipment
Range
Processes
Direct input of notes to MIDI sequences via keyboard, use of pattern based MIDI sequences, editing,
cut and pasting, layering, creative instrumentation algarhythmic composition software, reorganisation of existing MIDI Files, use of arpeggiator in sequencer, use of chord builder modules in
sequencer, use of alternative types of controller to create new MIDI sequences or inputs, sample
playback and manipulation, automation and automation of effects via MIDI
Stages
Scope for work, planning and analysis, creation, evaluation, revisiting previous stages (ie developing
a recursive cycle of refinement rather than a fixed linear approach to the creation of a new piece of
sound/music)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
109
Unit 214
Outcome 3
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
Produce finished original compositions using MIDIbased music technology equipment
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce original audio materials using MIDI-based music technology equipment
2
Document production of original audio materials
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the process involved in producing original audio materials using MIDI-based music
technology equipment
Range
Process
Scope for work, planning and analysis, creation, evaluation, revisiting previous stages (ie developing
a recursive cycle of refinement rather than a fixed linear approach to the creation of a new piece of
sound/music)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
110
Unit 214
Composing with MIDI-based music technology
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
It is not essential for all candidates to adopt a staff notation approach to composition but it is hoped
that a background in basic concepts such as musical keys, tempo, simple chord structures and
progressions will allow candidates to bring together materials in ways to create new musical pieces
from multiple sources.
This unit should tap into previous study of sampling and synthesis in combination with MIDI
sequencing techniques to create original materials. Devices which use the emphasis of traditional
scoring and notation should be developed with candidates such as the dissection and reconstruction of existent MIDI files and the use of triggered samples and sample loops to create new
textures. Algorithmic software composition tools could be explored along with creative devices in
MIDI sequencing packages such as programmable chord builders or arpeggiators.
Alongside the tools which can be used to construct new pieces candidates should be taken through
a programme of study which illustrates common musical composition techniques and strategies.
These strategies should be devised by centres to suit specific cohorts of candidates and their
requirements but should include methods for deciding upon starting points/main themes, ways of
developing materials though a piece to a conclusion and overviews of common structures in pieces
of contemporary popular music. Candidates should also be able to adopt recursive strategies for
personal development of their work which allow them to go through a cyclic process of
development (create-test-develop-create etc).
Candidates will study the nature of creativity and composition as facilitated by music technology
equipment and processes. They will concentrate on the use of synthesis, sampler and sequencer
technology to gain an understanding of the support processes which can help to structure their
creative experiences. They will undertake a number of case studies using diverse creative tools and
to integrate them into a final composition. Learning will be underpinned by a basic understanding of
music theory.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
111
Unit 215
Level:
MIDI operations
2
Credit value: 4
Rationale
MIDI sequencing has an important role in the composition of soundscapes and pieces of music. The
ability to play or enter MIDI data into sequencing packages and to edit the parameters of
performances of pieces of music are very useful skills for candidates to develop.
This unit will enable candidates to examine the procedures available within a MIDI sequencing
package.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain MIDI routing and implementation requirements
• Analyse the suitability of MIDI sound sources for different sound or music applications
• Edit MIDI data
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT15 Set up and dismantle professional MIDI equipment and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
112
Unit 215
Outcome 1
MIDI operations
Explain MIDI routing and implementation
requirements
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Route MIDI tracks to different sound sources
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the requirements for routing MIDI data between sequencers and sound sources
Range
Requirements for routing MIDI data
Setting track outputs in sequencer to correct hardware MIDI output, routing from hardware MIDI
output to MIDI IN socket on MIDI sound source, setting MIDI track outputs to address virtual MIDI
input drivers running on same computer (ie synth running on sound card or drivers addressing
separate software running on the same computer), setting MIDI track outputs to VST Instrument
inputs, setting MIDI track outputs to address other formats of software device inputs
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
113
Unit 215
Outcome 2
MIDI operations
Analyse the suitability of MIDI sound sources for
different sound or music applications
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Route and play back different MIDI sound sources
2
Aurally evaluate different MIDI sound sources
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the characteristics of different MIDI sound sources and their potential
applications
Range
Characteristics
Realistic imitation of acoustic instrument, artificial sounds, characteristic sounds of different eras,
grainy, hi-fi, lo-fi, punchy, atmospheric, sound effects
Applications
Radio jingle, advertisement, film/TV, promotion, installation, theatre/sound design, dance, ambient
music (eg musak in shops/lifts/hotels), general release (eg CD)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
114
Unit 215
Outcome 3
MIDI operations
Edit MIDI data
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Analyse MIDI sequencers to identify editing processes
2
Use editing processes within a MIDI sequencer
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the editing processes within a MIDI sequencer
2
Explain the importance of following a design brief
Range
Editing processes
Pianoroll editor, list editor, logical editor, score editor, note addition/deletion, note reposition in
pitch and time, note length alteration, quantising (over quantise, analytical quantise and iterative
quantise) dynamics alteration and compression, MIDI note-ON velocity alteration, volume alteration
per channel, transposition per track, time delay per track, instrument voice allocation per channel,
cutting and pasting notes by dragging and by use of positioning the song position pointer, cutting
and pasting parts within the main project window, splitting and deleting MIDI parts
Design brief
Project timescale, instrumental, stroke style, arrangement, theme/purpose, length of piece,
resources
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
115
Unit 215
MIDI operations
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Candidates will be shown the various different editing operations available within a MIDI sequencing
package. They will be presented with a range of processes through a series of short tasks which will
allow them to evaluate the creative potential of MIDI editing tools. Candidates will also be
encouraged to adopt a critical attitude towards the suitability of different sound sources triggered
by the MIDI sequencer.
Some background to basic elements of music theory will be covered in order to allow candidates to
appreciate the breadth of use of tools available to them in the sequencing package. Practices of
manipulating MIDI data will be taught in order to facilitate production of sound and music relatively
quickly with accurate results. The flexible nature of MIDI and associated editing techniques will be
explored and candidates should be taken through a programme of short studies illustrating the
different editing procedures available to them.
An important part of the unit will be the study by candidates of the quality of sound sources
available to them in the learning environment. They will make an evaluation of the different sound
sources and their potential creative uses and will create MIDI pieces which are richly and sensibly
voiced to suit their intended purpose. The nature and requirements of MIDI in combination with
audio will also be examined in this context. It is envisaged that this unit will take place on a software
MIDI sequencing package.
Sound characteristics
Definitions are obviously going to range from those that are quantifiable (ie sounds which
predominantly occupy a high frequency bandwidth) and those that are more subjective (sounds
which work well for pieces of music about water). Candidates should attempt to define the
characteristics which they believe make a sound or set of sounds useful for a potential creative
application.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
116
Unit 216
Level:
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
2
Credit value: 4
Rationale
Synchronising sound to support on-screen action requires candidates to combine different
techniques such as MIDI sequencing, audio recording and the use of sound sources (eg synthesisers
and samplers). Film soundtrack work differs to more open recording structures, such as popular
music, in that sound or music may need to complement the emotional requirements of a storyline.
Candidates will create Foley effects and record, or source, sound effects to accompany specific
instances on the screen. They must develop sensitivity to the nature of sound, silence, music,
atmosphere and spot effects in appropriate combinations set against the developments on screen.
Candidates will also learn about the requirement to re-record and overdub speech onto a film
recorded on location. Issues of synchronisation will be covered in addition to the compatibility of
sound recorded in a studio with visual representations in different acoustic environments.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain the requirements for sourcing audio for short film clips
• Plan and produce the audio for short film clips
• Synchronise newly recorded speech to replace original on-screen dialogue
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT21 Edit sound and spoken word using both analogue and digital systems
• CCSMT32 Produce surround sound for film and audio
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
117
Unit 216
Outcome 1
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
Explain the requirements for sourcing audio for
short film clips
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Aurally evaluate sound elements within short film clips
2
Aurally evaluate correct timings for spotting lists
3
Create spotting lists for short film clips
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe audio requirements of short film clips
2
Describe the importance of correct timings in spotting lists
Range
Audio Requirements
Ambient/musical atmosphere, short spot effects, foley effects, dialogue replacement, specific
musical sequences or effects
Spotting lists
Title list with name of film and name of student, edit decision list (EDL) for all SMPTE time as
HH:MM:SS:FF for every audio sound, length of individual components not required, brief description
of each audio effect after every time entry, different spotting lists for Foley, SXF, Dialogue and Music
created as a master track spotting list compiled out of all four individual lists
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
118
Unit 216
Outcome 2
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
Plan and produce the audio for short film clips
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Record and transfer audio materials into single locations for further use
2
Synchronise film footage with multitrack recorders
3
Align audio materials with required times from spotting list
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the processes required to bring audio materials together to support on-screen
action during short film clip
Range
Record and transfer audio materials
Source sound effects from CDs and/or internet or other sources, record new sound effects in the
studio or on location, create/compose new musical effects or passages, source library music of
suitable quality, maintain the highest level of quality, store and securely archive and backup
Processes
Import or transfer audio materials into the multitrack environment aligned exactly with
requirements from spotting list, adjust as required for optimum integration with visual image,
balance audio with respect to frequency, effects, stereo image, ensure consistency between the
requirements of the image and the production of the audio track
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
119
Unit 216
Outcome 3
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
Synchronise newly recorded speech to replace
original on-screen dialogue
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Record and transfer audio materials into single locations for further use
2
Synchronise film footage with multitrack recorders
3
Lip-synch recorded speech to original images on screens
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the processes required to carry out dialogue replacement
Range
Record and transfer audio materials
Set up suitable recording equipment, pop shields, set up screen with video image for actor to rerecord dialogue along to, record the new dialogue at the highest level of quality, store, securely
archive and backup
Processes
Import or transfer audio materials into multitrack environment, align so that dialogue is replaced (eg
by hand or by ADR software)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 216
Studio sound synchronisation (film clips)
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
It is envisaged that candidates will make use of a MIDI/audio sequencer which has the ability to
synchronise audio to imported film clips. Candidates are required to reconstruct the sound for a
short film soundtrack.
Candidates should be made fully aware of copyright restrictions on using un-licensed samples in
film soundtrack work. They should be encouraged to keep track of copyright permissions although
it is not necessarily productive to ban all use of un-cleared samples but it should be clearly
recognised that the film clip is for educational purposes and will not be released commercially.
Candidates will develop a relationship with the process of bringing together multiple audio
elements into a cohesive film soundtrack. They will evaluate the combination of different elements
and the emotional impact of these different sounds on the storyline. Part of the requirements for
this unit will be the reproduction of a piece of narrative speech in the studio synchronised up to a
piece of film footage.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 217
Level:
Studio sound synchronisation (computer
games)
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
Sound synchronisation for gaming is related to straight composition of sound or music and has
similar requirements to those for film soundtracks. However, there is the additional requirement for
interactive and dynamic relationships with users. Many game environments use layers of sound
which can interact with each other and the action directed by the game user on screen. There is
often a requirement for an atmospheric bed of music or sound which may change or cross-fade to
other pieces as the game user moves between territories in the game. Since the time frame of the
game is to a large extent controlled by the user and may be played for hundreds of hours there are
heightened requirements for game sound designers to establish sound effects and music which will
stand the test of time and repetition.
Candidates will develop skills relating to sound effect recording and acquisition, MIDI sequencing
and sound/music creation. Candidates will also evaluate and execute looping of audio materials
suitable for gaming environments.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain requirements for sourcing and combining audio for gaming environments
• Plan and produce audio for sections of gaming scenes
• Evaluate and execute looping of audio materials
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT24 Synchronise audio to visuals and gaming materials
• CCSMT33 Carry out studio sound synchronisation for computer games and multi-media
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 217
Outcome 1
Studio sound synchronisation (computer
games)
Explain requirements for sourcing and combining
audio for gaming environments
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Aurally evaluate sound elements within gaming environments
2
Create a list of requirements for short sections of gaming
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe audio requirements of gaming environments
2
Describe the importance of time-based audio synchronisation requirements
Range
List of requirements
Title list with name of game and name of student, create sections within list under different
headings (eg different types of audio), evaluate the nature of the clip (eg spot [triggered] effect,
looped backing atmos, music pad), loops, timing of the exact length of the loop required, how many
loops are required
Audio Requirements
Ambient/musical atmosphere, short spot effects, Foley effects, dialogue requirements, specific
musical sequences or effects, transition effects between screens, specific button or other control
effects other hardware or interface specific effects requirements
Time-based
Synch to spot effect, length and looping of atmospheric sound or music, suitability of music pacing
to action, visual triggers, reinforcement of visual aspects (eg short attack sounds for shock value)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 217
Outcome 2
Studio sound synchronisation (computer
games)
Plan and produce audio for sections of gaming
scenes
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Record and transfer audio materials into single locations for further use
2
Use appropriate software processes to test sections of gaming scenes
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the processes required to bring audio materials together to support on-screen
action during short sections of gaming scenes
Range
Record and transfer audio materials
Source sound effects from CDs and/or internet or other sources, record new sound effects in the
studio or on location, create/compose new musical effects or passages, source library music of a
suitable quality, maintain the highest level of quality, store and securely archive and backup
Processes
Import or transfer audio materials into gaming or simulated gaming environment aligned exactly
with requirements identified in the list, adjust as required for optimum integration with visual image
and including interactive elements, balance audio with respect to frequency, effects, stereo image,
ensure consistency between the requirements of the game and the production of the audio track
Test
Synchronise, audio elements, timing, tempo, looping tempo, pitch
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 217
Outcome 3
Studio sound synchronisation (computer
games)
Evaluate and execute looping of audio materials
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Use software to execute loops
2
Aurally evaluate loop points
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe technical audio considerations when looping sections of audio
2
Describe thematic effects of looping different lengths of materials
Range
Technical audio considerations
Sourcing materials, evaluating suitability for visual cues, edit loop start point, edit loop end
point/loop point, cross-fade looping where appropriate, beat/tempo changes at loop point, thematic
changes at loop point, frequency domain changes at loop point, level domain changes at loop point,
stereo field changes at loop point
Different lengths
2 second section, 10 second section, 30 second section
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 217
Studio sound synchronisation (computer
games)
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
A particular requirement when creating sound for gaming is the appreciation of the different
environments in which the sound will be experienced by the user from headphones to large Hi-Fi
home speakers or surround systems with sub-bass unit. With the multiplication of potential
combinations of different sound effects the mix down stage of gaming audio is less clear since the
combination of elements at any one time is not necessarily fixed and will depend upon user
interaction.
Candidates will need to address issues of frequency conflicts between elements so that, for
example, a background driving bass line is not suddenly combined with a bass-heavy sound effect
which over fills that available area of the frequency spectrum every time an action is initiated by the
game user. It is acknowledged that it is difficult to provide direct experience of the sounds that
candidates will create in an integrated game environment. However, educational products are
available to facilitate this process and in combination with screen-grab video footage from game
sequences this should provide enough materials for candidates to grasp the essential concepts.
Candidates will develop prototype atmospheres, sound effects and other short musical feature
effects to accompany game sequences. They will study game sequences and make evaluations of
the way in which music and sound is used in current games. They will develop sensitivity to the
consequences of operating sound within a non-linear gaming environment.
Legal and original use of material for synchronisation
Candidates must use their own original analogue or digital sources, it is not legal or indeed good
informed practice to ask candidates to break the law and use copyrighted material for this outcome.
Centres must promote good legal practice, use of other people’s copyrighted material without
evidence of permission will result in failure of this unit outcome.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 218
Level:
Web-based sound and music technology
2
Credit value: 8
Rationale
The internet is widely used as a delivery medium in today’s music industry, particularly in terms of
downloadable audio files. A whole industry has developed around the management of this new
medium and the intellectual rights of web-based audio file management and distribution.
This unit will give candidates an overview of the development of web-based audio. The unit will
show candidates how to avoid poor quality audio conversion and how to set practical bandwidth
and compression ratios. It will also deal with file management, file conversion, sample bit rates,
sample size, replication and archiving.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain the development of web-based audio
• Outline features of digital recording and playback mediums
• Outline file formats, conversion and playback options
• Convert stereo tracks into digitised web-based audio files
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT40 Manage digital broadcast and network online media
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 218
Outcome 1
Web-based sound and music technology
Explain the development of web-based audio
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research the development of web-based audio
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List the reasons for the popularity of web-based audio technology
2
List the main software developers
3
Explain web-based audio terminology
4
Describe types of new business models and their impact on the development of webbased audio
Range
Web-based audio
Compressed digital formats, PC, MAC, compression, formats, developing Hi-Def formats, audio files,
MP3, MP4 or WMA, CODECs, encoding, decoding, Microsoft ADPCM, ogg vorbis, PCM, VQF, MP3
(.mp3), streaming audio, software flash, HTML type development
Reasons
Piracy, consumer, artist, technology, long distance audience access, access time, speed, snap
shots, demo, profile, new business, illegal and legal distribution, software development, peer to
peer (P2P) freeware, shareware, flash memory, embedded flash memory, hard drives
Main software developers
Real audio, i-tunes, windows media player, winamp, NAD, zinf, sonique, ultraplayer, audacity,
goldwave, blaze audio, acoustica, wave pad, audiolib, blaze media pro, music match jukebox,
mp3developments, mp3 pro, audio edit, audio convertor, audion, bpm studio, konvertor, mp3
surgeon, mp3 gain, mp trim, ripcast, soundedit pro, white tiger, cooledit pro, exact audio, siren,
soundforge, liquid audio, smart, focus, audio record wizard
Web-based audio terminology
PC,MAC, compression, formats, audio files, MP3 or WMA, CODECs, encoding, decoding, microsoft
ADPCM, ogg vorbis, PCM, VQF, MP3 (.mp3) (MPEG audio layer 3), MP4 (.mp4) (MPEG audio layer 4)
streaming audio, meta data, DRM (digital rights management) ripping, transfer, file formats, file
conversion, bitrate, burn, bit depth, sample rates, bytes, CD, CD-R, CD-RW, MD, DAT, digital audio,
frequency, mono, stereo, normalisation, rip, wave, wave editors, waveforms, FTP Server, FTP, ISP,
sound card, A to D (ADC), D to A (DAC), freeware, shareware, flash memory, embedded flash
memory, hard drives
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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New business models
Non-exclusive digital rights management (DRM), non exclusive content delivery, ongoing contracts,
one off contracts, overheads, legal distribution, software development, peer to peer (P2P) freeware,
shareware, member only offers, free downloads
The Digital Economy Act (A new online law and standards to protect copyrights and digital works
including music/audio) has yet to be fully realised details were not available as this qualification was
published. It is expected to be in force sometime during 2010 and 2011. It is designed to prevent
unauthorised file sharing.
You are advised to keep up to date via the following link
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2010/ukpga_20100024_en_1
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 218
Outcome 2
Web-based sound and music technology
Outline features of digital recording and playback
mediums
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research information on current software recording mediums
2
Research information on current software playback mediums
3
Aurally evaluate current software playback mediums
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List current web-based software recording mediums
2
List current web-based software playback mediums
3
State the options and features of web-based recording and software playback mediums
Range
Software recording mediums
Logic, pro-tools, cakewalk, cubase, performer, sound forge, peak, audacity, real audio, i-tunes,
windows media player, winamp, NAD, zinf, sonique, ultraplayer, goldwave, blaze audio, acoustica,
wave pad, audiolib, blaze media pro, music match jukebox, mp3developments, mp3 pro, audio edit,
audio convertor, audion, bpm studio, konvertor, mp3 surgeon, mp3 gain, mp trim, ripcast,
soundedit pro, white tiger, cooledit pro, exact audio, siren, soundforge, liquid audio, smart, focus,
audio record wizard, freeware, shareware
Software playback mediums
Apple ipod, iriver, iaudio, irock, ibox, xen, creative archos, rio, toshiba, phillips, sony, hp, samsung,
dell, sandisk, lexar, jet audio, olympus, microtek, universal, motorola, RCA, mobiblu, XMmicro,
audiovox, benQ, TDK, oregon, panasonic, edge, smart media, acer, perception digital, sorell, pure
digital, oracom, slimbox, boomgear, blue orb, safecom, aigo, skullcandy, tuny, qoolqee, monolith,
diva, freeware, shareware, flash memory, embedded flash memory, hard drives
Options and features
Version, model, inputs, outputs, management, menus, conversion, format, developing Hi-Def
formats, file management, storage, PC,MAC, compression, formats, audio files, MP3 or WMA,
CODECs, encoding, decoding, microsoft ADPCM, ogg vorbis, PCM, VQF, MP3 (.mp3) (MPEG audio
layer 3), MP4 (.mp4, MPEG audio layer 4) streaming audio, meta data, DRM (digital rights
management) ripping, transfer, file formats, file conversion, bitrate, burn, bit depth, sample rates,
bytes, digital audio, frequency, mono, stereo, normalisation, rip, wave, wave editors, waveforms,
FTP Server, FTP, sound card, A to D (ADC), D to A (DAC), flash memory, embedded flash memory,
hard drives
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 218
Outcome 3
Web-based sound and music technology
Outline file formats, conversion and playback
options
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Research technical information on various encoded file formats
2
Research technical information on various conversion and playback options
3
Aurally evaluate the quality of conversion and playback options
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State the various web-based encoded file formats
2
State the bitrate (kbps) for encoded file formats
3
List digital audio file conversion and playback options
Range
Encoded file formats
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) Apple Lossless, ATRAC,
ATRAC3, ATRAC3plus, AU, AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved), Bitrate (data value required to store 1 sec
audio), Liquid Audio, MPEG(MPEG stands for Moving Picture Experts Group), MP3, MP3 Pro, MP4,
MDLP (mindisk) offer different compression options - regular recording mode - standard ATRAC
codec , LP2 mode - ATRAC3 codec, LP4 mode - ATRAC3 codec, Ogg Vorbis, QuickTime, RealMedia,
SDII (Sound Designer II) SDII files, like AIFF and WAV files, SDMI (Secure Digital Music Initiative) , SHN
(Shorten), Variable Bitrate (VBR), constant-bitrate (CBR), Vorbis (Ogg Vorbis), WAV, WMA (Windows
Media Audio) bitrate, kilobyte per second (kbps) lossless compression, lossy compression,
compression, decompression (codec), developing Hi-Def formats
Conversion and playback options
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) Apple Lossless, ATRAC,
ATRAC3, ATRAC3plus, AU, AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved), Liquid Audio, MPEG(MPEG stands for
Moving Picture Experts Group), MP3, MP3 Pro, MP4, Ogg Vorbis, QuickTime, RealMedia, SDII files,
like AIFF and WAV files, WAV, WMA (Windows Media Audio) bitrate, kilobyte per second (kbps) hi-fi,
lo-fi, lossless compression, lossy compression, compression, decompression (codec), developing
Hi-Def formats
Bitrate (kbps)
16kbps, 24kbps, 32kbps, 64kbps, 96kbps, 128kbps, 192-224kbps, variants (eg playback quality,
download speed, mono, stereo)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 218
Outcome 4
Web-based sound and music technology
Convert stereo tracks in to digitised web-based
audio files
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Transfer analogue or digital stereo audio sources
2
Select suitable and common file formats for conversion
3
Convert stereo audio sources into web-based stereo audio file formats
4
Create web-pages integrating audio file formats
5
Adopt good use of connectivity
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the importance of using legal and/or original stereo audio sources
Range
Analogue or digital stereo audio sources
Balanced stereo mix from DVD-R, DVD, DAT, ½’’ analogue tape, ¼’’ analogue tape, CD-R, CD, MD
File formats
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) Apple Lossless, ATRAC,
ATRAC3, ATRAC3plus, AU, AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved), Liquid Audio, MPEG (Moving Picture
Experts Group), MP3, MP3 Pro, MP4, Ogg Vorbis, QuickTime, RealMedia, SDII files, like AIFF and
WAV files, WAV, WMA (Windows Media Audio) bitrate, kilobyte per second (kbps) hi-fi, lo-fi, lossless
compression, lossy compression, compression, decompression (codec), developing Hi-Def formats
Web-based stereo audio file format
AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) Apple Lossless, ATRAC,
ATRAC3, ATRAC3plus, AU, AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved), Bitrate (data value required to store 1 sec
audio), Liquid Audio, MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group), MP3, MP3 Pro, MP4, MDLP (mindisk)
offer different compression options - regular recording mode - standard ATRAC codec , LP2 mode ATRAC3 codec, LP4 mode - ATRAC3 codec, Ogg Vorbis, QuickTime, RealMedia, SDII (Sound
Designer II) SDII files (ie AIFF and WAV files), SDMI (Secure Digital Music Initiative) , SHN (Shorten),
Variable Bitrate (VBR), constant-bitrate (CBR), Vorbis (Ogg Vorbis), WAV, WMA (Windows Media
Audio) bitrate, kilobyte per second (kbps) lossless compression, lossy compression, compression,
decompression (codec), developing Hi-Def formats
Create web pages
HTML editors, quarkXpress, flash, dreamweaver, frontpage
Legal and/or original
Own original analogue or digital sources, copyrighted material, illegal use of other peoples content,
music or loops is forbidden without prior consent
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 218
Web-based sound and music technology
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Many record companies use the internet to promote new and established audio material on a daily
basis. Due to the equality of provision of services across all internet users globally, there are
relatively simple business models for net based audio products compared with the complex
arrangements for physical CD/LP/MD sales between different territories. This is helping to drive the
popularity and increasing use by the record companies of this type of music content delivery
system. There is also a practical requirement for the record industry to cash in on downloads of
audio files and at the same time to combat illegal file sharing in order to secure revenue streams for
artists in their pay. On a smaller scale, independent artists and promotion companies can easily sell
products on the internet without being squeezed out by larger distribution deals or the refusal of
high street retail stores to promote them.
Many software programs have been developed to record, convert and play audio files and
candidates will look at popular programs available and the options they offer for encoding audio. A
study will be made of current competing audio streaming and download formats. Candidates will be
shown opportunities for including meta data in their audio streams such as title, artist etc.
Candidates will be shown the basic procedures of how to embed audio within a web-page.
Candidates will receive information on the development of web-based audio and how it is beginning
to become a dominant medium. Candidates will understand different software processes
associated with web-based audio development and the implications of making web-based audio
files. They will be encouraged to make good use of file management and will carry out practical
exercises in digitising and encoding stereo materials into audio file formats suitable for web-based
distribution. Candidates will also embed suitably formatted audio files into a web page.
Legal and original use of material for digitisation
Candidates must use their own original analogue or digital sources, it is not legal or indeed good
informed practice to ask candidates to break the law and use copyrighted material for this outcome,
centres must promote good legal practice, use of other people’s copyrighted material without
evidence of permission will result in failure of this unit.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
The Digital Economy Act (A new online law and standards to protect copyrights and digital works
including music/audio) has yet to be fully realised details were not available as this qualification was
published. It is expected to be in force sometime during 2010 and 2011. It is designed to prevent
unauthorised file sharing.
You are advised to keep up to date via the following link
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2010/ukpga_20100024_en_1
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
133
Unit 219
Level:
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
Human ears convey information to the brain and nervous system. Sounds starting as air pressure
oscillations are transduced into neuronal activity by the mechanisms of the ear by means of a
complex series of events. The sensitivity of the human ear and the interpretation of these impulses
by the brain (psychoacoustics) is partly a subjective matter but can be underpinned by theory
relating to sound and sound waves. Some of these aspects of sound theory are particularly
important when applying sound re-enforcement techniques in large rooms, halls and other spaces.
In this unit candidates learn about the nature and physiological make up of the human ear, the
nature of sound and sound-waves and how these properties impact on sound reinforcement
systems, room acoustics and acoustic treatment. Candidates will evaluate acoustic and electrical
instrument groups to help inform their general awareness of primary acoustic considerations.
Related health & safety considerations for the sound and music industries will also be covered.
Technical aspects of sound reinforcement systems will be covered in order to potentially prepare
candidates for further study at Level 3.
Learning outcomes
There are five outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Describe the structure and response of human hearing
• Describe the nature of sound and sound wave properties
• Describe acoustic and electric instrument groups
• Evaluate room acoustics and acoustic treatment techniques
• Describe sound reinforcement systems
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT29 Evaluate acoustics and sound reinforcement systems (PAs)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
134
Unit 219
Outcome 1
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
Describe the structure and response of human
hearing
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out research relating to the structure of the human ear
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the structure and working principles of the human ear
2
Explain the limitations and sensitivity of human hearing
3
Identify relevant health and safety measures to be considered when working with sound
Range
Structure
Outer ear: tragus, lobe, concha, helix, anti-helix, ear canal, air vibration, pressure waves, protect,
amplify, source location, compressible fluid (air in the outer ear)
Middle ear: mechanical vibration, mechanical waves, impedance matching, equalisation,
compression, pressure, interconnected bones (the hammer, anvil and stirrup), motions of a
mechanical system (the bone/levers of the middle ear)
Inner ear: mechanical, hydrodynamic, the cochlea, cochlear nerve, the semicircular canals,
vestibule, endolymph (water-like) fluid, otolith (calcium carbonate crystals) the auditory nerve,
motion conversion in non-compressible fluid (fluid within the inner ear)
Nervous system: electrochemical impulses, transduction, wave analysis, neural system of the ear,
electrochemical, processing of information, brain recognition
Working principles
How the ears respond, speed of sound, localisation (direction of sound), amplitude, frequency,
speed of sound, stereo field, volume difference, timing difference, distance, balance, vertigo
Limitations and sensitivity
Threshold of hearing, threshold of pain, dynamic range, hearing loss with age, equal loudness
curves/frequency response
Health and safety
Damage to hearing, temporary threshold shift, permanent threshold shift, hearing loss factor with
age, tinnitus, sound pressure levels (SPLs), hazardous levels, continuous exposure to high volumes,
safe aural/listening limits, earplugs
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
135
Unit 219
Outcome 2
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
Describe the nature of sound and sound wave
properties
Practical Skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Undertake research into the nature of sound and sound wave properties
2
Carry out basic calculations to determine pitch, frequency, velocity and amplitude
3
Carry out basic calculations to determine sound intensity
Underpinning Knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the nature of sound and sound wave properties
2
Explain how sound intensity relates to the decibel scale
Range
Nature of sound
Waves, mechanical waves, longitudinal waves, transverse waves, pressure waves, standing waves
and resonance, shock waves, wave motion, oscillating patterns, wave properties, wavelength,
frequency, velocity, period, amplitude, high air-pressure (compressions), low air-pressure
(rarefactions), infrasound, ultrasound
Sound wave properties
Pitch and frequency, vibration, particle displacement, particle velocity, sound power, sound
pressure and intensity, decibel scale, the speed of sound, interference and beats, superposition,
destructive and constructive interference the doppler effect, reflection, refraction, diffraction,
natural frequency, fundamental frequency, intervals, octave, third, forth and fifth harmonics,
standing waves, , diffusion, sine wave, square wave, pulse wave, triangle wave, sawtooth wave,
white noise, pink noise, brown noise, timbre, Fourier's theorem
Basic calculations
Velocity = frequency x wavelength, period = 1/frequency, frequency = speed/wavelength, 1 hertz =
1 vibration/second, speed = wavelength/period = wavelength x frequency, amplitude = the height
of the wave, measured in meters, wavelength = the distance between crests, measured in meters,
period = the time it takes for one complete wave to pass a given point, measured in seconds (cycles
per second), frequency = the number of complete waves that pass a point in one second, measured
in hertz (Hz)
Sound intensity
0-160dB, threshold of hearing, threshold of pain, anachoic room/chamber, rain, wind, whisper,
normal conversation, home stereo, speech, vacuum, busy high street, outside ambience, trains,
pneumatic drill, circular saw, band rehearsal room, jet fly past, rock gig/nightclub, gunshot, siren, jet
plane take off, instant perforation of eardrum, units of Watts/meter2 , inverse square relationship,
power and distance, point source, dipole source, line source, plane source
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
136
Decibel scale
Measure sound intensity, logarithmic scale based on multiples of 10, bel, decibel, ratio of signal
levels, relationship of two values of power
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
137
Unit 219
Outcome 3
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
Describe acoustic and electric instrument groups
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Undertake research into musical instruments
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe different features of families of musical instruments
2
Describe acoustic and electric instruments
3
Identify instruments that are plucked, struck , strummed or bowed
4
Identify open and closed-end air column instruments
5
Describe the relationship between the size of the instrument (mass) and the sound that it
makes
Range
Musical instruments
Acoustic:
Violin family: violin, viola, cello (or violoncello), double bass
String family: guitar, ukulele, mandolin, lute; harp, autoharp, dulcimer; violin, viola, cello, double
bass, sitar, balalaika, samisen
Brass family: cornet and flugel horn, trumpet, tenor horn trombone, tuba, french horn
Woodwind family: flute, piccolo, oboe, English horn, clarinet, e-flat clarinet, bass clarinet bassoon,
contrbassoon
Other wind instruments: harmonica, bagpipes, flute, piccolo, recorder, saxophone, tuba,
sousaphone, accordion, pipe organ
Percussion family: orchestral percussion, timpani, glockenspiel, xylophone, cymbals, triangle, guiro,
snare drum, bass drum, toms, congas, bongas, dumbek or goblet (hand drums), tambourine,
maracas, chimes, marimba, gongs, bells, celesta, vibraphone, piano
Electrical: electric guitar, electric bass guitar, electric fretless guitars, electric MIDI guitar
controllers, slide guitars, electro-acoustic guitar, electro-acoustic bass guitar, guitar effects pedals,
other acoustic instruments with electric microphone/pick-ups (violins etc) electric pianos (Fender
Rhodes) electric organs (Hammond), theremin, mellotron, synthesisers, wind controllers, electronic
drum kits/controllers
Open and closed end air column instruments
Flute, trombone, saxophone, oboe, organ pipes, recorder, trumpet, horn
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Unit 219
Outcome 4
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
Evaluate room acoustics and acoustic treatment
techniques
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Calculate dimensions and features of rooms
2
Evaluate a selection of materials for absorption coefficients
3
Evaluate the building needs and requirements of studios and halls/venues
4
Evaluate acoustic properties of surfaces within rooms/buildings
5
Make acoustic measurements
6
Produce an action list to improve acoustic room environments
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify acoustic properties of surfaces within rooms/buildings
2
Identify when to use absorbers or diffusers to eliminate reflected sound
Range
Dimensions and features of rooms
Length, width, and height, room resonance modes, axiel, tangential, oblique, flat response, room
symmetry, small, medium and large room areas, cubic volume (metres/feet), room ratios, room
surface reflectivity, building techniques, design, room location, floated construction, room within a
room, wall construction, floor construction, ceiling construction, window construction, door
construction, ventilation and air supply, air conditioning (AC), critical distance
Materials
Sound absorption/insulation characteristics of: brick, wood, stone, plaster board, plaster, glass,
block, cement, furniture, fixtures, material coverings, paints, varnish, special finishes
Studio and halls/venues
Recording studios, programming/project studios, home studios, broadcast studios, radio suites,
edit suites, mastering suite, copy/transfer room, interview booths, vocal booth, machine room,
rehearsal rooms, orchestral recording space/areas, theatres, concert venues, public address
spaces, conference venues, stadium and arena spaces, open air concerts/events,
restaurants/ambience, churches, religious buildings, halls, tents/marquees/big tops
Surfaces
Concave convex, reflective and absorptive surfaces, remedial treatments, , diffuser surfaces,
absorption traps, unwanted reflection off surfaces, room and wall shapes, ceiling surfacing, floor
surfacing, materials, porous absorbers/panels, panels, frames/membranes, Helmholtz resonators,
sound insulation, sound isolation
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Acoustic measurements
Sabins, frequency and wavelength, absorption coefficients noise reduction coefficient (NRC), noise
criteria (NC), RT-60 tests (reverb time), averaged modal results, live room = long Rt-60 = larger
reflectivity, dead room = a short Rt-60 = minimal reflectivity, frequency response of rooms, sine
wave tests, pink noise tests, white noise tests, spectral analysis (20Hz-20,000Hz), time domain
measurements, time, length directivity, critical distance
Reflected sound
Pure reflection, absorption, diffusion, reflection free zone, required reflection/surfaces, comb
filtering, haas effect, standing waves, flutter echos, phase cancellation
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 219
Outcome 5
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
Describe sound reinforcement systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out research into loudspeaker designs and installations
2
Analyse basic characteristics of halls and other venues and devise remedial solutions
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify the features of loudspeaker designs
2
Describe different features of sound reinforcement systems
3
Describe technical and design principles behind sound reinforcement systems
4
Identify common manufacturers of live sound equipment
Range
Loudspeaker designs
Driver: Tweeters, woofers, sub woofers, midrange drivers, horns, dome cone, gasket, voice coil, tag
panels, housing, magnets
Enclosure: Baffles, cabinets, sealed, ported, bass enclosures, bipole, direct radiating, dampening
methods, panel vibration
General: Crossover point, crossover, passive crossover, active crossover, low pass crossover, high
pass crossover, two way crossovers, three way crossovers, DSP crossovers, frequency response,
band, spectrum, power handling, decibels (dB), impedance ratings, filters, direct radiating, binding
cable posts, spring cable posts, bandwidth, Hz, kHz, flat response, distortion, soundstage width,
depth height, direction, imaging, precedence effect, dispersion, on axis, off axis, directivity,
dampening methods, soffit enclosures, diffraction, rear plates, time, length directivity, electron
flow, electromagnetic energy, dynamic range, two way, three way, four way speaker designs
Characteristics
Reverberant field, direct field, intelligibility, critical distance, loudspeaker directivity, feedback,
frequency response, reflective surfaces
Features
Front of house desk, monitor desk, splitter boxes, stage box, DI box, multicore cables (snakes),
speaker cables, power distribution units (distros) top boxes, mid range boxes, bass bins, monitor
cabs, passive crossover, active crossover, in ear monitors, microphones, radio microphones, radio
mic receivers (monopole or duplex), communications systems between operators, CD player,
graphic EQs, reverb and effects units, speaker delay units, rear stacks, flown array speaker systems,
mic cables, other cables and connectors
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Technical and design principles
Speech and music considerations, equipment selection and evaluation, loop system (hard of
hearing), reliability, obstructions, audience considerations, building limitations, impacts of building
shape, building size, venue requirements, design constraints and implications, health and safety,
law, (public space) social, and ethical design considerations, analysis, testing, customisation, social
benefits of audience enjoyment/experience, time-sync/delays, sound from stage, insulation, tonal
compensation, frequency analysers, sound from loudspeakers, intelligibility, reproduction, clarity,
interference, shielding, grounding, feedback, reflections, lateral reflections, diffusion, speed of
sound, noise control (NC), noise reduction control (NRC), machinery, fans, AC units, human, RT60
tests, pink noise
Common manufacturers
Loudspeaker systems: D&B concert systems, V-DOSC concert systems, JBL, Martin Audio, MTD,
Bose, Electro Voice, Turbosound, Nexo, Coda Audio, Proac, Meyer Sound, Nexo, K&F, Renkus Hienz,
Altec, Adamson, EAW, Alcons Audio, Community STS, L-Acoustics, Synco, Klein & Hummel,FBT,
QSC, RCF, Tannoy, Yamaha
Power amps: D&B, Lab-Gruppen, Crown, Camco, L-Acoustics, Coda, Crest, Lab Gruppen, QSC,
Alcons Audio ,Crest , MC2, Yamaha, Quad
Mixing Desks: Midas, Cadac, Yamaha, Soundcraft, Allen & Heath, Phonic, Digico, EAW, Digidesign,
Mackie
Microphones: Beyer, Sennheiser, sE Electronics, AKG, Audio Technica, Shure, Electro Voice, Trantec
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Unit 219
Acoustics and sound reinforcement systems
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
This unit builds upon knowledge gained in the Equalisation unit.
It is important that candidates clearly understand the health and safety aspects of working with
large or small systems of PA amplification. Sound reinforcement is designed to reinforce audio,
speech and music in difficult building/venue situations to enable the entire audience to perceive
true intelligibility and enjoyment of music and speech throughout the general audience area.
Tutors should ensure that health and safety considerations are taken into account throughout this
unit, particularly in relation to:
1
Students wellbeing (hearing)
2
Sound reinforcement systems (practical)
Direction of sound
Sounds, which arrive furthest from the ear, arrive fractionally later than the nearest sounds. The
delay in phase is interpreted by the brain in terms of direction. Longer waves at low frequency
deliver a very slight phase difference and would therefore be difficult to locate (omni directional).
Short wave high frequency sounds can therefore be pinpointed with more ease.
Practical research
It is envisaged that colleges will be able to provide candidates with the opportunity to study live
sound in venues and other spaces. As part of the candidate’s research it is also anticipated that
they will attend performances at live music venues outside of regular college hours and make
evaluations and observations to bring back to the college environment.
Orchestra
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
Level:
DJ technology and sound equipment
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
The intention of this unit is to introduce candidates to both analogue and digital DJ equipment and
to examine the basic skills and technology involved.
The DJ’ing industry is an important element of the world-wide music sectors and very popular
amongst youth and urban cultures. It is also the first introduction to music and professional music
equipment for some young people. Dance music and urban genres have kept the DJ culture very
much alive over the last 20 years and it is this strong following, practical skills base and cultural
interest that attracts learners to want to study the topic.
In the wider music arena, DJs can command high fees for re-mixing. Some well known DJs have as
high a profile as the international artists they play in their sets. Bands and artists can find advantage
in a DJs re-mixes enabling their music to crossover into the club scene.
Learning outcomes
There are five outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Outline the DJ industry and opportunities for employment
• Correctly setup and connect together hardware devices
• Operate and compare analogue and digital DJ equipment
• Evaluate DJ techniques
• Carry out essential equipment maintenance
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT35 Operate DJ and sound PA equipment
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
Outcome 1
DJ technology and sound equipment
Outline the DJ industry and opportunities for
employment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out research identifying employment areas within the DJ industry
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe DJ skills required for each area of the DJ industry
Range
DJ industry
Radio, internet radio, DJ agent, radio DJ, local resident club DJ, overseas resident club DJ, bar DJ,
weddings/parties/events mobile DJ, club/event promoter, freelance re-mixer, dance label re-mixer,
press/critic/reviewer, podcast content provider
DJ skills
Beat mixing, beat per minute (BPMs), turntable cueing, mixing, pitching, speed, tempo, bars,
sections of music, fades, EQ’ing, drop mixing, double drop mixing, cutting , double cutting, phase
and time related problems, scratching, instrumentals, accapellas, set, play-list, structure, ambience,
samples, effects, microphones, headphones, digital mixer, analogue mixer, peripherals, custom
processing, interview techniques
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
Outcome 2
DJ technology and sound equipment
Correctly setup and connect together hardware
devices
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Prepare and set-up DJ equipment including audio and power cables
2
Evaluate and sound check the playback of DJ equipment devices
3
Dismantle DJ equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify and name DJ equipment
2
Identify the correct sockets and cables to connect pieces of DJ equipment together
Range
DJ equipment
Belt drive turntables, direct drive turntables, CD turntables, 2 channel DJ mixers, 3 channel DJ
mixers, 4 channel DJ mixers, 5 channel DJ mixers, 6 channel DJ mixers, budget and pro DJ packs,
amplifiers, speakers, monitors, microphones, wireless radio microphones, headphones, cartridges,
arm weighting, pitch, speed, slipmats, effects units, iPod/MP3 mixing consoles/players, cables and
leads, looms, stands and lighting bars, lighting effects, special effects (smoke/laser machines), flight
cases, records/CDs, technics, stanton, kam,citronic, korg, hercules, numark, gemini, allen & heath,
pioneer, vestax, ecler, behringer, denon, ion, sony, sennheiser, tascam, urei, AKG, shure, ortophon,
alesis, sound lab, cerwin vega, prolight, stageline, JBL, Bose, carlsboro, QSC, SKB
Audio and power cables
Phono/RCA leads,1/4’’ jack leads, mini-jack leads, speakon plugs, peripheral hardware (MD,MP3
players), socket converters/adaptors & leads, headphone leads, microphone jack/XLR leads, stereo
output cables, power cables, IEC cables, mains cables
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
Outcome 3
DJ technology and sound equipment
Operate and compare analogue and digital DJ
equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Operate and demonstrate all functions of analogue and digital DJ equipment
2
Compare the difference between analogue and digital DJ equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the difference between analogue and digital DJ equipment
Range
Functions
Cue, rewind, drop, pitch, speed, 33rpm, 45rpm, 78rpm, BPM matching, tempo, 3 band EQ, 4 band
EQ, monitor, playback, cross-fade, microphone check, analogue mixing, digital mixing, effects,
sampling, top loaders, front loaders, slot loaders, DSP effects, preset digital effects, auto cue, auto
synch, BPM counters, anti-shock, jog wheels, auto beat loop, PFL metering, master metering, kill
switches, gain controls, lamp sockets, goose neck lamp, LED displays, digital menu displays +/4/8/16/30/50/100% pitch range, anti-slip, anti skate, adjustable tone arms, adjustable feet,
forward/reverse play, MP3/4 compatible, auto talk over, assignable cross faders, slope reverse,
curve, digital outputs, USB
Difference
Connections, functions available, build quality, number of physical controllers, sound quality, size,
weight, stability, durability, price
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
Outcome 4
DJ technology and sound equipment
Evaluate DJ techniques
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Rehearse and demonstrate key DJ techniques
2
Plan and perform a short DJ set
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe key DJ techniques
2
Describe the range of skills required for DJ techniques
Range
DJ techniques
Beat mixing, beat per minute (BPMs), turntable cueing, mixing, pitching, speed, tempo, bars,
sections of music, fades, EQ’ing, drop mixing, double drop mixing, cutting , double cutting, phase
and time related problems, scratching, instrumentals, accapellas, set, play-list, structure, ambience,
samples, effects, microphones, headphones, digital mixing, analogue mixing, peripherals, custom
processing, interview/MC techniques, new tricks of the trade (always evolving)
Plan
Timings of different techniques, linking techniques, selecting audio materials, sequencing audio
materials, evaluating own capabilities, auditing available equipment
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
Outcome 5
DJ technology and sound equipment
Carry out essential equipment maintenance
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Operate equipment following health and safety procedures
2
Identify potential maintenance requirements
3
Perform essential DJ equipment maintenance
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State the importance of health and safety procedures
2
Explain essential DJ equipment maintenance
Range
Health and safety procedures
Correct voltage selections, power cables, power plugs, fuse ratings, earthing/binding/ground
terminals, audio cables, audio connections, cable/signal continuity tests, spare leads,
spillage/liquids, storage & transportation of equipment, lifting, clean equipment with appropriate
cleaning supplies, input/output line tests
DJ equipment maintenance
Spare leads, spare power cables, spare fuses (various ratings), dust, compressed air canisters, antistatic treatments, general cleaning of equipment, other specialised cleaners/lubricants,
input/output line tests, testing of all audio cables, platter, headshell, cartridge, stylus, faders,
storage cases, modifications/custom spares/equipment, modifications, replacement parts, wear
and tear, arm adjustments, height, weighting, balance, anti-skate, speed, lubrication, shock
absorption, feet height adjustment, slipmats
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 220
DJ technology and sound equipment
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Candidates should be expected to play an additional 30 minute set of mixed material at the very end
of this unit. It would be seen as extremely good practice if candidates organised a live event and
took part in the event as a DJ. A live event would require the candidate to utilise all skills gained
from completion of this unit.
DJ techniques will have been rehearsed by candidates to enable them to present this second set,
showing improvements on techniques evidenced during outcome four of this unit. This second set
should be recorded via a live recorded medium such as MD/CD or on a video camera with external
line level stereo feeds.
Candidates should also watch, observe and learn from DJ videos, workshops and demonstrations.
DJ performances should be observed by the assessor.
Recommended Professional DJ equipment: technics, stanton, kam,citronic, korg, hercules,
numark, gemini, allen & heath, pioneer, vestax, ecler, behringer, denon, ion, sony, sennheiser,
tascam, urei, AKG, shure, ortophon, alesis, sound lab, cerwin vega, prolight, stageline, JBL, Bose,
carlsboro, QSC, SKB
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
150
Unit 221
Level:
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
2
Credit value: 4
Rationale
Today’s recording and sound studios are a complex mixture of analogue and digital hardware and
software systems, many of which have assorted hard-wired connections. The end quality of a
recording is entirely dependent on the reliability of associated connectors along the signal chain.
Sound and recording studios often have a quantity of cable looms which carry important signals
over long distances; they can be heavy in weight and are in daily use. During operation some of the
connections associated with this wiring will become damaged, worn or may become defective due
to dry joints. It is important that people involved in the music and sound industries have a good
working knowledge in order to be able to test, repair and replace wiring and associated
connections.
This unit will focus on the skills required to repair common wiring connection problems using basic
information on how to connect up and solder cables safely. The unit will demonstrate how
candidates can make their own leads and to construct bespoke leads for a series of applications.
Learning outcomes
There are five outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Identify wiring for common connectors
• Isolate wiring and connectivity problems
• Safely setup soldering equipment
• Prepare a selection of cables and connectors
• Make or repair individual leads
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 guided learning hours should be allocated to this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT28 Carry out soldering and wiring basic repairs and maintenance for sound and audio
industries
• CCSMT30 Carry out basic repairs and maintenance of sound equipment
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
151
Unit 221
Outcome 1
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Identify wiring for common connectors
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Produce detailed wiring diagrams of a variety of industry connectors
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify the correct wiring for a variety of industry connectors
2
Identify correct wiring terminals for wiring connections
3
Describe unbalanced and balanced wiring
4
Describe signal connectivity
Range
Industry connectors
Unbalanced ¼” type A jack, balanced ¼” type A jack (TRS), balanced type B jack (post office), bantam
jack, male/female XLRs, RCA phono, mini jack, mini mono jack, mini stereo jack, headphone ¼” type
jack, headphone mini stereo jack
Wiring diagrams
Connectivity of hot, positive (+) cold, negative (-) earth, ground, sleeve, points on each connector,
CAD or other IT related diagrams
Wiring terminals
Terminals, buckets, sheaths, points of contact
Unbalanced and balanced
TRS (Tip Ring Sleeve), XLR (Earth, Live Return)
Signal connectivity
Inspect and identify connections, trace opposite ends of wired connections, cable wiring loom
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 221
Outcome 2
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Isolate wiring and connectivity problems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Locate common faults in connectivity and wiring through continuity tests
2
Isolate and report connectivity and wiring problems
3
Produce plans of action to restore connectivity
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe common faults in connectivity and wiring
Range
Common faults in connectivity and wiring
Dry joints, broken connection, broken or damaged wiring, damaged connectors, oxidisation, RFI
interference, deterioration, degradation, dirt, resistance, phase, ground or earth problems
Continuity tests
Simple A/B electrical signal tests, isolate wired connection causing concern, eliminate good
connections, repair in place, defect analysis, performance analysis, quality analysis
Plans of action
Basic plan of action, replace, repair, parts required, identified resources, renew, change, restore
connectivity
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 221
Outcome 3
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Safely setup soldering equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Prepare designated area for soldering equipment
2
Organise and safely setup equipment and tools ready for use
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the importance of keeping work areas clean and safe
2
Describe the importance of ensuring that equipment and tools are safe before use
Range
Prepare designated area
Good health and safety practice, uncluttered area, good light, spot/bench lamp, ventilation
Equipment and tools
Soldering iron, tinned/cleaned iron, damp sponge, iron holder/stand, spool of 60/40 (or 63/37) rosin
core solder, heat resistant matting (mats), access to power source, resin core solder wire, flux,
various hand tools, snips, long nosed pliers, flat nosed pliers, wire cutting devices, vices, clamps,
solder wick, magnifying glass stand, continuity test equipment, heat shrink, replacement parts, new
connectors, FST wiring cable, shielded microphone and guitar wiring cable, spare soldering iron tips
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 221
Outcome 4
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Prepare a selection of cables and connectors
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Prepare and strip various cables and wires with appropriate tools
2
Prepare and tin various cables and wires
3
Prepare and tin a selection of common connectors
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the processes involved in preparing new or repaired connections
Range
Prepare and strip
Size, lengths, exposed wire, neat preparation, inserting the wire, wire gauge, hand pressure,
gripper jaws, release stripped wire, trim, twist
Tools
Wire-stripping tools, wire gauge adjustment, rotary, and bench wire strippers
Cables and wires
Foil screened twin-core wiring cable (installation), braided screen twin-core shielded microphone or
line level wiring cable
Prepare and tin
‘Tinned’, ‘tinning’, a pre-coated clean surface with a thin coat of solder, surfaces to be soldered
must be thoroughly cleaned and ‘tinned’, soldering iron and resin cored solder, items or parts to be
joined must be properly mated to connect the two tinned surfaces, surfaces to be tinned with
solder must be clean, free from water, dirt and any grease, make use of very fine emery cloth to
clean connections to be repaired should they be dirty or oxidised
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
155
Unit 221
Outcome 5
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Make or repair individual leads
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Make or repair a selection of leads
2
Check leads for performance
3
Test connectivity of repaired or replacement parts
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify types of leads and connectors
2
State how various leads are wired and constructed
3
Identify points of weakness of types of leads
Range
Leads
FST cable, microphone cable, various configurations of paired cables with ground (looms), mono
jack to jack guitar/synthesiser lead, 2 way loom,4 way loom 8 way loom, 12 way loom, 16 way loom,
24 way loom, (any connection configuration), D-sub type connectors to mono jacks/TRS/XLR, phono,
unbalanced ¼’’ jack to unbalanced XLR, TRS to XLR, XLR to XLR, female to male headphone lead,
phono to phono lead, twin phono to twin phono lead
Performance
Assess sonic performance appropriate for lead made or repaired, signal strength, grounding,
phase, strength/durability
Test connectivity
Check all new replacement leads are correctly wired and in full working order, check any
replacement parts are now functional, test any component or part that has been replaced or
repaired prior to being put into the working environment, check for durability and strength, simple
A/B electrical signal tests, isolated defect analysis, performance analysis, quality analysis
Connectors
Unbalanced ¼” type a mono jack, balanced ¼” type A jack (TRS) balanced type B jack (post office),
bantam jack, male/female XLRs, RCA phono, mini jack, mini mono jack, mini stereo jack, headphone
¼” type jack, headphone mini stereo jack
Points of weakness
Secure (clamped) wiring, good connectivity, clean joints, insulated wires/wiring, flexibility, dry joints,
phase, grounding/earth, heat shrink
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
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Unit 221
Soldering and wiring for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Soldering is the process by which two or more metal parts are connected by a heated alloy. The
alloy melts at a lower temperature than either of the pieces of metal and the molten solder passes
into (permeates) the molecular structure of each of the metals. On cooling, the alloy forms a
common bond, connecting the metals. Today’s studios are a mixture of analogue and digital
systems most of which have hard wired connections.
Without wiring inside a studio always being in good order it would be impossible to record anything.
Soldering skills can save the day at any moment. Conversely someone may bring in equipment that
needs a specific wiring system to be made up.
Metals that are to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned before starting work. To further clean
the surface and remove oxides, which form rapidly, a flux can be applied. A flux seals the surface
preventing tarnishing by the atmosphere. Heat resistant matting is advised throughout, as is the use
of vices, clamps, various hand tools and good ventilation. Surfaces to be soldered must be
thoroughly cleaned and ‘tinned’ (pre-coated with a thin coat of solder). This must be accomplished
with a soldering iron and resin cored solder.
The parts to be joined must be properly mated and sufficient heat must be applied with a well
specified soldering iron to connect the two tinned surfaces. The surface heat of the metals must be
sufficient to melt the solder completely. If the temperature is insufficient, this will create poorly
made joints which are called ‘dry joints’ and are a common cause of electrical signal faults. Always
inspect and test the new joint.
Antex and Weller are renowned manufacturers of well made temperature controlled soldering
irons. Multicore makes resin core solder wire with cores of Ersin, a non corrosive flux.
Do not ever touch connections after completion of soldering until items have fully cooled down,
metals are very effective conductors of heat and candidates are advised that this heat must
dissipate (cool down) before items are released or picked up. To ignore this advice could cause
serious burns injuries to the skin.
Man-made fabrics warning
These materials usually melt when they come into contact with the hot solder, so do not make
repairs when you are dressed in Polyester, Rayon or Spandex, nylon. To ignore this advice could
cause serious burns to the skin.
Candidates should be careful with a hot soldering iron when using one for the first time. It’s easy to
drop on a carpet/floor surface by accident, or drop onto their leg/s. Make sure they have a holder
for the iron when not in use and they become used to handling a hot iron with confidence.
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
157
Unit 222
Level:
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
2
Credit value: 6
Rationale
The field of audio electronics is of interest to candidates studying sound engineering and music
technology because the quality of all analogue electrical signals is influenced by the components
through which they pass. In the digital-domain, electronics influences the reliability and speed of
digital algorithm operations.
Surface mount technologies are leading to the redundancy of some servicing and repair operations.
However, an appreciation of electrical circuit design and construction will help candidates
appreciate the transformations involved in the analogue audio signal path and there are still many
small repairs and adjustments which may be carried out by a semi-skilled operator in the field.
An appreciation of electrical quantities and related equations can help the modern audio engineer
to preserve proper signal characteristics and to achieve good matching between different types of
equipment.
Completion of this unit by candidates does not comprise qualify candidates to repair or service
electronic equipment but it is intended to give candidates a detailed overview of specific areas
associated with electrical and electronic technologies within the music, sound and audio visual
industries.
Learning outcomes
There are five outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Describe sources of energy and power
• Describe voltage, current, resistance and impedance
• Describe conductors and insulators
• Describe electronic components and the construction of electronic equipment
• Conduct different types of electrical measurements
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 40 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT30 Carry out basic repairs and maintenance of sound equipment
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
158
Unit 222
Outcome 1
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Describe sources of energy and power
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Carry out correct mains electrical power wiring of a 13 amp plug and socket
2
Make basic calculations of energy and power
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State sources of electrical power
2
Describe types of energy and power
3
State parameters relating to mains electrical power
Range
Mains electrical power
Function of fuses, fuse values, fast blow fuses for sensitive equipment, function of earth trip
systems, function of earthed cable shielding systems, mains connectors, mains cables, power
transmission at high voltages, local transformer reduction to lower voltages, basic understanding of
industrial requirements for 3-phase power supply, (three voltages or currents that differ by a third of
a cycle, or 120 electrical degrees, from each other; phase sequence)
Basic calculations of energy and power
Energy (joules = wattseconds), amount of energy converted into a unit of time, device and
equipment power ratings, Power (Watts) = V*I, Power = V2/R, Power = I2*R
Sources of electrical power
Mains power, National Grid, generator, cells, positive terminal, negative terminal, chemicals used
for energy storage, types of cells in common use, primary cells (zinc carbon, zinc air, alkaline
manganese, lithium, silver oxide) and secondary cells (lead acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel metal
hydride, nickel-zinc, lithium-ion, lithium-polymer), batteries, cells, uses of cells and batteries, correct
and incorrect polarity, cell/battery replacement, electrodes, electrolyte, capacity measurement,
volts, ampere-hours (Ah) or thousandths of ampere hours (mAh), static electricity
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
159
Unit 222
Outcome 2
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Describe voltage, current, resistance and
impedance
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Locate equipment labels and state values for mains voltage and frequency
2
Carry out calculations for voltage, resistance, impedance and current
3
Produce diagrams of series and parallel resistance
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
List mains voltage requirements of different countries
2
Describe the relationship of voltage, resistance and impedance and their effects on current
Range
Mains voltage
110-120v, 127v (Russia/Spain/Brazil), 220-240v, 220-380v, 240-415v voltages, step up step down
transformers/conversions, switchable voltage equipment, current, Alessandro Volta (1745-1827),
50-60Hz
Calculations
Power in watts (P), emf in volts (E or V), current in amperes (I), ohms (Ω), reactance, resistance (R)
(series and parallel), Ohms law, impedance (Z) matching impedances, power factors, reactive
factors, EMF and potential difference, I = V/R, I = P/V, R = V/I, R = P/I2, R = V2/P, V = IR, V = P/I
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
160
Unit 222
Outcome 3
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Describe conductors and insulators
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Measure materials to discover their conducting or insulating properties
2
Set up and use of basic test equipment to measure resistance
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Describe the process for measuring resistance
Range
Test equipment
1.5V dry cell battery, 1.5V lamp, 3 connecting copper wires, multimeter
Conducting properties
Materials that allow the flow of current/electrons, heat effects resistance, electron source and
destination (direction of current flow), free electrons, low electrical resistance (copper)
Insulating properties
Materials that do not allow the flow of current/electrons, circuit breaks and switches, non-flowing
electrons locked in outer layer of atom, high electrical resistance (glass)
Materials
Wood, rubber, cloth/fabric (hessian, cotton, nylon, lycra, mixed fabrics etc.), pencil lead, carbon,
iron, steel, brass, gold , silver, bronze, tin, copper, aluminium, paper, fibreglass, polystyrene, wax,
glass, , plastic, bakelite
Process
Set multimeter to measure Ohms, check continuity, zero setting, measure across surface, read
different scales, parallax error (analogue meter), extend reach of meter
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
161
Unit 222
Outcome 4
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Describe electronic components and the
construction of electronic equipment
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Make basic tests of electrical components
2
Distinguish between replacement components of different values
3
Assess the electrical characteristics of electronic components
4
Identify electronic symbols on circuit block diagrams
5
Produce simple circuit diagrams
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
Identify different constructional components of electrical equipment
2
Identify different types of electronic components
Range
Basic tests of electrical components
Electrical measuring equipment, ammeter, ohmmeter, volt meters, multi-meter, oscilloscope, direct
voltage, direct current, resistance, ac measurements, LCR/ impedance meters, analogue dBm
meters, audio frequency meters, power meters, full electrical tool kit, circuit testers, simple reports,
recording data, table of results, linear graphs, logarithmic graphs, fault finding, identification of
fault, location of fault and fault reporting
Electronic components
Valves, potentiometers (rotary and fader), resistors and non-user-adjustable variable resistors,
capacitors, inductors, transformers, diodes, transistors, integrated circuits (analogue/digital),
microprocessors, motors, bridge rectifier modules, smoothing capacitors, microcontrollers, EMI/RFI
suppressors
Circuit block diagrams
Electronic symbols and abbreviations, path of signals, circuits to create or read universal circuit
block diagrams of equipment, component identifiers such as: Switches, resistors, general
capacitors, general diode, ground/earth chassis, fuses, variable attenuator, battery, cell, circuit
breaker, phone coaxial input, jack input, stereo headphone input, microphone input, potentiometer,
speaker, shielding, relay, resonator, signal lamp, faders
Simple circuit diagrams
Passive crossover, mains power supply
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
162
Constructional components
Chassis/casings, PSU/distribution, switch mode power supplies, earthing straps and tags, fuses,
display and memory modules, lead-out (wired) components, socket mount components, surface
mount components, PCB circuit and tag strip circuit construction, motherboard/ daughterboard
construction, cards, handles, switches, sockets, aerials, LED indicators, rotary controllers
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
163
Unit 222
Outcome 5
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Conduct different types of electrical measurements
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1
Conduct a series of electrical measurements
2
Operate pieces of electrical measuring equipment
3
Create reports of measurement data
4
Test for and locate faulty components
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1
State how various measurements and data are recorded
2
Describe the features and uses of electrical measuring equipment
Range
Electrical measurements
Direct voltage, direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), phase relationships, electrical power,
resistance, frequency, DC and AC, sine wave, frequency, period, peak, mean/average and RMS
values, circuit/fuse/cable continuity test, current level, sensitivity, damping, response time of
meters, calibration, repeatability, correlation, accuracy, distortion, amplification, filter, isolate
Electrical measuring equipment
Ammeter, ohmmeter, voltmeter, multi-meter, oscilloscope, ac measurements, LCR/ impedance
meters, analogue dBm meters, frequency meters , power meters, moving coil, numerical display,
scale, bargraph, movement, range selector switches, VU meter, PPM meter, moving coils
Reports
Simple reports, recording data, table of results, linear graphs, logarithmic graphs, transient, static &
dynamic data acquisition/results, safety considerations, signal analysis, basic sample and hold
theory
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
164
Unit 222
Audio electronics for music and sound
industries (maintenance)
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
An in depth understanding of the science and technology and research and development of
equipment associated with the music and sound industry may be desirable for those wishing to
further understand the design, manufacture and components required for equipment used in
practical tasks.
In this unit candidates will learn the basics of audio electronics related to the music, sound, live
sound, theatre and AV industries. Candidates are expected to understand basic sources of energy
and power with full safety considerations. Candidates will analyse voltage, resistance, impedance,
current, electronic equipment, electronic components, conductors and insulators and make basic
measurements, again with full safety considerations.
Completion of this unit will obviously not enable candidates to be legally employed as service of
electrical engineers. This unit is intended as a overview study for those candidates that seek to
further understand the design and technology behind equipment used during practical tasks within
the music and sound industries. (See City & Guilds qualification numbers 2330 and 2351 for further
qualified certification/pathways that will lead to certified employment within a host of servicing/
repair and maintenance posts).
The depth of this unit has also taken into consideration the current practice of buying off-the-shelf
replacement parts/components and the general manufacturing trend that most professional sound
equipment is now supplied with non serviceable parts/components, which are replaced rather than
repaired.
Identification and location of faulty equipment, parts or components is an additional area that could
be useful to those who require basic maintenance/repair skills.
diagram 1:
diagram 2:
Diagram 1: reflects the modern circuit symbol for a resistor component
&
Diagram 2: reflects the older circuit symbol for a resistor component
(pictures courtesy of deep recording studios, London)
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
165
Please note:
Disposing of electrical components and cell batteries in domestic waste rather than recycling is not
recommended as this can cause serious health hazards. It could also be contrary to local or
European environmental law. Batteries can contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and
mercury which are thought to be dangerous to human and animal life. See also: British Battery
Manufacturers Association (BBMA) & REBAT.
This unit sensibly links with Unit 222 Soldering and wiring (maintenance)
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Teachers should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
Please note to be fully certified as an electrician within the creative industries you should study 2357
City & Guilds Diploma in Electrotechnology, available from September 2010. This can lead to
certified employment within a host of industry servicing, repair and maintenance posts.
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
166
8
Appendix 1 NOS Mapping
The table below shows the mapping of each 7603 unit against the Music NOS;
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT1
CCSMT2
CCSMT3
CCSMT4
CCSMT5
CCSMT6
CCSMT7
CCSMT8
CCSMT9
CCSMT10
Follow Health and Safety
practices in music and sound
industries
Follow Health and Safety
practices for basic maintenance
of equipment and facilities
Assist with emergency
procedures
Research relevant occupational
roles and employment in music
and sound recording sectors
Evaluate personal skills to work
with others in the music and
sound industries
Identify, test and use basic
professional audio equipment
connections and interfaces
Use basic functions of MIDI
sequencing on professional
DAWs
Use essential analogue and
digital sound recording skills
Use essential analogue and
digital sound editing techniques
Develop key MIDI and DAW
audio techniques
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
7603-01
Level
101
2
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
O
O
O
101
2
O
O
O
101
2
O
O
O
102
2
201/301
3
M
O
O
102
2
201/301
3
M
O
O
103
2
202/303
3
M
O
O
104
2
207
3
M
O
O
105
2
M
O
O
106
2
M
O
O
107
2
M
O
O
7603-02/03
207
167
Level
3
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT11
CCSMT12
CCSMT13
CCSMT14
CCSMT15
CCSMT16
CCSMT17
CCSMT18
CCSMT19
CCSMT20
Produce audio materials using
sampling and synthesis
technology for music and sound
industries
Create a sample and audio file
library - archive digital content
Assist with recording of live
sound location sources
Operate professional audio
equipment, OB, ambience
sound recording and studio
sound recording
Set up and dismantle
professional MIDI equipment
and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
Operate analogue and digital
equalisation for music and
audio industries
Carry out advanced analogue
and digital equalisation for
music and audio industries
Operate analogue and digital
Dynamics and effects
equipment for music and audio
industries
Operate analogue and digital
mixing and recording consoles
Carry out advanced studio
routing and wiring for music
and audio industries –
patchbays & tie lines
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
7603-01
Level
7603-02/03
Level
2
208
3
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
M
O
O
2
208
3
M
O
O
306/309/310
3
O
O
O
306/309/310
3
O
O
O
2
202/207/212/213/214/215
3
M
O
O
2
203/205/
O
M
M
302/304/312
3
O
M
M
2
206/302
3
O
M
M
2
203/302/304
3
O
M
M
2
202/203/303
3
O
M
M
168
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT21
CCSMT22
CCSMT23
CCSMT24
CCSMT25
CCSMT26
CCSMT27
CCSMT28
CCSMT29
CCSMT30
Edit sound and spoken word
using both analogue and digital
systems
Carry out tape and tape-less
digital editing
7603-01
Level
7603-02/03
Level
106
2
211/216/305
3
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
O
M
M
305
3
O
M
M
3
O
O
M
O
O
O
Carry out multi track and stereo
tape machine alignment and
maintenance
Synchronise audio to visuals
and gaming materials
Develop techniques for
mastering and restoring audio
using critical listening skills
Apply techniques for archiving
and recalling audio materials –
session management
Develop your professional
knowledge of intellectual
property (IP), copyright,
revenue streams, contracts and
royalties
Carry out soldering and wiring
basic repairs and maintenance
for sound and audio industries
Evaluate acoustics and sound
reinforcement systems (PAs)
2
213/302/312
2
217
2
209/211/312
3
O
O
O
2
212/302
3
O
M
O
301
3
O
O
O
O
0
O
O
O
M
Carry out basic repairs and
maintenance of sound
equipment
O
M
O
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
2
221
2
219/310
2
202/221/222/
169
3
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT31
CCSMT32
CCSMT33
CCSMT34
CCSMT35
CCSMT36
CCSMT37
CCSMT38
CCSMT39
CCSMT40
CCSMT41
CCSMT42
Carry out advanced audio
electronics repairs and
maintenance of sound
equipment
Produce surround sound for
film and audio
Carry out studio sound
synchronisation for computer
games and multi-media
Prepare and operate live sound
and performance technology
Operate DJ and sound PA
equipment
Cost and design the layout of a
recording studio
Set up and use microphones
and direct inject (DI) boxes
Use advanced stereo
microphone techniques
Carry out software sound and
audio manipulation
Manage digital broadcast and
network online media
Demonstrate a knowledge of
the history and development of
studio recording equipment
Use audio mix automation and
control surfaces
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
7603-01
7603-02/03
Level
314
3
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
O
O
M
2
214/216/307/309
3
O
O
O
2
217
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Level
310
2
3
220
313
3
O
O
O
2
204/306
3
M
M
M
2
204/306
3
O
O
O
2
211/308
3
O
O
O
2
218/311
3
O
O
O
2
210
O
O
O
2
203/304
O
O
O
170
3
This page is intentionally blank
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
171
Published by City & Guilds
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London
EC1A 9DD
T +44 (0)844 543 0033
F +44 (0)20 7294 2413
www.cityandguilds.com
City & Guilds is a registered charity
established to promote education
and training
Stock Code: EN027603
Level 2 VRQ's in Sound and Music Technology (7603)
172
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