Phase Three Three Stage Smart Charger

Phase Three Three Stage Smart Charger
Phase Three
Three Stage Smart Charger
Installation/Operation Manual
Models: PT 80, PT24-45U, PT-24-95U
Section Topic
Page
QUICK REFERENCE DRAWING
I)
GENERAL INFORMATION
II) IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
III) INSTALLATION
A) Materials Provided
B) Location.
C) Mounting
D) D.C. Output Wiring
E) Multiple Unit Parallel Wiring
F) A.C. Input Wiring
IV) OPERATION
A) Three Stage Charge Regimen
B) Time-Out Circuit
C) Gel-Cell/Lead-Acid Selector Switch
D) Remote Monitor Panel Option
E) Temperature Compensation Option
F) Equalize Timer Option
G) Cooling Fan
H) Power On Indicator
I) Output Ammeter
V) APPLICATION NOTES
A) Start-Up
B) Constant Versus Occasional Use
C) Proper Load Sizing
D) Operation with Engine
E) Operation as a D.C. Power Supply
or Radar Rectifier
VI) SPECIFICATIONS
VII) TROUBLESHOOTING
VIII) BATTERY CARE TIPS
IX) REFERENCE APPENDIX
X) PT 80/PT-24-45U UNIT DIMENSION DRAWING
XI) PT-24-95U UNIT DIMENSION DRAWING
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M-PT-U-LNGFM
As of July 2008
P.O. Box 1306, Newport Beach, California 92663 • Phone: 714-751-0488 • Fax: 714-957-1621 • E-Mail: [email protected]
Quick Reference Drawing
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Note: PT 80/PT-24-45U
illustrated in drawing.
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I) GENERAL INFORMATION
Your Phase Three Series Battery Charger represents a new phase
in charger design and performance, employing “smart” switching
circuitry which puts batteries through the optimum three-step
charge process, adapts for gel-cell or lead-acid batteries, features
precise voltage compensation for varying battery temperature, is
rated for continuous duty and is housed in a rugged stainless steel
and aluminum case.
Following is a brief listing of some of the more important features/
options of your Phase Three Charger. Each is fully detailed later in
this manual:
• Three step “smart” charging: bulk, absorption, float
II) IMPORTANT SAFETY
INSTRUCTIONS
1. SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS — This manual contains important
safety and operating instructions for the Phase Three Battery
Charger.
2. Before using this battery charger, read all instructions and
cautionary markings on (1) the battery charger (2) the battery, and
(3) any product powered by the battery.
3. CAUTION — To reduce the risk of injury, charge only 6 cell
(PT 80) or 12 cell (PT-24-45U & PT-24-95U) lead-acid rechargeable
batteries (flooded, AGM, gel or sealed). Other types of batteries
may burst, causing personal injury and damage.
• Gel cell/lead-acid switch selects optimum charge/float voltages
based on battery type
4. Do not expose charger to rain or spray.
• Multiple output banks charge independently based on demand
5. Use of an attachment not recommended or sold by NEWMAR
may result in a risk of fire, electric shock or injury to persons.
• “Universal” input of 90-264V A.C., 50-60 Hz input with no setting
of selector switch required—can be used anywhere in the world
• Current limiting prevents damage from overload
• Cooling fan allows continuous operation at full-rated output
• High charge voltage time-out circuit prevents overcharge
during continuous high amperage demand
• Optional temperature compensation sensor (model TCS-12/24)
fine tunes output voltage based on battery temperature
• Optional remote panel (model RP) allows remote monitoring of
charger phase status and manual re-initialization of three stage
charge cycle.
• Optional equalization circuit connection.
• Use as a power supply without in-line battery; allows continued
use of D.C . powered electronics (when A.C. is available) in the
event that batteries must be taken off-line or removed.
• Built to last – rugged stainless steel and aluminum powder
coated case with marinized internal circuitry; drip sheild
provided.
• Carries CE mark
In addition, your Phase Three Charger carries a full two year
warranty against defects in materials or workmanship from the
date of purchase. Careful attention to these instructions should help
you to enjoy years of trouble-free service.
Product Registration
NEWMAR warrants that your charger be free from defects in
material and workmanship for two years from date of purchase. If
you wish to register your product with us and provide comments
or questions, please log onto www.newmarpower.com/product_
registration.html or for immediate response to your questions or
comments, please call tech service at !-800-241-3897 or E-mail:
[email protected]
3
6. To reduce the risk of damage to the electric plug and cord (if
plugged into an A.C. outlet), pull by plug rather than cord when
disconnecting the charger.
7. Make sure the cord is located so that it will not be stepped on,
tripped over, or otherwise subjected to damage or stress.
8. An extension cord should not be used. Use of an improper cord
could result in a risk of fire and electric shock.
9. Do not operate the charger with a damaged cord or plug;
replace them immediately.
10. Do not operate the charger if it has received a sharp blow,
been dropped, or otherwise damaged; take it to a qualified
serviceman.
11. Do not disassemble the charger; take it to a qualified
serviceman when service or repair is necessary. Incorrect
reassembly may result in a risk of electric shock and fire.
12. To reduce the risk of electric shock, disconnect the charger from
A.C. source before attempting any maintenance or cleaning.
WARNING—RISK OF EXPLOSIVE GASES
1. WORKING IN THE VICINITY OF A LEAD-ACID BATTERY IS
DANGEROUS. BATTERIES GENERATE EXPLOSIVE GASES DURING
NORMAL BATTERY OPERATION. FOR THIS REASON, IT IS OF
UTMOST IMPORTANCE THAT BEFORE INSTALLING AND USING
YOUR CHARGER, YOU READ THIS MANUAL AND FOLLOW THE
INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY.
2. To reduce the risk of battery explosion, follow these instructions
and those published by the battery manufacturer and by the
manufacturer of any equipment you intend to use in the vicinity of
the battery. Review all cautionary markings on these products.
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III) INSTALLATION
PERSONAL PRECAUTIONS
1. Someone should be within range of your voice or close enough
to come to your aid when you work near a lead-acid battery.
2. Have plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery
acid contacts skin, clothing or eyes.
3. Wear complete eye protection and clothing protection. Avoid
touching your eyes while working near a battery.
4. If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with
soap and water. If battery acid enters the eye, immediately flood
the eye with running cold water for at least 10 minutes and get
medical attention immediately.
5. NEVER smoke or allow a spark or flame in the vicinity of the
battery or engine.
6. Be extra cautious to reduce the risk of dropping a metal tool
onto the battery. It might spark or short-circuit the battery or other
electrical part and cause an explosion.
7. Remove personal metal items such as rings, bracelets, necklaces
and watches when working with a lead-acid battery. A lead-acid
battery can produce a short-circuit current high enough to weld a
ring or the like to metal, causing a severe burn.
8. Use the battery charger for charging gel-cell, AGM or flooded
lead-acid batteries only. It is not intended to supply power to a low
voltage electrical system other than in a starter-motor application.
Do not use the charger for charging dry-cell batteries that are
commonly used with home appliances. These batteries may burst
and cause injury to persons and damage to property.
9. NEVER charge a frozen battery.
PREPARING TO CHARGE
1. Be sure the area around the battery is well ventilated.
2. Clean battery terminals. Be careful to keep corrosion from
coming in contact with eyes.
3. Add distilled water in each cell until battery acid reaches level
specified by battery manufacturer. This helps purge excessive gas
from cells. Do not overfill. For a battery without cell caps, carefully
follow manufacturer’s recharging instructions.
4. Study all battery manufacturers’ specific precautions such
as removing or not removing cell caps while charging and
recommended rates of charge.
GROUNDING AND A.C. POWER CORD CONNECTION
1. The charger should be grounded to reduce the risk of electric
shock.
(For marine applications only) EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS TO THE
CHARGER SHALL COMPLY WITH UL RECOMMENDATIONS AND/
OR UNITED STATES COAST GUARD ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
(33CFR183, SUB-PART I)
(For marine applications only) THE INSTALLATION AND
PROTECTION OF VESSEL WIRING ASSOCIATED WITH BATTERY
CHARGERS SHALL COMPLY WITH ABYC STANDARDS; E-11) AC
& DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ON BOATS, AND A-31) BATTERY
CHARGERS & INVERTERS.
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A) Materials Provided
1) Installation/Operation manual
1) Clear plastic output terminal cover
The Phase Three charger is provided completely assembled and
ready for installation. The installer must provide four suitable 1/4”
mounting screws/washers, as well as D.C. output wiring and
connectors. Proper sizes and gauges for the wire and connectors
are noted in section III-D following.
B) Location
The charger should be mounted on a wall, bulkhead or other
suitable mounting surface as close to the batteries to be charged
as possible. Do not mount the charger directly over the batteries
as battery fumes may cause excessive corrosion. WARNING:
The charger is not ignition protected so it must not be located
in an area where ignition protected equipment is required. The
area should be well ventilated and free from excessive moisture,
exhaust manifolds and battery fumes.
Vertical mounting is preferred. However, horizontal mounting is
acceptable where absolutely necessary. Do not mount the charger
where water, spray or condensation can occur, as this will shorten
charger life. It should not be located where there is a possibility
of dust or debris being drawn into the unit through the fan. A
minimum of 2” clearance around the charger is recommended for
proper cooling.
If the charger is located in an extreme heat area, such as an
unventilated engine room, and maximum operating temperature
is exceeded, an automatic thermal shutdown protection circuit
will turn the charger completely off. Thermal cycling will shorten
the life of the charger, so if this condition occurs repeatedly, the
charger should be relocated. For optimum performance and
longer life the charger should not be located in an area of extreme
high temperature.
C) Mounting
Important Pre-Installation Note: The wiring access port for A.C.
input is located on the bottom of the charger. If the factory-installed
A.C. cord must be changed for any reason, this should be done
before mounting, as access will be difficult afterwards. Also, the
drip shield will need to be removed prior to setting the gel/lead
acid selector or installing the optional temperature compensation
probe. The drip shield is removable with the charger mounted,
but if there is limited overhead clearance, the installer may wish
to accomplish these tasks also, prior to mounting the charger. For
information on these installation procedures, refer to sections III-F
and IV-E.
The charger may be mounted on either a metal or non-metal
surface*. You will require four screws (wood or machine screws,
depending on mounting surface) with washers, sized for 1/4”
holes, to mount the charger, plus two temporary holding screws.
Note that, in addition to the four permanent mounting holes in the
flanges, there is a hole in each mounting flange which is “keyhole”
shaped. This is provided to ease vertical installation.
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*Per ABYC A-31: A D.C. chassis grounding conductor shall be
connected from the case of the battery charger to the engine
negative terminal or its bus, and must not be more than one size
under that required for the D.C. current-carrying conductors, and
not less than 16 AWG.
Make a mark on the wall or bulkhead where each of the
keyhole slots will be located. Then drive a screw about halfway
in at each of these marks. Hang the charger onto the bulkhead
using the keyhole slots. Doing this will save you from having to
support the charger’s weight while you are driving in the four
permanent mounting screws. Note: The keyhole slots may be
used for additional support screws but they are not to be used as
permanent mounting points by themselves.
For secure installation D.C. output wires must be attached with ¼”
crimp ring lug terminals sized appropriately to fit wire gauges as
listed below.
The D.C. wire size table below may be used to determine the
correct gauge wire based on the model you have and the length
of wire run from the charger to the batteries. Once the output
wiring has been attached to the chargers output posts, install the
clear plastic terminal cover provided with the charger
Model
IMPORTANT: Although the charger is constructed of materials
and in a manner which makes it highly resistive to the corrosive
effects of moisture in the environment, the charger is not waterresistant. Do not mount the charger where there is a possibility of
water entering the unit. Evidence of water entry into the charger
will void the warranty.
Length of Wire from Charger to Batteries (in feet)
10’
15’
20’
Minimum Wire Gauge AWG (mm)
#2 (35mm) #1 (50mm) #1/0 (70mm)
#6 (16mm) #6 (16mm) #4 (25mm)
#2 (35 mm) #2 (35 mm) #2 (35 mm)
PT 80
PT-24-45U
PT-24-95U
*Based on N.E.C. Minimum Wire Size Chart and ABYC 3% Voltage
Drop Chart
ENSURE THAT LEADS ARE PROPERLY FUSED AT THE BATTERY.
(REFER TO ABYC RECOMMENDATIONS.)
D) D.C. Output Wiring
A note about the internal D.C. fuse: The internal wiring of the
Phase Three charger is protected against dangerous overheating
in the event of an internal short, or reverse polarity hook-up, by an
internal d.c. fuse. The fuse is not user replaceable. If this fuse blows
the unit must be returned to NEWMAR or a qualified electronic
technician for repair.
Note: Only qualified service personnel should access the output
terminals of the charger.
Whether working with existing battery charger output wires or
installing new ones, make sure the battery(s) is disconnected
from these wires before connecting them to the charger’s output
terminals.
Typical D.C. wiring configurations are illustrated in FIGURES
1 and 2.
FIGURE 1: Simple D.C. Wiring (Preferred Method)
House
Bank 1
T
C
S
House
Bank 2
Optional Temperature
Compensation Sensor See page
9 for installation information. Use
provided cable clamps to secure
probe cable
Phase
Three
Battery
Charter
B
A
T
T
1
B
A
T
T
2
B
A
T
T
3
C
O
M
M
O
N
* Per ABYC A-31: A D.C. chassis grounding
conductor shall be connected from the case
of the battery charger to the engine negative
terminal or its bus, and must not be more
than one size under that required for the D.C.
current carrying conductor and not less than
16 AWG
Gen
Bank
AC Input
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Note: PT 80/PT-24-45U
illustrated, same configuration
applies to PT-24-95U.
*
Note: This diagram does not illustrate a
complete system. Refer to ABYC standards
E-11 AC & DC electrical system on boats
Important: Install fuses at batteries per ABYC
recommendations.
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FIGURE 2: Wiring With Battery Switch
T
C
S
Home
Bank 1
+ Bus
Master
Battery
Switch
Home
Bank 2
– Bus
* Per ABYC A-31: A D.C. chassis
grounding conductor shall be
connected from the case of the
battery charger to the engine
negative terminal or its bus, and must
not be more than one size under that
required for the D.C. current carrying
conductor and not less than 16 AWG
Phase Three
Battery
Charger
B
A
T
T
1
B B
A A
T T
T T
2 3
Optional
Temperature
Compensation
Sensor See
page 9 for
installation
information.
Use provided
cable clamps
to secure
probe cable
C
O
M
M
O
N
Gen Bank
*
AC Input
Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to ABYC standards E-11 AC
& DC electrical system on boats
Important: Install fuses at batteries per ABYC recommendations.
Note: PT 80/PT-2445U illustrated, same
configuration applies to
PT-24-95U.
E) Multiple Unit Parallel Wiring
F) A.C. Input Wiring
If increased power or system redundancy is required, a second
charger may be wired in parallel. The unit is diode protected so
it will not be damaged by feedback from the second unit and
current limiting will prevent overloading in the case of a failure of
one of the units.
A.C. input is “universal” and operates in a range of 90-264 VAC,
47-63 Hz. No switch setting is required for either 115V A.C. or 230V
A.C. applications. Caution (230V applications only): If A.C. input is
derived from a source consisting of two HOT leads (phase-to-phase
230V A.C. input voltage) an external fuse or circuit breaker must
be used to protect the unfused (formerly NEUTRAL, now HOT) lead.
Observe the following guidelines when wiring a parallel unit.
1) Use only another identical charger model PT 80, PT-24-45U,
or PT-24-95U).. Do not use a different charger model, either
from NEWMAR or from another manufacturer.
2) Output wire length and gauge must be identical for each
charger to ensure proper load sharing.
3) Wire gauge for each charger must be the same used as if a
single charger were wired into the system by itself. Wire each
battery charger directly to the battery (Figure 1) or battery
switch (Figure 2) DO NOT daisy chain charger outputs.
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A.C. input for the charger must be routed through fuse or circuit
breaker on an A.C. distribution panel with proper safety/earth
chassis ground in accordance with all applicable local codes and
ordinances.
Recommended A.C. Input Wire Size:
115 VAC Input = 14 AWG minimum
230 VAC Input = 16 AWG minimum
Recommended Input Circuit Breaker:
115 VAC Input = 15 Amp
230 VAC Input = 10 Amp
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FIGURE 3: AC Input Wiring
Input Wiring
Acess Plate
Hot (All Systems) ‘L1’
Note: access plate on left
side on PT-24-95U.
Neutral (Euro 230V)or
Hot(USA 230V) “L2/N”
Earth Ground Safety
AC Input Cable Strain
Relief Clamping Range: .2” - .47”
Note: PT 80/PT-24-45U illustrated,
same wiring configuration
applies to PT-24-95U, but access
plate is on left side.
(In marine applications) All charger wiring should be installed in
accordance with UL, U.S. Coast Guard and/or A.B.Y.C. regulations
and recommendations, as well as all relevant local codes. See
REFERENCE APPENDIX at the end of this manual for sources.
A note about the A.C. input fuse: The A.C. input of your charger
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is protected by an input fuse which is located inside the unit.
Due to the current limiting characteristic of the charger, it is
highly unlikely that this fuse will blow unless there is some other
malfunction within the charger. This fuse is not user-replaceable.
Replacement of the input fuse must be performed by a qualified
service person.
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IV) OPERATION
FIGURE 4: Typical Charger Output Graph
(into battery without load)
A) Three Stage Charge Regimen
The Phase Three Battery Charger utilizes the three stage charge
regimen which is widely recommended by battery manufacturers
for allowing the fastest possible recharge time without loss of
batteries’ electrolyte (gel or liquid) which may be caused by
sustained charging at higher voltages.
This three stage regimen is initiated each time A.C. is first applied,
when drained batteries are most likely to be encountered, and
proceeds slowly or quickly through each stage depending on
the battery’s relative state of charge. (This also occurs when the
reinitialize button on the optional remote panel is activated; see
Remote Panel Option section for more information). Note: An
audible “clicking” noise from an internal relay may be heard when
the charger switches from one phase to another. This is normal
operation. The charge regimen proceeds as follows:
1) Bulk Phase: When batteries are significantly discharged the
charger responds initially by delivering a high amount of D.C.
current, at or near the charger’s maximum rated output, in order
to rapidly replenish them. It is during this stage that charging
current is maintained at a high level as battery voltage increases.
Bulk charging continues until battery voltage reaches the “charge”
voltage level (where batteries are at about 75-80% of capacity).
A current limit circuit prevents charger overload during this
maximum output stage.
BULK PHASE
ABSORPTION PHASE
FLOAT PHASE
AMP
S
VOLTS
S
VOLT
A
M
PS
TIME
* Approximately 10 hours maximum at factory setting.
Note: If a load is applied during the absorption phase, the charger
may revert to the bulk phase depending on the total current draw.
When the charger times-out into the float phase, it will remain in
that phase regardless of current draw. The charger is still able to
deliver full output current when in the float phase. To re-initialize
the three stage process shut the charger off momentarily, then
back on again (or press the reinitialize button on the optional
remote panel)
B) Time-Out Circuit
Note: During this bulk phase the charger is in a “constant current”
mode; therefore, output current will stay constant while output
voltage decreases. Full output voltage is achieved and maintained
only when the charger switches to the absorption stage.
2) Absorption Phase: During this second stage of the charge cycle,
battery voltage is maintained at the “charge” voltage level. Output
current begins to taper off as the battery plates become saturated.
Charge voltage is maintained until the current sensing circuit
detects that output current has tapered to about 5-15 % of charger
rating*. At this point the batteries are at about 95 % of full charge
and the Phase Three charger switches to the third and final stage of
the charge cycle.
* Note: The absorption phase may also be ended by the time-out
circuit. See section IV-B, for a complete explanation of the purpose
and functioning of the time-out circuit.
3) Float Phase: For extended battery life the Phase Three then
automatically switches to a lower float voltage level. This float
charge keeps batteries at peak condition without overcharging.
The charger may be left in this stage for lengthy periods of time
without attention (though periodic checks of electrolyte level
in flooded batteries is recommended). It is not necessary or
recommended to shut the charger off when this stage is reached.
A typical three stage charging cycle is illustrated in FIGURE 4.
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Batteries have a tendency to lose their electrolyte and may be
damaged if they are maintained for long periods of time in the
elevated voltage of the absorption phase. Therefore, the Phase
Three Charger employs a special time-out circuit. This circuit is
initialized each time A.C. is first applied to the charger (or when the
reinitialize button on the optional remote panel is activated) and
runs for a pre-set interval before forcing the charger to go into the
float (lower voltage) mode. The functioning of the charger during
this interval is as follows:
If the current demand of the batteries/load falls below 5-15 % of
the charger’s output capacity prior to the circuit timing-out, the
charger will automatically switch to the float mode. If demand
rises to about 10-20 % of charger output capacity, it will return to
the elevated output voltage of the absorption phase. This switching
back and forth between modes may occur until the circuit timesout (8-10 hours after A.C. is first applied), after which the charger
will remain at float voltage, until the circuit is re-initialized, either
by turning the charger off and then on again or by pressing the
re-initialize button on the optional remote panel.
Installation Note: The time-out circuit of the PT charger has
been set at about 8-10 hours, which is appropriate for battery
systems within the capacity range specified on the front panel of
the charger. If the charger is used with a battery system with a
capacity near (or outside) the upper or lower ranges of the specified
range of the charger, adjustment of the internally located time-out
circuit adjustment pot may be recommended. The procedure is as
follows:
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(Caution: Ensure A.C. input has been disconnected before
proceeding)
1) Remove the three screws on the front panel and seven screws
on the sides of the unit.
2) Remove the main cover from the charger base, taking care
not to bend the two jacks on the right side of the charger out
of position. Locate the potentiometer labeled “TIMER ADJ” on
the small charger function circuit board on the right side of the
charger.
3) Using a small flat tip screwdriver, turn the potentiometer
clockwise to increase the amount of time the charger remains
in the absorption mode before timing out, or counterclockwise
to decrease the amount of time. The approximate ranges are
illustrated below.
FIGURE 5: Adjusting the Time-out Circuit
Note: A wide variety of batteries are now available which do not
conform to conventional descriptions as “gel-cell” or “lead-acid”.
You are advised to consult the manufacturer of your particular
battery as to proper charging regimen, and use the battery
type selection switch setting which most closely conforms to the
recommended voltages.
See the SPECIFICATIONS section for the actual preset charge and
float voltages for the PT-80 and PT 80, PT-24-45U, and PT-24-95U.
D) Remote Monitor Panel Option
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The ideal charge/float regimen has been programmed into the
Phase Three Charger for either sealed gel-cell or flooded lead-acid/
AGM batteries. Simply make the proper selection for your battery
type via the slide switch on the right side of the charger. The switch
positions are indicated on the Charger’s left side panel (see Figure
6) l. Use a ball point pen or similar object to slide it into the correct
position.
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Note: Once the time-out circuit has put the charger into float
mode, the charger will remain in this mode. Since the Phase
Three Charger is well regulated, it is able to deliver its full rated
output current in this mode and battery discharge will not occur
(provided load current does not exceed charger rating and output
wiring is properly sized).
4) Reinstall the charger cover
C) Gel-Cell — Flooded/AGM Switch
According to most battery manufacturers, the ideal charge
regimen for gel-cell and flooded (wet) lead-acid or AGM (Absorbed
Glass Mat) batteries differs somewhat.
A Remote Monitor Panel is available from NEWMAR (model RP)
which will enable you to monitor the charger’s status at-a-glance
from a remote location. Red and green L.E.D.’s indicate whether
the charger is in the bulk, absorption or float phase of the charge
cycle. In addition, the panel features a re-initialize button, which,
when pressed, will cause the charger to restart the three phase
cycle. This resets the time-out circuit (see section B, above) Timeout Circuit, above). Note: The charger may not stay in the bulk or
absorption mode after pressing the re-initialize button. If batteries
are at or near full charge, the charger will quickly revert to the
float mode.
The panel comes pre-wired with 30’ of cable and 4 mounting
screws. Simply install the panel at the desired location and insert
the plug on the end of the cable into the remote panel jack which
is located on the right side of the charger. (See Figure 10.) The
remote panel jack is identified on the front panel.
Note: Inadvertently putting the remote panel plug into the temp
compensation jack (or vice versa) will not harm the charger. If the
panel does not appear to function correctly, check to see that it is
plugged into the correct jack.
If additional cable length is required, additional cable is commonly
available from most electronics supply retailers such as Radio
Shack/Tandy. Request a 6 conductor modular-to-modular line cord
(part number 279-422, 25 feet long) and 6 pin modular in-line nonreversing coupler (279-423).
The gelled electrolyte in a sealed battery may be lost or damaged
by high voltage and, once lost, cannot be replaced as it can
with a wet lead acid battery. Manufacturers of gel-cells usually
recommend an ideal charge voltage which is slightly lower
for a gel-cell than a lead-acid battery. (The charge regimen
recommended for AGM batteries is typically similar to that of
flooded lead-acid batteries.)
E) Temperature Compensation Option
However, when the charger is in the float voltage mode over
lengthier periods of time, gelled electrolyte in a sealed battery
is not susceptible to evaporation, as is the non-immobilized
electrolyte of a wet lead acid battery. This evaporation can be
accelerated by the applied voltage. Consequently, the ideal float
voltage is slightly higher for a gel-cell than a lead-acid or AGM
battery.
If a charger has a fixed output voltage which is ideal at, say 72° F,
that same output may cause a battery charged in a consistently
high temperature environment to be overcharged, resulting
in excessive loss of electrolyte. Conversely, if the batteries are
in a consistently cool environment, they may be chronically
undercharged, resulting in sulfation of the battery plates. Either of
these two conditions will shorten battery life.
9
Because low battery temperature increases resistance to charging
and high battery temperature reduces impedance, requiring
a lower charge voltage, the ideal charging voltage will vary
depending on the temperature of the battery’s environment when
it is being charged.
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Therefore, the Phase Three charger is designed to utilize an
optional remote sensor (available from NEWMAR; model TCS12/24) which provides automatic temperature compensation. The
remote sensor will signal the charger to fine tune its output voltage
so that it is properly matched to the temperature of the battery/
battery environment. The adjustment rate is approximately -5 mV
per cell per °C. (Note: The temperature compensation option is
strongly recommended for sealed, valve-regulated, AGM or gelcell batteries.)
section III-E) and using the temperature compensation option,
you must use a separate sensor for each charger, and the sensors
must be mounted close together in the same battery box or on the
same battery for proper operation.
The remote sensor is provided with 30’ of cable. One end of the
cable is plugged into the temperature compensation jack which is
located on the right side of the charger (see FIGURE 6). The location
of temp sensor jack is identified on the front panel.
To provide some examples which clarify the effect of the
temperature compensation sensor, the chart lists the absorption/
float output voltages of the charger when batteries are at 72° F (or
when the sensor is not installed), and at cold (50° F) or hot (90° F)
battery temperatures with the sensor installed:
Without the temperature sensor installed the output of the charger
will be at the nominal voltages specified in the chart below at 72°
F (22.2° C). The absorption/float output voltage settings at that
temperature are listed in the chart.
If additional cable length is required, additional cable is
commonly available from most electronics supply retailers such as
Temperature Compensation Chart
Radio Shack/Tandy. Request a 6 conductor modular-tomodular line cord (part number 279-422, 25 feet long)
Battery
Output V D.C: 12 Volt Models
Output V D.C: 24 Volt Models
and 6 pin modular in-line non-reversing coupler (279Temp.
423).
The sensor itself should be mounted on the inside of the
battery box, or more ideally, mounted onto one of the
batteries using a clamp or a small amount of silicontype adhesive. The sensor has a hole in the center which
will accommodate a # 6 screw. If you have access to
the exterior of a wall of the battery box, you may drill
a hole in the wall of the box and run the screw through
to mount the sensor onto the interior wall. Use caution
when drilling so that you do not accidentally puncture
the case of any battery inside the box.
Charge
Float
Charge
Float
°F
°C
GelCell
Lead
Acid
GelCell
Lead
Acid
GelCell
Lead
Acid
GelCell
50
10
14.4
14.6
14.0
13.8
28.8
29.2
28.0
27.6
72
22.2
14.0*
14.2*
13.6*
13.4*
28.0*
28.4*
27.2*
26.8*
90
32.2
13.7
13.9
13.3
13.1
27.4
27.8
26.6
26.2
Important note: When wiring multiple chargers in parallel (see
LeadAcid
* Factory pre-set voltages without temperature compensation
option installed
F) Equalize Timer Option
FIGURE 6: Temperature Compensation Sensor
and Remote Panel Installation
��������������������
�����������������
����������
�����������������
������������
�������������
����
Some manufacturers of flooded lead-acid batteries recommend
a charging process known as equalization for extended battery
life. This process involves occasionally charging a wet lead-acid
battery at a very high voltage for a short period of time in order
to completely de-sulphate each of the battery plates, essentially
equalizing their voltage. The installer of the Phase Three charger
may choose to wire in this option at the time of installation.
Note: The equalization process is not recommended for sealed
valve regulated or gel-cell batteries.
The equalize circuit (connector located inside the PT charger)
should be wired through a manual or electric timer which
provides a closed contact when engaged and an open circuit
when timed out (SPST — Single Pole Single Throw). Do not use a
manually operated switch for activating the equalize circuit. This
is because unless the charger is reverted to a safe float voltage in
a timely manner, the batteries will almost certainly be damaged
or destroyed. The timer should be a 0-12 hour type, capable of
carrying a minimum of 100 mA at 5V D.C.
CAUTION: Do not install the timer in an area requiring ignition
protected equipment unless it has been certified to meet ignition
protection requirements.
The equalization circuit of the Phase Three charger boosts output
voltage to approximately 8 % above float voltage. Refer to the
battery manufacturer’s instructions when deciding the appropriate
time period setting for this voltage to achieve proper equalization,
while ensuring batteries are not damaged by increased battery
temperature. This installation should only be performed by a
qualified technician.
10
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Installing the timer requires a mating connector with dual wires
which are plugged into a jack on the internal charger function
circuit board. The connector/wire assembly is available from
NEWMAR. Request part number 873-3716-0, CFB Equalize 2 pin
assembly. Proceed with the installation as follows:
(Caution: Ensure A.C. input has been disconnected before
proceeding)
1) Remove the three screws on the front panel and seven screws
on the sides of the unit.
2) Remove the main cover from the charger base, taking care
not to bend the two jacks on the right side of the charger out of
position.
3) Locate the two-pin header labeled “J2” on the top of small
charger function circuit board which is located on the right side of
the charger. Insert the mating connector and route the two control
wires through one of the charger’s vent holes. Secure the wire as it
exits the charger using a cable clamp or wire ties.
4) Replace the charger cover.
G) Cooling Fan
To maximize the life of the internal components and to allow
continuous operation at full rating, the Phase Three employs two
integral cooling fans. The fans operate independently of each
other and will vary speed and turn on/off depending upon load
conditions and ambient temperature.
I) Output Ammeter
This meter will indicate total charging output current for all battery
banks connected.
H) Power On Indicator
increased load demand. When load current exceeds 10-20 % of the
charger’s rated capacity, the charger will go into the absorption
mode and remain there until current drops below 5-15 % of
capacity or until the time-out circuit cycle is complete.
B) Constant Versus Occasional Use
In general, it is recommended that the charger be left connected
continuously to the A.C. distribution system so that it will be in
operation whenever A.C. is available. This will maintain batteries
at peak voltage and will automatically compensate for the natural
self-discharge of the battery system. When a load is applied to the
battery system the charger’s output will automatically increase to
supply the current which would otherwise draw battery voltage
down. Repeatedly allowing batteries to become completely
discharged before recharging will greatly shorten their life.
Leaving the charger on continuously will prevent this.
While the output regulation of the charger will minimize battery
gassing and water loss, monthly checks of the electrolyte level
(for wet lead acid batteries) are still strongly recommended.
Some water loss is an inevitable aspect of the charging process,
and maintaining the correct electrolyte level in your batteries is
the most important thing you can do to assure their maximum
performance and long life.
C) Proper Load Sizing
The Phase Three Charger is rated for continuous duty. While
the charger cannot be damaged by overloads that exceed this
continuous rating, excessive load demands may draw battery
voltage down faster than the charger can re-supply it. If battery
voltage continues to drop and the output current is at maximum
while the charger is in service, check to see that your average
D.C. loads are not exceeding the charger’s rated output. If they
are, you may wish to consider adding another charger in parallel
to provide sufficient power for your requirements (see section III-E,
Multiple Unit Parallel Wiring.)
This green LED will glow whenever the charger is receiving A.C.
power.
D) Operation With Engine
V) APPLICATION NOTES
It is perfectly acceptable to allow the charger to remain on
when the engine is started and while it is running. The current
limit feature of the Phase Three Charger will protect against any
damage due to the high current demands of engine cranking.
Output diodes will prevent any back-feed of current into the
charger from the alternator while the engine runs.
A) Start Up
1) Before powering up your charger, check for tight electrical
connections to each battery in your system. Switch off any
D.C. loads on the batteries. Apply A.C. power. Observe the
D.C. ammeter on the front panel. This meter displays the total
D.C. output of the charger, through all banks. It will give some
indication of the overall state of charge of your batteries. If the
meter is reading mid-scale or higher, it is an indication that the
batteries are in a relatively low state of charge. The charger,
sensing this, is supplying high current to the batteries. If the meter
needle is at or near the bottom of the scale the batteries are at or
nearing full charge.
2) Apply a load to the charger by switching on some lights, a
pump or some other D.C. appliance. Observe the charger meter. It
should read approximately the same as the expected current draw
of the appliance. As current is demanded from the battery system,
the charger will automatically increase its output in response to the
11
As the alternator starts to charge the battery, the charger output
will decrease. When the battery voltage exceeds the rated output
voltage of the charger it will shut off and stay off as long as the
batteries are in this high state of charge. If the battery voltage
should drop below the charger’s rated output voltage it will
automatically return to service.
E) Operation as a D.C. Power Supply (stand-alone D.C.
power source) or Radar Rectifier
Most battery chargers are not suitable for powering electronic
devices directly, without a battery attached to the output, as the
high ripple and pulsing D.C. output (i.e., rectified A.C. output) can
interfere with the operation of the device. However, this charger
employs a circuit that produces an extremely well-filtered D.C.
output. Therefore it is able to power virtually any D.C. powered
device (within the unit’s rating) without the battery attached
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in-line (if, for instance, the battery must be removed for any
purpose and A.C. is still available). All but the most sensitive D.C.
powered electronic devices will function as normally as if powered
by a battery. In addition, the current limiting circuitry enables
the charger to handle the high start-up surges associated with
inductive loads, such as D.C. motors in radar sets.
VI) SPECIFICATIONS
Temperature Rating: -10° C to +60° C; Derate linearly from 100 % @
50° C to 80 % @ 60° C
Recommended Battery Type/Capacity: Gell-Cel, Flooded or
Sealed Lead-Acid;
PT 80 : 6 cell, 140-700 Amp-Hour
PT-24-45U: 12 Cell, 80-400 Amp-Hour
PT-24-95U: 12 Cell, 180-950 Amp-Hour
Protection Features: Input Fuse, Output Fuse, Current Limiting,
Over Voltage Protection, Cooling Fans, Automatic Thermal
Shutdown/Recovery
Input Voltage/Frequency: 90-264V A.C.; 47-63 Hz
Power Factor: .95 @ 230V A.C., .98 @ 115V A.C.
Input Current @ Full Load:
PT 80 & PT-24-45U: 7 amps @ 230V A.C.; 12 amps @ 115V A.C.
PT-24-95U: 14 amps @ 230V A.C.; 26 amps @ 115V A.C.
Output Current @ 115/230V A.C. Input:
PT 80: 80 amps maximum in Bulk / Absorption / Float Phases
PT-24-45U: 45 amps maximum in Bulk / Absorption / Float Phases
PT-24-95U: 95 amps maximum in Bulk / Absorption/ Float Phases
Nominal Output Voltages (without Temperature Compensation
option installed or at 22.2 °C with Temperature Compensation
option installed):
Temperature Compensation (with Sensor Installed):
- 5 mV per cell per ° C
Case Size: PT 80 & PT-24-45U
14.8” H* x 9.6” W x 5.6” D*
37.6 cm* x 24.4 cm x 14.2 cm*
*Add 1” (2.54 cm) to height and .5” (1.27 cm) to depth
when installing optional drip shield.
Weight: 15.2 lbs. (6.9 kg.)
Case Size: PT-24-95U
17.5” H* x 12.0” W x 7.2” D*
44.5 cm* x 30.5 cm x 18.3 cm*
*Add 2” (5.08 cm) to height and 1” (2.54 cm) to depth
with drip shield installed.
Weight: 24.5 lbs. (11.1 Kg.)
Compliance: Carries the CE Mark
PT 80
PT-24-45U & PT-24-95U
Setting
Charge
@ 50% load
Float
@ .5 amp load
Charge
@ 50% load
Float
@ .5 amp load
Gel-Cell
14.0V D.C.
13.6V D.C.
28.0V D.C.
27.2V D.C.
Flooded/AGM
14.2V D.C.
13.4V D.C.
28.4V D.C.
26.8V D.C.
VII TROUBLESHOOTING
Note: The PT 80, PT-24-45U, and PT-=24-95U chargers incorporate a self-contained A.C. to D.C. conversion module which utilizes
numerous automatic protection circuits. The A.C. input and D.C. output fuses which protect internal wiring are housed inside the charger
module. Under most circumstances these fuses will fail only if the charger has an internal fault. Hence, they are not intended to be
user-replaceable and any condition which has caused a blown fuse will likely require repair of other internal circuitry by a qualified
technician. If an apparent charger fault cannot be corrected using any of the recommendations in this section, the charger should be
returned to the factory or place of purchase for inspection and repair or replacement.
Problem
Possible Cause
Solution
A. Batteries not coming up to full
charge
1. Extremely discharged batteries requiring
long recharge time
1. Turn off all D.C. loads and allow charger 24-48
hours to recharge batteries
2. Charger limiting its output due to overload
or over-temperature conditions
2. Reduce D.C. load and/or determine cause of overtemperature condition (see section III-B, Location)
3. Fan not operating properly, causing
charger to over-heat, reducing or ceasing
power output
3. Check to ensure there is no blockage at fan intake
on bottom of charger. Replace fan if necesssary (see
section IV-G, Cooling Fan)
12
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Problem
Possible Cause
Solution
B. Charger continues to charge
at 3 amps or more—does not
taper back
1. D.C. load connected to batteries drawing
current (not a problem condition)
1. Turn off main battery switch to D.C. electrical
panel or turn of all D.C. loads if you wish to confirm
charger will output minimal amperage to fully
charged batteries
2. Bad cell in one of the batteries to which the
charger is connected
2. Check for shorted cell in wet lead-acid batteries
using a hydrometer. Refer to manufacturer for testing
maintenance-free batteries
C. No charger output, even
when all connections have
been checked, A.C. is applied to
the charger, and a D.C. load is
applied to the batteries
Blown input or output fuse or other internal
defect
Return to servicing dealer for failure analysis or
contact NEWMAR for Return Authorization Number
D. Reverse polarity connection
has caused charger to have no
output
D.C. output fuse and other internal
components likely blown
Return to servicing dealer for failure analysis or
contact NEWMAR for Return Authorization Number
E. High voltage measured across 1. Batteries not connected to charger. It
charger output terminals
is normal to read 1/2 volt higher across
any output bank when no batteries are
connected.
2. Equalize function is activated
1. Check for tight connection of charging leads to
batteries
2. Check to verify proper installation and operation of
equalize timer
F. Charger will not stay in bulk/
absorption phase when reinitialize button on remote panel
is pressed.
Batteries at or nearing full charge (not a
problem condition)
Verify proper operation by cycling A.C. off and on
(or press reinitialize button on optional remote panel)
then applying a large D.C. load
G. Charger outputs high current
for short period, shuts off. After
cooling, the cycle repeats itself.
Fan Failure
Return to servicing dealer for failure analysis or
contact Newmar for RMA
Factory Contact Information
ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW THE BATTERY MANUFACTURER’S
INSTRUCTIONS
If a problem with your charger persists after you have applied the
above-outlined solutions, or if you have any questions about the
installation and proper operation of your charger, please contact
NEWMAR’s Technical Services Manager:
Phone: 714-751-0488 — From the hours of 7:00 A.M. to 4:30 P.M.
weekdays, P.S.T.
Fax: 714-957-1621 — Anytime
E-Mail: [email protected] — Anytime
Battery Installation
We will be happy to consult with you to resolve any problem
you may have. If it appears the charger must be returned to the
factory for repair we will issue a Return Materials Authorization at
that time.
VIII) BATTERY CARE TIPS
Regular maintenance and proper care will assure you reliable
service from the most depended upon and sometimes most
neglected items, your batteries and battery charger. NEWMAR
battery chargers are designed to keep your batteries fully
charged but your batteries also need proper regular maintenance
to provide a maximum life of service.
13
Batteries must be securely mounted to prevent them from falling
over when the vehicle or boat is in motion. A loose battery can
do serious damage. Batteries should be mounted in a battery
box to contain any acid spill. Batteries give off a certain amount
of hydrogen gas when they are charging. When concentrated,
this gas is highly explosive. Therefore make sure they are in an
accessible place with adequate ventilation for any hydrogen gas
discharge.
Cleaning Batteries
Dirt and electrolyte salts can build up on the top of your batteries.
This accumulation conducts electricity stored in the battery and
can cause the battery to discharge by itself. Therefore, at least
twice a year, it is a good idea to disconnect the battery cables
and scrub the battery with a baking soda solution. Rinse with
fresh water and dry with a clean cloth.
You may wish to purchase a set of terminal post corrosion
prevention rings. These are alkali-saturated felt rings that slip
over the battery post to reduce corrosion. Do not apply grease to
any part of the battery terminals, but you may use an occasional
light spray of silicone lubricant.
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Routine Checks and Maintenance
Troubleshooting Your Battery System
Batteries should periodically be “exercised” (slowly discharged
and then recharged) to keep them in top condition. New batteries
may need to be exercised before they will be capable of their full
rating.
If your battery will not accept or hold a charge, one of the
following conditions may exist:
If your batteries are not the sealed type, distilled water should be
added to them whenever needed. The electrolyte should cover
the plates by about 1/2”, allowing a small air space at the top.
Do not fill the cells up to the filler cap as this could cause the
battery to sputter out electrolyte when it is being charged. Only
distilled water should be used never plain tap water. Tap water
contains chemicals and elements that can alter the properties of
the electrolyte, including specific gravity. Some chemicals may
also create an insulating coating on the battery plates which will
retard current flow.
The rate that water is lost by the battery is dependent on several
factors; battery condition, ambient temperature, battery use,
charge voltage, etc. It is normal for batteries which are not
maintenance-free to require topping off about once a month.
A battery’s state of charge may be monitored by checking the
specific gravity or by open circuit voltage. You may use the
following table to evaluate the condition of your batteries:
Battery Condition Table
Specific Gravity
Measured by
Hydrometer
State of
Open Circuit Voltage
Discharge @ 80° F
12 Volt
System
24 Volt
System
1.265
12.6 or
more
25.2 or
more
Fully Charged
1.225
12.4
24.8
25 % Discharged
1.190
12.2
24.4
50 % Discharged
1.155
12.0
24.0
75 % Discharged
1.120
11.7 or less
23.4 or less
100 % Discharged
1. A BAD BATTERY. You may have a battery with an open or
shorted cell, a battery without any “life” left. Check by charging
the battery until all cells have a specific gravity of 1.225 or greater
at 80° F. If you are unable to obtain 1.225 in each cell, replace the
battery.
2. A BAD BATTERY CHARGER. If the battery open circuit voltage
is low and/or the hydrometer indicates your batteries are low, the
battery charger should be providing current to the batteries. If it is
not, check the input fuse and check to see that you have charging
voltage on the output with no battery attached. Note: You will not
get an accurate voltage reading on the output of the charger with
no batteries attached. This is checked merely to ensure that you do
not have an open circuit on the output.
The battery charger has a thermal power reduction circuit to
protect the charger from overheating. If you suspect this is the
case, refer to the INSTALLATION section for information about
proper charger location.
3. ELECTRICAL LEAKAGE. You may have a previously
unsuspected source of current drain from the battery. To check
for a leakage of this sort, disconnect the battery ground cable
and connect an ammeter between the negative battery post
and ground. If you have a reading over .1 amp, there is a source
of current drain from the batteries which must be located and
removed.
IX) REFERENCE APPENDIX
• For more information about boat wiring to conform to U.S. Coast
Guard regulations, write:
Superintendent of Documents
Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402
Request: 33 CFR 183 Subpart I
* Note: Wait at least 5 minutes after charging or discharging before
checking specific gravity or open circuit voltage. The battery’s
voltage needs to stabilize in order to get an accurate reading.
• For information about American Boat and Yacht Council
recommendations for boat wiring, write to:
American Boat and Yacht Council
3069 Soloman’s Island Road
Edgewater, MD 21037
Request: Standards and Recommended
Practices for Small Craft.
AC & DC systems: Section E11
Battery Chargers and Inverters: Section A-31
• For additional installation instructions, refer to:
ANSI NFPA 302
14
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X) UNIT DIMENSION DRAWING
Models: PT 80 & PT-24-45U
15
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XI) UNIT DIMENSION DRAWING
Model: PT-24-95U
16
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