Automated Manufacturing Systems (First Draft)

Automated Manufacturing Systems (First Draft)
page 1
Automated Manufacturing
Systems
PLCs
(First Draft)
by
Hugh Jack
© Copyright 1993-2000 Hugh Jack
page 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2.
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
INTRODUCTION
INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
2.2.1
Inputs
2.2.2
Output Modules
RELAYS
A CASE STUDY
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
31
32
34
38
45
46
47
47
LOGICAL SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4.
15
16
20
24
25
26
27
28
29
PLC HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
2.1
2.2
3.
INTRODUCTION
1.1.1
Ladder Logic
1.1.2
Programming
1.1.3
PLC Connections
1.1.4
Ladder Logic Inputs
1.1.5
Ladder Logic Outputs
A CASE STUDY
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
SENSOR WIRING
3.2.1
Switches
3.2.2
Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
3.2.3
Sinking/Sourcing
3.2.4
Solid State Relays
PRESENCE DETECTION
3.3.1
Contact Switches
3.3.2
Reed Switches
3.3.3
Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors
3.3.4
Capacitive Sensors
3.3.5
Inductive Sensors
3.3.6
Ultrasonic
3.3.7
Hall Effect
3.3.8
Fluid Flow
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
55
56
56
57
58
65
65
65
66
66
74
78
80
80
81
81
82
LOGICAL ACTUATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
4.1
INTRODUCTION
86
page 3
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
5.
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
INTRODUCTION
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
LOGIC DESIGN
COMMON LOGIC FORMS
5.4.1
Complex Gate Forms
5.4.2
Multiplexers
SIMPLE DESIGN CASES
5.5.1
Basic Logic Functions
5.5.2
Car Safety System
5.5.3
Motor Forward/Reverse
5.5.4
A Burglar Alarm
KARNAUGH MAPS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
93
93
97
105
105
106
108
108
109
109
110
113
116
117
PLC OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7.
86
87
90
91
91
92
92
LOGIC DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6.
SOLENOIDS
HYDRAULICS
PNEUMATICS
MOTORS
OTHERS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
OPERATION SEQUENCE
PLC STATUS
MEMORY TYPES
SOFTWARE BASED PLCS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
136
138
140
140
141
141
142
EVENT BASED LOGIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
INTRODUCTION
LATCHES
TIMERS
COUNTERS
DESIGN CASES
7.5.1
Basic Counters And Timers
7.5.2
More Timers And Counters
7.5.3
Deadman Switch
7.5.4
Conveyor
7.5.5
Accept/Reject Sorting
143
144
149
157
160
161
162
162
163
164
page 4
7.6
7.7
7.8
8.
165
167
168
170
173
173
SEQUENTIAL LOGIC DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
9.
7.5.6
Shear Press
PROGRAM DESIGN METHODS
7.6.1
Process Sequence Bits
7.6.2
Timing Diagrams
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
SCRIPTS
FLOW CHARTS
STATE BASED MODELLING
8.4.1
State Diagram Example
8.4.2
Conversion to Ladder Logic
Block Logic Conversion
State Equations
State-Transition Equations
PARALLEL PROCESS FLOWCHARTS
A COMPARISON OF METHODS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
189
190
194
203
206
210
210
218
226
231
245
246
246
NUMBERS AND DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
9.1
9.2
9.3
INTRODUCTION
286
NUMERICAL VALUES
287
9.2.1
Binary
287
Boolean Operations
290
Binary Mathematics
291
9.2.2
Other Base Number Systems
295
9.2.3
BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)
296
DATA CHARACTERIZATION
297
9.3.1
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
297
9.4
9.5
10.
9.3.2
Parity
9.3.3
Checksums
9.3.4
Gray Code
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
300
301
302
303
304
PLC MEMORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
INTRODUCTION
MEMORY ADDRESSES
PROGRAM FILES
DATA FILES
310
310
311
312
page 5
10.5
10.6
11.
318
319
321
322
323
323
324
324
LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
12.
10.4.1
User Bit Memory
10.4.2
Timer Counter Memory
10.4.3
PLC Status Bits (for PLC-5s and Micrologix)
10.4.4
User Function Control Memory
10.4.5
Integer Memory
10.4.6
Floating Point Memory
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
DATA HANDLING
11.2.1
Move Functions
11.2.2
Mathematical Functions
11.2.3
Conversions
11.2.4
Array Data Functions
Statistics
Block Operations
LOGICAL FUNCTIONS
11.3.1
Comparison of Values
11.3.2
Boolean Functions
DESIGN CASES
11.4.1
Simple Calculation
11.4.2
For-Next
11.4.3
Series Calculation
11.4.4
Flashing Lights
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
327
329
329
331
336
337
338
339
341
341
347
348
348
349
350
351
351
352
ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
INTRODUCTION
LIST FUNCTIONS
12.2.1
Shift Registers
12.2.2
Stacks
12.2.3
Sequencers
PROGRAM CONTROL
12.3.1
Branching and Looping
12.3.2
Fault Detection and Interrupts
INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS
12.4.1
Immediate I/O Instructions
12.4.2
Block Transfer Functions
DESIGN TECHNIQUES
12.5.1
State Diagrams
DESIGN CASES
12.6.1
If-Then
360
360
361
362
365
368
368
374
378
378
380
382
382
385
386
page 6
12.7
12.8
13.
399
399
402
407
408
INTRODUCTION
THE LANGUAGE
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
409
410
424
424
INTRODUCTION
DEVELOPING FUNCTION BLOCKS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
425
427
428
428
ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
18.
INTRODUCTION
THE IEC 61131 VERSION
THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
17.
394
395
396
397
397
STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
16.
INTRODUCTION
IEC 61131
OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
15.
387
388
389
OPEN CONTROLLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
14.
12.6.2
Traffic Light
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
ANALOG INPUTS
17.2.1
Analog Inputs With a PLC
ANALOG OUTPUTS
17.3.1
Analog Outputs With A PLC
DESIGN CASES
17.4.1
Process Monitor
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
429
430
437
441
444
446
446
446
447
CONTINUOUS SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
18.1
INTRODUCTION
454
page 7
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
19.
CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
20.
INDUSTRIAL SENSORS
455
18.2.1
Angular Displacement
456
Potentiometers
456
18.2.2
Encoders
457
Tachometers
461
18.2.3
Linear Position
462
Potentiometers
462
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)462
Moire Fringes
464
Accelerometers
465
18.2.4
Forces and Moments
468
Strain Gages
468
Piezoelectric
472
18.2.5
Fluids and Liquids
474
Pressure
474
Venturi Valves
474
Pitot Tubes
476
18.2.6
Temperature
477
Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
477
Thermocouples
478
Thermistors
480
Other Sensors
482
18.2.7
Light
482
Light Dependant Resistors (LDR)
482
INPUT ISSUES
483
SENSOR GLOSSARY
488
SUMMARY
489
REFERENCES
490
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
490
INTRODUCTION
MOTORS
19.2.1
DC Motors
19.2.2
Stepper Motors
19.2.3
Separately Excited DC Motor
19.2.4
AC Motors
HYDRAULICS
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
493
493
493
494
496
496
497
498
498
498
CONTINUOUS CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500
20.1
20.2
INTRODUCTION
CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
500
503
page 8
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
21.
504
504
505
507
512
514
514
517
519
519
FUZZY LOGIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .523
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
22.
CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
20.3.1
Block Diagrams
20.3.2
Feedback Control Systems
20.3.3
Proportional Controllers
20.3.4
PID Control Systems
DESIGN CASES
20.4.1
Oven Temperature Control
20.4.2
Water Tank Level Control
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS
REFERENCES
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
523
529
529
529
530
DATA COMMUNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
INTRODUCTION
SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
22.2.1
RS-232
ASCII Functions
PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS
NETWORKS
22.4.1
Topology
22.4.2
OSI Network Model
22.4.3
Networking Hardware
22.4.4
Control Network Issues
BUS TYPES
22.5.1
Devicenet
22.5.2
CANbus
22.5.3
Controlnet
22.5.4
Ethernet
22.5.5
Profibus
22.5.6
Proprietary Networks
Data Highway
INTERNET
22.6.1
Computer Addresses
IPV6
22.6.2
Phone Lines
22.6.3
Mail Transfer Protocols
22.6.4
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
22.6.5
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
22.6.6
Novell
531
533
536
540
544
545
545
547
549
551
552
552
557
558
559
560
561
561
565
566
567
567
568
568
568
568
page 9
22.6.7
22.7
22.8
22.9
23.
569
569
569
569
570
570
570
571
572
572
572
573
573
574
574
575
575
HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACES (HMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
24.
Security
Firewall
IP Masquerading
22.6.8
HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language
22.6.9
URLs
22.6.10
Encryption
22.6.11
Compression
22.6.12
Clients and Servers
22.6.13
Java
22.6.14
Javascript
22.6.15
CGI
22.6.16
ActiveX
22.6.17
Graphics
DESIGN CASES
22.7.1
PLC Interface To a Robot
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
HMI/MMI DESIGN
DESIGN CASES
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
584
585
586
586
586
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.9
24.10
INTRODUCTION
ELECTRICAL
24.2.1
Electrical Wiring Diagrams
JIC Wiring Symbols
24.2.2
Selecting Voltages
24.2.3
Grounding
24.2.4
Shielding
CONNECTING LARGE LOADS
FAIL-SAFE DESIGN
DEBUGGING
24.5.1
Troubleshooting
24.5.2
Forcing
24.5.3
PLC Enclosures
PROCESS MODELLING
PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS
DOCUMENTATION
REFERENCES
SUMMARY
588
588
588
595
598
599
602
604
605
607
607
608
608
610
614
617
626
626
page 10
24.11
25.
INTRODUCTION
SPECIAL I/O MODULES
SUMMARY
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
628
633
636
637
FUNCTION REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638
26.1
26.2
27.
626
SELECTING A PLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
26.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
26.1.1
General Functions
26.1.2
Program Control
26.1.3
Timers and Counters
26.1.4
Compare
26.1.5
Calculation and Conversion
26.1.6
Logical
26.1.7
Move
26.1.8
File
26.1.9
List
26.1.10
Program Control
26.1.11
Advanced Input/Output
26.1.12
String
DATA TYPES
638
638
640
642
647
651
656
657
658
662
666
670
672
678
COMBINED GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .685
27.1
27.2
27.3
27.4
27.5
27.6
27.7
27.8
27.9
27.10
27.11
27.12
27.13
27.14
27.15
27.16
27.17
27.18
27.19
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
685
688
693
699
704
706
708
709
710
713
713
714
715
718
720
722
725
726
729
page 11
27.20
27.21
27.22
27.23
27.24
27.25
27.26
28.
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
733
736
736
737
738
738
739
PLC REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .740
28.1
28.2
28.3
SUPPLIERS
PROFESSIONAL INTEREST GROUPS
PLC/DISCRETE CONTROL REFERENCES
740
741
741
page 12
PREFACE
<TODO> Some sections are still in point form. The last major task of this book will be to
write the preface to reflect the book contents and all of the features.
Control systems apply artificial means to change the behavior of a system. The type of control problem often determines the type of control system that can be used. Each controller will be
designed to meet a specific objective. The major types of control are shown in Figure 0.1.
CONTROL
CONTINUOUS
LINEAR
DISCRETE
NON_LINEAR
CONDITIONAL
e.g. MRAC
e.g. PID
BOOLEAN
SEQUENTIAL
EVENT BASED
TEMPORAL
e.g. COUNTERS
EXPERT SYSTEMS e.g. TIMERS
e.g. FUZZY LOGIC
Figure 0.1 - Control Dichotomy
• Continuous - The values to be controlled change smoothly. e.g. the speed of a car.
• Logical - The value to be controlled are easily described as on-off. e.g. the car motor is
on-off. NOTE: all systems are continuous but they can be treated as logical for
simplicity.
e.g. “When I do this, that always happens!” For example, when the power is turned
on, the press closes!
• Linear - Can be described with a simple differential equation. This is the preferred starting point for simplicity, and a common approximation for real world problems.
e.g. A car can be driving around a track and can pass same the same spot at a constant velocity. But, the longer the car runs, the mass decreases, and it travels
faster, but requires less gas, etc. Basically, the math gets tougher, and the problem becomes non-linear.
e.g. We are driving the perfect car with no friction, with no drag, and can predict
how it will work perfectly.
• Non-Linear - Not Linear. This is how the world works and the mathematics become
much more complex.
page 13
e.g. As rocket approaches sun, gravity increases, so control must change.
• Sequential - A logical controller that will keep track of time and previous events.
The difference between these control systems can be emphasized by considering a simple
elevator. An elevator is a car that travels between floors, stopping at precise heights. There are
certain logical constraints used for safety and convenience. The points below emphasize different
types of control problems in the elevator.
Logical:
1. The elevator must move towards a floor when a button is pushed.
2. The elevator must open a door when it is at a floor.
3. It must have the door closed before it moves.
etc.
Linear:
1. If the desired position changes to a new value, accelerate quickly
towards the new position.
2. As the elevator approaches the correct position, slow down.
Non-linear:
1 Accelerate slowly to start.
2. Decelerate as you approach the final position.
3. Allow faster motion while moving.
4. Compensate for cable stretch, and changing spring constant, etc.
Logical and sequential control is preferred for system design. These systems are more stable,
and often lower cost. Most continuous systems can be controlled logically. But, some times we
will encounter a system that must be controlled continuously. When this occurs the control system
design becomes more demanding. When improperly controlled, continuous systems may be
unstable and become dangerous.
When a system is well behaved we say it is self regulating. These systems don’t need to be
closely monitored, and we use open loop control. An open loop controller will set a desired position for a system, but no sensors are used to verify the position. When a system must be constantly
monitored and the control output adjusted we say it is closed loop. A cruise control in a car is an
excellent example. This will monitor the actual speed of a car, and adjust the speed to meet a set
target speed.
Many control technologies are available for control. Early control systems relied upon mech-
page 14
anisms and electronics to build controlled. Most modern controllers use a computer to achieve
control. The most flexible of these controllers is the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller).
<BOOK POINTS - EXPAND LATER>
Purpose
• Most education focuses on continuous control systems.
• In practice most contemporary control systems make use of computers.
• Computer based control is inherently different than continuous systems.
• The purpose of this book is to address discrete control systems using common
control systems.
• The objective is to prepare the reader to implement a control system from beginning to end, including planning and design of hardware and software.
Audience Background
• The intended reader should have a basic background in technology or engineering.
A first course in electric circuits, including AC/DC circuits is useful for the reader,
more advanced topics will be explained as necessary.
Editorial notes and aids
Sections labeled ’Aside:’ are for topics that would be on interest to one discipline,
such as electrical or mechanical.
Sections labeled ’Note:’ are for clarification, to provide hints, or to add explanation.
Each chapter supports about 1-4 lecture hours depending upon students background and level in the curriculum.
Topics are organized to allow students to start laboratory work earlier in the semester.
sections begin with a topic list to help set thoughts.
Objective given at the beginning of each chapter.
Summary at the end of each chapter to give big picture.
significant use of figures to emphasize physical implementations.
worked examples and case studies.
problems at ends of chapters with solutions.
glossary.
Platform
This book supports Allen Bradley
A simulator is included so that programs may be tested and tried.
page 15
1. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS
Topics:
• PLC History
• Ladder Logic and Relays
• PLC Programming
• PLC Operation
• An Example
Objectives:
• Know general PLC issues
• To be able to write simple ladder logic programs
• Understand the operation of a PLC
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Control engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans were the main method for
controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The development
of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for
manufacturing controls.
PLCs have been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this is because of the advantages they offer.
• Cost effective for controlling complex systems.
• Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily.
• Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control.
• Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime.
• Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.
page 16
1.1.1 Ladder Logic
Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLCs. As mentioned before, ladder
logic has been developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was a
strategic one. By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of retraining needed for engineers and tradespeople was greatly reduced.
Modern control systems still include relays, but these are rarely used for logic. A relay is a
simple device that uses a magnetic field to control a switch, as pictured in Figure 1.1. When a
voltage is applied to the input coil, the resulting current creates a magnetic field. The magnetic
field pulls a metal switch (or reed) towards it and makes an electrical contact, closing the switch.
The contact that closes when the coil is energized is called normally open. The normally closed
contact is made when the input coil is not energized. Relays are normally drawn in schematic
form using a circle to represent the input coil. The output contacts are shown with two parallel
lines. Normally open contacts are shown as two lines, and will be open (non-conducting) when
the input is not energized. Normally closed contacts are shown with two lines with a diagonal line
through them. When the input coil is not energized the normally closed contacts will be closed
(conducting).
page 17
input coil
OR
normally
closed
normally
open
OR
Figure 1.1 - Simple Relay Layouts and Schematics
Relays are used to let one power source close a switch for another (often high current) power
source, while keeping them isolated. An example of a relay in a simple control application is
shown in Figure 1.2. In this system the first relay on the left is used as normally closed, and will
allow current to flow until a voltage is applied to the input A. The second relay is normally open
and will not allow current to flow until a voltage is applied to the input B. If current is flowing
page 18
through the first two relays then current will flow through the coil in the third relay, and close the
switch for output C. This circuit would normally be drawn in the ladder logic form. This can be
read logically as C will be on if A is off and B is on.
115VAC
wall plug
relay logic
input B
(normally open)
input A
(normally closed)
A
B
output C
(normally open)
C
ladder logic
Figure 1.2 - A Simple Relay Controller
The example in Figure 1.2 does not show the entire control system, but only the logic. When
we consider a PLC there are inputs, outputs, and the logic. Figure 1.3 shows a more complete representation of the PLC. Here there are two inputs from push buttons. We can imagine the inputs as
activating 24V DC relay coils in the PLC. This in turn drives an output relay that switches 115V
AC, that will turn on a light. Note, in actual PLCs inputs are never relays, but outputs are often
relays. The ladder logic in the PLC is actually a computer program that the user can enter and
page 19
change. Notice that both of the input push buttons are normally open, but the ladder logic inside
the PLC has one normally open contact, and one normally closed contact. Do not think that the
ladder logic in the PLC needs to match the inputs or outputs. Many beginners will get caught trying to make the ladder logic match the input types.
push buttons
power
supply
+24V
com.
PLC
inputs
ladder
logic
A
B
C
outputs
115Vac
AC power
light
neut.
Figure 1.3 - A PLC Illustrated With Relays
Many relays also have multiple outputs (throws) and this allows an output relay to also be an
page 20
input simultaneously. The circuit shown below is an example of this, it is called a seal in circuit.
In this circuit the current can flow through either branch of the circuit, through the contacts
labelled A or B. The input B will only be on when the output B is on. If B is off, and A is energized, then B will turn on. If B turns on then the input B will turn on, and keep output B on even if
input A goes off. After B is turned on the output B will not turn off.
A
B
B
Note: When A is pushed, the output B will turn on, and
the input B will also turn on and keep B on permanently - until power is removed.
Note: The line on the right is being left off intentionally
and is implied in these diagrams.
Figure 1.4 - A Seal-in Circuit
1.1.2 Programming
The first PLCs were programmed with a technique that was based on relay logic wiring schematics. This eliminated the need to teach the electricians, technicians and engineers how to ’program’ a computer - but, this method has stuck and it is the most common technique for
programming PLCs today. An example of ladder logic can be seen in Figure 1.5. To interpret this
diagram imagine that the power is on the vertical line on the left hand side, we call this the hot
rail. On the right hand side is the neutral rail. In the figure there are two rungs, and on each rung
there are combinations of inputs (two vertical lines) and outputs (circles). If the inputs are opened
or closed in the right combination the power can flow from the hot rail, through the inputs, to
power the outputs, and finally to the neutral rail. An input can come from a sensor, switch, or any
other type of sensor. An output will be some device outside the PLC that is switched on or off,
such as lights or motors. In the top rung the contacts are normally open and normally closed.
Which means if input ’A’ is on and input ’B’ is off, then power will flow through the output and
page 21
activate it. Any other combination of input values will result in the output ’X’ being off.
HOT
NEUTRAL
A
B
X
C
D
G
E
F
H
INPUTS
Y
OUTPUTS
Note: Power needs to flow through some combination of the inputs
(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H) to turn on outputs (X,Y).
Figure 5 - A Simple Ladder Logic Diagram
The second rung of Figure 1.5 is more complex, there are actually multiple combinations of
inputs that will result in the output ’Y’ turning on. On the left most part of the rung, power could
flow through the top if ’C’ is off and ’D’ is on. Power could also (and simultaneously) flow
through the bottom if both ’E’ and ’F’ are true. This would get power half way across the rung,
and then if ’G’ or ’H’ is true the power will be delivered to output ’Y’. In later chapters we will
examine how to interpret and construct these diagrams.
There are other methods for programming PLCs. One of the earliest techniques involved
mnemonic instructions. These instructions can be derived directly from the ladder logic diagrams
and entered into the PLC through a simple programming terminal. An example of mnemonics is
shown in Figure 1.6. In this example the instructions are read one line at a time from top to bottom. The first line ’00000’ has the instruction ’LD’ (input load) for input ’00001’. This will examine the input to the PLC and if it is off it will remember a ’1’ (or true), if it is on it will remember
a ’0’ (or false). The next line uses an ’LDN’ (input load not) statement to look at the input. If the
input is off it remembers a ’0’, if the input is on it remembers a ’1’ (note: this is the reverse of the
page 22
’LD’). The ’AND’ statement recalls the last two numbers remembered and if the are both true the
result is a ’1’, otherwise the result is a ’0’. This result now replaces the two numbers that were
recalled, and there is only one number remembered. The process is repeated for lines ’00003’ and
’00004’, but when these are done there are now three numbers remembered. The oldest number is
from the ’AND’, the newer numbers are from the two ’LD’ instructions. The ’AND’ in line
’00005’ combines the results from the last ’LD’ instructions and now there are two numbers
remembered. The ’OR’ instruction takes the two numbers now remaining and if either one is a ’1’
the result is a ’1’, otherwise the result is a ’0’. This result replaces the two numbers, and there is
now a single number there. The last instruction is the ’ST’ (store output) that will look at the last
value stored and if it is ’1’, the output will be turned on, if it is ’0’ the output will be turned off.
00000
00001
00002
00003
00004
00005
00006
00007
00008
LD
LDN
AND
LD
LD
AND
OR
ST
END
00001
00002
00003
00004
the mnemonic code is equivalent to
the ladder logic below
00107
00001
00002
00003
00004
00107
END
Figure 1.6 - An Example of a Mnemonic Program and Equivalent Ladder Logic
The ladder logic program in Figure 1.6, is equivalent to the mnemonic program. Even if you
have programmed a PLC with ladder logic, it will be converted to mnemonic form before being
used by the PLC. In the past mnemonic programming was the most common, but now it is
uncommon for users to even see mnemonic programs.
Sequential Function Charts (SFCs) have been developed to accommodate the programming
page 23
of more advanced systems. These are similar to flowcharts, but much more powerful. The example seen in Figure 1.7 is doing two different things. To read the chart, start at the top where is says
’start’. Below this there is the double horizontal line that says follow both paths. As a result the
PLC will start to follow the branch on the left and right hand sides separately and simultaneously.
On the left there are two functions the first one is the ’power up’ function. This function will run
until it decides it is done, and the ’power down’ function will come after. On the right hand side is
the ’flash’ function, this will run until it is done. These functions look unexplained, but each function, such as ’power up’ will be a small ladder logic program. This method is much different from
flowcharts because it does not have to follow a single path through the flowchart.
Start
power up
Execution follows
multiple paths
flash
power down
End
Figure 1.7 - An Example of a Sequential Function Chart
Structured Text programming has been developed as a more modern programming language.
It is quite similar to languages such as BASIC. A simple example is shown in Figure 1.8. This
example uses a PLC memory location ’N7:0’. This memory location is for an integer, as will be
explained later in the book. The first line of the program sets the value to 0. The next line begins a
loop, and will be where the loop returns to. The next line recalls the value in location ’N7:0’, adds
1 to it and returns it to the same location. The next line checks to see if the loop should quit. If
’N7:0’ is greater than or equal to 10, then the loop will quit, otherwise the computer will go back
page 24
up to the ’REPEAT’ statement continue from there. Each time the program goes through this loop
’N7:0’ will increase by 1 until the value reaches ’10’.
N7:0 := 0;
REPEAT
N7:0 := N7:0 + 1;
UNTIL N7:0 >= 10
END_REPEAT;
Figure 1.8 - An Example of a Structured Text Program
1.1.3 PLC Connections
When a process is controlled by a PLC it uses inputs from sensors to make decisions and
update outputs to drive actuators, as shown in Figure 1.9. The process is a real process that will
change over time. Actuators will drive the system to new states (or modes of operation). This
means that the controller is limited by the sensors available, if an input is not available, the controller will have no way to detect a condition.
PROCESS
Connections to
actuators
Feedback from
sensors/switches
PLC
Figure 1.9 - The Separation of Controller and Process
The control loop is a continuous cycle of the PLC reading inputs, solving the ladder logic,
and then changing the outputs. Like any computer this does not happen instantly. Figure 1.10
shows the basic operation cycle of a PLC. When power is turned on initially the PLC does a quick
’sanity check’ to ensure that the hardware is working properly. If there is a problem the PLC will
page 25
halt and indicate there is an error. For example, if the PLC backup battery is low and power was
lost, the memory will be corrupt and this will result in a fault. If the PLC passes the sanity check it
will then scan (read) all the inputs. After the inputs values are stored in memory the ladder logic
will be scanned (solved) using the stored values - not the current values. This is done to prevent
logic problems when inputs change during the ladder logic scan. When the ladder logic scan is
complete the outputs will be scanned (the output values will be changed). After this the system
goes back to do a sanity check, and the loop continues indefinitely. Unlike normal computers, the
entire program will be ’run’ every scan. Typical times for each of the stages is in the order of milliseconds.
PLC program changes outputs
by examining inputs
THE
CONTROL
LOOP
Read inputs
Set new outputs
Power turned on
Process changes and PLC pauses
while it checks its own operation
Figure 1.10 - The Scan Cycle of a PLC
1.1.4 Ladder Logic Inputs
PLC inputs have are easily represented in ladder logic. In Figure 1.11 there are three types of
inputs shown. The first two are normally open and normally closed inputs, discussed previously.
The ’IIT’ (Immediate InpuT) function allows inputs to be read after the input scan, while the ladder logic is being scanned. This allows ladder logic to examine input values more often than once
every cycle.
page 26
x
Normally open, an active input x will close the contact
and allow power to flow.
x
Normally closed, power flows when the input x is not open.
x
IIT
immediate inputs will take current values, not those from
the previous input scan. (Note: this instruction is actually
an output that will update the input table with the current
input values. Other input contacts can now be used to
examine the new values.)
Figure 1.11 - Ladder Logic Inputs
1.1.5 Ladder Logic Outputs
In ladder logic there are multiple types of outputs, but these are not consistently available on
all PLCs. Some of the outputs will be externally connected to devices outside the PLC, but it is
also possible the use internal memory locations in the PLC. Six types of outputs are shown in Figure 1.12. The first is a normal output, when energized the output will turn on, and energize an output. The circle with a diagonal line through is a normally on output. When energized the output
will turn off. This type of input is not available on all PLC types. When initially energized the
’OSR’ (One Shot Relay) instruction will turn on for one scan, but then be off for all scans after,
until it is turned off. The ’L’ (latch) and ’U’ (unlatch) instructions can be used to lock outputs on.
When an ’L’ output is energized the output will turn on indefinitely, even when the output coil is
deenergized. The output can only be turned off using a ’U’ output. The last instruction is the
’IOT’ (Immediate OutpuT) that will allow outputs to be updated without having to wait for the
ladder logic scan to be completed.
page 27
When power is applied (on) the output x is activated for the left output, but turned
off for the output on the right.
x
x
An input transition on will cause the output x to go on for one scan
(this is also known as a one shot relay)
x
OSR
When the L coil is energized, x will be toggled on, it will stay on until the U coil
is energized. This is like a flip-flop and stays set even when the PLC is turned off.
x
x
L
U
Some PLCs will allow immediate outputs that do not wait for the program scan to
end before setting an output. (Note: This instruction will only update the outputs using
the output table, other instruction must change the individual outputs.)
x
IOT
Note: Outputs are also commonly shown using parentheses ’-( )-’ instead
of the circle. This is because many of the programming systems are text
based and circles cannot be drawn.
Figure 1.12 - Ladder Logic Outputs
1.2 A CASE STUDY
Problem: Try to develop (without looking at the solution) a relay based controller that will
allow three switches in a room to control a single light.
page 28
Solution: There are two possible approaches to this problem. The first assumes that any
one of the switches on will turn on the light, but all three switches must be off for the
light to be off.
switch 1
light
switch 2
switch 3
The second solution assumes that each switch can turn the light on or off, regardless of
the states of the other switches. This method is more complex and involves thinking
through all of the possible combinations of switch positions. You might recognize
this problem as an exclusive or problem.
switch 1 switch 2 switch 3
light
switch 1 switch 2 switch 3
switch 1 switch 1 switch 3
switch 1 switch 1 switch 3
Note: It is important to get a clear understanding of how the controls are expected to
work. In this example two radically different solutions were obtained based upon a
simple difference in the operation.
1.3 SUMMARY
• Normally open and closed contacts.
• Relays and their relationship to ladder logic.
• PLC outputs can be inputs, as shown by the seal in circuit.
page 29
• Programming can be done with ladder logic, mnemonics SFCs, and structured text.
• There are multiple ways to write a PLC program.
1.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. A PLC can effectively replace a number of components. Give examples and discuss some good
and bad applications of PLCs.
(ans. A PLC could replace a few relays. In this case the relays might be easier to install and less
expensive. To control a more complex system the controller might need timing, counting and
other mathematic calculations. In this case a PLC would be a better choice._
2. Give an example of where a PLC could be used.
(ans. to control a conveyor system)
3. Why would relays be used in place of PLCs?
(ans. for simple designs)
4. Give a concise description of a PLC.
(ans. A PLC is a computer based controller that uses inputs to monitor a process, and uses outputs
to control a process. A simple program is used to set the controller behaviour.)
5. List the advantages of a PLC over relays.
(ans. less expensive for complex processes, debugging tools, reliable, flexible, easy to expend,
etc.)
6. Explain the trade-offs between relays and PLCs for control applications.
(ans. tradeoffs include: cost, complexity, easy of debugging, etc.)
7. Explain why ladder logic outputs are coils?
(ans. the ladder logic outputs were modelled on relay logic diagrams. The output in a relay ladder
diagram is a relay coil. This is normally drawn as a circle.)
8. Discuss why relay contacts in ladder diagrams are shown in their deenergized state.
(ans. By default, ladder logic diagrams are drawn with contacts shown in their deenergized states.
This allows the diagram to be quickly examined to determine the logic state.)
9. In the figure below, will the power for the output on the first rung normally be on or off? Would
the output on the second rung normally be on or off?
page 30
(ans. off, on)
11. Write the mnemonic program for the Ladder Logic below.
100
101
(ans. LD 100, LD 101, OR, ST 201)
201
page 31
2. PLC HARDWARE
Topics:
• PLC hardware configurations
• Input and outputs types
• Electrical wiring for inputs and outputs
• Relays
Objectives:
• Be able to understand and design basic input and output wiring.
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Many PLC configurations are available, even from a single vendor. But, in each of these
there are common components and concepts. The most essential components are:
Power Supply - This can be built into the PLC or be an external unit. Common voltage
levels required by the PLC (with and without the power supply) are 24Vdc,
120Vac, 220Vac.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - This is a computer where ladder logic is stored and processed.
I/O (Input/Output) - A number of input/output terminals must be provided so that the PLC
can monitor the process and initiate actions.
Indicator lights - These indicate the status of the PLC including power on, program running, and a fault. These are essential when diagnosing problems.
The configuration of the PLC refers to the packaging of the components. Typical configurations
are listed below from largest to smallest as shown in Figure 2.1.
Rack - A rack is often large (up to 18” by 30” by 10”) and can hold multiple cards. When
necessary, multiple racks can be connected together. These tend to be the highest
cost, but also the most flexible and easy to maintain.
Mini - These are similar in function to PLC racks, but about half the size.
Shoebox - A compact, all-in-one unit (about the size of a shoebox) that has limited expansion capabilities. Lower cost, and compactness make these ideal for small applications.
Micro - These units can be as small as a deck of cards. They tend to have fixed quantities
page 32
of I/O and limited abilities, but costs will be the lowest.
Software - A software based PLC requires a computer with an interface card, but allows
the PLC to be connected to sensors and other PLCs across a network.
<TODO> Picture of different PLC racks
Figure 2.1 - Typical Configurations for PLCs
2.2 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
Inputs to, and outputs from, a PLC are necessary to monitor and control a process. Both
inputs and outputs can be categorized into two basic types: logical or continuous. Consider the
example of a light bulb. If it can only be turned on or off, it is logical control. If the light can be
dimmed to different levels, it is continuous. Continuous values seem more intuitive, but logical
values are preferred because they allow more certainty, and simplify control. As a result most
controls applications (and PLCs) use logical inputs and outputs for most applications. Hence, we
will discuss logical I/O and leave continuous I/O for later.
page 33
Outputs to actuators allow a PLC to cause something to happen in a process. A short list of
popular actuators is given below in order of relative popularity.
Solenoid Valves - logical outputs that can switch a hydraulic or pneumatic flow.
Lights - logical outputs that can often be powered directly from PLC output boards.
Motor Starters - motors often draw a large amount of current when started, so they require
motor starters, which are basically large relays.
Servo Motors - a continuous output from the PLC can command a variable speed or position.
Outputs from PLCs are often relays, but they can also be solid state electronics such as transistors
for DC outputs or Triacs for AC outputs. Continuous outputs require special output cards with
digital to analog converters.
Inputs come from sensors that translate physical phenomena into electrical signals. Typical
examples of sensors are listed below in relative order of popularity.
Proximity Switches - use inductance, capacitance or light to detect an object logically.
Switches - mechanical mechanisms will open or close electrical contacts for a logical signal.
Potentiometer - measures angular positions continuously, using resistance.
LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) - measures linear displacement continuously using magnetic coupling.
Inputs for a PLC come in a few basic varieties, the simplest are AC and DC inputs. Sourcing and
sinking inputs are also popular. This output method dictates that a device does not supply any
power. Instead, the device only switches current on or off, like a simple switch.
Sinking - When active the output allows current to flow to a common ground. This is best
selected when different voltages are supplied.
Sourcing - When active, current flows from a supply, though the output device and
ground. This method is best used when all devices use a single supply voltage.
This is also referred to as NPN (sinking) and PNP (sourcing). PNP is more popular. This will be
covered in more detail in the chapter on sensors.
page 34
2.2.1 Inputs
In smaller PLCs the inputs are normally built in and are specified when purchasing the PLC.
For larger PLCs the inputs are purchased as modules, or cards, with 8 or 16 inputs of the same
type on each card. For discussion purposes we will discuss all inputs as if they have been purchased as cards. The list below shows typical ranges for input voltages, and is roughly in order of
popularity.
12-24 Vdc
100-120 Vac
10-60 Vdc
12-24 Vac/dc
5 Vdc (TTL)
200-240 Vac
48 Vdc
24 Vac
PLC input cards rarely supply power, this means that an external power supply is needed to
supply power for the inputs and sensors. The example in Figure 2.2 shows how to connect an AC
input card.
page 35
PLC Input Card
24V AC
normally open push-button
24 V AC Hot
Power
Supply
Neut.
00
01
02
03
04
normally open
temperature switch
05
06
07
COM
I:013
Push Button
01
it is in rack 1
I/O Group 3
I:013
Temperature Sensor
03
Note: inputs are normally high impedance. This means that they will
use very little current.
Figure 2.2 - An AC Input Card and Ladder Logic
In the example there are two inputs, one is a normally open push button, and the second is a
temperature switch, or thermal relay. (NOTE: These symbols are standard and will be discussed
in chapter 24.) Both of the switches are powered by the hot output of the 24Vac power supply this is like the positive terminal on a DC supply. Power is supplied to the left side of both of the
switches. When the switches are open there is no voltage passed to the input card. If either of the
switches are closed power will be supplied to the input card. In this case inputs 1 and 3 are used notice that the inputs start at 0. The input card compares these voltages to the common. If the
page 36
input voltage is within a given tolerance range the inputs will switch on. Ladder logic is shown in
the figure for the inputs. Here it uses Allen Bradley notation for PLC-5 racks. At the top is the
location of the input card ‘I:013’ which indicates that the card is an ‘I’nput card in rack ‘01’ in
slot ‘3’. The input number on the card is shown below the contact as ‘01’ and ‘03’.
Many beginners become confused about where connections are needed in the circuit above.
The key word to remember is ‘circuit’, which means that there is a full loop that the voltage must
be able to follow. In Figure 2.2 we can start following the circuit (loop) at the power supply. The
path goes ‘through’ the switches, ‘through’ the input card, and back to the power supply where it
flows back ‘through’ to the start. In a full PLC implementation there will be many circuits that
must each be complete.
A second important concept is the common. Here the neutral on the power supply is the common, or reference voltage. In effect we have chosen this to be our 0V reference, and all other voltages are measured relative to it. If we had a second power supply, we would also need to connect
the neutral so that both neutrals would be connected to the same common. Often common and
ground will be confused. The common is a reference, or datum voltage that is used for 0V, but the
ground is used to prevent shocks and damage to equipment. The ground is connected under a
building to a metal pipe or grid in the ground. This is connected to the electrical system of a building, to the power outlets, where the metal cases of electrical equipment are connected. When
power flows through the ground it is bad. Unfortunately many engineers, and manufacturers mix
up ground and common. It is very common to find a power supply with the ground and common
mislabeled.
Remember - Don’t mix up the ground and common. Don’t connect them together if the
common of your device is connected to a common on another device.
One final concept that tends to trap beginners is that each input card is isolated. This means
that if you have connected a common to only one card, then the other cards are not connected.
When this happens the other cards will not work properly. You must connect a common for each
of the output cards.
page 37
There are many trade-offs when deciding which type of input cards to use.
• DC voltages are usually lower, and therefore safer (i.e., 12-24V).
• DC inputs are very fast, AC inputs require a longer on-time. For example, a 60Hz wave
may require up to 1/60sec for reasonable recognition.
• DC voltages can be connected to larger variety of electrical systems.
• AC signals are more immune to noise than DC, so they are suited to long distances, and
noisy (magnetic) environments.
• AC power is easier and less expensive to supply to equipment.
• AC signals are very common in many existing automation devices.
ASIDE: PLC inputs must convert a variety of logic levels to the 5Vdc logic levels
used on the data bus. This can be done with circuits similar to those shown below.
Basically the circuits condition the input to drive an optocoupler. This electrically
isolates the external electrical circuitry from the internal circuitry. Other circuit
components are used to guard against excess or reversed voltage polarity.
+5V
optocoupler
TTL
DC
input
+5V
AC
input
optocoupler
TTL
Figure 2.3 - Aside: PLC Input Circuits
page 38
2.2.2 Output Modules
WARNING - ALWAYS CHECK RATED VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS FOR PLC’s
AND NEVER EXCEED!
As with input modules, output modules rarely supply any power, but instead act as switches.
External power supplies are connected to the output card and the card will switch the power on or
off for each output. Typical output voltages are listed below, and roughly ordered by popularity.
120 Vac
24 Vdc
12-48 Vac
12-48 Vdc
5Vdc (TTL)
230 Vac
These cards typically have 8 to 16 outputs of the same type and can be purchased with different
current ratings. A common choice when purchasing output cards is relays, transistors or triacs.
Relays are the most flexible output devices. They are capable of switching both AC and DC outputs. But, they are slower (about 10ms switching is typical), they are bulkier, they cost more, and
they will wear out after millions of cycles. Relay outputs are often called dry contacts. Transistors
are limited to DC outputs, and Triacs are limited to AC outputs. Transistor and triac outputs are
called switched outputs.
- Dry contacts - a separate relay is dedicated to each output. This allows mixed voltages
(AC or DC and voltage levels up to the maximum), as well as isolated outputs to
protect other outputs and the PLC. Response times are often greater than 10ms.
This method is the least sensitive to voltage variations and spikes.
- Switched outputs - a voltage is supplied to the PLC card, and the card switches it to different outputs using solid state circuitry (transistors, triacs, etc.) Triacs are well
suited to AC devices requiring less than 1A. Transistor outputs use NPN or PNP
transistors up to 1A typically. Their response time is well under 1ms.
page 39
ASIDE: PLC outputs must convert the 5Vdc logic levels on the PLC data bus to external voltage levels. This can be done with circuits similar to those shown below.
Basically the circuits use an optocoupler to switch external circuitry. This electrically isolates the external electrical circuitry from the internal circuitry. Other circuit components are used to guard against excess or reversed voltage polarity.
+V
optocoupler
TTL
Sourcing DC output
optocoupler
AC
output
TTL
+V
relay
output
AC/DC
TTL
Note: Some AC outputs will
also use zero voltage detection. This allows the output
to be switched on when the
voltage and current are
effectively ‘off’, thus preventing surges.
Figure 2.4 - Aside: PLC Output Circuits
Caution is required when building a system with both AC and DC outputs. If AC is accidentally connected to a DC transistor output it will only be on for the positive half of the cycle, and
page 40
appear to be working with a diminished voltage. If DC is connected to an AC triac output it will
turn on and appear to work, but you will not be able to turn it off without turning off the entire
PLC.
ASIDE: A transistor is a semiconductor based device that can act as an adjustable valve.
When switched off it will block current flow in both directions. While switched on it
will allow current flow in one direction only. There is normally a loss of a couple of
volts across the transistor. A triac is like two transistors connected together so that
current can flow in both directions, which is good for AC current. One major difference for a triac is that if it has been switched on so that current flows, and then
switched off, it will not turn off until the current stops flowing. This is fine with AC
current because the current stops and reverses every 1/2 cycle, but this does not happen with DC current, and so the triac will remain on.
A major issue with outputs is mixed power sources. It is good practice to isolate all power
supplies and keep their commons separate, but this is not always feasible. Some output modules,
such as relays, allow each output to have its own common. Other output cards require that multiple, or all, outputs on each card share the same common. Each output card will be isolated from
the rest, so each common will have to be connected. It is common for beginners to only connect
the common to one card, and forget the other cards - then only one card seems to work!
The output card shown in Figure 2.5 is an example of a 24Vdc output card that has a shared
common. This type of output card would typically use transistors for the outputs.
page 41
24 V DC
Output Card
120 V AC
Power
Supply
Neut.
00
01
Relay
02
03
Motor
04
05
24 V Lamp
06
07
COM
in rack 01
I/O group 2
+24 V DC
Power
Supply
COM
O:012
Motor
03
O:012
Lamp
07
Figure 2.5 - An Example of a 24Vdc Output Card (Sinking)
In this example the outputs are connected to a low current light bulb (lamp) and a relay coil.
Consider the circuit through the lamp, starting at the 24Vdc supply. When the output ‘07’ is on,
current can flow in ‘07’ to the COM, thus completing the circuit, and allowing the light to turn on.
If the output is off the current cannot flow, and the light will not turn on. The output ‘03’ for the
relay is connected in a similar way. When the output ‘03’ is on, current will flow through the relay
coil to close the contacts and supply 120Vac to the motor. Ladder logic for the outputs is shown in
the bottom right of the figure. The notation is for an Allen Bradley PLC-5. The value at the top
left of the outputs, ‘O:012’, indicates that the card is an output card, in rack ‘01’, in slot ‘2’ of the
page 42
rack. To the bottom right of the outputs is the output number on the card ‘03’ or ‘07’. This card
could have many different voltages applied from different sources, but all the power supplies
would need a single shared common.
The circuits in Figure 2.5 had the sequence of power supply, then device, then PLC card, then
power supply. This requires that the output card have a common. Some output schemes reverse
the device and PLC card, thereby replacing the common with a voltage input. The example in Figure 2.5 is repeated in Figure 2.6 for a voltage supply card.
24 V DC
Output Card
Power
Supply
V+
+24 V DC
COM
00
01
Relay
02
120 V AC
Power
Supply
03
04
05
Motor
Neut.
24 V lamp
06
07
in rack 01
I/O group 2
O:012
Motor
03
O:012
Lamp
07
Figure 2.6 - An Example of a 24Vdc Output Card With a Voltage Input (Sourcing)
page 43
In this example the positive terminal of the 24Vdc supply is connected to the output card
directly. When an output is on power will be supplied to that output. For example, if output ‘07’ is
on then the supply voltage will be output to the lamp. Current will flow through the lamp and back
to the common on the power supply. The operation is very similar for the relay switching the
motor. Notice that the ladder logic (shown in the bottom right of the figure) is identical to that in
Figure 2.5. With this type of output card only one power supply can be used.
We can also use relay outputs to switch the outputs. The example shown in Figures 2.5 and
2.6 is repeated yet again in Figure 2.7 for relay output.
page 44
120 V AC/DC
Output Card
24 V DC
Power
Supply
120 V AC
Power
Supply
00
01
02
03
04
Relay
05
06
Motor
07
in rack 01
I/O group 2
24 V lamp
O:012
Motor
03
O:012
Lamp
07
Figure 2.7 - An Example of a Relay Output Card
In this example the 24Vdc supply is connected directly to both relays (note that this requires
2 connections now, whereas the previous example only required one.) When an output is activated
the output switches on and power is delivered to the output devices. This layout is more similar to
Figure 2.6 with the outputs supplying voltage, but the relays could also be used to connect outputs
to grounds, as in Figure 2.5. When using relay outputs it is possible to have each output isolated
from the next. A relay output card could have AC and DC outputs beside each other.
page 45
2.3 RELAYS
Although relays are rarely used for control logic, they are still essential for switching large
power loads. Some important terminology for relays is given below.
Contactor - Special relays for switching large current loads.
Motor Starter - Basically a contactor in series with an overload relay to cut off when too
much current is drawn.
Arc Suppression - when any relay is opened or closed an arc will jump. This becomes a
major problem with large relays. On relays switching AC this problem can be
overcome by opening the relay when the voltage goes to zero (while crossing
between negative and positive). When switching DC loads this problem can be
minimized by blowing pressurized gas across during opening to suppress the arc
formation.
AC coils - If a normal relay coil is driven by AC power the contacts will vibrate open and
close at the frequency of the AC power. This problem is overcome by adding a
shading pole to the relay.
The most important consideration when selecting relays, or relay outputs on a PLC, is the
rated current and voltage. If the rated voltage is exceeded, the contacts will wear out prematurely,
or if the voltage is too high fire is possible. The rated current is the maximum current that should
be used. When this is exceeded the device will become too hot, and it will fail sooner. The rated
values are typically given for both AC and DC, although DC ratings are lower than AC. If the
actual loads used are below the rated values the relays should work well indefinitely. If the values
are exceeded a small amount the life of the relay will be shortened accordingly. Exceeding the
values significantly may lead to immediate failure and permanent damage.
• Rated Voltage - The suggested operation voltage for the coil. Lower levels can result in
failure to operate, voltages above shorten life.
• Rated Current - The maximum current before contact damage occurs (welding or melting).
page 46
2.4 A CASE STUDY
(Try the following case without looking at the solution in Figure 2.8.) An electrical layout is
needed for a hydraulic press. The press uses a 24Vdc double actuated solenoid valve to advance
and retract the press. This device has a single common and two input wires. Putting 24Vdc on one
wire will cause the press to advance, putting 24Vdc on the second wire will cause it to retract. The
press is driven by a large hydraulic pump that requires 220Vacrated at 20A, this should be running as long as the press is on. The press is outfitted with three push buttons, one is a NC stop button, the other is a NO manual retract button, and the third is a NO start automatic cycle button.
There are limit switches at the top and bottom of the press travels that must also be connected.
SOLUTION
24VDC output
O/0
24VDC input
solenoid
I/0
advance
I/1
O/1
I/2
retract
I/3
I/4
O/2
relay for
hydraulic pump
com
-
+
24VDC
com
Figure 2.8 - Case Study for Press Wiring
The input and output cards were both selected to be 24Vdc so that they may share a single
24Vdc power supply. In this case the solenoid valve was wired directly to the output card, while
page 47
the hydraulic pump was connected indirectly using a relay (only the coil is shown for simplicity).
This decision was primarily made because the hydraulic pump requires more current than any
PLC can handle, but a relay would be relatively easy to purchase and install for that load. All of
the input switches are connected to the same supply and to the inputs.
2.5 SUMMARY
• PLC inputs condition AC or DC inputs to be detected by the logic of the PLC.
• Outputs are transistors (DC), triacs (AC) or relays (AC and DC).
• Input and output addresses are a function of the card location and input bit number.
2.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Can a PLC input switch a relay coil to control a motor?
(ans. no - a plc OUTPUT can switch a relay)
2. How do input and output cards act as an interface between the PLC and external devices?
(ans. input cards are connected to sensors to determine the state of the system. Output cards are
connected to actuators that can drive the process.)
3. What is the difference between wiring a sourcing and sinking output?
(ans. sourcing outputs supply current that will pass through an electrical load to ground. Sinking
inputs allow current to flow from the electrical load, to the common.
4. What is the difference between a motor starter and a contactor?
(ans. a motor starter typically has three phases)
5. Is AC or DC easier to interrupt?
(ans. AC is easier, it has a zero crossing)
6. What can happen if the rated voltage on a device is exceeded?
(ans. it will lead to premature failure)
7. What are the benefits of input/output modules?
(ans. by using separate modules, a PLC can be customized for different applications. If a single
module fails, it can be replaced quickly, without having to replace the entire controller.
page 48
8. Explain the operation of AC input and output conditioning circuits.
(ans. AC input conditioning circuits will rectify an AC input to a DC waveform with a ripple. This
will be smoothed, and reduced to a reasonable voltage level to drive an optocoupler. An AC
output circuit will switch an AC output with a triac, or a relay.)
9. What will happen if a DC output is switched by an AC output.
(ans. an AC output is a triac. When a triac output is turned off, it will not actually turn off until the
AC voltage goes to 0V. Because DC voltages don’t go to 0V, it will never turn off.)
10. In the figure below, properly connect the input devices to the contacts shown.
N
L1
L2 L3
1
com
2
com
3
com
4
com
5
+
DC
power supply
com
page 49
ANS.
N
L1
L2 L3
1
com
2
com
3
com
4
com
5
+
DC
power supply
com
11. For the circuit shown in the figure below, list the input and output addresses for the PLC. If
switch A controls the light, switch B the motor, and C the solenoid, write a simple ladder logic
program.
page 50
200
201
A
100
202
101
203
102
204
103
205
206
207
104
+
C
105
24VDC
+
106
com
210
B
solenoid
valve
12VDC
107
com
com
120VAC
211
com
ANS.
outputs:
200 - light
202 - motor
210 - solenoid
inputs:
100 - switch A
102 - switch B
104 - switch C
100
200
102
202
104
210
page 51
12. We have a PLC (rack 1) with a 24 VDC input card (slot 3), and a 120VAC output card (slot 2).
The inputs are to be connected to 4 push buttons. The outputs are to drive a 120VAC lightbulb,
a 240VAC motor, and a 24VDC operated hydraulic valve.
a) Draw the electrical connections for the inputs and outputs. Show all other power supplies and
other equipment/components required.
b) One of the switches will turn the motor on, another switch turns the motor off. When the motor
is on, the hydraulic solenoid will turn on. The light is on when the motor is off. Draw a Petri net
of the control program.
c) Develop ladder logic for one of the states and one of the transitions.
ANS.
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
com
+
24VDC
-
7
com
13. You are planning a project that will be controlled by a PLC. Before ordering parts you decide
to plan the basic wiring and select appropriate input and output cards. The devices that we will
use for inputs are 2 contact switches, a push button and a thermal switch. The output will be for
a 24Vdc solenoid valve, a 110Vac light bulb, and a 220Vac 50HP motor. Sketch the basic wiring below including PLC cards.
page 52
ANS.
+
24VDC
-
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
com
+
24Vdc
-
hot
220Vac
neut.
hot
120Vac
neut.
Note: relays are used to reduce the total
number of output cards
14. Add three pushbuttons as inputs to the figure below. You must also select a power supply, and
show all necessary wiring.
1
com
2
com
3
com
4
com
5
com
page 53
ans.
+
1
com
24Vdc
-
2
com
3
com
4
com
5
com
15. Three 120Vac outputs are to be connected to the output card below. Show the 120Vac source,
and all wiring
V
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
page 54
ans.
hot
V
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
120Vac
neut.
page 55
3. LOGICAL SENSORS
Topics:
• Sensor wiring; switches, TTL, sourcing, sinking
• Proximity detection; contact switches, photo-optics, capacitive, inductive and
ultrasonic
Objectives:
• Understand the different types of sensor outputs.
• Know the basic sensor types and understand application issues.
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Sensors allow a PLC to detect the state of a process. Logical sensors can only detect a state
that is either true or false. Examples of physical phenomena that are typically detected are listed
below.
• inductive proximity - is a metal object nearby?
• capacitive proximity - is a dielectric object nearby?
• optical presence - is an object breaking a light beam or reflecting light?
• mechanical contact - is an object touching a switch?
Recently, the cost of sensors has dropped and they have become commodity items, typically
between $50 and $100. They are available in many forms from multiple vendors such as AllenBradley, Omron, Hyde Park and Tuurk. In applications sensors are interchangeable between PLC
vendors, but each sensor will have specific interface requirements.
This chapter will begin by examining the various electrical wiring techniques for sensors, and
conclude with an examination of many popular sensor types.
page 56
3.2 SENSOR WIRING
When a sensor detects a logical change it must signal that change to the PLC. This is typically done by switching a voltage or current on or off. In some cases the output of the sensor is
used to switch a load directly, completely eliminating the PLC. Typical outputs from sensors (and
inputs to PLCs) are listed below in relative popularity.
Sinking/Sourcing - Switches current on or off.
Plain Switches - Switches voltage on or off.
Solid State Relays - These switch AC outputs.
TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) - Uses 0V and 5V to indicate logic levels.
3.2.1 Switches
The simplest example of sensor outputs are switches and relays. A simple example is shown
in Figure 3.1.
PLC Input Card
24V DC
normally open push-button
24 Vdc
Power
Supply
+
00
01
02
-
03
V+
sensor
04
relay
output
05
06
V-
07
COM
Figure 3.1 - An Example of Switched Sensors
page 57
In the figure a NO contact switch is connected to input ’01’. A sensor with a relay output is
also shown. The sensor must be powered separately, therefore the ’V+’ and ’V-’ terminals are
connected to the power supply. The output of the sensor will become active when a phenomenon
has been detected. This means the internal switch (probably a relay) will be closed allowing current to flow and the positive voltage will be applied to input ’06’.
3.2.2 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)
Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) is based on two voltage levels, 0V for false and 5V for
true. The voltages can actually be slightly larger than 0V, or lower than 5V and still be detected
correctly. This method is very susceptible to electrical noise on the factory floor, and should only
be used when necessary. TTL outputs are common on electronic devices and computers, and will
be necessary sometimes. When connecting to other devices simple circuits can be used to improve
the signal, such as the Schmitt trigger in Figure 3.2.
Vi
Vo
Vi
Vo
Figure 3.2 - A Schmitt Trigger
A Schmitt trigger will receive an input voltage between 0-5V and convert it to 0V or 5V. If the
voltage is in an ambiguous range, about 1.5-3.5V it will be ignored.
If a sensor has a TTL output the PLC must use a TTL input card to read the values. If the TTL
sensor is being used for other applications it should be noted that the maximum current output is
normally about 20mA.
page 58
3.2.3 Sinking/Sourcing
Sinking sensors allow current to flow into the sensor to the voltage common, while sourcing
sensors allow current to flow out of the sensor from a positive source. For both of these methods
the emphasis is on current flow, not voltage. By using current flow, instead of voltage, many of
the electrical noise problems are reduced.
When discussing sourcing and sinking we are referring to the ’output’ of the sensor that is
acting like a switch. In fact the output of the sensor is normally a transistor, that will act like a
switch (with some voltage loss). A PNP transistor is used for the sourcing output, and an NPN
transistor is used for the sinking input. When discussing these sensors the term sourcing is often
interchanged with PNP, and sinking with NPN. A simplified example of a sinking output sensor is
shown in Figure 3.3. The sensor will have some part that deals with detection, this is on the left.
The sensor needs a voltage supply to operate, so a voltage supply is needed for the sensor. If the
sensor has detected some phenomenon then it will trigger the active line. The active line is
directly connected to an NPN transistor. (Note: for an NPN transistor the arrow always points
away from the center.) If the voltage to the transistor on the ’active line’ is 0V, then the transistor
will not allow current to flow into the sensor. If the voltage on the active line becomes larger (say
12V) then the transistor will switch on and allow current to flow into the sensor to the common.
page 59
V+
V+
physical
phenomenon
sensor
output
Sensor
and
Detector
NPN
current flows in
when switched on
Active
Line
V-
V-
Aside: The sensor responds to a physical phenomenon. If the sensor is inactive (nothing
detected) then the active line is low and the transistor is off, this is like an open
switch. That means the NPN output will have no current in/out. When the sensor is
active, it will make the active line high. This will turn on the transistor, and effectively close the switch. This will allow current to flow into the sensor to ground
(hence sinking). The voltage on the NPN output will be pulled down to V-. Note: the
voltage will always be 1-2V higher because of the transistor. When the sensor is off,
the NPN output will float, and any digital circuitry needs to contain a pull-up resistor.
Figure 3.3 - A Simplified NPN/Sinking Sensor
Sourcing sensors are the complement to sinking sensors. The sourcing sensors use a PNP
transistor, as shown in Figure 3.4. (Note: PNP transistors are always drawn with the arrow pointing to the center.) When the sensor is inactive the active line stays at the V+ value, and the transistor stays switched off. When the sensor becomes active the active line will be made 0V, and the
transistor will allow current to flow and out of the sensor.
page 60
V+
V+
physical
phenomenon
Active
Line
current flows out
when switched on
Sensor
and
Detector
PNP
sensor
output
V-
V-
Aside: The sensor responds to the physical phenomenon. If the sensor is inactive (nothing
detected) then the active line is low and the transistor is off, this is like an open switch.
That means the PNP output will have no current in/out. When the sensor is active, it
will make the active line high. This will turn on the transistor, and effectively close the
switch. This will allow current to flow from V+ through the sensor to the output (hence
sourcing). The voltage on the PNP output will be pulled up to V+. Note: the voltage
will always be 1-2V lower because of the transistor. When off, the PNP output will
float, if used with digital circuitry a pull-down resistor will be needed.
Figure 3.4 - A Simplified Sourcing/PNP Sensor
Most NPN/PNP sensors are capable of handling currents up to a few amps, and they can be
used to switch loads directly. (Note: always check the documentation for rated voltages and currents.) An example using sourcing and sinking sensors to control lights is shown in Figure 3.5.
(Note: This example could be for a motion detector that turns on lights in dark hallways.)
page 61
sensor
V+
NPN
sensor
V+
power
supply
V-
V- (common)
V+
V+
PNP
V-
power
supply
sinking
sourcing
V- (common)
Note: remember to check the current and voltage ratings for the sensors.
Note: When marking power terminals, there will sometimes be two sets of
markings. The more standard is V+ and COM, but sometimes you will see
devices and power supplies without a COM (common), in this case assume
the V- is the common.
Figure 3.5 - Direct Control Using NPN/PNP Sensors
In the sinking system in Figure 3.5 the light has V+ applied to one side. The other side is connected to the NPN ’output’ of the sensor. When the sensor turns on the current will be able to flow
through the light, into the output to V- common. (Note: Yes, the current will be allowed to flow
into the output for an NPN sensor.) In the sourcing arrangement the light will turn on when the
output becomes active, allowing current to flow from the V+, thought the sensor, the light and to
V- (the common).
At this point it is worth stating the obvious - The output of a sensor will be an input for a
PLC. And, as we saw with the NPN sensor, this does not necessarily indicate where current is
flowing. There are two viable approaches for connecting sensors to PLCs. The first is to always
use PNP sensors and normal voltage input cards. The second option is to purchase input cards
specifically designed for sourcing or sinking sensors. An example of a PLC card for sinking sensors is shown in Figure 3.6.
page 62
PLC Input Card for Sinking Sensors
+V
Internal Card Electronics
+V
NPN
NPN sensor
00
01
PLC Data Bus
current flow
External Electrical
+V
power
supply
-V
-V
Note: When we have a PLC input card that has
a V+ (not a common) then we can use NPN
sensors. In this case the current will flow
out of the card (sourcing) and we must
switch it to ground.
ASIDE: This card is shown with 2 optocouplers (one for each output). Inside these
devices the is an LED and a phototransistor, but no electrical connection. These
devices are used to isolate two different electrical systems. In this case they protect the 5V digital levels of the PLC computer from the various external voltages
and currents.
Figure 3.6 - A PLC Input Card for Sinking Sensors
The dashed line in the figure represents the circuit, or current flow path when the sensor is
active. This path enters the PLC input card first at a V+ terminal (Note: there is no common on
this card) and flows through an optocoupler. This current will use light to turn on a phototransistor
to tell the computer in the PLC the input current is flowing. The current then leaves the card at
input ’00’ and passes through the sensor to V-. When the sensor is inactive the current will not
flow, and the light in the optocoupler will be off. The optocoupler is used to help protect the PLC
from electrical problems outside the PLC.
The input cards for PNP sensors are similar to the NPN cards, as shown in Figure 3.7.
page 63
PLC Input Card for Sourcing Sensors
00
+V
PNP
PNP sensor
current flow
Internal Card Electronics
-V
01
+V
power
supply
-V
com
Note: When we have a PLC input card that has
a common then we can use PNP sensors. In
this case the current will flow into the card
and then out the common to the power supply.
Figure 3.7 - PLC Input Card for Sourcing Sensors
The current flow loop for an active sensor is shown with a dashed line. Following the path of
the current we see that it begins at the V+, passes through the sensor, in the input ’00’, through the
optocoupler, out the common and to the V-.
Wiring is a major concern with PLC applications, so to reduce the total number of wires, two
wire sensors have become popular. But, by integrating three wires worth of function into two, we
now couple the power supply and sensing functions into one. Two wire sensors are shown in Figure 3.8.
page 64
+V
PLC Input Card
for Sourcing Sensors
two wire
sensor
00
-V
01
+V
power
supply
-V
com
Note: These sensors require a certain leakage
current to power the electronics.
V+
PLC Input Card
for Sinking Sensors
00
+V
two wire
sensor
01
-V
+V
power
supply
-V
Figure 3.8 - Two Wire Sensors
A two wire sensor can be used as either a sourcing or sinking input. In both of these arrangements the sensor will require a small amount of current to power the sensor, but when active it
will allow more current to flow. This requires input cards that will allow a small amount of current to flow (called the leakage current), but also be able to detect when the current has exceeded
a given value.
page 65
When purchasing sensors and input cards there are some important considerations. Most
modern sensors have both PNP and NPN outputs, although if the choice is not available, PNP is
the more popular choice. PLC cards can be confusing to buy, as each vendor refers to the cards
differently. To avoid problems, look to see if the card is specifically for sinking or sourcing sensors, or look for a V+ (sinking) or COM (sourcing). Some vendors also sell cards that will allow
you to have NPN and PNP inputs mixed on the same card.
3.2.4 Solid State Relays
Solid state relays switch AC currents. These are relatively inexpensive and are available for
large loads. Some sensors and devices are available with these as outputs.
3.3 PRESENCE DETECTION
There are two basic ways to detect object presence; contact and proximity. Contact implies
that there is mechanical contact and a resulting force between the sensor and the object. Proximity
indicates that the object is near, but contact is not required. The following sections examine different types of sensors for detecting object presence. These sensors account for a majority of the
sensors used in applications.
3.3.1 Contact Switches
Contact switches are available as normally open and normally closed. Their housings are
reinforced so that they can take repeated mechanical forces. These often have rollers and wear
pads for the point of contact. Lightweight contact switches can be purchased for less than a dollar,
page 66
but heavy duty contact switches will have much higher costs. Examples of applications include
motion limit switches and part present detectors.
3.3.2 Reed Switches
Reed switches are very similar to relays, except a permanent magnet is used instead of a wire
coil. When the magnet is far away the switch is open, but when the magnet is brought near the
switch is closed as shown in Figure 3.9. These are very inexpensive an can be purchased for a few
dollars. They are commonly used for safety screens and doors because they are harder to ’trick’
than other sensors.
Note: With this device the magnet is moved towards the reed switch. As it gets
closer the switch will close. This allows proximity detection without contact, but
requires that a separate magnet be attached to a moving part.
Figure 3.9 - Reed Switch
3.3.3 Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors
Light sensors have been used for almost a century - originally photocells were used for applications such as reading audio tracks on motion pictures. But modern optical sensors are much
more sophisticated.
page 67
Optical sensors require both a light source (emitter) and detector. Emitters will produce light
beams in the visible and invisible spectrums using LEDs and laser diodes. Detectors are typically
built with photodiodes or phototransistors. The emitter and detector are positioned so that an
object will block or reflect a beam when present. A basic optical sensor is shown in Figure 3.10.
square wave
smaller signal
+V
+V
lens
lens
light
oscillator
amplifier
demodulator
detector and
switching circuits
LED
phototransistor
Figure 3.10 - A Basic Optical Sensor
In the figure the light beam is generated on the left, focused through a lens. At the detector
side the beam is focused on the detector with a second lens. If the beam is broken the detector will
indicate an object is present. The oscillating light wave is used so that the sensor can filter out normal light in the room. The light from the emitter is turned on and off at a set frequency. When the
detector receives the light it checks to make sure that it is at the same frequency. If light is being
received at the right frequency then the beam is not broken. The frequency of oscillation is in the
KHz range, and too fast to be noticed. A side effect of the frequency method is that the sensors
can be used with lower power at longer distances.
An emitter can be set up to point directly at a detector, this is known as opposed mode. When
the beam is broken the part will be detected. This sensor needs two separate components, as
shown in Figure 3.11.
page 68
emitter
object
detector
Figure 3.11 - Opposed Mode Optical Sensor
Having the emitter and detector separate increases maintenance problems, and alignment is
required. A preferred solution is to house the emitter and detector in one unit. But, this requires
that light be reflected back as shown in Figure 3.12.
reflector
emitter
detector
reflector
emitter
object
detector
Note: the reflector is constructed with polarizing screens oriented at 90
deg. angles. If the light is reflected back directly the light does not pass
through the screen in front of the detector. The reflector is designed to
rotate the phase of the light by 90 deg., so it will now pass through the
screen in front of the detector.
Figure 3.12 - Retroreflective Optical Sensor
In the figure, the emitter sends out a beam of light. If the light is returned from the reflector
page 69
most of the light beam is returned to the detector. When an object interrupts the beam between the
emitter and the reflector the beam is no longer reflected back to the detector, and the sensor
becomes active. A potential problem with this sensor is that reflective objects could return a good
beam. This problem is overcome by polarizing the light at the emitter (with a filter), and then
using a polarized filter at the detector. The reflector uses small cubic reflectors and when the light
is reflected the polarity is rotated by 90 degrees. If the light is reflected off the object the light will
not be rotated by 90 degrees. So the polarizing filters on the emitter and detector are rotated by 90
degrees, as shown in Figure 3.12. The reflector is very similar to reflectors used on bicycles.
emitter
have filters for
emitted light
rotated by 90 deg.
detector
emitter
object
reflector
light reflected with
same polarity
light rotated by 90 deg.
reflector
detector
Figure 3.13 - Polarized Light in Retroreflective Sensors
For retroreflectors the reflectors are quite easy to align, but this method still requires two
mounted components. A diffuse sensors is a single unit that does not use a reflector, but uses
focused light as shown in Figure 3.14.
page 70
emitter
object
detector
Note: with diffuse reflection the light is scattered. This reduces the quantity of light
returned. As a result the light needs to be amplified using lenses.
Figure 3.14 - Diffuse Optical Sensor
Diffuse sensors use light focused over a given range, and a sensitivity adjustment is used to
select a distance. These sensors are the easiest to set up, but they require well controlled conditions. For example if it is to pick up light and dark colored objects problems would result.
When using opposed mode sensors the emitter and detector must be aligned so that the emitter beam and detector window overlap, as shown in Figure 3.15. Emitter beams normally have a
cone shape with a small angle of divergence (a few degrees of less). Detectors also have a cone
shaped volume of detection. Therefore when aligning opposed mode sensor care is required not
just to point the at the detector, but also the detector at the emitter. Another factor that must be
considered with this and other sensors is that the light intensity decreases over distance, so the
sensors will have a limit to separation distance.
page 71
effective beam
effective
detector
angle
detector
emitter
effective
beam angle
alignment
is required
1intensity ∝ --2
r
Figure 3.15 - Beam Divergence and Alignment
If an object is smaller than the width of the light beam it will not be able to block the beam
entirely when it is in front as shown in Figure 3.16. This will create difficulties in detection, or
possible stop detection altogether. Solutions to this problem are to use narrower beams, or wider
objects.
emitter
detector
object
the smaller beam width is good (but harder to align
Figure 3.16 - The Relationship Between Beam Width and Object Size
Separated sensors can detect reflective parts using reflection as shown in Figure 3.17. The
emitter and detector are positioned so that when a reflective surface is in position the light is
returned to the detector. When the surface is not present the light does not return.
page 72
er
itt
em
de
te
ct
or
reflective surface
Figure 3.17 - Detecting Reflecting Parts
Other types of optical sensors can also focus on a single point using beams that converge
instead of diverge. The emitter beam is focused at a distance so that the light intensity is greatest
at the focal distance. The detector can look at the point from another angle so that the two centerlines of the emitter and detector intersect at the point of interest. If an object is present before or
after the focal point the detector will not see the reflected light. This technique can also be used to
detect multiple points and ranges, as shown in Figure 3.19 where the net angle of refraction by the
lens determines which detector is used.
focal point
emitter
detector
Figure 3.18 - Point Detection Using Focused Optics
page 73
lens
distance 1
distance 2
emitter
lens
detector 2
detector 1
Figure 3.19 - Multiple Point Detection Using Optics
Some applications do not permit full sized photooptic sensors to be used. Fiber optics can be
used to separate the emitters and detectors from the application. Some vendors also sell photosensors that have the phototransistors and LEDs separated from the electronics.
Light curtains are an array of beams, set up as shown in Figure 3.20. If any of the beams are
broken it indicates that somebody has entered a workcell and the machine needs to be shut down.
This is an inexpensive replacement for some mechanical cages and barriers.
Figure 3.20 - A Light Curtain
The optical reflectivity of objects varies from material to material as shown in Figure 3.21.
These values show the percentage of incident light on a surface that is reflected. These values can
page 74
be used for relative comparisons of materials and estimating changes in sensitivity settings for
sensors.
Reflectivity
nonshiny materials
Kodak white test card
white paper
kraft paper, cardboard
lumber (pine, dry, clean)
rough wood pallet
beer foam
opaque black nylon
black neoprene
black rubber tire wall
90%
80%
70%
75%
20%
70%
14%
4%
1.5%
shiny/transparent materials
clear plastic bottle
translucent brown plastic bottle
opaque white plastic
unfinished aluminum
straightened aluminum
unfinished black anodized aluminum
stainless steel microfinished
stainless steel brushed
40%
60%
87%
140%
105%
115%
400%
120%
Note: For shiny and transparent materials the reflectivity can be higher
than 100% because of the return of ambient light.
Figure 3.21 - Table of Reflectivity Values for Different Materials [Banner Handbook of Photoelectric Sensing]
3.3.4 Capacitive Sensors
Capacitive sensors are able to detect most materials at distances up to a few centimeters.
Recall the basic capacitance relationship for capacitance.
page 75
Ak
C = -----d
where,
C = capacitance (Farads)
k = dielectric constant
A = area of plates
d = distance between plates (electrodes)
In the sensor the area of the plates and distance between them is fixed. But, the dielectric constant of the space around them will vary as different materials are brought near the sensor. An
illustration of a capacitive sensor is shown in Figure 3.22. an oscillating field is used to determine
the capacitance of the plates. When this changes beyond a selected sensitivity the sensor output is
activated.
+V
electric
field
electrode
oscillator
electrode
detector
object
load
switching
NOTE: For this sensor the proximity of any material near the electrodes will
increase the capacitance. This will vary the magnitude of the oscillating signal
and the detector will decide when this is great enough to determine proximity.
Figure 3.22 - A Capacitive Sensor
These sensors work well for insulators (such as plastics) that tend to have high dielectric
coefficients, thus increasing the capacitance. But, they also work well for metals because the conductive materials in the target appear as larger electrodes, thus increasing the capacitance as
shown in Figure 3.23. In total the capacitance changes are normally in the order of pF.
page 76
electrode
metal
electrode
electrode
dielectric
electrode
Figure 3.23 - Dielectrics and Metals Increase the Capacitance
The sensors are normally made with rings (not plates) in the configuration shown in Figure
3.24. In the figure the two inner metal rings are the capacitor electrodes, but a third outer ring is
added to compensate for variations. Without the compensator ring the sensor would be very sensitive to dirt, oil and other contaminants that might stick to the sensor.
electrode
compensating
electrode
Note: the compensating electrode us used for
negative feedback to make the sensor
more resistant to variations, such as contaminations on the face of the sensor.
Figure 3.24 - Electrode Arrangement for Capacitive Sensors
A table of dielectric properties is given in Figure 3.25. This table can be used for estimating
the relative size and sensitivity of sensors. Also, consider a case where a pipe would carry different fluids. If their dielectric constants are not very close, a second sensor may be desired for the
second fluid.
page 77
Material
Constant
Material
Constant
ABS resin pellet
acetone
acetyl bromide
acrylic resin
air
alcohol, industrial
alcohol, isopropyl
ammonia
aniline
aqueous solutions
ash (fly)
bakelite
barley powder
benzene
benzyl acetate
butane
cable sealing compound
calcium carbonate
carbon tetrachloride
celluloid
cellulose
cement
cement powder
cereal
charcoal
chlorine, liquid
coke
corn
ebonite
epoxy resin
ethanol
ethyl bromide
ethylene glycol
flour
FreonTM R22,R502 liq.
gasoline
glass
glass, raw material
glycerine
1.5-2.5
19.5
16.5
2.7-4.5
1.0
16-31
18.3
15-25
5.5-7.8
50-80
1.7
3.6
3.0-4.0
2.3
5
1.4
2.5
9.1
2.2
3.0
3.2-7.5
1.5-2.1
5-10
3-5
1.2-1.8
2.0
1.1-2.2
5-10
2.7-2.9
2.5-6
24
4.9
38.7
2.5-3.0
6.1
2.2
3.1-10
2.0-2.5
47
hexane
hydrogen cyanide
hydrogen peroxide
isobutylamine
lime, shell
marble
melamine resin
methane liquid
methanol
mica, white
milk, powdered
nitrobenzene
neoprene
nylon
oil, for transformer
oil, paraffin
oil, peanut
oil, petroleum
oil, soyean
oil, turpentine
paint
paraffin
paper
paper, hard
paper, oil saturated
perspex
petroleum
phenol
phenol resin
polyacetal (Delrin TM)
polyamide (nylon)
polycarbonate
polyester resin
polyethylene
polypropylene
polystyrene
polyvinyl chloride resin
porcelain
press board
1.9
95.4
84.2
4.5
1.2
8.0-8.5
4.7-10.2
1.7
33.6
4.5-9.6
3.5-4
36
6-9
4-5
2.2-2.4
2.2-4.8
3.0
2.1
2.9-3.5
2.2
5-8
1.9-2.5
1.6-2.6
4.5
4.0
3.2-3.5
2.0-2.2
9.9-15
4.9
3.6
2.5
2.9
2.8-8.1
2.3
2.0-2.3
3.0
2.8-3.1
4.4-7
2-5
page 78
Material
Constant
Material
Constant
quartz glass
rubber
salt
sand
shellac
silicon dioxide
silicone rubber
silicone varnish
styrene resin
sugar
sugar, granulated
sulfur
sulfuric acid
3.7
2.5-35
6.0
3-5
2.0-3.8
4.5
3.2-9.8
2.8-3.3
2.3-3.4
3.0
1.5-2.2
3.4
84
Teflon (TM), PCTFE
Teflon (TM), PTFE
toluene
trichloroethylene
urea resin
urethane
vaseline
water
wax
wood, dry
wood, pressed board
wood, wet
xylene
2.3-2.8
2.0
2.3
3.4
6.2-9.5
3.2
2.2-2.9
48-88
2.4-6.5
2-7
2.0-2.6
10-30
2.4
Figure 3.25 - Dielectric Constants of Various Materials [Turck Proximity Sensors Guide]
The range and accuracy of these sensors are determined mainly by their size. Larger sensors
can have diameters of a few centimeters. Smaller ones can be less than a centimeter across, and
have smaller ranges, but more accuracy.
3.3.5 Inductive Sensors
Inductive sensors use currents induced by magnetic fields to detect nearby metal objects. The
inductive sensor uses a coil (an inductor) to generate a high frequency magnetic field as shown in
Figure 3.26. If there is a metal object near the changing magnetic field, current will flow in the
object. This resulting current flow sets up a new magnetic field that opposes the original magnetic
field. The net effect is that it changes the inductance of the coil in the inductive sensor. By measuring the inductance the sensor can determine when a metal have been brought nearby.
These sensors will detect any metals, when detecting multiple types of metal multiple sensors
are often used.
page 79
metal
inductive coil
+V
oscillator
and level
detector
output
switching
Note: these work by setting up a high frequency field. If a target nears the field will
induce eddy currents. These currents consume power because of resistance, so
energy is in the field is lost, and the signal amplitude decreases. The detector examines filed magnitude to determine when it has decreased enough to switch.
Figure 3.26 - Inductive Proximity Sensor
The sensors can detect objects a few centimeters away from the end. But, the direction to the
object can be arbitrary as shown in Figure 3.27. The magnetic field of the unshielded sensor covers a larger volume around the head of the coil. By adding a shield (a metal jacket around the sides
of the coil) the magnetic field becomes smaller, but also more directed. Shields will often be
available for inductive sensors to improve their directionality and accuracy.
page 80
unshielded
shielded
Figure 3.27 - Shielded and Unshielded Sensors
3.3.6 Ultrasonic
An ultrasonic sensor emits a sound above the normal hearing threshold of 16KHz. The time
that is required for the sound to travel to the target and reflect back is proportional to the distance
to the target. The two common types of sensors are;
electrostatic - uses capacitive effects. It has longer ranges and wider bandwidth, but is
more sensitive to factors such as humidity.
piezoelectric - based on charge displacement during strain in crystal lattices. These are
rugged and inexpensive.
These sensors can be very effective for applications such as fluid levels in tanks and crude distance measurement.
3.3.7 Hall Effect
Hall effect switches are basically transistors that can be switched by magnetic fields. Their
applications are very similar to reed switches, but because they are solid state they tend to be more
page 81
rugged and resist vibration. Automated machines often use these to do initial calibration and
detect end stops.
3.3.8 Fluid Flow
We can also build more complex sensors out of simpler sensors. The example in Figure 3.28
shows a metal float in a tapered channel. As the fluid flow rate increases the pressure forces the
float upwards. The tapered shape of the float ensures an equilibrium position proportional to flowrate. An inductive proximity sensor can be positioned so that it will detect when the float has
reached a certain height, and the system has reached a given flowrate.
fluid flow out
metal
float
inductive proximity sensor
fluid flow in
As the fluid flow increases the float is forced higher. A proximity sensor
can be used to detect when the float reaches a certain height.
Figure 3.28 - Flow Rate Detection With an Inductive Proximity Switch
3.4 SUMMARY
• Sourcing sensors allow current to flow out from the V+ supply.
• Sinking sensors allow current to flow in to the V- supply.
• Photo-optical sensors can use reflected beams (retroreflective), an emitter and detector
(opposed mode) and reflected light (diffuse) to detect a part.
• Capacitive sensors can detect metals and other materials.
• Inductive sensors can detect metals.
page 82
• Hall effect and reed switches can detect magnets.
• Ultrasonic sensors use sound waves to detect parts up to meters away.
3.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Given a clear plastic bottle, list 3 different types of sensors that could be used to detect it.
(ans. capacitive proximity, contact switch, photo-optic retroreflective/diffuse, ultrasonic)
2. List 3 significant trade-offs between inductive, capacitive and photooptic sensors.
(ans. materials that can be sensed, environmental factors such as dirt, distance to object)
3. Why is a sinking output on a sensor not like a normal switch?
(ans. the sinking output will pass only DC in a single direction, whereas a switch can pass AC and
DC.)
4. a) Sketch the connections needed for the PLC inputs and outputs below. The outputs include a
24Vdc light and a 120Vac light. The inputs are from 2 NO push buttons, and also from an optical sensor that has both PNP and NPN outputs.
24Vdc
outputs
V+
+
24VDC
-
24Vdc
inputs
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
V+
optical NPN
sensor PNP
V-
4
5
6
6
7
7
com
b) State why you used either the NPN or PNP output on the sensor.
page 83
(ans.)
24Vdc
outputs
+
24VDC
-
V+
24Vdc
inputs
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
hot
120Vac
neut.
V+
optical NPN
sensor PNP
V-
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
com
b) the PNP output was selected. because it will supply current, while the input card
requires it. The dashed line indicates the current flow through the sensor and input card.
5. Select a sensor to pick up a transparent plastic bottle from a manufacturer. Copy or print the
specifications, and then draw a wiring diagram that shows how it will be wired to an appropriate PLC input card.
page 84
ans.
A transparent bottle can be picked up with a capacitive, ultrasonic, diffuse optical sensor. A particular model can be selected at a manufacturers web site (eg., www.banner.com, www.hydepark.com, www.ab.com, etc.) The figure below shows the
sensor connected to a sourcing PLC input card - therefore the sensor must be sinking, NPN.
V+
+
24VDC
-
0
1
2
sensor
V+
3
NPN
4
V-
5
6
7
6. Sketch the wiring to connect a power supply and PNP sensor to the PLC input card shown
below.
page 85
00
01
02
+
24VDC
-
sensor
V+
PNP
03
04
V05
06
07
COM
(ans.)
00
01
02
+
24VDC
-
sensor
V+
PNP
03
04
V05
06
07
COM
page 86
4. LOGICAL ACTUATORS
Topics:
• Solenoids
• Hydraulics and pneumatics; cylinders and valves
• Other actuators
Objectives:
• Be aware of various actuators available.
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Actuators Drive motions in mechanical systems. Most often this is by converting electrical
energy into some form of mechanical motion.
4.2 SOLENOIDS
Solenoids are the most common actuator components. The basic principle of operation is
there is a moving ferrous core (a piston) that will move inside wire coil as shown in Figure 4.1.
Normally the piston is held outside the coil by a spring. When a voltage is applied to the coil and
current flows, the coil builds up a magnetic field that attracts the piston and pulls it into the center
of the coil. The piston can be used to supply a linear force. Well known applications of these
include pneumatic values and car door openers.
current off
current on
page 87
Figure 4.1 - A Solenoid
As mentioned before, inductive devices can create voltage spikes and may need snubbers,
although most industrial applications have low enough voltage and current ratings they can be
connected directly to the PLC outputs. Most industrial solenoids will be powered by 24Vdc and
draw a few hundred mA.
4.3 HYDRAULICS
Hydraulics use incompressible fluids to supply very large forces at slower speeds and limited
ranges of motion. The theoretical basis for these systems is Pascal’s law, as shown below.
F
P = --A
If a pressure is applied to a non-moving (static)
fluid, the pressure (hydrostatic pressure) the
fluid exerts on all surfaces that it touches are
the same.
If the fluid flow rate is kept low enough, many of the effected predicted by Bernoulli’s equation
can be avoided. The system uses hydraulic fluid (normally an oil) pressurized by a pump and
passed through hoses and valves to drive cylinders. At the heart of the system is a pump that will
give pressures up to hundreds or thousands of psi. These are delivered to a cylinder that converts
it to a linear force and displacement as shown in Figure 4.2. In the figure a fluid is pumped into
one side of the cylinder under pressure, causing that side of the cylinder to expand, and advancing
the piston. The fluid on the other side of the piston must be allowed to escape freely - if the
incompressible fluid was trapped the cylinder could not advance. The force the cylinder can exert
is proportional to the cross sectional area of the cylinder.
page 88
F
advancing
Fluid pumped in
at pressure ’P’
Fluid flows out
at low pressure
F
retracting
Fluid flows out
at low pressure
Fluid pumped in
at pressure ’P’
For Force:
F
P = --A
F = PA
where,
P = the pressure of the hydraulic fluid
A = the area of the piston
F = the force available from the piston rod
Figure 4.2 - A Cross Section of a Hydraulic Cylinder
Hydraulic systems normally contain the following components;
1. Hydraulic Fluid
2. An Oil Reservoir
3. A Pump to Move Oil, and Apply Pressure
4. Pressure Lines
5. Control Valves - to regulate fluid flow
6. Piston and Cylinder - to actuate external mechanisms
page 89
The hydraulic fluid is often a noncorrosive oil chosen so that it lubricates the components. This is
normally stored in a reservoir as shown in Figure 4.3. Fluid is drawn from the reservoir to a pump
where it is pressurized. This is normally a geared pump so that it may deliver fluid at a high pressure at a constant flow rate. A flow regulator is normally places at the high pressure outlet from
the pump. If fluid is not flowing in other parts of the system this will allow fluid to recirculate
back to the reservoir to reduce wear on the pump. The high pressure fluid is delivered to solenoid
controlled vales that can switch fluid flow on or off. From the vales fluid will be delivered to the
hydraulics at high pressure, or exhausted back to the reservoir.
air filter
fluid return
outlet tube
access hatch
for cleaning
refill oil filter
level
gauge
baffle - isolates the
outlet fluid from
turbulence in the inlet
Figure 4.3 - A Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir
An example of a solenoid controlled valve is shown below in Figure 4.4. The solenoid is
mounted on the right hand side. When actuated it will drive the central plunger left or right. The
top of the valve body has two ports that will be connected to a device such as a hydraulic cylinder.
The bottom of the valve body has a single pressure line in the center with two exhausts to the side.
In the top drawing the power flows in through the center to the right hand cylinder port. The left
page 90
hand cylinder port is allowed to exit through an exhaust port. In the bottom drawing the solenoid
is in a new position and the pressure is now applied to the left hand port on the top, and the right
hand port can exhaust. The symbols to the left of the figure show the schematic equivalent of the
actual valve positions. Valves are also available that allow the valves to be blocked when unused.
solenoid
The solenoid has two position and when
actuated will change the direction that
fluid flows to the device. The symbols
shown here are commonly used to
represent this type of valve.
exhaust out
power in
solenoid
power in
exhaust out
Figure 4.4 - A Solenoid Controlled Valve
Hydraulic systems can be very effective for high power applications, but the use of fluids,
and high pressures can make this method awkward, messy, and noisy for other applications.
4.4 PNEUMATICS
Pneumatic systems are very common, and have much in common with hydraulic systems
with a few key differences. The reservoir is eliminated as there is no need to collect and store the
air between uses in the system. Also because air is a gas it is compressible and regulators are not
needed to recirculate flow. But, the compressibility also means that the systems are not as stiff or
page 91
strong. Pneumatic systems respond very quickly, and are commonly used for low force applications in many locations on the factory floor.
Some basic characteristics of pneumatic systems are,
- stroke from a few millimeters to meters in length (longer strokes have more springiness
- the actuators will give a bit - they are springy
- pressures are typically up to 85psi above normal atmosphere
- the weight of cylinders can be quite low
- additional equipment is required for a pressurized air supply- linear and rotatory actuators are available.
- dampers can be used to cushion impact at ends of cylinder travel.
4.5 MOTORS
Motors are common actuators, but for logical control applications their properties are not that
important. Typically logical control of motors consists of switching low current motors directly
with a PLC, or for more powerful motors using a relay or motor starter. Motors will be discussed
in greater detail in the chapter on continuous actuators.
4.6 OTHERS
There are many other types of actuators including those on the brief list below.
Heaters - The are often controlled with a relay and turned on and off to maintain a temperature within a range.
Lights - Lights are used on almost all machines to indicate the machine state and provide
feedback to the operator. most lights are low current and are connected directly to
the PLC.
Sirens/Horns - Sirens or horns can be useful for unattended or dangerous machines to
make conditions well known. These can often be connected directly to the PLC.
page 92
4.7 SUMMARY
• Solenoids can be used to convert an electric current to a limited linear motion.
• Hydraulics and pneumatics use cylinders to convert fluid and gas flows to limited linear
motions.
• Solenoid valves can be used to redirect fluid and gas flows.
• Pneumatics provides smaller forces at higher speeds, but is not ’stiff’. Hydraulics provides large forces and is rigid, but at lower speeds.
• Many other types of actuators can be used.
4.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. A piston is to be designed to exert an actuation force of 120 lbs on its extension stroke. The
inside diameter of the cylinder is 2.0” and the ram diameter is 0.375”. What shop air pressure
will be required to provide this actuation force? Use a safety factor of 1.3.
(ans. A = 2.0*2.0/4pi = 0.318in*in, P=FS*(F/A)=1.3(120/0.318)=490psi. Note, if the cylinder
were retracting we would need to subtract the rod area from the piston area. Note: this air pressure iss much higher than normally found in a shop, so it would not be practical, and a redesign
would be needed.)
2. Draw a simple hydraulic system that will advance and retract a cylinder using PLC outputs.
Sketches should include details from the PLC output card to the hydraulic cylinder.
ans.
cylinder
V
+
24Vdc
00
-
01
2 way
solenoid
valve
02
03
sump
pressure
regulator
release
pump
page 93
5. LOGIC DESIGN
Topics:
• Boolean algebra
• Converting between Boolean algebra and logic gates and ladder logic
• Logic examples
• Truth tables and Karnaugh maps
Objectives:
• Understand the relationship between Boolean algebra, digital logic and ladder
logic
• Be able to design ladder logic with Boolean algebra
• Be able to simplify designs with Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The process of converting control objectives into a ladder logic program requires structured
thought. Boolean algebra provides the tools needed to analyze and design these systems.
5.2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
Boolean algebra was developed in the 1800’s by James Bool, an Irish mathematician. It was
found to be extremely useful for designing digital circuits, and it is still heavily used by electrical
engineers and computer scientists. The techniques can model a logical system with a single equation. The equation can then be simplified and/or manipulated into new forms. The same techniques developed for circuit designers adapt very well to ladder logic programming.
Boolean equations consist of variables and operations and look very similar to normal algebraic equations. The three basic operators are AND, OR and NOT; more complex operators
include exclusive or (EOR), not and (NAND), not or (NOT). Small truth tables for these functions
are shown in Figure 5.1. Each operator is shown in a simple equation with the variables A and B
page 94
being used to calculate a value for X. Truth tables are a simple (but bulky) method for showing all
of the possible combinations that will turn an output on or off.
AND
A
B
OR
A
B
X
X = A⋅B
A
B
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
NOT
A
X
X
X
X = A+B
A
B
X
X = A
A
X
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
NAND
A
X
B
NOR
A
B
X = A⋅B
A
B
X
X = A+B
A
B
X
X = A⊕B
A
B
X
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
EOR
A
B
X
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
X
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
Note: The symbols used in these equations, such as + for OR are not universal standards and some authors will use different notations.
Note: The EOR function is available in gate form, but it is more often converted to
its equivalent, as shown below.
X = A⊕B = A⋅B+A⋅B
Figure 5.1 - Boolean Operations with Truth Tables and Gates
page 95
In a Boolean equation the operators will be put in a more complex form as shown in Figure
5.2. The variable for these equations can only have a value of 0 for false, or 1 for true. The solution of the equation follows rules similar to normal algebra. Parts of the equation inside parenthesis are to be solved first. Operations are to be done in the sequence NOT, AND, OR. In the
example the NOT function for C is done first, but the NOT over the first set of parentheses must
wait until a single value is available. When there is a choice the AND operations are done before
the OR operations. For the given set of variable values the result of the calculation is false.
given
X = (A + B ⋅ C) + A ⋅ (B + C)
assuming A=1, B=0, C=1
X = (1 + 0 ⋅ 1) + 1 ⋅ (0 + 1)
X = (1 + 0) + 1 ⋅ (0 + 0)
X = (1) + 1 ⋅ (0)
X = 0+0
X = 0
Figure 5.2 - A Boolean Equation
The equations can be manipulated using the basic axioms of Boolean shown in Figure 5.3. A
few of the axioms (associative, distributive, commutative) behave like normal algebra, but the
other axioms have subtle differences that must not be ignored.
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Idempotent
A+A = A
A⋅A = A
Associative
(A + B ) + C = A + ( B + C)
(A ⋅ B) ⋅ C = A ⋅ (B ⋅ C)
Commutative
A+B = B+A
A⋅B = B⋅A
Distributive
A + ( B ⋅ C) = ( A + B) ⋅ ( A + C)
A ⋅ (B + C) = (A ⋅ B) + (A ⋅ C)
A+0 = A
A+1 = 1
A⋅0 = 0
A⋅1 = A
Identity
Complement
A+A = 1
(A) = A
A⋅A = 0
1 = 0
DeMorgan’s
(A + B) = A ⋅ B
(A ⋅ B) = A + B
Duality
interchange AND and OR operators, as well as all Universal, and Null
sets. The resulting equation is equivalent to the original.
Figure 5.3 - The Basic Axioms of Boolean Algebra
An example of equation manipulation is shown in Figure 5.4. The distributive axiom is
applied to get equation (1). The idempotent axiom is used to get equation (2). Equation (3) is
obtained by using the distributive axiom to move C outside the parentheses, but the identity axiom
is used to deal with the lone C. The identity axiom is then used to simplify the contents of the
page 97
parentheses to get equation (4). Finally the Identity axiom is used to get the final, simplified equation. Notice that using Boolean algebra has shown that 3 of the variables are entirely unneeded.
A = B ⋅ (C ⋅ (D + E + C) + F ⋅ C)
A = B ⋅ (D ⋅ C + E ⋅ C + C ⋅ C + F ⋅ C)
(1)
A = B ⋅ (D ⋅ C + E ⋅ C + C + F ⋅ C)
(2)
A = B ⋅ C ⋅ (D + E + 1 + F)
(3)
A = B ⋅ C ⋅ (1)
(4)
A = B⋅C
(5)
Figure 5.4 - Simplification of a Boolean Equation
5.3 LOGIC DESIGN
Design ideas can be converted to Boolean equations directly, or with other techniques discussed later. The Boolean equation form can then be simplified or rearranges, and then converted
into ladder logic, or a circuit.
If we can describe how a controller should work in words, we can often convert it directly to
a Boolean equation, as shown in Figure 5.5. In the example a process description is given first. In
actual applications this is obtained by talking to the designer of the mechanical part of the system.
In many cases the system does not exist yet, making this a challenging task. The next step is to
determine how the controller should work. In this case it is written out in a sentence first, and then
converted to a Boolean expression. The Boolean expression may then be converted to a desired
form. The first equation contains an EOR, which is not available in ladder logic, so the next line
converts this to an equivalent expression (2) using ANDs, ORs and NOTs. The ladder logic developed is for the second equation. In the conversion the terms that are ANDed are in series. The
page 98
terms that are ORed are in parallel branches, and terms that are NOTed use normally closed contacts. The last equation (3) is fully expanded and ladder logic for it is shown in Figure 5.6. This
illustrates the same logical control function can be achieved with different, yet equivalent, ladder
logic.
page 99
Process Description:
A heating oven with two bays can heat one ingot in each bay. When the heater
is on it provides enough heat for two ingots. But, if only one ingot is
present the oven may become too hot, so a fan is used to cool the oven
when it passes a set temperature.
Control Description:
If the temperature is too high and there is an ingot in only one bay then turn on
fan.
Define Inputs and Outputs:
B1 = bay 1 ingot present
B2 = bay 2 ingot present
F = fan
T = temperature overheat sensor
Boolean Equation:
F = T ⋅ ( B1 ⊕ B2 )
F = T ⋅ ( B 1 ⋅ B2 + B 1 ⋅ B 2 )
(2)
F = B 1 ⋅ B2 ⋅ T + B 1 ⋅ B 2 ⋅ T
Ladder Logic for Equation (2):
B1
B1
B2
(3)
T
F
B2
Note: the result for conditional logic
is a single step in the ladder
Warning: in spoken and written english OR and EOR are often not clearly defined. Consider the traffic directions "Go to main street then turn left or right." Does this ’or’
mean that you can drive either way, or that the person isn’t sure which way to go? Consider the expression "The cars are red or blue.", Does this mean that the cars can be
either red or blue, or all of the cars are red, or all of the cars are blue.
Figure 5.5 - Boolean Algebra Based Design of Ladder Logic
page 100
Ladder Logic for Equation (2):
B1
B1
B2
B2
T
F
T
Figure 5.6 - Alternate Ladder Logic
Boolean algebra is often used in the design of digital circuits. Consider the example in Figure
5.7. In this case we are presented with a circuit that is built with inverters, nand, nor and and gates.
This figure can be converted into a boolean equation by starting at the left hand side and working
right. Gates on the left hand side are ’solved’ first, so they are put inside parentheses to indicate
priority. Inverters are represented by putting a NOT operator on a variable in the equation. This
circuit can’t be directly converted to ladder logic because there are no equivalents to NAND and
NOR gates. After the circuit is converted to a Boolean equation it is simplified, and then converted back into a (much simpler) circuit diagram and ladder logic.
page 101
A
B
C
X
B
A
C
The circuit is converted to a Boolean equation and simplified. The most nested terms
in the equation are on the left hand side of the diagram.
X =  ( A ⋅ B ⋅ C ) + B ⋅ B ⋅ ( A + C )


X = (A + B + C + B) ⋅ B ⋅ (A ⋅ C)
X = A⋅B⋅A⋅C+B⋅B⋅A⋅C+C⋅B⋅A⋅C+B⋅B⋅A⋅C
X = B⋅A⋅C+B⋅A⋅C+0+B⋅A⋅C
X = B⋅A⋅C
This simplified equation is converted back into a circuit and equivalent ladder logic.
B
A
C
X
B
A
C
X
Figure 5.7 - Reverse Engineering of a Digital Circuit
To summarize, we will obtain Boolean equations from a verbal description or existing circuit
or ladder diagram. The equation can be manipulated using the axioms of Boolean algebra. after
simplification the equation can be converted back into ladder logic or a circuit diagram. Ladder
logic (and circuits) can behave the same even though they are in different forms. When simplify-
page 102
ing Boolean equations that are to be implemented in ladder logic there are a few basic rules.
1. Eliminate NOTs that are for more than one variable. This normally includes replacing
NAND and NOR functions with simpler ones using DeMorgan’s theorem.
2. Eliminate complex functions such as EORs with their equivalent.
These principles are reinforced with another design that begins in Figure 5.8. Assume that the
Boolean equation that describes the controller is already known. This equation can be converted
into both a circuit diagram and ladder logic. The circuit diagram contains about two dollars worth
of integrated circuits. If the design was mass produced the final cost for the entire controller
would be under $50. The prototype of the controller the cost would be thousands of dollars. If
implemented in ladder logic the cost for each controller would be approximately $500. Therefore
a large number of circuit based controllers need to be produced before the break even occurs. This
number is normally in the range of hundreds of units. There are some particular advantages of a
PLC over digital circuits for the factory and some other applications.
• the PLC will be more rugged,
• the program can be changed easily
• less skill is needed maintenance the equipment
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Given the controller equation;
A = B ⋅ (C ⋅ (D + E + C) + F ⋅ C)
The circuit and ladder logic are given below.
D
E
C
A
F
B
D
C
B
A
The gates can be purchased for
about $0.25 each in bulk.
Inputs and outputs are
typically 5V
E
An inexpensive PLC is worth
at least a few hundred dollars
C
F
C
Consider the cost trade-off!
Figure 5.8 - A Boolean Equation and Derived Circuit and Ladder Logic
The initial equation is not the simplest. It is possible to simplify the equation to the form seen
in Figure 5.9. If you are a visual learner you may want to notice that some simplifications are
obvious with ladder logic - consider the ’C’ on both branches of the ladder logic in Figure 5.8.
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A = B ⋅ C ⋅ (D + E + F)
D
E
F
C
B
A
D
C
B
A
E
F
Figure 5.9 - The Simplified Form of the Example
The equation can also be manipulated to other forms that are more routine but less efficient as
shown in Figure 5.10. The equation shown is in disjunctive normal form - in simpler words this is
ANDed terms ORed together. The is also an example of a canonical form - in simpler terms this
means a standard form. This form is more important for digital logic, but it can also make some
PLC programming issues easier. For example, when an equation is simplified, it may not look like
the original design intention, and therefore becomes harder to rework without starting from the
beginning.
page 105
A = (B ⋅ C ⋅ D) + (B ⋅ C ⋅ E) + (B ⋅ C ⋅ F)
B
C
D
A
E
F
B
C
D
B
C
E
B
C
F
A
Figure 5.10 - A Canonical Logic Form
5.4 COMMON LOGIC FORMS
Knowing a simple set of logic forms will support a designer when categorizing control problems. The following forms are provided to be used directly, or provide ideas when designing.
5.4.1 Complex Gate Forms
In total there are 16 different possible types of 2-input logic gates. The simplest are AND and
OR, the other gates we will refer to as ’complex’ to differentiate. The three popular complex gates
that have been discussed before are NAND, NOR and EOR. All of these can be reduced to sim-
page 106
pler forms with only ANDs and ORs that are suitable for ladder logic, as shown in Figure 5.11.
NAND
X = A⋅B
NOR
X = A+B
X = A+B
X = A⋅B
A
EOR
X = A⊕B
X = A⋅B+A⋅B
A
B
X
X
A
B
X
B
Figure 5.11 - Conversion of Complex Logic Functions
5.4.2 Multiplexers
Multiplexers allow multiple devices to be connected to a single device. These are very popular for telephone systems. A telephone ’switch’ is used to determine which telephone will be connected to a limited number of lines to other telephone switches. This allows telephone calls to be
made to somebody far away without a dedicated wire to the other telephone. In older telepho9ne
switch board operators physically connected wires by plugging them in. In modern computerized
telephone switches the same thing is done, but to digital voice signals.
In Figure 5.12 a multiplexer is shown that will take one of four inputs bits D1, D2, D3 or D4
and make it the output X, depending upon the values of the address bits, A1 and A2.
page 107
D1
A1
A2
X
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
X=D1
X=D2
X=D3
X=D4
multiplexer
D2
X
D3
D4
A1
A2
Figure 5.12 - A Multiplexer
Ladder logic form the multiplexer can be seen in Figure 5.13.
A1
A2
D1
A1
A2
D2
A1
A2
D3
A1
A2
D4
X
Figure 5.13 - A Multiplexer in Ladder Logic
page 108
5.5 SIMPLE DESIGN CASES
The following cases are presented to illustrate various combinatorial logic problems, and
possible solutions. It is recommended that you try to satisfy the description before looking at the
solution.
5.5.1 Basic Logic Functions
Problem: Develop a program that will cause output D to go true when switch A and switch B
are closed or when switch C is closed.
Solution:
D = (A ⋅ B) + C
A
B
D
C
Figure 5.14 - Sample Solution for Logic Case Study A
Problem: Develop a program that will cause output D to be on when push button A is on, or
either B or C are on.
page 109
Solution:
D = A + (B ⊕ C)
A
D
B
C
B
C
Figure 5.15 - Sample Solution for Logic Case Study B
5.5.2 Car Safety System
Problem: Develop Ladder Logic for a car door/seat belt safety system. When the car door is
open, or the seatbelt is not done up, the ignition power must not be applied. If all is safe then the
key will start the engine.
Solution:
Door Open
Seat Belt
Key
Ignition
Figure 5.16 - Solution to Car Safety System Case
5.5.3 Motor Forward/Reverse
Problem: Design a motor controller that has a forward and a reverse button. The motor for-
page 110
ward and reverse outputs will only be on when one of the buttons is pushed. When both buttons
are pushed the motor will not work.
Solution:
F = BF ⋅ BR
where,
F = motor forward
R = motor reverse
BF = forward button
BR = reverse button
R = BF ⋅ BR
BF
BR
F
BF
BR
R
Figure 5.17 - Motor Forward, Reverse Case Study
5.5.4 A Burglar Alarm
Consider the design of a burglar alarm for a house. When activated an alarm and lights will
be activated to encourage the unwanted guest to leave. This alarm be activated if an unauthorized
intruder is detected by window sensor and a motion detector. The window sensor is effectively a
loop of wire that is a piece of thin metal foil that encircles the window. If the window is broken,
the foil breaks breaking the conductor. This behaves like a normally closed switch. The motion
sensor is designed so that when a person is detected the output will go on. As with any alarm an
activate/deactivate switch is also needed. The basic operation of the alarm system, and the inputs
and outputs of the controller are itemized in Figure 5.18.
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The inputs and outputs are chosen to be;
A = Alarm and lights switch (1 = on)
W = Window/Door sensor (1 = OK)
M = Motion Sensor (0 = OK)
S = Alarm Active switch (1 = on)
The basic operation of the alarm can be described with rules.
1. If alarm is on, check sensors.
2. If window/door sensor is broken (turns off), sound alarm and turn on lights
3. If motion sensor goes on (detects thief) sound alarm and turn on lights.
Note: As the engineer, it is your responsibility to define these items before starting
the work. If you do not do this first you are guaranteed to produce a poor
design. It is important to develop a good list of inputs and outputs, and give
them simple names so that they are easy to refer to. Most companies will use
wire numbering schemes on their diagrams.
Figure 5.18 - Controller Requirements List for Alarm
The next step is to define the controller equation. In this case the controller has 3 different
inputs, and a single output, so a truth table is a reasonable approach to formalizing the system. A
Boolean equation can then be written using the truth table in Figure 5.19. Of the eight possible
combinations of alarm inputs, only three lead to alarm conditions.
Inputs
S
M
W
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Output
A
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
note the binary sequence
alarm off
alarm on/no thief
alarm on/thief detected
page 112
Figure 5.19 - Truth Table for the Alarm
The Boolean equation in figure 5.20 is written by examining the truth table in Figure 5.19.
There are three possible alarm conditions that can be represented by the conditions of all three
inputs. For example take the last line in the truth table where when all three inputs are on the
alarm should be one. This leads to the last term in the equation. The other two terms are developed the same way. After the equation has been written, it is simplified.
A = (S ⋅ M ⋅ W) + ( S ⋅ M ⋅ W) + (S ⋅ M ⋅ W)
∴A = S ⋅ ( M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W )
∴A = S ⋅ ( ( M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W ) + ( M ⋅ W + M ⋅ W ) )
∴A = ( S ⋅ W ) + ( S ⋅ M ) = S ⋅ ( W + M )
W
W
(S*W)
(S*W)+(S*M)
S
A
M
(S*M)
M
W
S
A
S
Figure 5.20 A Boolean Equation and Implementation for the Alarm
The equation and circuits shown in Figure can also be further simplified, as shown in Figure
5.21.
page 113
W
W
(M+W)
S * (M+W)
= (S*W)+(S*M)
M
S
A
M
S
A
W
Figure 5.21 - The Simplest Circuit and Ladder Diagram
Aside: The alarm could also be implemented in programming languages. The program below is for a Basic Stamp II chip. (www.parallaxinc.com)
w = 1; s = 2; m = 3; a = 4
input m; input w; input s
output a
loop:
if (in2 = 1) and (in1 = 0 or in3 = 1) then on
low a; goto loop ‘alarm off
on:
high a; goto loop ‘alarm on
Figure 5.22 - Alarm Implementation Using A High Level Programming Language
5.6 KARNAUGH MAPS
Karnaugh maps allow us to convert a truth table to a simplified Boolean expression without
using Boolean Algebra. The truth table in figure 5.23 is an extension of the previous burglar alarm
example, an alarm quiet input has been added.
page 114
Given
A, W, M, S as before
Q = Alarm Quiet ( 0 = quiet )
Step1 : Draw the truth table
S
M
W
Q
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
Figure 5.23 - Truth Table for a Burglar Alarm
Instead of converting this directly to a Boolean equation, it is put into a tabular form as
shown in Figure 5.24. The rows and columns are chosen from the input variables. The decision of
which variables to use for rows or columns can be arbitrary - the table will look different, but you
will still get a similar solution. For both the rows and columns the variables are ordered to show
the values of the bits using NOTs. The sequence is not binary, but it is organized so that only one
of the bits changes at a time, so the sequence of bits is 00, 01, 11, 10 - this step is very important.
Next the values from the truth table that are true are entered into the Karnaugh map. Zeros can
also be entered, but are not necessary. In the example the three true values from the truth table
have been entered in the table.
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Step 2 : Divide the input variables up. I choose SQ and MW
Step 3 : Draw a Karnaugh map based on the input variables
MW (=00) MW (=01) MW (=11) MW (=10)
SQ (=00)
SQ (=01)
SQ (=11)
SQ (=10)
1
1
1
Added for clarity
Figure 5.24 - The Karnaugh Map
When bits have been entered into the Karnaugh map there should be some obvious patterns.
These patterns typically have some sort of symmetry. In Figure 5.25 there are two patterns that
have been circled. In this case one of the patterns is because there are two bits beside each other.
The second pattern is harder to see because the bits in the left and right hand side columns are
beside each other. (Note: Even though the table has a left and right hand column, the sides and
top/bottom wrap around.) Some of the bits are used more than once, this will lead to some redundancy in the final equation, but it will also give a simpler expression.
The patterns can then be converted into a Boolean equation. This is done by first observing
that all of the patterns sit in the third row, therefore the expression will be ANDed with SQ. Next
there are two patterns in the second row, one has M as the common term, the second has W as the
common term. These can now be combined into the equation. Finally the equation is converted to
ladder logic.
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Step 4 : Look for patterns in the map
M is the common term
MW
SQ
SQ
SQ
SQ
MW
MW
1
MW
1
all are in row SQ
1
W is the common term
Step 5 : Write the equation using the patterns
A = S ⋅ Q ⋅ (M + W)
Step 6 : Convert the equation into ladder logic
M
S
Q
A
W
Figure 5.25 - Recognition of the Boolean Equation from the Karnaugh Map
Karnaugh maps are an alternative method to simplifying equations with Boolean algebra. It is
well suited to visual learners, and is an excellent way to verify Boolean algebra calculations. The
example shown was for four variables, thus giving two variables for the rows and two variables
for the columns. More variables can also be used. If there were five input variables there could be
three variables used for the rows or columns with the pattern 000, 001, 011, 010, 110, 111, 101,
100. If there is more than one output, a Karnaugh map is needed for each output.
5.7 SUMMARY
• Logic can be represented with Boolean equations.
• Boolean equations can be converted to (and from) ladder logic or digital circuits.
• Boolean equations can be simplified.
• Different controllers can behave the same way.
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• Common logic forms exist and can be used to understand logic.
• Truth tables can represent all of the possible state of a system.
• Karnaugh maps can be used to convert a truth table to a simplified Boolean equation.
5.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Is the ladder logic in the figure below for an AND or an OR gate?
(ans. AND)
2. Draw a ladder diagram that will cause output D to go true when switch A and switch B are
closed or when switch C is closed. The devices are wired to the following locations.
Input A is 001
Input B is 002
Input C is 003
Output D is 201
(ans.
001
002
201
003
3. Draw a ladder diagram that will cause output D to be on when push button A is on, or either B
or C are on.
Input A is 001
Input B is 002
Input C is 003
Output D is 201
page 118
(ans.
002
003
002
003
201
001
4. Design ladder logic for a car that considers the variables below to control the motor ’M’. Also
add a second output that uses any outputs not used for motor control.
- doors opened/closed (D)
- keys in ignition (K)
- motor running (M)
- transmission in park (P)
- ignition start (I)
(ans.
I
K
P
M
M
K
D
B
where,
B = the alarm that goes ’Bing’ to warn that the keys are still in the car.
5. Make a simple ladder logic program that will turn on the outputs with the binary patterns when
the corresponding buttons are pushed. Assume that the outputs are from 200 to 207 and that 200
is the LSB)
11011011 (input 101)
10101010 (input 102)
10010010 (input 103)
page 119
(ans.
207
101
102
103
101
206
102
205
101
204
103
ETC....
6. Simplify the Boolean expression below.
((A ⋅ B) + (B + A)) ⋅ C + (B ⋅ C + B ⋅ C)
(ans. = C)
7. Convert the following Boolean equation to the simplest possible ladder logic.
X = A ⋅ (A + A ⋅ B)
page 120
(ans.
A
X
8. Simplify the following Boolean equations,
a)
ans.
b)
ans.
(A + B) ⋅ ( A + B)
( A + B ) ⋅ ( A + B ) = ( AB ) ( AB ) = 0
ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD
ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD = BCD + ABD = B ( CD + AD )
9. Simplify the following boolean equations
a)
A ( B + AB )
b)
A ( B + AB )
c)
A ( B + AB )
d)
A ( B + AB )
(ans.
a) AB
b)
A+B
c) AB
d)
A+B
10. Simplify the following and implement the original and simplified equations with gates and
ladder logic.
A + (B + C + D) ⋅ (B + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (C + D)
page 121
ans.
A + (B + C + D) ⋅ (B + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (C + D)
A ⋅ (1 + B ⋅ (C + D)) + (B + C + D) ⋅ B + (B + C + D) ⋅ C
A + (C + D) ⋅ B + C
A+C⋅B+D⋅B+C
A+D⋅B+C
ans.
A+D⋅B+C
A
B
C
D
B
C
C
D
A
B
D
B
A
C
page 122
A
B
B
C
C
D
C
A
B
D
A
D
B
C
11. For the following Boolean equation,
X = A + B ( A + CB + DAC ) + ABCD
a) Write out the logic for the unsimplified equation.
b) Simplify the equation.
c) Write out the ladder logic for the simplified equation.
page 123
(ans.
A
a)
B
A
A
b)
X
C
B
D
A
C
B
C
D
A + DCB
A
c)
D
X
C
B
12. Given the Boolean expression a) draw a digital circuit and b) a ladder diagram (do not simplify), c) simplify the expression.
X = A ⋅ B ⋅ C + (C + B)
ans.
X = B ⋅ (A ⋅ C + C)
13. a) Develop the Boolean expression for the circuit below.
b) Simplify the Boolean expression.
c) Draw a simpler circuit for the equation in b).
page 124
A
B
C
X
B
A
C
(ans.
CAB
C
A
B
X
A
B
C
X
14. a) Given the following truth table, show the Boolean combinations that would give a result of
1.
page 125
A
B
C
D
Result
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
b) Write the results in a) in a Boolean equation.
c) Simplify the Boolean equation in b)
(ans.
ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD
A ⋅ ( BCD + BCD + BCD + BCD ) + A ⋅ ( BCD + BCD + BCD + BCD )
A ⋅ ( BCD ) + A ⋅ ( BCD ) + BCD + BCD + BCD
B ⋅ ( ACD + ACD ) + BCD + CD ⋅ ( B + B )
B ⋅ ( ACD + ACD ) + BCD + CD
15. Convert the following ladder logic to a Karnaugh map.
A
B
C
A
D
X
page 126
ans.
A
B
C
D
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
CD
CD
CD
CD
AB
0
1
0
0
AB
0
1
0
0
AB
0
0
0
0
AB
1
1
0
0
16. Write the simplest Boolean equation for the Karnaugh map below,
CD
CD
CD
CD
AB
1
0
0
1
AB
0
0
0
0
AB
0
0
0
0
AB
0
1
1
0
CD
CD
CD
CD
AB
1
0
0
1
AB
0
0
0
0
AB
0
0
0
0
AB
0
1
1
0
(ans.
-For all, B is true
B ( AD + AD )
17. Given a system that is described with the following equation,
page 127
X = A + (B ⋅ (A + C) + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (D + E)
a) Simplify the equation using Boolean Algebra.
b) Implement the original and then the simplified equation with a digital circuit.
c) Implement the original and then the simplified equation in ladder logic.
d) Implement the simplified equation in a Basic Stamp program. Assume the inputs and outputs
are on pins A=1, B=2, C=3, D=4, E=5, X=6)
ans.
a)
X = A + ( B ⋅ (A + C) + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ (D + E)
X = A + (B ⋅ A + B ⋅ C + C) + A ⋅ B ⋅ D + A ⋅ B ⋅ E
X = A ⋅ (1 + B ⋅ D + B ⋅ E) + B ⋅ A + C ⋅ (B + 1)
X = A+B⋅A+C
ans.
b)
ABCD E
X
X
page 128
ans.
X
A
c)
B
A
C
C
A
B
D
E
X
A
B
A
C
ans.
d)
input 1 ‘input A
input 2 ‘input B
input 3 ‘input C
input 4 ‘input D
input 5 ‘input E
output 6 ‘output X
loop:
low 6
if (in1=1) or (in2=1 or in1=0) or (in3=1) then on
goto loop
on:
high 6
goto loop
18. Given the truth table below find the most efficient ladder logic to implement it. Use a structured technique such as Boolean algebra or Karnaugh maps.
page 129
ans. FOR X
00
AB 01
11
10
A B C D
X Y
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
FOR Y
00
CD
01 11
10
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00
AB 01
11
10
X = A⋅C
00
CD
01 11
10
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
Y = B⋅C⋅D+B⋅C
A
C
B
C
B
C
X
D
Y
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
page 130
19. Use a Karnaugh map to simplify the following truth table, and implement it in ladder logic.
A
B
C
D
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
ans.
00
AB 01
11
10
B
00
CD
01 11
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
C
20. Given the truth table below
0
1
1
0
X = BC
X
page 131
B C
D
Z
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
a) find a Boolean algebra expression using a Karnaugh map.
b) draw a ladder diagram using the truth table (not the Boolean expression).
page 132
(ans.
AB
AB
AB
AB
CD
1
0
0
1
CD
1
0
0
1
CD
0
0
0
0
CD
1
1
0
1
Z=B*(C+D)+ABCD
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
21. a) Construct a truth table for the following problem.
i) there are three buttons A, B, C.
ii) the output is on if any two buttons are pushed.
iii) if C is pressed the output will always turn on.
b) Develop a Boolean expression.
c) Develop a Boolean expression using a Karnaugh map.
Z
page 133
ans.
A
B
C
out
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
C+A⋅B
AB
C
C
AB
AB
AB
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
22. Develop the simplest Boolean expression for the Karnaugh map below,
a) graphically.
b) by Boolean Algebra
AB
CD
AB
AB
1
1
1
CD
AB
1
CD
CD
1
1
(ans.
DA + ACD
ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD
ACD + ACD + ACD
AD + ACD
23. Setup the Karnaugh map for the truth table below.
page 134
A
B
C
D
Result
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
(ans.
AB
AB
AB
AB
CD
1
1
1
1
CD
1
1
0
1
CD
0
0
0
1
CD
0
0
0
1
24. Convert the following ladder logic to a Boolean equation. Then simplify it, and convert it back
to simpler ladder logic.
A
B
B
A
A
C
D
D
D
Y
page 135
D
A
(ans.
Y
25. Given the following truth table for inputs A, B, C and D and output X. Convert it to simplified ladder logic using a Karnaugh map.
(ans.
A
B
C
D
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
A
B
X
D
B
page 136
6. PLC OPERATION
Topics:
• The computer structure of a PLC
• The sanity check, input, output and logic scans
• Status and memory types
Objectives:
• Understand the operation of a PLC.
6.1 INTRODUCTION
For simple programming the relay model of the PLC is sufficient. As more complex functions are used the more complex VonNeuman model of the PLC must be used. AVonNeuman
computer processes one instruction at a time. Most computers operate this way, although they
appear to be doing many things at once. Consider the computer components shown in Figure 6.1.
Keyboard
Input
SVGA Screen
Output
686
CPU
Serial
Mouse
Input
256MB Memory
Storage
16 GB Disk
Storage
Figure 6.1 - Simplified Personal Computer Architecture
Input is obtained from the keyboard and mouse, output is sent to the screen, and the disk and
memory are used for both input and output for storage. (Note: the directions of these arrows are
very important to engineers, always pay attention to indicate where information is flowing.) This
page 137
figure can be redrawn as in Figure 6.2 to clarify the role of inputs and outputs.
inputs
Keyboard
input circuits
computer
outputs
Input Chip
686 CPU
Mouse
output circuits
Graphics
card
Monitor
Serial Input Chip
Digital output chip
LED display
Disk Controller
Memory Chips Disk
storage
Figure 6.2 - An Input-Output Oriented Architecture
In this figure the data enters the left side through the inputs. (Note: most engineering diagrams have inputs on the left and outputs on the right.) It travels through buffering circuits before
it enters the CPU. The CPU outputs data through other circuits. Memory and disks are used for
storage of data that is not destined for output. If we look at a personal computer as a controller, it
is controlling the user by outputting stimuli on the screen, and inputting responses from the mouse
and the keyboard.
A PLC is also a computer controlling a process. When fully integrated into an application the
analogies become;
inputs - the keyboard is analogous to a proximity switch
input circuits - the serial input chip is like a 24Vdc input card
computer - the 686 CPU is like a PLC CPU unit
output circuits - a graphics card is like a triac output card
outputs - a monitor is like a light
storage - memory in PLCs is similar to memories in personal computers
page 138
It is also possible to implement a PLC using a normal Personal Computer, although this is not
advisable. In the case of a PLC the inputs and outputs are designed to be more reliable and rugged
for harsh production environments.
6.2 OPERATION SEQUENCE
All PLCs have four basic stages of operations that are repeated many times per second. Initially when turned on the first time it will check it’s own hardware and software for faults. If there
are no problems it will copy all the input and copy their values into memory, this is called the
input scan. Using only the memory copy of the inputs the ladder logic program will be solved
once, this is called the logic scan. While solving the ladder logic the output values are only
changed in temporary memory. When the ladder scan is done the outputs will updated using the
temporary values in memory, this is called the output scan. The PLC now restarts the process by
starting a self check for faults. This process typically repeats 10 to 100 times per second as is
shown in Figure 6.3.
page 139
Self input logic output
test scan solve scan
0
Self input logic output
test scan solve scan
Self input logic
test scan solve
ranges from <1 to 100 ms are possible
time
PLC turns on
SELF TEST - Checks to see if all cards error free, reset watch-dog timer, etc. (A watchdog
timer will cause an error, and shut down the PLC if not reset within a short period of
time - this would indicate that the ladder logic is not being scanned normally).
INPUT SCAN - Reads input values from the chips in the input cards, and copies their values to memory. This makes the PLC operation faster, and avoids cases where an input
changes from the start to the end of the program (e.g., an emergency stop). There are
special PLC functions that read the inputs directly, and avoid the input tables.
LOGIC SOLVE/SCAN - Based on the input table in memory, the program is executed 1
step at a time, and outputs are updated. This is the focus of the later sections.
OUTPUT SCAN - The output table is copied from memory to the output chips. These
chips then drive the output devices.
Figure 6.3 - PLC Scan Cycle
The input and output scans often confuse the beginner, but they are important. The input scan
takes a ’snapshot’ of the inputs, and solves the logic. This prevents potential problems that might
occur if an input that is used in multiple places in the ladder logic program changed while half
way through a ladder scan. Thus changing the behaviors of half of the ladder logic program. This
problem could have severe effects on complex programs that are developed later in the book. One
side effect of the input scan is that if a change in input is too short in duration, it might fall
between input scans and be missed.
When the PLC is initially turned on the normal outputs will be turned off. This does not
affect the values of the inputs.
page 140
6.3 PLC STATUS
The lack of keyboard, and other input-output devices is very noticeable on a PLC. On the
front of the PLC there are normally limited status lights. Common lights indicate;
power on - this will be on whenever the PLC has power
program running - this will often indicate if a program is running, or if no program is running
fault - this will indicate when the PLC has experienced a major hardware or software
problem
These lights are normally used for debugging. Limited buttons will also be provided for PLC
hardware. The most common will be a run/program switch that will be switched to program when
maintenance is being conducted, and back to run when in production. This switch normally
requires a key to keep unauthorized personnel from altering the PLC program or stopping execution. A PLC will almost never have an on-off switch or reset button on the front. This needs to be
designed into the remainder of the system.
6.4 MEMORY TYPES
There are a few basic types of computer memory that are in use today.
RAM (Random Access Memory) - this memory is fast, but it will lose its contents when
power is lost, this is known as volatile memory. Every PLC uses this memory for
the central CPU when running the PLC.
ROM (Read Only Memory) - this memory is permanent and cannot be erased. It is often
used for storing the operating system for the PLC.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) - this is memory that can be programmed to behave like ROM, but it can be erased with ultraviolet light and reprogrammed.
EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) - This memory
can store programs like ROM. It can be programmed and erased using a voltage,
so it is becoming more popular than EPROMs.
All PLCs use RAM for the CPU and ROM to store the basic operating system for the PLC. When
the power is on the contents of the RAM will be kept, but the issue is what happens when power
page 141
to the memory is lost. Originally PLC vendors used RAM with a battery so that the memory contents would not be lost if the power was lost. This method is still in use, but is losing favor.
EPROMs have also been a popular choice for programming PLCs. The EPROM is programmed
out of the PLC, and then placed in the PLC. When the PLC is turned on the ladder logic program
on the EPROM is loaded into the PLC and run. This method can be very reliable, but the erasing
and programming technique can be time consuming. EEPROM memories are a permanent part of
the PLC, and programs can be stored in them like EPROM. Memory costs continue to drop, and
newer types (such as flash memory) are becoming available, and these changes will continue to
impact PLCs.
6.5 SOFTWARE BASED PLCS
The dropping cost of personal computers is increasing their use in control, including the
replacement of PLCs. Software is installed that allows the personal computer to solve ladder
logic, read inputs from sensors and update outputs to actuators. These are important to mention
here because they don’t obey the previous timing model. For example, if the computer is running
a game it may slow or halt the computer. This issue and others are currently being investigated
and good solutions should be expected soon.
6.6 SUMMARY
• A PLC and computer are similar with inputs, outputs, memory, etc.
• The PLC continuously goes through a cycle including a sanity check, input scan, logic
scan, and output scan.
• While the logic is being scanned, changes in the inputs are not detected, and the outputs
are not updated.
• PLCs use RAM, and sometime EPROMs are used for permanent programs.
page 142
6.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Does a PLC normally contain RAM, ROM, EPROM and/or batteries.
(ans. every PLC contains RAM and ROM, but they may also contain EPROM or batteries.)
2. What are the indicator lights on a PLC used for?
(ans. diagnostic and maintenance)
3. A PLC can only go through the ladder logic a few times per second. Why?
(ans. even if the program was empty the PLC would still need to scan inputs and outputs, and do a
self check.)
4. What will happen if the scan time for a PLC is greater than the time for an input pulse? Why?
(ans. the pulse may be missed if it occurs between the input scans)
5. What is the difference between a PLC and a desktop computer?
(ans. some key differences include inputs, outputs, and uses. A PLC has been designed for the factory floor, so it does not have inputs such as keyboards and mice (although some newer types
can). They also do not have outputs such as a screen or sound. Instead they have inputs and outputs for voltages and current. The PLC runs user designed programs for specialized tasks,
whereas on a personal computer it is uncommon for a user to program their system.)
6. Why do PLCs do a self check every scan?
(ans. This helps detect faulty hardware or software. If an error were to occur, and the PLC continued operating, the controller might behave in an unpredicatable way and become dangerous to
people and equipment. The self check helps detect these types of faults, and shut the system
down safely.)
7. Will the test time for a PLC will be long compared to the time required for a simple program.
(ans. Yes, the self check is equivalent to about 1ms in many PLCs, but a single program instruction is about 1 micro second.)
page 143
7. EVENT BASED LOGIC
Topics:
• Timing diagrams
• Latches
• Timers
• Counters
• Design examples
• Designing ladder logic with process sequence bits and timing diagrams
Objectives:
• Understand latches, timers and counters.
• Know examples of applications to industrial problems.
• Know how to design time base control programs.
7.1 INTRODUCTION
More complex systems cannot be controlled with combinatorial logic alone. The main reason
for this is that we cannot, or choose not to add sensors to detect all conditions. In these cases we
can use events to estimate the condition of the system. Typical events used by a PLC include;
first scan of the PLC - indicating the PLC has just been turned on
time since an input turned on/off - a delay
count of events - to wait until set number of events have occurred
latch on or unlatch - to lock something on or turn it off
The common theme for all of these events is that they are based upon one of two questions "How
many?" or "How long?". An example of an event based device is shown in Figure 7.1. The input
to the device is a push button. When the push button is pushed the input to the device turns on. If
the push button is then released and the device turns off, it is a logical device. If when the push
button is release the device stays on, is will be one type of event based device. To reiterate, the
device is event based if it can respond to one or more things that have before. If the device
responds only one way to the immediate set of inputs, it is logical.
page 144
e.g. A Start Push Button
Push Button
+V
Device
On/Off
Push Button
Device
(Logical Response)
Device
(Event Response)
time
Figure 7.1 - An Event Driven Device
7.2 LATCHES
A latch is like a sticky switch - when pushed it will turn on, but stick in place, it must be
pulled to release it and turn it off. A latch in ladder logic uses one instruction to latch, and a second instruction to unlatch, as shown in Figure 7.2. The output with an ’L’ inside will turn the output ’D’ on when the input ’A’ becomes true. ’D’ will stay on even if ’A’ turns off. Output ’D’ will
turn off if input ’B’ becomes true and the output with a ’U’ inside becomes true (Note: this will
seem a little backwards at first). If an output has been latched on, it will keep its value, even if the
power has been turned off.
D
A
L
C
A
B
U
D
page 145
Figure 7.2 - A Ladder Logic Latch
The operation of the ladder logic in Figure 7.2 is illustrated with a timing diagram in Figure
7.3. A timing diagram shows values of inputs and outputs over time. For example the value of
input A starts low (false) and becomes high (true) for a short while, and then goes low again. Here
when input ’A’ turns on both the outputs turn on. There is a slight delay between the change in
inputs and the resulting changes in outputs, due to the program scan time. Here the dashed lines
represent the output scan, sanity check and input scan (assuming they are very short.) The space
between the dashed lines is the ladder logic scan. Consider that when ’A’ turns on initially it is not
detected until the first dashed line. There is then a delay to the next dashed line while the ladder is
scanned, and then the output at the next dashed line. When ’A’ eventually turns off, the normal
output ’C’ turns off, but the latched output ’D’ stays on. Input ’B’ will unlatch the output ’D’.
Input ’B’ turns on twice, but the first time it is on is not long enough to be detected by an input
scan, so it is ignored. The second time it is on it unlatches output ’D’ and output ’D’ turns off.
page 146
Timing Diagram
event too short to be noticed (aliasing)
A
B
C
D
These lines indicate PLC input/output refresh times. At this time
all of the outputs are updated, and all of the inputs are read.
Notice that some inputs can be ignored if at the wrong time,
and there can be a delay between a change in input, and a change
in output.
The space between the lines is the scan time for the ladder logic.
The spaces may vary if different parts of the ladder diagram are
executed each time through the ladder (as with state space code).
The space is a function of the speed of the PLC, and the number of
Ladder logic elements in the program.
Figure 7.3 - A Timing Diagram for the Ladder Logic in Figure 7.2
The timing diagram shown in Figure 7.3 has more details than are normal in a timing diagram
as shown in Figure 7.4. The brief pulse would not normally be wanted, and would be designed out
of a system either by extending the length of the pulse, or decreasing the scan time. An ideal system would run so fast that aliasing would not be possible.
page 147
A
B
C
D
Figure 7.4 - A Typical Timing Diagram
A more elaborate example of latches is shown in Figure 7.5. In this example the addresses are
for an Allen-Bradley SLC-150.
page 148
002
011
002
012
003
012
002
013
003
013
L
U
002
003
011
012
013
Figure 7.5 - A Latch Example for an Allen Bradley SLC-150
A normal output should only appear once in ladder logic, but latch and unlatch instructions
may appear multiple times. In Figure 7.5 a normal output ’013’ is repeated twice. When the program runs it will examine the fourth line and change the value of ’013’ in memory (remember the
output scan does not occur until the ladder scan is done.) The last line is then interpreted and it
overwrites the value of ’013’. Basically, only the last line will change ’013’.
Latches are not used universally by all PLC vendors, others such as Siemens use flip-flops.
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These have a similar behavior to latches, but a different notation as illustrated in Figure 7.6. Here
the flip-flop is an output block that is connected to two different logic rungs. The first rung shown
has an input ’A’ connected to the ’S’ setting terminal. When ’A’ goes true the output value ’Q’
will go true. The second rung has an input ’B’ connected to the ’R’ resetting terminal. When ’B’
goes true the output value ’Q’ will be turned off. The output Q will always be the inverse of Q.
Notice that the ’S’ and ’R’ values are equivalent to the ’L’ and ’U’ values from earlier examples.
A
B
S
Q
R
Q
A
B
Q
Q
Figure 7.6 - Flip-Flops for Latching Values
7.3 TIMERS
There are four fundamental types of timers shown in Figure 7.7. An on-delay timer will wait
for a set time after a line of ladder logic has been true before turning on, but it will turn off immediately. An off-delay timer will turn on immediately when a line of ladder logic is true, but it will
delay before turning off. Consider the example of an old car. If you turn the key in the ignition
and the car does not start immediately, that is an on-delay. If you turn the key to stop the engine
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but the engine doesn’t stop for a few seconds, that is an off delay. An on-delay timer can be used
to allow an oven to reach temperature before starting production. An off delay timer can keep
cooling fans on for a set time after the oven has been turned off.
on-delay
off-delay
retentive
RTO
RTF
nonretentive
TON
TOF
TON - Timer ON
TOF - Timer OFf
RTO - Retentive Timer On
RTF - Retentive Timer oFf
Figure 7.7 - The Four Basic Timer Types
A retentive timer will sum all of the on or off time for a timer, even if the timer never finished. A
nonretentive timer will start timing the delay from zero each time. Typical applications for retentive timers include tracking the time before maintenance is needed. A non retentive timer can be
used for a start button to give a short delay before a conveyor begins moving.
An example of an Allen-Bradley TON timer is shown in figure 7.8. The rung has a single
input ’A’ and a function block for the ’TON’. (Note: This timer block will look different for different PLCs, but it will contain the same information.) The information inside the timer block
describes the timing parameters. The first item is the timer number ’T4:0’. This is a location in the
PLC memory that will store the timer information. The ’T4:’ indicates that it is timer memory,
and the ’0’ indicates that it is in the first location. The time base is ’1.0’ indicating that the timer
will work in 1.0 second intervals. Other time bases are available in fractions and multiples of seconds. The preset is the delay for the timer, in this case it is 4. To find the delay time multiply the
time base by the preset value 4*1.0s = 4.0s. The accumulator value gives the current value of the
timer as ’0’. While the timer is running the Accumulated value will increase until it reaches the
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preset value. Whenever the input ’A’ is true the ’EN’ output will be true. The ’DN’ output will be
false until the accumulator has reached the preset value. The ’EN’ and ’DN’ outputs cannot be
changed when programming, but these are important when debugging a ladder logic program.
The second line of ladder logic uses the timer ’DN’ output to control another output ’B’
TON
A
Timer T4:0
Time Base 1.0
Preset 4
Accumulator 0
(DN)
(EN)
T4:0/DN
B
A
T4:0/EN
T4:0/DN
T4:0/TT
B
4
3
T4:0 Accum.
0
2
0
3
6
9
13 14
17
19
Figure 7.8 - An Allen-Bradley TON Timer
The timing diagram in Figure 7.8 illustrates the operation of the TON timer with a 4 second
on-delay. ’A’ is the input to the timer, and whenever the timer input is true the ’EN’ enabled bit
for the timer will also be true. If the accumulator value is equal to the preset value the ’DN’ bit
will be set. Otherwise, the ’TT’ bit will be set and the accumulator value will begin increasing.
The first time ’A’ is true, it is only true for 3 seconds before turning off, after this the value resets
to zero. (Note: in a retentive time the value would remain at 3 seconds.) The second time ’A’ is
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true, it is on more than 4 seconds. After 4 seconds the ’TT’ bit turns off, and the ’DN’ bit turns on.
But, when ’A’ is released the accumulator resets to zero, and the ’DN’ bit is turned off.
A value can be entered for the accumulator while programming. When the program is downloaded this value will be in the timer for the first scan. If the TON timer is not enabled the value
will be set back to zero. Normally zero will be entered for the preset value.
The timer in Figure 7.9 is identical to that in Figure 7.8, except that it is retentive. The most
significant difference is that when the input ’A’ is turned off the accumulator value does not reset
to zero. As a result the timer turns on much sooner, and the timer does not turn off after it turns
on. A reset instruction will be shown later that will allow the accumulator to be reset to zero.
RTO
A
Timer T4:0
Time Base 1.0
Preset 4
Accum. 0
(DN)
(EN)
A
T4:0/EN
T4:0/DN
T4:0/TT
4
3
T4:0.Accum.
0
0
3
6
9 10
14
17
19
Figure 7.9 - An Allen Bradley Retentive On-Delay Timer
An off delay timer is shown in Figure 7.10. This timer has a time base of 0.01s, with a preset
value of 350, giving a total delay of 3.5s. As before the ’EN’ enable for the timer matches the
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input. When the input ’A’ is true the ’DN’ bit is on. Is is also on when the input ’A’ has turned off
and the accumulator is counting. The ’DN’ bit only turns off when the input ’A’ has been off long
enough so that the accumulator value reaches the preset. This type of timer is not retentive, so
when the input ’A’ becomes true, the accumulator resets.
TOF
A
Timer T4:0
Time Base 0.01
Preset 350
Accum. 0
(DN)
(EN)
A
T4:0 EN
T4:0/DN
T4:0/TT
3.5
3
T4:0.Accum.
0
0
3
6
9.5 10
16
18
20
Figure 7.10 - An Allen Bradley Off-Delay Timer
Retentive off-delay (RTF) timers have few applications and are rarely used, therefore many
PLC vendors do not include them.
An example program for an Allen Bradley SLC-150 PLC is shown in Figure 7.11. The Timers for this PLC are simpler than the ones presented before. Here timers are stored in numerical
addresses starting at 901. There is no direct access to ’EN’ and ’TT’ bits, and the address of the
timer is used as the ’DN’ bit. Here all four different types of counters have the input ’001’. The
preset values for the timers is shown below the timer as tenths of a second, therefore all four timers have a preset of 4s. Output ’011’ will turn on when the TON counter using ’901’ is done. All
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four of the timers can be reset with input ’002’.
001
901
TON
PR 0040
001
902
RTO
PR 0040
001
903
TOF
PR 0040
001
904
RTF
PR 0040
901
011
002
901
RST
002
902
RST
002
903
RST
002
904
RST
Figure 7.11 - An Allen Bradley SLC-150 Timer Example
A timing diagram for this example is shown in Figure 7.12. As input ’001’ is turned on the
TON and RTO timers begin to count and reach 4s and turn on. When ’002’ becomes true is resets
both timers and they start to count for another second before ’001’ is turned off. After the input is
turned off the TOF and RTF both start to count, but neither reaches the 4s preset. The input ’001’
is turned on again and the TON and RTO both start counting. The RTO turns on one second
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sooner because it had 1s stored from the 7-8s time period. After ’001’ turns off again both the off
delay timers count down, and reach the 4 second delay, and turn on. These patterns continue
across the diagram.
001
002
901
902
903
904
011
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
time
(sec)
Figure 7.12 - A Timing Diagram for Figure 7.11
Consider the short ladder logic program in Figure 7.13 for control of a heating oven. The system is started with a ’Start’ button that seals in the ’Auto’ mode. This can be stopped if the ’Stop’
button is pushed. (Remember: Stop buttons are normally closed.) When the ’Auto’ goes on initially the TON timer is used to sound the horn for the first 10 seconds to warn that the oven will
start, and after that the horn stops and the heating coils start. When the oven is turned off the fan
continues to blow for 300s or 5 minutes after.
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Start
Stop
Auto
Auto
Auto
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 10s
TOF
Timer T4:1
Delay 300s
T4:0/TT
Horn
T4:0/DN
Heating Coils
T4:1/DN
Fan
Note: For the remainder of the text I will use the shortened notation for timers
shown above. This will save space and reduce confusion.
Figure 7.13 - A Timer Example
A program is shown in Figure 7.14 that will flash a light once every second. When the PLC
starts, the second timer will be off and the ’T4:1/DN’ bit will be off, therefore the normally closed
input to the first timer will be on. ’T4:0’ will start timing until it reaches 0.5s, when it is done the
second timer will start timing, until it reaches 0.5s. At that point ’T4:1/DN’ will become true, and
the input to the first time will become false. ’T4:0’ is then set back to zero, and then ’T4:1’ is set
back to zero. And, the process starts again from the beginning. In this example the first timer is
used to drive the second timer. This type of arrangement is normally called cascading, and can use
more that two timers.
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T4:1/DN
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 0.5s
T4:0/DN
TON
Timer T4:1
Delay 0.5s
T4:1/TT
Light
Figure 7.14 - Another Timer Example
7.4 COUNTERS
There are two basic counter types: count-up and count-down. When the input to a count-up
counter goes true the accumulator value will increase by 1 (no matter how long the input is true.)
If the accumulator value reaches the preset value the counter ’DN’ bit will be set. A count-down
counter will decrease the accumulator value until the preset value is reached.
An Allen Bradley count-up (CTU) instruction is shown in Figure 7.15. The instruction
requires memory in the PLC to store values and status, in this case is ’C5:0’. The ’C5:’ indicates
that it is counter memory, and the ’0’ indicates that it is the first location. The preset value is 4 and
the value in the accumulator is 2. If the input ’A’ were to go from false to true the value in the
accumulator would increase to 3. If ’A’ were to go off, then on again the accumulator value would
increase to 4, and the ’DN’ bit would go on. The count can continue above the preset value. If
input ’B’ goes true the value in the counter accumulator will become zero.
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CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 4
Accum. 2
A
(EN)
(DN)
C5:0/DN
X
B
RES C5:0
Figure 7.15 - An Allen Bradley Counter
Count-down counters are very similar to count-up counters. And, they can actually both be
used on the same counter memory location. Consider the example in Figure 7.16 for an Allen Bradley SLC-150. In a SLC-150 the timer and counter memory is shared, so the counters can also
start at 901 (but not overlap with locations used for timers.) In the example input ’001’ drives the
count-up instruction for counter ’901’. Input ’002’ drives the count-down instruction for the same
counter location. The preset value for a counter is stored in memory location ’901’ so both the
count-up and count-down instruction must have the same preset. Input ’003’ will reset the
counter.
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001
002
003
901
901
CTU
PR 0003
901
CTD
PR 0003
901
RST
111
001
002
003
901
111
Figure 7.16 - A Counter Example for an Allen Bradley SLC-150
The timing diagram in Figure 7.16 illustrates the operation of the counter. If we assume that
the value in the accumulator starts at ’0’, then the ’001’ inputs cause it to count up to 3 where it
turns the counter ’901’ on. It is then reset by input ’003’ and the accumulator value goes to zero.
Input ’001’ then pulses again and causes the accumulator value to increase again, until it reaches a
maximum of 5. Input ’002’ then causes the accumulator value to decrease down below 3, and the
counter turns off again. Input ’001’ then causes it to increase, but input ’003’ resets the accumulator back to zero again, and the pulses continue until 3 is reached near the end.
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The program in Figure 7.17 is use to remove 5 out of every 10 parts from a conveyor with a
pneumatic cylinder. When the part is detected both counters will increase their values by 1. When
the sixth part arrives the first counter will then be done, thereby allowing the pneumatic cylinder
to actuate for any part after the fifth. The second counter will continue until the eleventh part is
detected and then both of the counters will be reset.
part present
CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 6
CTU
Counter C5:1
Preset 11
C5:1/DN
C5:0/DN
part present
RES
C5:0
RES
C5:1
pneumatic
cylinder
Figure 7.17 - A Counter Example
7.5 DESIGN CASES
The following design cases are presented to help emphasize the principles presented in this
chapter. I suggest that you try to develop the ladder logic before looking at the provided solutions.
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7.5.1 Basic Counters And Timers
Problem: Develop the ladder logic that will turn on an output light, 15 seconds after switch A
has been turned on.
Solution:
A
T4:0
TON
Time base: 1.0
Preset 15
T4:0/DN
Light
Figure 7.18 - A Simple Timer Example
Problem: Develop the ladder logic that will turn on a light, after switch A has been closed 10
times. Push button B will reset the counters.
Solution:
A
CTU
Preset 10
Accum. 0
C5:0/DN
C5:0
Light
B
C5:0
Figure 7.19 - A Simple Counter Example
RES
page 162
7.5.2 More Timers And Counters
Problem: Develop a program that will latch on an output ‘B’ 20 seconds after input A has
been turned on. After ‘A’ is pushed, there will be a 10 second delay until ‘A’ can have any effect
again. After ‘A’ has been pushed 3 times, ‘B’ will be turned off.
Solution:
A
On
On
L
T4:0
TON
Time base: 1.0
Preset 20
T4:0/DN
T4:0/DN
T4:1/DN
On
Light
T4:1
TON
Time base: 1.0
Preset 10
On
CTU
Preset 3
Accum. 0
C5:0/DN
Light
Figure 7.20 - A More Complex Timer Counter Example
7.5.3 Deadman Switch
L
U
C5:0
U
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Problem: A motor will be controlled by two switches. The Go switch will start the motor and
the Stop switch will stop it. If the Stop switch was used to stop the motor, the Go switch must be
thrown twice to start the motor. When the motor is active a light should be turned on. The Stop
switch will be wired as normally closed.
Solution:
Motor
Go
C5:0/DN
Stop
Motor
C5:0
CTU
Preset 2
Accum. 1
Stop
Motor
RES
C5:0
Motor
Light
Consider:
- what will happen if stop is pushed and the motor is not running?
Figure 7.21 - A Motor Starter Example
7.5.4 Conveyor
Problem: A conveyor is run by switching on or off a motor. We are positioning parts on the
conveyor with an optical detector. When the optical sensor goes on, we want to wait 1.5 seconds,
and then stop the conveyor. After a delay of 2 seconds the conveyor will start again. We need to
use a start and stop button - a light should be on when the system is active.
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Solution:
Go
Stop
Light
Light
Part Detect
T4:0
TON
Time base: 0.01
Preset 150
T4:0/DN
T4:1
TON
Time base: 1.0
Preset 2
T4:0/DN
Light
T4:1/DN
T4:1/DN
Motor
T4:0
RES
T4:1
RES
- what is assumed about part arrival and departure?
Figure 7.22 - A Conveyor Controller Example
7.5.5 Accept/Reject Sorting
Problem: For the conveyor in the last case we will add a sorting system. Gages have been
attached that indicate good or bad. If the part is good, it continues on. If the part is bad, we do not
want to delay for 2 seconds, but instead actuate a pneumatic cylinder.
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Solution:
Go
Stop
Light
Light
Part Detect
T4:0
TON
Time base: 0.01
Preset 150
T4:0/DN
Part Good
T4:1
TON
Time base: 1.0
Preset 2
T4:0/DN
Part Good
T4:2
TON
Time base: 0.01
Preset 50
T4:1/EN
Light
T4:2/EN
Motor
Cylinder
T4:1/DN
T4:0
RES
T4:1
RES
T4:2
RES
T4:2/DN
T4:1/DN
T4:2/DN
Figure 7.23 - A Conveyor Sorting Example
7.5.6 Shear Press
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Problem: The basic requirements are,
1. A toggle start switch (TS1) and a limit switch on a safety gate (LS1) must both be on
before a solenoid (SOL1) can be energized to extend a stamping cylinder to the top
of a part.
2. While the stamping solenoid is energized, it must remain energized until a limit switch
(LS2) is activated. This second limit switch indicates the end of a stroke. At this
point the solenoid should be de-energized, thus retracting the cylinder.
3. When the cylinder is fully retracted a limit switch (LS3) is activated. The cycle may not
begin again until this limit switch is active.
4. A cycle counter should also be included to allow counts of parts produced. When this
value exceeds 5000 the machine should shut down and a light lit up.
5. A safety check should be included. If the cylinder solenoid has been on for more than 5
seconds, it suggests that the cylinder is jammed or the machine has a fault. If this is
the case, the machine should be shut down and a maintenance light turned on.
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Solution:
TS1
LS1
LS3
C5:0/DN
LS2
SOL1
L
SOL1
U
T4:0/DN
SOL1
C5:0
CTU
Preset 5000
Accum. 0
SOL1
T4:0
RTO
Time base: 1.0
Preset 5
T4:0/DN
LIGHT
L
C5:0/DN
RESET
T4:0
RES
- what do we need to do when the machine is reset?
Figure 7.24 - A Shear Press Controller Example
7.6 PROGRAM DESIGN METHODS
Traditionally ladder logic programs have been written by thinking about the process and then
beginning to write the program. This always leads to programs that require debugging. And, the
final program is always the subject of some doubt. Structured design techniques, such as Boolean
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algebra, lead to programs that are predictable and reliable. The following structured design techniques are provided to make ladder logic design routine and predictable for simple sequential systems.
Note: Structured design is very important in engineering, but many engineers will write
software without taking the time or effort to design it. This often comes from previous
experience with programming where a program was written, and then debugged. This
approach is not acceptable for mission critical systems such as industrial controls. The
time required for a poorly designed program is 10% on design, 30% on writing, 40%
debugging and testing, 10% documentation. The time required for a high quality program design is 30% design, 10% writing software, 10% debugging and testing, 10%
documentation. Yes, a well designed program requires less time! Most beginners perceive the writing and debugging as more challenging and productive, and so they will
rush through the design stage. If you are spending time debugging ladder logic programs you are doing something wrong. Structured design also allows others to verify
and modify your programs.
Axiom: Spend as much time on the design of the program as possible. Resist the temptation to implement an incomplete design.
7.6.1 Process Sequence Bits
A typical machine will use a sequence of repetitive steps that can be clearly identified. Ladder logic can be written that follows this sequence. The steps for this design method are;
1. Understand the process.
2. Write the steps of operation in sequence and give each step a number.
3. For each step assign a bit.
4. Write the ladder logic to turn the bits on/off as the process moves through its states.
5. Write the ladder logic to perform machine functions for each step.
6. If the process is repetitive, have the last step go back to the first.
Consider the example of a flag raising controller in Figure 7.25. The problem begins with a
written description of the process. This is then turned into a set of numbered steps. Each of the
numbered steps is then converted to ladder logic.
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Description:
A flag raiser that will go up when an up button is pushed, and down when a down
button is pushed, both push buttons are momentary. There are limit
switches at the top and bottom to stop the flag pole. When turned on at first
the flag should be lowered until it is at the bottom of the pole.
Steps:
1. The flag is moving down the pole waiting for the bottom limit switch.
2. The flag is idle at the bottom of the pole waiting for the up button.
3. The flag moves up, waiting for the top limit switch.
4. The flag is idle at the top of the pole waiting for the down button.
Ladder Logic:
first scan
L step 1
This section of ladder logic forces the flag raiser
to start with only one state on, in this case it
should be the first one, step 1.
U step 2
U step 3
U step 4
step 1
down
motor
step 1
bottom limit switch
L step 2
The ladder logic for step 1 turns on the motor to
lower the flag and when the bottom limit
switch is hit it goes to step 2.
step 2
U step 1
flag up button
L step 3
The ladder logic for step 2 only waits for the
push button to raise the flag.
Figure 7.25a - A Process Sequence Bit Design Example
U step 2
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step 3
down
up
step 3
top limit switch
L step 4
The ladder logic for step 3 turns on the motor to
raise the flag and when the top limit switch is
hit it goes to step 4.
step 4
U step 3
flag down button
L step 1
The ladder logic for step 4 only waits for the
push button to lower the flag.
U step 4
Figure 7.25b - A Process Sequence Bit Design Example
This method is the least structured, but also the most common.
7.6.2 Timing Diagrams
Timing diagrams can be valuable when designing ladder logic for processes that are only
dependant on time. The timing diagram is drawn with clear start and stop times. Ladder logic is
constructed with timers that are used to turn outputs on and off at appropriate times. The basic
method is;
1. Understand the process.
2. Identify the outputs that are time dependant.
3. Draw a timing diagram for the outputs.
4. Assign a timer for each time when an output turns on or off.
5. Write the ladder logic to examine the timer values and turn outputs on or off.
Consider the handicap door opener design in Figure 7.26 that begins with a verbal description. The verbal description is converted to a timing diagram, with t=0 being when the door open
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button is pushed. On the timing diagram the critical times are 2s, 10s, 14s. The ladder logic is constructed in a careful order. The first item is the latch to seal-in the open button, but shut off after
the last door closes. ’auto’ is used to turn on the three timers for the critical times. The logic for
opening the doors is then written to use the timers.
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Description: A handicap door opener has a button that will open two doors. When the button is pushed (momentarily) the first door will start to open immediately, the second
door will start to open 2 seconds later. The first door power will stay open for a total of
10 seconds, and the second door power will stay on for 14 seconds. Use a timing diagram to design the ladder logic.
Timing Diagram:
door 1
door 2
2s
10s
14s
Ladder Logic:
open button
T4:2/DN
auto
auto
auto
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 2s
TON
Timer T4:1
Delay 10s
TON
Timer T4:2
Delay 14s
T4:1/TT
door 1
T4:2/TT
T4:0/DN
door 2
Figure 7.26 - Design With a Timing Diagram
page 173
7.7 SUMMARY
• Latch and unlatch instructions will hold outputs on, even when the power is turned off.
• Timers can delay turning on or off. Retentive timers will keep values, even when inactive. Resets are needed for retentive timers.
• Counters can count up or down.
• When timers and counters reach a preset limit the ’DN’ bit is set.
• Timing diagrams can show how a system changes over time.
• Process sequence bits can be used to design a process that changes over time.
• Timing diagrams can be used for systems with a time driven performance.
7.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. What does edge triggered mean? What is the difference between positive and negative edge
triggered?
(ans. edge triggered means the event when a logic signal goes from false to true (positive edge) or
from true to false (negative edge).)
2. What is the address for a memory location that indicates when a PLC has just been turned on?
(ans. 868 for SLC-150, S2:1/14 for micrologix, S2:1/15 for PLC-5)
3. How many words are required for timer and counter memory?
(ans. three memory words are used for a timer or a counter.)
4. Are reset instructions necessary for all timers and counters?
(ans. no, but they are essential for retentive timers, and very important for counters.)
5. If a counter goes below the bottom limit which counter bit will turn on?
(ans. the ’un’ underflow bit. This may result in a fault in some PLCs.)
6. For the retentive off timer below, draw out the status bits.
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RTF
A
Timer T4:0
Time Base 0.01
Preset 350
Accum. 0
(DN)
(EN)
A
T4:0/EN
T4:0/DN
T4:0/TT
T4:0.Accum.
0
3
6
10
16
18
20
page 175
(ans.
RTF
A
Timer T4:0
Time Base 0.01
Preset 350
Accum. 0
(DN)
(EN)
A
T4:0/EN
T4:0/DN
T4:0/TT
T4:0.Accum.
0
3
6
10
7. Complete the timing diagrams for the two timers below.
16
18
20
page 176
RTO
A
(DN)
Timer T4:0
Time Base 1.0
Preset 10
Accum. 1
(EN)
A
T4:0 EN
T4:0 TT
T4:0 DN
T4:0 Accum.
0
3
6
9
14
17
19 20
TOF
A
Timer T4:1
Time Base .01
Preset 50
Accum. 0
(EN)
(DN)
A
T4:1 EN
T4:1 TT
T4:1 DN
T4:1 Accum.
0
15
45
150
200
225
page 177
RTO
(ans.
A
(DN)
Timer T4:0
Time Base 1.0
Preset 10
Accum. 1
(EN)
A
T4:0 EN
T4:0 TT
T4:0 DN
T4:0 Accum.
0
3
6
(ans.
9
14
17
19 20
TOF
A
Timer T4:1
Time Base .01
Preset 50
Accum. 0
(EN)
(DN)
A
T4:1 EN
T4:1 TT
T4:1 DN
T4:1 Accum.
0
15
45
150
200
225
page 178
8. Given the following timing diagram, draw the done bits for all four fundamental timer types.
Assume all start with an accumulated value of zero, and have a preset of 1.5 seconds.
input
TON
RTO
TOF
RTF
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
sec
(ans.
input
TON
RTO
TOF
RTF
9. Design ladder logic that allows an RTO to behave like a TON.
sec
page 179
(ans.
A
RTO
Timer T4:0
Base 1.0
Preset 2
A
RES T4:0
10. What are the numerical limits for typical timers and counters?
(ans. these are limited by the 16 bit number for a range of -32768 to +32767)
11. Design ladder logic that uses normal timers and counters to measure times of 50.0 days.
(ans.
A
T4:0/DN
T4:0/DN
TON
Timer T4:0
Base 1.0
Preset 3600
CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 1200
C5:0/DN
Light
12. Develop the ladder logic that will turn on an output light (201), 15 seconds after switch A
(001) has been turned on.
page 180
(ans.
001
701
701
TON
901
PR 1500
701
901
201
13. Develop the ladder logic that will turn on a light (201), after switch A (001) has been closed
10 times. Push button B (002) will reset the counters.
(ans.
002
901
CTU
901
PR 10
001
901
RES
201
14. Develop a program that will latch on an output B (201), 20 seconds after input A (001) has
been turned on. The timer will continue to cycle up to 20 seconds, and reset itself, until input A
has been turned off. After the third time the timer has timed to 20 seconds, the output B will be
unlatched.
page 181
(ans.
001
TON
901
PR 2000
901
TON
902
PR 2000
901
201
L
CTU
903
PR 3
901
903
201
U
15. Using the status memory locations, write a program that will flash a light for the first 15 seconds after it has been turned on. The light should flash once a second.
page 182
(ans.
868
RTF
901
PR 1500
901
RTO
902
PR 50
902
RTO
903
PR 50
903
902
903
903
902
901
RES
RES
011
16. For the ladder diagram below, what does the program do? (Note: the keep is equivalent to an
S-R flip-flop, in other words S will latch the value on, and R will unlatch the value). Note that
200 and 210 are lights and 202 is a motor. 100, 102 and 104 are input push buttons.
page 183
100
S
102
200
100
keep
200
R
104
202
210
102
104
(ans. this is a motor controller. 100 is a start button, and 102 is a stop button. Light 200 will indicate when the motor is on. Light 210 will indicate when either start or stop is pushed, or the
emergency button is not pushed. The motor 202 will run if the start button has been pushed and
the normally closed stop switch is not pushed).
17. A motor will be connected to a PLC and controlled by two switches. The GO switch will start
the motor, and the STOP switch will stop it. If the motor is going, and the GO switch is thrown,
this will also stop the motor. If the STOP switch was used to stop the motor, the GO switch
must be thrown twice to start the motor. When the motor is running, a light should be turned on
(a small lamp will be provided).
page 184
(ans.
go
stop
C5:0/DN
C5:1/DN
motor
motor
CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 2
Accumulator 1
go
CTU
Counter C5:1
Preset 3
Accumulator 1
C5:1/DN
stop
C5:0/DN
RES
C5:0
RES
C5:1
CTD
Counter C5:0
Preset 2
Accumulator 1
CTD
Counter C5:1
Preset 3
Accumulator 1
18. We are developing a safety system (using a PLC-5) for a large industrial press. The press is
activated by turning on the compressor power relay (R, connected to O:013/05). After R has
been on for 30 seconds the press can be activated to move (P connected to O:013/06). The delay
is needed for pressure to build up. After the press has been activated (with P) the system must
be shut down (R and P off), and then the cycle may begin again. For safety, there is a sensor that
detects when a worker is inside the press (S, connected to I:011/02), which must be off before
the press can be activated. There is also a button that must be pushed 5 times (B, connected to
I:011/01) before the press cycle can begin. If at any time the worker enters the press (and S
becomes active) the press will be shut down (P and R turned off). Develop the state transition
diagram, and then ladder logic for the states. State all assumptions, and show all work.
page 185
(ans.
19. We are using a pneumatic cylinder in a process. The cylinder can become stuck, and we need
to detect this. Proximity sensors are added to both endpoints of the cylinders travel to indicate
when it has reached the end of motion. If the cylinder takes more than 2 seconds to complete a
motion this will indicate a problem. When this occurs the machine should be shut down and a
light turned on. Develop ladder logic that will cycle the cylinder in and out repeatedly, and
watch for failure.
page 186
(ans.
20. In dangerous processes it is common to use two palm buttons that require a operator to use
both hands to start a process (this keeps hands out of presses, etc.). To develop this there are two
inputs that must be turned on within 0.25s of each other before a machine cycle may begin.
(ans.
left button
TON
Timer T4:0
Base 0.01
Preset 25
right button
TON
Timer T4:1
Base 0.01
Preset 25
T4:0/TT
T4:1/TT
stop
on
on
21. Write ladder logic that will give the following timing diagram for ‘B’ after input ‘A’ is pushed.
After ‘A’ is pushed any changes in the state of ‘A’ will be ignored.
page 187
true
false
0
t(sec)
2
5
(ans.
on
T4:0/DN
T4:1/DN
T4:2/DN
T4:3/DN
6
8
9
TON
Timer T4:0
Base 1s
Preset 2
TON
Timer T4:1
Base 1s
Preset 3
TON
Timer T4:2
Base 1s
Preset 1
TON
Timer T4:3
Base 1s
Preset 2
TON
Timer T4:4
Base 1s
Preset 1
T4:0/TT
output
T4:2/TT
T4:4/TT
page 188
22. Draw the timer and counter done bits for the ladder logic below. Assume that the accumulators of all the timers and counters are off to begin with
A
TON
Timer T4:0
Base 1s
Preset 2
RTO
Timer T4:1
Base 1s
Preset 2
TOF
Timer T4:2
Base 1s
Preset 2
CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 2
CTD
Counter C5:1
Preset 2
A
T4:0/DN
T4:1/DN
T4:2/DN
C5:0/DN
C5:1/DN
t(sec)
0
5
10
15
20
page 189
8. SEQUENTIAL LOGIC DESIGN
Topics:
• Describing process control using scripts, flowcharts, state diagrams and SFCs
• Conversion of scripts, flowcharts state diagrams and SFCs to ladder logic
• MCR blocks
Objectives:
• Learn to recognize different sequential control problems.
• Be able to select an appropriate design technique for sequential controller design.
• Be able to do an abstract design of a controller with alternate techniques.
• Be able to convert abstract designs to ladder logic.
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Most control systems are sequential in nature. Sequential systems are often described with
words such as mode and behavior. During normal operation these systems will have multiple
steps or states of operation. In each operational state the system will behave differently. Typical
states include start-up, shut-down, and normal operation. Consider a set of traffic lights - each
light pattern constitutes a state. Lights may be green or yellow in one direction and red in the
other. The lights change in a predictable sequence. Sometimes traffic lights are equipped with
special features such as cross walk buttons that alter the behavior of the lights to give pedestrians
time to cross busy roads.
Sequential systems are complex and difficult to design. In the previous chapter timing charts
and process sequence bits were discussed as basic design techniques. But, more complex systems
require more mature techniques, such as those shown in figure 8.1. For simpler controllers we can
use limited design techniques such as written scripts and flow charts. More complex processes,
such as traffic lights, will have many states of operation and controllers can be designed using
state diagrams. If the control problem involves multiple states of operation, such as one controller
for two independent traffic lights, then Petri net or SFC based designs are preferred.
page 190
sequential
problem
complex/large
simple/small
single process
multiple
processes
no clear steps
STATE DIAGRAM
an orderly SCRIPTS
process with steps
FLOW CHART
shorter
development
time
BLOCK LOGIC
performance
is important
EQUATIONS
buffered (waiting)
state triggers
PETRI NET
no waiting with
single states
SFC/GRAFSET
Figure 8.1 - Sequential Design Techniques
8.2 SCRIPTS
Normally written descriptions of a controller are inadequate to write ladder logic directly.
But, a carefully written verbal description that is clear and concise can be a powerful design tool.
The scripting technique focuses on limiting the choice of words, and the structure of sentences to
lead more directly to a design. Descriptions are typically of the form “what is happening, what
started it and what will stop it?”. The general hierarchy for a script is shown in Figure 8.2. Items
in the square brackets are typically inputs, outputs or internal values, such as timers or counters.
page 191
The output/state/memory [name]....
.....is active.....
......is stopped.....
..... stays on after.....
.....turns off after.....
.....is followed by output/state/memory [name] when.....
.... delays turning on/off for [time] after input/state/memory [name] turns on/off
..... while input/state/memory [name] is on/off
..... after input/state/memory [name] turns on/off
Figure 8.2 - The Sentence Elements of a Script
By writing paragraphs using these sentences the controller program is developed in full, as
the example in Figure 8.3 shows. In the example the text is for the control of a press. It carefully
spells out what should happen when. When the script has been completely written it must be carefully checked so that all references are complete and consistent.
The output [press advance] stays on after activated. This follows output [press idle light],
it is activated by input [both hand buttons pushed]. It is stopped by [bottom limit hit], it
is followed by output [press retract]. Or, it is stopped by input [E-stop or gate open], it
is followed by output [press stop light].
The output [press retract] stays on after activated. This follows output [press advance] or
output [press idle light] and [start]. It is stopped by input [top limit], it is followed by
output [press advance]. It is also stopped by [E-stop].
Figure 8.3 - A Control Script Example
The complete script can then be converted to ladder logic by interpreting the sentences and
writing lines of ladder logic that accomplish the stated function. The Script in Figure 8.3 has been
converted to ladder logic in Figure 8.4. The conversion from the written statement to ladder logic
is not a precise process and will be subject to variation between individuals. The script and ladder
logic are not complete, but this allows the general form of the ladder logic program to be completed.
page 192
press
idle light
hand
hand
button A button B
L
press
advance
press idle
light
U
press
advance
bottom
limit
L
U
press
advance
E-stop
L
gate
closed
U
press
retract
press
advance
press stop
light
press
advance
ETC....
Figure 8.4 - Ladder Logic for the Script in Figure 8.3
The final step it to convert the rough ladder logic into a form suitable for entry into a PLC.
Figure 8.5 shows the additional ladder logic as it might look for an Allen Bradley PLC-5.
page 193
first scan
S2:1/14
press idle
light
O:000/00
press
advance
O:000/01
press
advance
O:000/01
hand
hand
button A button B
I:000/02 I:000/03
bottom
limit
I:000/04
E-stop
I:000/00
L
press idle light
O:000/00
U
press advance
O:000/01
U
press retract
O:000/02
U
press stop light
O:000/03
L
press advance
O:000/01
U
press idle light
O:000/00
L
press retract
O:000/02
U
press advance
O:000/01
L
press stop light
O:000/03
U
press advance
O:000/01
gate closed
I:000/01
ETC.............
Figure 8.5 - Ladder Logic from Figure 8.4 for an Allen Bradley PLC-5
In general the rules for scripting are;
1. At least one sentence is needed for at least each output.
2. The list of conditions should refer to other conditions.
3. The script should refer to actual inputs/outputs, memory locations or state names.
page 194
This method is not rigorous and can be inadequate for many designs. Is is being presented for
educational purposes, but it is not recommended for use in large projects.
8.3 FLOW CHARTS
A flowchart is ideal for a process that has sequential process steps. The steps will be executed
in a simple order that may change as the result of some simple decisions. The symbols used for
flowcharts are shown in Figure 8.6. These blocks are connected using arrows to indicate the
sequence of the steps. The different blocks imply different types of program actions. Programs
always need a ’start’ block, but PLC programs rarely stop so the ’stop’ block is rarely used. Other
important blocks include ’operations’ and ’decisions’. The other functions may be used but are
not necessary for most PLC applications.
page 195
Start/Stop
Operation
Decision
I/O
Disk/Storage
Subroutine
Figure 8.6 - Flowchart Symbols
A flowchart is shown in Figure 8.7 for a control system for a large water tank. When a start
button is pushed the tank will start to fill, and the flow out will be stopped. When full, or the stop
button is pushed the outlet will open up, and the flow in will be stopped. In the flowchart the general flow of execution starts at the top. The first operation is to reset all of the valves to their ’off’
positions. Next, a single decision block is used to wait for a button to be pushed. when the button
is pushed the ’yes’ branch is followed and the inlet valve is opened, and the outlet valve is closed.
Then the flow chart goes into a loop that uses two decision blocks to wait until the tank is full, or
the stop button is pushed. If either case occurs the inlet valve is closed and the outlet valve is
opened. The system then goes back to wait for the start button to be pushed again. When the controller is on the program should always be running, so only a start block is needed. Many begin-
page 196
ners will neglect to put in checks for stop buttons.
START
Reset all values off
start button pushed?
no
yes
Open inlet valve
Close outlet valve
yes
Is tank full?
Open outlet valve
Close inlet valve
no
stop button pushed?
yes
no
Figure 8.6 - A Flowchart for a Tank Filler
The general method for constructing flowcharts is:
1. Understand the process.
2. Determine the major actions, these are drawn as blocks.
3. Determine the sequences of operations, these are drawn with arrows.
page 197
4. When the sequence may change use decision blocks for branching.
Once a flowchart has been created ladder logic can be written. The first step is to name each
block in the flowchart, as shown in Figure 8.7. Each of the numbered steps will then be converted
to ladder logic
STEP 1: Add labels to each block in the flowchart
START
F1
Reset all values off
F2
start button pushed?
F3
no
yes
Open inlet valve
Close outlet valve
F6
yes
F4
Is tank full?
Open outlet valve
Close inlet valve
no
F5
stop button pushed?
yes
no
Figure 8.7 - Labeling Blocks in the Flowchart
page 198
Each block in the flowchart will be converted to a block of ladder logic. To do this we will
use the MCR (Master Control Relay) instruction (it will be discussed in more detail later.) The
instruction is shown in Figure 8.8, and will appear as a matched pair of ’outputs’ labelled ’MCR’.
If the first MCR line is true then the ladder logic on the following lines will be scanned as normal
to the second MCR. If the first line is false the lines to the next MCR block will all be forced off.
If a normal output is used inside an MCR block, it may be forced off. Therefore latches will be
used in this method.
ASIDE: We will use MCR instructions to implement some of the state based programs. This allows us to switch off part of the ladder logic. The one significant
note to remember is that any normal outputs (not latches and timers) will be
FORCED OFF. Unless this is what you want, put the normal outputs outside
MCR blocks.
A
MCR
If A is true then the MCR will cause the ladder in between
to be executed. If A is false it is skipped.
MCR
Figure 8.8 - The MCR Function
The first part of the ladder logic required will reset the logic to an initial condition, as shown
in Figure 8.9. The line will only be true for the first scan of the PLC, and at that time it will turn
on the flowchart block ’F1’ which is the ’reset all values off’ operation. All other operations will
be turned off.
page 199
STEP 2: Write ladder logic to force the PLC into the first state
first scan
L
U
U
F1
F2
F3
F4
U
F5
U
F6
U
Figure 8.9 - Initial Reset of States
The ladder logic for the first state is shown in Figure 8.10. When ’F1’ is true the logic
between the MCR lines will be scanned, if ’F1’ is false the logic will be ignored. This logic turns
off the outlet and inlet valves. It then turns off operation ’F1’, and turns on the next operation
’F2’.
page 200
STEP 3: Write ladder logic for each function in the flowchart
F1
MCR
U
U
outlet
inlet
F1
U
F2
L
MCR
Figure 8.10 - Ladder Logic for the Operation ’F1’
The ladder logic for operation ’F2’ is simple, and when the start button is pushed, it will turn
off ’F2’ and turn on ’F3’. The ladder logic for operation ’F3’ opens the inlet valve and moves to
operation ’F4’.
page 201
F2
MCR
start
U
L
F2
F3
MCR
F3
MCR
U
L
outlet
inlet
F3
U
F4
L
MCR
Figure 8.11 - Ladder Logic for Flowchart Operations ’F2’ and ’F3’
The ladder logic for operation ’F4’ turns off ’F4’, and if the tank is full it turns on ’F6’, otherwise ’F5’ is turned on. The ladder logic for operation ’F5’ is very similar.
page 202
F4
MCR
U
tank full
L
tank full
L
F4
F6
F5
MCR
F5
MCR
U
stop
L
stop
L
F5
F6
F4
MCR
Figure 8.12 - Ladder Logic for Operations ’F4’ and ’F5’
The ladder logic for operation ’F6’ turns the outlet valve on and turns off the inlet valve. It
then ends operation ’F6’ and returns to operation ’F2’.
page 203
F6
MCR
L
U
outlet
inlet
F6
U
F2
L
MCR
Figure 8.13 - Ladder Logic for Operation ’F6’
8.4 STATE BASED MODELLING
A system state is a mode of operation. Consider a bank machine that will go through very
carefully selected states. The general sequence of states might be idle, scan card, get secret number, select transaction type, ask for amount of cash, count cash, deliver cash/return card, then idle.
A State based system can be described with system states, and the transitions between those
states. A state diagram is shown in Figure 8.14. The diagram has two states, ’State 1’ and ’State
2’. If the system is in state 1 and ’A’ happens the system will then go into state 2, otherwise it will
remain in State 1. Likewise if the system is in state 2, and ’B’ happens the system will return to
state 1. As shown in the figure this state diagram could be used for an automatic light controller.
When the power is turned on the system will go into the lights off state. If motion is detected or an
on push button is pushed the system will go to the lights on state. If the system is in the lights on
page 204
state and 1 hour has passed, or an off pushbutton is pushed then the system will go to the lights off
state. The else statements are omitted on the second diagram, but they are implied.
B
State 1
State 2
else
A
else
This diagram could describe the operation of energy efficient lights in a room operated
by two push buttons. State 1 might be lights off and state 2 might be lights on. The
arrows between the states are called transitions and will be followed when the conditions are true. In this case if we were in state 1 and A occurred we would move to
state 2. The ‘else’ loop indicate that a state will stay active if a transition are is not
followed. These are so obvious they are often omitted from state diagrams.
off_pushbutton OR 1 hour timer
power on
Lights off
Lights on
on_pushbutton
OR motion detector
Figure 8.14 - A State Diagram
The most essential part of creating state diagrams is identifying states. Some key questions to
ask are,
1. Consider the system,
What does the system do normally?
Does the system behavior change?
Can something change how the system behaves?
Is there a sequence to actions?
2. List ‘modes’ of operation where the system is doing one identifiable activity that will
start and stop. Keep in mind that some activities may just be to wait.
Consider the design of a coffee vending machine. The first step requires the identification of
vending machine states as shown in Figure 8.15. The main state is the idle state. There is an
page 205
inserting coins state where the total can be displayed. When enough coins have been inserted the
user may select their drink of choice. After this the make coffee state will be active while coffee is
being brewed. If an error is detected the service needed state will be activated.
STATES
idle - the machine has no coins and is doing nothing
inserting coins - coins have been entered and the total is displayed
user choose - enough money has been entered and the user is making coffee selection
make coffee - the selected type is being made
service needed - the machine is out of coffee, cups, or another error has occurred
Notes:
1. These states can be subjective, and different designers might pick others.
2. The states are highly specific to the machine.
3. The previous/next states are not part of the states.
4. There is a clean difference between states.
Figure 8.15 - Definition of Vending Machine States
The states are then drawn in a state diagram as shown in figure 8.16. Transitions are added as
needed between the states. Here we can see that when powered up the machine will start in an idle
state. The transitions here are based on the inputs and sensors in the vending machine. The state
diagram is quite subjective, and complex diagrams will differ from design to design. These diagrams also expose the controller behavior. Consider that if the machine needs maintenance, and it
is unplugged and plugged back in, the service needed statement would not be reentered until the
next customer paid for but did not receive their coffee. In a commercial design we would want to
fix this oversight.
page 206
power up
service
needed
reset button
coin inserted
idle
inserting
coins
coin return
no cups
OR no coffee
OR jam sensor
cup removed
make
coffee
coin return
button pushed
right amount
entered
user
choose
Figure 8.16 - State Diagram for a Coffee Machine
8.4.1 State Diagram Example
Consider the traffic lights in Figure 8.17. The normal sequences for traffic lights are a green
light in one direction for a long period of time, typically 10 or more seconds. This is followed by
a brief yellow light, typically 4 seconds. This is then followed by a similar light pattern in the
other direction. It is understood that a green or yellow light in one direction implies a red light in
the other direction. Pedestrian buttons are provided so that when pedestrians are present a cross
walk light can be turned on and the duration of the green light increased.
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Red
Yellow
Green
L1
L2
L3
North/South
Walk Button - S1
Red
Yellow
Green
L4
L5
L6
East/West
Walk Button - S2
Figure 8.17 - Traffic Lights
The first step for developing a controller is to define the inputs and outputs of the system as
shown in Figure 8.18.
• First we will describe the system variables. These will vary as the system moves from state
to state. Please note that some of these together can define a state (alone they are not the states).
The inputs are used when defining the transitions. The outputs can be used to define the system
state.
page 208
We have eight items that are ON or OFF
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
S1
S2
Note that each state will lead
to a different set of outputs. The inputs are often
part, or all of the transitions.
OUTPUTS
INPUTS
A simple diagram can be drawn to show sequences for the lights
Figure 8.18 - Inputs and Outputs for Traffic Light Controller
Previously state diagrams were used to define the system, it is possible to use a state table as
shown in Figure 8.19. Here the light sequences are listed in order. Each state is given a name to
ease interpretation, but the corresponding output pattern is also given. The system state is defined
as the bit pattern of the 6 lights. Note that there are only 4 patterns, but 6 binary bits could give as
many as 64.
Step 1 : Define the System States and put them (roughly) in sequence
System State
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6
State Description
State Table
L1 L2
#
A binary number
0 = light off
1 = light on
L3
L4
L5
L6
Green East/West 1
Yellow East/West 2
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
Green North/South 3
Yellow North/South 4
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
Here the four states
determine how the 6
outputs are switched
on/off.
Figure 8.19 - System State Table for Traffic Lights
Transitions can be added to the state table to clarify the operation, as shown in Figure 8.20.
Here the transition from Green E/W to Yellow E/W is S1. What this means is that a cross walk
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button must be pushed to end the green light. This is not normal, normally the lights would use a
delay. The transition from Yellow E/W to Green N/S is caused by a 4 second delay (this is normal.) The next transition is also abnormal, requiring that the cross walk button be pushed to end
the Green N/S state. The last state has a 4 second delay before returning to the first state in the
table. In this state table the sequence will always be the same, but the times will vary for the green
lights.
Step 2 : Define State Transition Triggers, and add them to the list of states
Description
#
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
L6
Green East/West
Yellow East/West
1
Green North/South
Yellow North/South
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
4
transition
S1
delay
4sec
S2
delay 4 sec
Figure 8.20 - State Table with Transitions
A state diagram for the system is shown in Figure 8.21. This diagram is equivalent to the state
table in Figure 8.20, but it can be valuable for doing visual inspection.
Step 3 : Draw the State Transition Diagram
pushbutton NS (i.e., 10)
grn. EW
delay 4sec
first scan
yel. EW
yel. NS
delay 4sec
pushbutton EW (i.e. 01)
grn. NS
Figure 8.21 - A Traffic Light State Diagram
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8.4.2 Conversion to Ladder Logic
8.4.2.1 - Block Logic Conversion
State diagrams can be converted directly to ladder logic using block logic. This technique
will produce larger programs, but it is a simple method to understand, and easy to debug. The previous traffic light example is to be implemented in ladder logic. The inputs and outputs are
defined in Figure 8.22, assuming it will be implemented on an Allen Bradley SLC-150 PLC.
’868’ is the address of the first scan in the PLC. The locations 701-704 are internal memory locations that will be used to track which states are on. The behave like outputs, but are not available
for connection outside the PLC. The input and output values are determined by the PLC layout.
STATES
701 - state 1 - green E/W
702 - state 2 - yellow E/W
703 - state 3 - green N/S
704 - state 4 - yellow N/S
OUTPUTS
012 - L1
013 - L2
014 - L3
015 - L4
016 - L5
112 - L6
INPUTS
101 - S1
102 - S2
868 - first scan
Figure 8.22 - Inputs and Outputs for Traffic Light Controller
The initial ladder logic block shown in Figure 8.23 will initialize the states of the PLC, so that
only state 1 is on. The first scan indicator ’868’ will execute the MCR block when the PLC is first
turned on, and the latches will turn on the value for state 1 ’701’ and turn off the others.
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RESET THE STATES
MCR
868
701
702
703
704
L
U
U
U
MCR
Figure 8.23 - Ladder Logic to Initialize Traffic Light Controller
The next section of ladder logic only deals with outputs. For example the output ’012’ is the
N/S red light, which will be on for states 1 and 2, or ’701’ and ’702’ respectively. Putting normal
outputs outside the MCR blocks is important. If they were inside the blocks they could only be on
when the MCR block was active, otherwise they would be forced off. Note: Many beginners will
make the careless mistake of repeating outputs in this section of the program.
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TURN ON LIGHTS AS REQUIRED
701
012
702
704
013
703
014
703
015
704
702
016
701
112
Figure 8.24 - General Output Control Logic
The first state is implemented in Figure 8.25. If state 1 is active this will be active. The transition is S1 or ’101’ which will end state 1 ’701’ and start state 2 ’702’.
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FIRST STATE WAIT FOR TRANSITIONS
MCR
701
701
101
U
702
101
L
MCR
Figure 8.25 - Ladder Logic for First State
The second state is more complex because it involves a time delay, as shown in Figure 8.26.
When the state is active the RTO timer will be timing. When the timer is done state 2 will be
unlatched, and state 3 will be latched on. The timer is retentive, so it must also be reset when the
state is done, so that it will start at zero the next time the state starts.
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SECOND STATE WAIT FOR TRANSITIONS
702
MCR
901
RTO
PR 0040
901
702
U
901
703
L
901
901
RST
MCR
Figure 8.26 - Ladder Logic for Second State
The third and fourth states are shown in Figures 8.27 and 8.28. Their layout is very similar to
that of the first two states.
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THIRD STATE WAIT FOR TRANSITIONS
MCR
703
703
102
U
704
102
L
MCR
Figure 8.27 - Ladder Logic for State Three
FOURTH STATE WAIT FOR TRANSITIONS
704
MCR
902
RTO
PR 0040
902
704
U
902
701
L
902
902
RST
MCR
Figure 8.28 - Ladder Logic for State Four
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The previous example only had one path through the state tables, so there was never a choice
between states. The state diagram in Figure 8.29 could potentially have problems if two transitions occur simultaneously. For example if state ’STB’ is active and A and C occur simultaneously, the system could go to either ’STA’ or ’STC’ (or both in a poorly written program.) To
resolve this problem we should choose one of the two transitions as having a higher priority,
meaning that it should be chosen over the other transition. This decision will normally be clear,
but if not an arbitrary decision is still needed.
STA
B
STC
D
A
C
STB
first scan
Figure 8.29 - A State Diagram with Priority Problems
The state diagram in Figure 8.29 is implemented with ladder logic in Figure 8.30. The implementation is the same as described before, but for state ’STB’ additional ladder logic is added to
disable transition ’A’ if transition ’C’ is active, therefore giving priority to ’C’.
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first scan
STA
L
STB
U
STA
U
STC
MCR
B
U
STA
L
STB
MCR
STB
MCR
C
U
Note: if A and C are true at the same time then C
will have priority. PRIORITIZATION is important when simultaneous branches are possible.
A
L
STB
STC
C
U
L
MCR
Figure 8.30a - State Diagram for Prioritization Problem
STB
STA
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STC
MCR
D
U
L
STC
STB
MCR
Figure 8.30b - State Diagram for Prioritization Problem
The Block Logic technique described does not require any special knowledge and the programs can be written directly from the state diagram. The final programs can be easily modified,
and finding problems is easier. But, these programs are much larger and less efficient.
8.4.2.2 - State Equations
State diagrams can be converted to Boolean equations and then to Ladder Logic. The first
technique that will be described is state equations. These equations contain three main parts, as
shown below in Figure 8.31. To describe them simply - a state will be on if it is already on, or if it
has been turned on by a transition from another state, but it will be turned off if there was a transition to another state. An equation is required for each state in the state diagram.
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Informally,
State X = (State X + just arrived from another state) and has not left for another state
Formally,
n
m


STATE i =  STATE i + ∑ T j, i • STATE j • ∏ T i, k • STATE k

 k=1
j=1
where,
STATE i = A variable that will reflect if state i is on
n = the number of transitions tostatei
m = the number of transitions out of state i
T j, i = The logical condition of a transition from state j toi
T i, k = The logical condition of a transition out of state i to
k
Figure 8.31 - State Equations
The state equation method can be applied to the traffic light example in Figure 8.21. The first
step in the process is to define variable names (or PLC memory locations) to keep track of which
states are on or off. Next, the state diagram is examined, one state at a time. The first equation if
for ST1, or ’state 1 - green NS’. The start of the equation can be read as ST1 will be on if it is on,
or if ST4 is on, and it has been on for 4s, or if it is the first scan of the PLC. The end of the equation can be read as ST1 will be turned off if it is on, but S1 has been pushed and S2 is off. As discussed before, the first half of the equation will turn the state on, but the second half will turn it
off.
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Defined state variables:
ST1 = state 1 - green NS
ST2 = state 2 - yellow NS
ST3 = state 3 - green EW
ST4 = state 4 - yellow EW
The state entrance and exit condition equations:
ST1 = ( ST1 + ST4 ⋅ TON 2 ( ST4, 4s ) + FS ) ⋅ ST1 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2
ST2 = ( ST2 + ST1 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2 ) ⋅ ST2 ⋅ TON 1 ( ST2, 4s )
ST3 = ( ST3 + ST2 ⋅ TON 1 ( ST2, 4s ) ) ⋅ ST3 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2
ST4 = ( ST4 + ST3 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2 ) ⋅ ST4 ⋅ TON 2 ( ST4, 4s )
Note: Timers are represented in these equations in the form TONi(A, delay). ’TON’
indicates that it is an on-delay timer, ’A’ is the input to the timer, and ’delay’ is the
timer delay value. The subscript ’i’ is used to differentiate timers.
Figure 8.32 - State Equations for the Traffic Light Example
The equations in figure 8.32 cannot be implemented in ladder logic because of the NOT over
the last terms. The equations are simplified in Figure 8.33 so that all NOT operators are only over
a single variable.
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Now, simplify these for implementation in ladder logic.
ST1 = ( ST1 + ST4 ⋅ TON 2 ( ST4, 4 ) + FS ) ⋅ ( ST1 + S1 + S2 )
ST2 = ( ST2 + ST1 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2 ) ⋅ ( ST2 + TON 1 ( ST2, 4 ) )
ST3 = ( ST3 + ST2 ⋅ TON 1 ( ST2, 4 ) ) ⋅ ( ST3 + S1 + S2 )
ST4 = ( ST4 + ST3 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2 ) ⋅ ( ST4 + TON 2 ( ST4, 4 ) )
Figure 8.33 - Simplified Boolean Equations
These equations are then converted to the ladder logic shown in Figure 8.34. At the top of the
program the two timers are defined. (Note: it is tempting to combine the timers, but it is better to
keep them separate.) Next, the Boolean state equations are implemented in ladder logic. After this
we use the states to turn specific lights on.
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DEFINE THE TIMERS
ST4
timer on
T4:2
delay 4 sec
timer on
T4:1
delay 4 sec
ST2
THE STATE EQUATIONS
ST1
ST1
ST4
T4:2/DN
first scan
S1
S2
ST2
ST2
ST1
ST1
S1
S2
ST3
ST2
T4:1/DN
ST3
ST3
ST2
T4:1/DN
S1
S2
ST4
ST3
ST4
S1
S2
T4:2/DN
Figure 8.34a - Ladder Logic for the State Equations
ST4
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OUTPUT LOGIC FOR THE LIGHTS
ST1
L1
ST2
ST4
L2
ST3
L3
ST3
L4
ST4
ST2
L5
ST1
L6
Figure 8.34b - Ladder Logic for the State Equations
This method will provide the most compact code of all techniques, but there are potential
problems. Consider the example in Figure 8.34. If push button ’S1’ has been pushed the line for
ST1 should turn off, and the line for ST2 should turn on. But, the line for ST2 depends upon the
value for ’ST1’ that has just been turned off. This will cause a problem if the value of ST1 goes
off immediately after the line of ladder logic has been scanned. In effect the PLC will get ’lost’
and none of the states will be on. This problem arises because the equations are normally calculated in parallel, and then all values are updated simultaneously. To overcome this problem the
ladder logic could be modified to the form shown in Figure 8.35. Here some temporary variables
are used to hold the new state values. After all the equations are solved the states are updated to
their new values.
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THE STATE EQUATIONS
ST1
ST4
T4:2/DN
first scan
ST1
S1
S2
ST2
ST2
ST1
ST1X
S1
S2
ST3
ST2X
T4:1/DN
ST3
ST3X
ST2
T4:1/DN
S1
S2
ST4
ST3
ST4
S1
S2
ST4X
T4:2/DN
ST1X
ST1
ST2X
ST2
ST3X
ST3
ST4X
ST4
Figure 8.35 - Delayed State Updating
When multiple transitions out of a state exist we must take care to add priorities. Each of the
alternate transitions out of a state should be give a priority, from highest to lowest. The state equations can then be written to suppress transitions of lower priority when one or more occur simulta-
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neously. The state diagram in Figure 8.36 has two transitions ’A’ and ’C’ that could occur
simultaneously. The equations have been written to give ’A’ a higher priority. When ’A’ occurs, it
will block ’C’ in the equation for ’STC’. These equations have been converted to ladder logic in
Figure 8.37.
STA
B
STC
D
A
C
STB
first scan
STA = ( STA + STB ⋅ A ) ⋅ STA ⋅ B
STB = ( STB + STA ⋅ B + STC ⋅ D + FS ) ⋅ STB ⋅ A ⋅ STB ⋅ C
STC = ( STC + STB ⋅ C ⋅ A ) ⋅ STC ⋅ D
Figure 8.36 - State Equations with Prioritization
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STA
STA
STB
A
B
STB
STA
STC
STAX
B
STB
STB
A
C
STBX
D
FS
STC
STC
STCX
STB
C
A
D
STAX
STA
STBX
STB
STCX
STC
Figure 8.37 - Ladder Logic with Prioritization
8.4.2.3 - State-Transition Equations
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A state diagram may be converted to equations by writing an equation for each state and each
transition. A sample set of equations is seen in Figure 8.38 for the traffic light example of Figure
8.21. Each state and transition needs to be assigned a unique variable name. (Note: It is a good
idea to note these on the diagram) These are then used to write the equations for the diagram. The
transition equations are written by looking at the each state, and then determining which transitions will end that state. For example, if ST1 is true, and crosswalk button ’S1’ is pushed, and ’S2’
is not, then transition ’T1’ will be true. The state equations are similar to the state equations in the
previous State Equation method, except they now only refer to the transitions. Recall, the basic
form of these equations is that the state will be on if it is already on, or it has been turned on by a
transition. The state will be turned off if an exiting transition occurs. In this example the first scan
was given it’s own transition, but it could have also been put into the equation for T4.
defined state and transition variables:
ST1 = state 1 - green NS
T1 = transition from ST1 to ST2
ST2 = state 2 - yellow NS
T2 = transition from ST2 to ST3
ST3 = state 3 - green EW
T3 = transition from ST3 to ST4
ST4 = state 4 - yellow EW
T4 = transition from ST4 to ST1
T5 = transition to ST1 for first scan
state and transition equations:
T4 = ST4 ⋅ TON 2 ( ST4, 4 )
ST1 = ( ST1 + T4 + T5 ) ⋅ T1
T1 = ST1 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2
ST2 = ( ST2 + T1 ) ⋅ T2
T2 = ST2 ⋅ TON 1 ( ST2, 4 )
ST3 = ( ST3 + T2 ) ⋅ T3
T3 = ST3 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S2
ST4 = ( ST4 + T3 ) ⋅ T4
T5 = FS
Figure 8.38 - State-Transition Equations
These equations can be converted directly to the ladder logic in Figure 8.39. It is very important that the transition equations all occur before the state equations. By updating the transition
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equations first and then updating the state equations the problem of state variable values changing
is negated - recall this problem was discussed in the State Equations section.
UPDATE TIMERS
ST4
timer on
T4:2
delay 4 sec
ST2
timer on
T4:1
delay 4 sec
CALCULATE TRANSITION EQUATIONS
ST4
T4:2/DN
ST1
S1
ST2
T4:1/DN
ST3
S1
FS
S2
S2
T4
T1
T2
T3
T5
Figure 8.39a - Ladder Logic for the State-Transition Equations
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CALCULATE STATE EQUATIONS
ST1
T1
ST1
T2
ST2
T3
ST3
T4
ST4
T4
T5
ST2
T1
ST3
T2
ST4
T3
Figure 8.39b - Ladder Logic for the State-Transition Equations
page 230
UPDATE OUTPUTS
ST1
L1
ST2
ST4
L2
ST3
L3
ST3
L4
ST4
ST2
L5
ST1
L6
Figure 8.39c - Ladder Logic for the State-Transition Equations
The problem of prioritization also occurs with the State-Transition equations. Equations were
written for the State Diagram in Figure 8.40. The problem will occur if transitions ’A’ and ’C’
occur simultaneously. In the example transition ’T2’ is given a higher priority, and if it is true,
then the transition ’T3’ will be suppressed when calculating ’STC’.
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STA
T4
D
T5
B
STC
A
T2
C
T3
STB
T1
first scan (FS)
T1 = FS
STA = ( STA + T2 ) ⋅ T5
T2 = STB ⋅ A
STB = ( STB + T5 + T4 + T1 ) ⋅ T2 ⋅ T3
T3 = STB ⋅ C
STC = ( STC + T3 ⋅ T2 ) ⋅ T4
T4 = STC ⋅ D
T5 = STA ⋅ B
Figure 8.40 - Prioritization for State Transition Equations
8.5 PARALLEL PROCESS FLOWCHARTS
All of the previous methods are well suited to processes that have a single state active at any
one time. This is adequate for simpler machines and processes, but more complex machines are
designed perform simultaneous operations. This requires a controller that is capable of concurrent
processing - this means more than one state will be active at any one time. This could be achieved
with multiple state diagrams, or with more mature techniques such as Sequential Function Charts.
Sequential Function Charts (SFCs) are a graphical technique for writing concurrent control
programs. (Note: They are also known as Grafcet or IEC 848.) SFCs are a subset of the more
complex Petri net techniques that are discussed in another chapter. The basic elements of an SFC
diagram are shown in Figure 8.41.
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flowlines - connects steps and transitions (these basically indicate sequence)
transition - causes a shift between steps, acts as a point of coordination
Allows control to move to the next step when conditions met (basically an if or wait instruction)
initial step - the first step
step - basically a state of operation. A state often has an associated action
step
action
macrostep - a collection of steps (basically a subroutine
Figure 8.41a - Basic Elements in SFCs
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selection branch - an OR - only one path is followed
simultaneous branch - an AND - both (or more) paths are followed
Figure 8.41b - Basic Elements in SFCs
The example in Figure 8.42 shows a SFC for control of a two door security system. One door
requires a two digit entry code, the second door requires a three digit entry code. The execution of
the system starts at the top of the diagram at the ’Start’ block when the power is turned on. There
is an action associated with the ’Start’ block that locks the doors. (Note: in practice the SFC uses
ladder logic for inputs and outputs, but this is not shown on the diagram.) After the start block the
diagram immediately splits the execution into two processes and both steps 1 and 6 are active.
Steps are quite similar to states in state diagrams. The transitions are similar to transitions in state
diagrams, but they are drawn with thick lines that cross the normal transition path. When the right
logical conditions are satisfied the transition will stop one step and start the next. While step 1 is
active there are two possible transitions that could occur. If the first combination digit is correct
then step 1 will become inactive and step 2 will become active. If the digit is incorrect then the
transition will then go on to wait for the later transition for the 5 second delay, and after that step
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5 will be active. Step 1 does not have an action associated, so nothing should be done while waiting for either of the transitions. The logic for both of the doors will repeat once the cycle of combination-unlock-delay-lock has completed.
Start
1
1st digit
wrong
1st digit
OK
lock doors
6
1st digit
OK
2
7
2st digit
OK
2nd digit
wrong
2st digit
OK
3
3rd digit
OK
4
3rd digit
wrong
2nd digit
wrong
8
unlock#2
9
relock#2
5 sec.
delay
unlock#1
5 sec.
delay
5
1st digit
wrong
relock#1
Parallel/Concurrent because things happen separately, but at same time
(this can also be done with state transition diagrams)
Figure 8.42 - SFC for Control of Two Doors with Security Codes
A simple SFC for controlling a stamping press is shown in figure 8.43. (Note: this controller
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only has a single thread of execution, so it could also be implemented with state diagrams, flowcharts, or other methods.) In the diagram the press starts in an idle state. when an ’automatic’ button is pushed the press will turn on the press power and lights. When a part is detected the press
ram will advance down to the bottom limit switch. The press will then retract the ram until the top
limit switch is contacted, and the ram will be stopped. A stop button can stop the press only when
it is advancing. (Note: normal designs require that stops work all the time.) When the press is
stopped a ’reset’ button must be pushed before the ’automatic’ button can be pushed again. After
step 6 the press will wait until the part is not present before waiting for the next part. Without this
logic the press would cycle continuously.
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1
reset
button
6
7
part not
detected
1
automatic
button
2
part detect
power on
light on
2
3
stop
button
4
5
advance on
part hold on
bottom
limit
3
4
light off
advance off
power off
advance off
retract on
top
limit
5
6
retract off
part hold off
Figure 8.43 - SFC for Controlling a Stamping Press
The SFC can be converted directly to ladder logic with methods very similar to those used for
state diagrams as shown in Figure 8.44. The method shown is patterned after the block logic
method. One significant difference is that the transitions must now be considered separately. The
ladder logic begins with a section to initialize the states and transitions to a single value. The next
section of the ladder logic considers the transitions and then checks for transition conditions. If
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satisfied the following step or transition can be turned on, and the transition turned off. This is followed by ladder logic to turn on outputs as requires by the steps. This section of ladder logic corresponds to the actions for each step. After that the steps are considered, and the logic moves to
the following transitions or steps. The sequence ’examine transitions’, ’do actions’ then ’do steps’
is very important. If other sequences are used outputs may not be actuated, or steps missed
entirely.
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INITIALIZE STEPS AND TRANSITIONS
first scan
L
step 1
U
step 2
U
step 3
U
step 4
U
step 5
U
step 6
U
transition 1
U
transition 2
U
transition 3
U
transition 4
U
transition 5
U
transition 6
U
transition 7
Figure 8.44a - SFC Implemented in Ladder Logic
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CHECK TRANSITIONS
transition 1
automatic on
L
U
transition 7
U
U
transition 7
step 3
transition 2
bottom limit
L
U
U
transition 4
transition 1
part detect
L
transition 3
transition 1
reset button
L
transition 2
step 2
step 4
transition 3
transition 4
stop button
L
U
U
Figure 8.44b - SFC Implemented in Ladder Logic
step 5
transition 3
transition 4
page 240
transition 5
top limit
L
U
transition 6
step 6
transition 5
part detected
L
PERFORM ACTIVITIES FOR STEPS
step 2
U
L
L
step 2
transition 6
power
light
step 3
L
L
advance
part hold
step 4
L
U
retract
advance
step 5
U
U
U
Figure 8.44c - SFC Implemented in Ladder Logic
light
advance
power
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step 6
U
ENABLE TRANSITIONS
step 1
U
U
L
retract
part hold
step 1
transition 1
step 2
U
L
step 2
transition 2
step 3
U
L
L
step 3
transition 3
transition 4
step 4
U
L
step 4
transition 5
step 5
U
L
step 5
transition 7
Figure 8.44d - SFC Implemented in Ladder Logic
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step 6
U
L
step 6
transition 6
Figure 8.44e - SFC Implemented in Ladder Logic
Many PLCs also allow SFCs to entered be as graphic diagrams. Small segments of ladder
logic must then be entered for each transition and action. Each segment of ladder logic is kept in a
separate program. If we consider the previous example the SFC diagram would be numbered as
shown in figure 8.45. The numbers are sequential and are for both transitions and steps.
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2
reset
button
15
13
part not
detected
8
automatic
button
3
part detect
power on
light on
10
4
12
7
stop
button
advance on
part hold on
bottom
limit
11
5
light off
advance off
power off
advance off
retract on
top
limit
14
6
retract off
part hold off
Figure 8.45 - SFC Renumbered
Some of the ladder logic for the SFC is shown in Figure 8.46. Each program corresponds to
the number on the diagram. The ladder logic includes a new instruction, EOT, that will tell the
PLC when a transition has completed. When the rung of ladder logic with the EOT output
becomes true the SFC will move to the next step or transition. when developing graphical SFCs
the ladder logic becomes very simple, and the PLC deals with turning states on and off properly.
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Program 3 (for step #3)
L
L
power
light
Program 10 (for transition #10)
part detect
EOT
Program 4 (for step #3)
L
L
step 2
advance
part hold
Program 11 (for transition #10)
bottom limit
EOT
step 2
Figure 8.46 - Sample Ladder Logic for a Graphical SFC Program
page 245
Aside: The SFC approach can also be implemented with traditional programming languages. The example below shows the previous example implemented for a Basic
Stamp II microcontroller.
autoon = 1; detect=2; bottom=3; top=4; stop=5;reset=6 ‘define input pins
input autoon; input detect; input button; input top; input stop; input reset
s1=1; s2=0; s3=0; s4=0; s5=0; s6=0 ‘set to initial step
advan=7;onlite=8; hold=9;retrac=10 ‘define outputs
output advan; output onlite; output hold; output retrac
step1: if s1<>1 then step2; s1=2
step2: if s2<>1 then step3; s2=2
step3: if s3<>1 then step4; s3=2
step4: if s4<>1 then step5; s4=2
step5: if s5<>1 then step6; s5=2
step6: if s6<>1 then trans1; s6=2
trans1: if (in1<>1 or s1<>2) then trans2;s1=0;s2=1
trans2: (if in2<>1 or s2<>2) then trans3;s2=0;s3=1
trans3: ...................
stepa1: if (st2<>1) then goto stepa2: high onlite
.................
goto step1
Figure 8.49 - Implementing SFCs with High Level Languages
8.6 A COMPARISON OF METHODS
These methods are suited to different controller designs. The most basic controllers can be
developed using scripts and flowcharts. More complex control problems should be solved with
state diagrams. If the controller needs to control concurrent processes the SFC methods could be
used. It is also possible to mix methods together. For example, it is quite common to mix state
based approaches with normal conditional logic. It is also possible to make a concurrent system
using two or more state diagrams.
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8.7 SUMMARY
• Scripts can be used for simple problems, but there are better processes.
• Flowcharts and state diagrams are suited to processes with a single flow of execution.
• Flowcharts are suited to processes with clear sequences of operation.
• State diagrams are suited to problems that has clearly defines modes of execution.
• Sequential function charts are suited to processes with parallel operations
• Controller diagrams can be converted to ladder logic using MCR blocks
• State diagrams can also be converted to ladder logic using equations
• The sequence of operations is important when converting state diagrams and SFCs to
ladder logic.
8.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Use the scripting method to design a parking gate controller.
light
keycard entry
gate
cars enter/leave
ans)
car detector
- the gate will be raised by one output
and lowered by another. If the
gate gets stuck an over current
detector will make a PLC input
true. If this is the case the gate
should reverse and the light
should be turned on indefinitely.
- if a valid keycard is entered a PLC
input will be true. The gate is to
rise and stay open for 10 seconds.
- when a car is over the car detector a
PLC input will go true. The gate is
to open while this detector is
active. If it is active for more that
30 seconds the light should also
turn on until the gate closes.
page 247
2. Draw a flow chart for cutting the grass, then develop ladder logic for three of the actions/decisions.
Start
Get mower and
gas can
F2
F1
F3
Is gas can
empty?
yes
no
F4
Fill mower
F5
Pull cord
F6
no
Is Mower on?
yes
F7
Push Mower
F8
no
Is all lawn cut?
yes
F9
Stop mower
F10
Put gas and
mower away
get gas
page 248
FS
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F1
MCR
L mower
L gas can
U F1
L F2
MCR
F2
gas can empty
MCR
L F3
U F2
gas can empty
L F4
U F2
MCR
page 249
F3
gas can full
MCR
fill gas tank
L F4
U F3
MCR
F4
MCR
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 5s
T4:0/DN
L F5
U F4
T4:0/DN
pour gas
MCR
F5
cord pulled
MCR
pull cord
cord pulled
L F6
U F5
MCR
F6
MCR
mower on
mower on
L F7
L F5
U F6
MCR
ETC.....................
page 250
3. Convert the following flow chart to ladder logic.
start
A on
is B on?
no
A off
no
is C on?
yes
yes
page 251
ans.
first scan
start
L F1
U F2
F1
A on
U F3
U F4
F2
is B on?
F1
MCR
yes
no
L A
F3
A off
U F1
F4
L F2
no
MCR
F2
is C on?
yes
MCR
B
U F2
L F3
F4
MCR
MCR
C
F3
U F4
MCR
U A
U F3
L F4
MCR
4. Draw a state diagram for a microwave oven.
C
L F1
U F4
L F2
MCR
page 252
ans)
Time Button
IDLE
Timer Done + Cancel Button + Door Open
Time Button
COOK
Cancel Button
Power Button
CLOCK
SET
Start Button
COOK
TIME SET
5. Convert the following state diagram to equations.
Inputs
A
B
C
D
E
F
A(C + D)
Outputs
P
Q
R
FS
S1
F+E
S0
state P
Q
R
S0
S1
S2
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
BA
E(C + D + F)
S2
page 253
ans)
T1 = FS
T2 = S1 ( BA )
S1 = ( S1 + T1 + T3 + T5 )T2T4
T3 = S2 ( E ( C + D + F ) )
S2 = ( S2 + T2 )T3
P = S1 + S2
Q = S0 + S2
R = S0 + S1
T4 = S1 ( F + E )
S0 = ( S0 + T4T2 )T5
T5 = S0 ( A ( C + D ) )
6. Given the following state diagram, use equations to implement ladder logic.
state 1
A
C*B
state 3
B
state 2
C+B
page 254
ans.
A
ST1
C*B
T1
B
T3
T4
T2
ST2
ST2
ST3
C+B
FS = first scan
T1 = ST2 ⋅ A
T2 = ST1 ⋅ B
T3 = ST3 ⋅ ( C ⋅ B )
T4 = ST2 ⋅ ( C + B )
ST1 = ( ST1 + T1 ) ⋅ T2 + FS
ST2 = ( ST2 + T2 + T4 ) ⋅ T1 ⋅ T4
ST3 = ( ST3 + T4 ⋅ T1 ) ⋅ T4
A
T1
ST1
B
ST3
C
ST2
T2
B
T3
C
T4
B
T2
ST1
ST1
T1
first scan
T1
T4
ST2
ST2
T2
T4
T4
ST3
T4
ST3
T1
page 255
7. Convert the following state diagram to logic using equations.
A
state 1
state 2
B
C
E
D
F
state 3
page 256
ans. TA
TB
TC
TD
TE
TF
=
=
=
=
=
=
ST2 ⋅ A
ST1 ⋅ B
ST3 ⋅ C
ST1 ⋅ D ⋅ B
ST2 ⋅ E ⋅ A
ST3 ⋅ F ⋅ C
ST2
ST1 = ( ST1 + TA + TC ) ⋅ TB ⋅ TD
ST2 = ( ST2 + TB + TF ) ⋅ TA ⋅ TE
ST3 = ( ST3 + TD + TE ) ⋅ TC ⋅ TF
A
TA
ST1
B
ST3
C
ST1
D
TB
TC
B
TD
ST2
E
A
TE
ST3
F
C
ST1
TB
TD
TF
ST1
TA
TC
ST2
TA
TE
ST2
TB
TF
ST3
TC
TF
ST3
TD
TE
8. Implement the State-Transition equations.in figure 8.40 with ladder logic.
9. For the state diagram for the traffic light example, add a 15 second green light timer and speed
up signal for an emergency vehicle. A strobe light mounted on fire trucks will cause the lights
to change so that the truck doesn’t need to stop. Modify the state diagram to include this option.
Implement the new state diagram with ladder logic.
page 257
10. Convert the following state diagram to ladder logic using equations. Give the stop button
higher priority.
ST0: idle
A
ST1: 1 on
STOP
B
STOP
D + STOP
ST2: 2 on
ST3: 3 on
C
11. Design a program for a hydraulic press that will advance when two palm buttons are pushed.
Top and bottom limit switches are used to reverse the advance and stop after a retract. At any
time the hands removed from the palm button will stop an advance and retract the press.
12. This morning you received a call from Mr. Ian M. Daasprate at the Old Fashioned Widget
Company. In the past when they built a new machine they would used punched paper cards for
control, but their supplier of punched paper readers went out of business in 1972 and they have
decided to try using PLCs this time. He explains that the machine will dip wooden parts in varnish for 2 seconds, and then apply heat for 5 minutes to dry the coat, after this they are manually
removed from the machine, and a new part is put in. They are also considering a premium line
of parts that would call for a dip time of 30 seconds, and a drying time of 10 minutes. He then
refers you to the project manager, Ann Nooyed.
You call Ann and she explains how the machine should operate. There should be start and stop
buttons. The start button will be pressed when the new part has been loaded, and is ready to be
coated. A light should be mounted to indicate when the machine is in operation. The part is
mounted on a wheel that is rotated by a motor. To dip the part, the motor is turned on until a
switch is closed. To remove the part from the dipping bath the motor is turned on until a second
switch is closed. If the motor to rotate the wheel is on for more that 10 seconds before hitting a
switch, the machine should be turned off, and a fault light turned on. The fault condition will be
cleared by manually setting the machine back to its initial state, and hitting the start button
twice. If the part has been dipped and dried properly, then a done light should be lit. To select a
premium product you will use an input switch that needs to be pushed before the start button is
pushed. She closes by saying she will be going on vacation and you need to have it done before
she returns.
You hang up the phone and, after a bit of thought, decide to use a SLC-150 with the following
page 258
outputs and inputs,
INPUTS
001 - start push button
002 - stop button
003 - premium part push button
004 - switch - part is in bath on wheel
005 - switch - part is out of bath on wheel
OUTPUTS
011 - start button
012 - in operation
013 - fault light
014 - part done light
015 - motor on
111 - heater power supply
a) Draw a state diagram for the process.
b) List the relays needed to indicate when each state is on, and list any timers and counters
used.
c) Write a Boolean expression for each transition in the state diagram.
d) Do a simple wiring diagram for the SLC-150.
e) Write the ladder logic for the state that involves moving the part into the dipping bath.
13. A welding station is controlled by a PLC. On the outside is a safety cage that must be closed
while the cell is active. A belt moves the parts into the welding station and back out. An inductive proximity sensor detects when a part is in place for welding, and the belt is stopped. To
weld, an actuator is turned on for 3 seconds. As normal the cell has start and stop push buttons.
a) Draw a flow chart
b) Implement the chart in ladder logic
Inputs
Outputs
DOOR OPEN (NC)
START (NO)
STOP (NC)
PART PRESENT
CONVEYOR ON
WELD
14. In dangerous processes it is common to use two palm buttons that require a operator to use
both hands to start a process (this keeps hands out of presses, etc.). To develop this there are
two inputs (P1 and P2) that must both be turned on within 0.25s of each other before a machine
cycle may begin.
Develop ladder logic to control a process that has a start (START) and stop (STOP) button for the
power. After the power is on the palm buttons (P1 and P2) may be used as described above to
start a cycle. The cycle will consist of turning on an output (MOVE) for 2 seconds. After the
press has been cycled 1000 times the press power should turn off and an output (LIGHT)
should go on.
page 259
15. Develop an SFC for a vending machine and expand it into ladder logic.
16. Develop an SFC for a two person assembly station. The station has two presses that may be
used at the same time. Each press has a cycle button that will start the advance of the press. A
bottom limit switch will stop the advance, and the cylinder must then be retracted until a top
limit switch is hit.
start
start button #1
press #1 adv.
start button #2
press #2 adv.
bottom limit switch #1
bottom limit switch #2
press #1 retract
press #2 retract
top limit switch #1
top limit switch #2
press #1 off
press #2 off
17. Design ladder logic for the following process description.
a) A toggle start switch (TS1) and a limit switch on a safety gate (LS1) must both be on
before a solenoid (SOL1) can be energized to extend a stamping cylinder to the top
of a part. Should a part detect sensor (PS1) also be considered? Explain your
answer.
b) While the stamping solenoid is energized, it must remain energized until a limit switch
(LS2) is activated. This second limit switch indicates the end of a stroke. At this
point the solenoid should be de-energized, thus retracting the cylinder.
c) When the cylinder is fully retracted a limit switch (LS3) is activated. The cycle may not
begin again until this limit switch is active. This is one way to ensure that a new
part is present, is there another?
d) A cycle counter should also be included to allow counts of parts produced. When this
value exceeds some variable amount (from 1 to 5000) the machine should shut
down, and a job done light lit up.
e) A safety check should be included. If the cylinder solenoid has been on for more than 5
page 260
seconds, it suggests that the cylinder is jammed, or the machine has a fault. If this
is the case the machine should be shut down, and a maintenance light turned on.
f) Implement the ladder diagram on a PLC in the laboratory.
g) Fully document the ladder logic and prepare a short report - This should be of use to
another engineer that will be maintaining the system.
18. Write the ladder logic diagram that would be required to execute the following data manipulation for a preventative maintenance program.
i) Keep track of the number of times a motor was started with toggle switch #1.
ii) After 2000 motor starts turn on an indicator light on the operator panel.
iii) Provide the capability to change the number of motor starts being tracked, prior to triggering of the indicator light. HINT: This capability will only require the change of
a value in a compare statement rather than the addition of new lines of logic.
iv) Keep track of the number of minutes that the motor has run.
v) After 9000 minutes of operation turn the motor off automatically and also turn on an
indicator light on the operator panel.
19. You have been asked to program a PLC-5 that is controlling a handicapped access door
opener. The client has provided the electrical wiring diagram below to show how the PLC
inputs and outputs have been wired. Button A is located inside and button B is located outside.
When either button is pushed the motor will be turned on to open the door. The motor is to be
kept on for a total of 15 seconds to allow the person to enter. After the motor is turned off the
door will fall closed. In the event that somebody gets caught in the door the thermal relay will
go off, and the motor should be turned off. After 20,000 cycles the door should stop working
and the light should go on to indicate that maintenance is required.
page 261
24 V DC
Output Card
120 V AC
Power
Supply
COM.
00
01
Relay
02
03
Motor
04
05
24 V lamp
06
07
COM
rack 00
slot 0
+24 V DC
Power
Supply
GND
page 262
PLC Input Card
24V AC
00
button A
24 V AC
Power
Supply
01
button B
02
03
thermal relay
04
05
06
07
COM
rack 00
slot 1
a) Develop a state diagram for the control of the door.
button A + button B
ans.
door idle
motor on
door opening
counter > 20,000
thermal relay + 15 sec delay
service mode
reset button - assumed
b) Convert the state diagram to ladder logic. (list the input and the output addresses first)
page 263
Legend
button A
button B
motor
thermal relay
reset button
state 1
state 2
state 3
lamp
ans.
first scan
I:001/01
I:001/02
O:000/03
I:001/03
I:001/04 - assumed
B3:0/0
B3:0/1
B3:0/2
O:000/07
MCR
L
U
U
state 1
state 2
state 3
MCR
state 2
motor
state 3
light
page 264
state 1
button A
button B
MCR
L
U
MCR
state 2
state 1
page 265
state 1
MCR
TON
T4:0
base 1
preset 15
T4:0/DN
thermal relay
L
U
state 1
state 2
CTU
C5:0
preset 20000
C5:0/DN
L
U
U
MCR
state 3
state 2
state 1
page 266
state 3
reset button ??
MCR
L
U
state 1
state 3
RES counter
MCR
c) Convert the state diagram to Boolean equations.
ans.
S0 = ( S0 + S1 ( delay ( 15 ) + thermal ) )S0 ( buttonA + buttonB )
S1 = ( S1 + S0 ( buttonA + buttonB ) )S1 ( delay ( 15 ) + thermal )S3 ( counter )
S3 = ( S3 + S2 ( counter ) )S3 ( reset )
motor = S1
light = S3
20. Design a garage door controller using four techniques a) scripts, b) block logic, c) state-transition equations, d) SFCs and e) flowcharts. The behavior of the garage door controller is as follows,
- there is a single button in the garage, and a single button remote control.
- when the button is pushed the door will move up or down.
- if the button is pushed once while moving, the door will stop, a second push will start
motion again in the opposite direction.
- there are top/bottom limit switches to stop the motion of the door.
- there is a light beam across the bottom of the door. If the beam is cut while the door is
closing the door will stop and reverse.
- there is a garage light that will be on for 5 minutes after the door opens or closes.
page 267
ans. a) scripting
The output [door opening] will stay on after input [button OR remote] and after state [door
closed]. It is stopped by input [button OR remote OR top limit] and is followed by state
[door opened].
The output [door closing] will stay on after input [button OR remote] and after state [door
opened]. It is stopped by input [button OR remote OR bottom limit] and is followed by
state [door closed]. It is stopped by input [not light beam] and followed by state [door
opening].
The output [garage light] will stay on after state [door opening OR door closing] and will
delay turning off for [300 seconds] after states [door opening OR door closing].
first scan
door opened
L
door opened
U
door opening
U
door closed
U
door closing
L
door closing
L
door closed
U
door closing
L
door opening
U
door closing
remote
button
door closing
remote
button
bottom limit
door closing
light beam
page 268
door closed
remote
L
door opening
L
door opened
U
door opening
button
door opening
remote
button
top limit
door closing
TOF
T4:0
preset 300s
door opening
T4:0/DN
garage light
ans.
b) block logic method
door
closed
(state 3)
remote OR button OR bottom limit
door
closing
(state 2)
remote OR button
light sensor
door
opened
(state 1)
remote OR button
door
opening
(state 4)
remote OR button OR top limit
page 269
first scan
L
U
U
U
state 1
state 2
state 3
state 4
state 2
close door
state 4
open door
state 2
TOF
T4:0
preset 300s
state 4
T4:0/DN
garage light
state 1
MCR
remote
U
button
L
MCR
state 1
state 2
page 270
state 2
MCR
remote
U
button
L
state 2
state 3
bottom limit
light beam
U
L
state 2
state 4
MCR
state 3
MCR
remote
U
button
L
MCR
state 3
state 4
page 271
state 4
MCR
remote
U
button
L
state 2
state 3
top limit
MCR
ans.
c) state-transition equations
door
closed
(state 3)
remote OR button OR bottom limit
door
closing
(state 2)
remote OR button
remote OR button
light sensor
door
opened
(state 1)
door
opening
(state 4)
remote OR button OR top limit
using the previous state diagram.
ST1 = state 1
ST2 = state 2
ST3 = state 3
ST4 = state 4
FS = first scan
ST1 = ( ST1 + T5 ) ⋅ T1
ST2 = ( ST2 + T1 ) ⋅ T2 ⋅ T3
ST3 = ( ST3 + T2 ) ⋅ T4
ST4 = ( ST4 + T3 + T4 ) ⋅ T5
T1 = state 1 to state 2
T2 = state 2 to state 3
T3 = state 2 to state 4
T4 = state 3 to state 4
T5 = state 4 to state 1
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
=
=
=
=
=
ST1 ⋅ ( remote + button )
ST2 ⋅ ( remote + button + bottomlimit )
ST2 ⋅ ( remote + button )
ST3 ⋅ ( lighbeam )
ST4 ⋅ ( remote + button + toplimit ) + FS
page 272
ST1
remote
T1
button
ST2
remote
T2
button
bottom limit
ST3
remote
T3
button
ST3
light beam
T4
ST4
remote
T5
button
top limit
first scan
page 273
T1
ST1
ST1
T5
T2
T3
ST2
ST2
T1
T4
ST3
ST3
T2
T5
ST4
ST4
T3
T4
ST2
close doo
ST4
open doo
ST2
TOF
T4:0
preset 300s
ST4
T4:0/DN
garage light
page 274
ans.
d) SFC
step 1
step 2
T1
button + remote
step 3
T3
T2
close door
button + remote + bottom limit
light beam
step 4
T4
button + remote
step 5
open door
T5
button + remote + top limit
page 275
first scan
L
step 1
step 2
U
step 3
U
step 4
U
step 5
U
U
U
U
U
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
U
page 276
T1
remote
L
step 3
U
T1
L
step 4
U
T2
U
T3
L
step 5
U
T2
U
T3
L
step 5
U
T4
L
step 2
U
T5
button
T2
remote
button
bottom limit
T3
T4
light beam
remote
button
T5
remote
button
top limit
page 277
step 2
U
step 4
door close
U
step 3
L
step 5
L
step 3
door open
door close
door open
TOF
T4:0
preset 300s
step 5
T4:0/DN
garage light
page 278
step 1
U
step 1
step 2
L
step 2
U
step 2
T1
L
step 3
U
step 3
T2
L
T3
L
step 4
U
step 4
T4
L
step 5
U
step 5
T5
L
page 279
ans.
f) flowchart
start
is
remote or
button pushed?
ST1
no
yes
ST2
turn on door close
ST3
is
remote or
button or bottom
limit pushed?
ST4
no
yes
ST5
ST7
no
turn off door close
ST6
is
remote or
button pushed?
yes
turn on door open
ST8
ST9
is
remote or
button or top
limit pushed?
yes
turn off door open
is
light beam
on?
no
yes
page 280
first scan
ST2
L
ST1
U
ST2
U
ST3
U
ST4
U
ST5
U
ST6
U
ST7
U
ST8
U
ST9
U
door open
U
door close
TOF
T4:0
preset 300s
ST7
T4:0/DN
garage light
page 281
ST1
MCR
button
U
remote
L
ST1
ST2
MCR
ST2
MCR
U
L
L
MCR
ST2
ST3
door close
page 282
ST3
MCR
button
U
remote
L
ST3
ST5
bottom limit
ST3
U
L
ST3
ST4
MCR
ST4
MCR
light beam
U
L
ST4
ST7
light beam
U
L
MCR
ST4
ST3
page 283
ST5
MCR
U
L
U
ST5
ST6
door close
MCR
ST6
MCR
button
U
remote
L
ST6
ST7
MCR
ST7
MCR
U
L
L
MCR
ST7
ST8
door open
page 284
ST8
MCR
button
U
remote
L
ST8
ST9
top limit
MCR
ST9
MCR
U
L
U
MCR
21. Develop ladder logic for the flowchart below.
ST9
ST1
door open
page 285
Start
Turn A on
Is B
on?
no
yes
Turn A off
Is C
on?
yes
no
22. Use equations to develop ladder logic for the state diagram below. Be sure to deal with the priority problems.
FS
STA
D+E
E
STD
A
E
STB
B
C
STC
page 286
9. NUMBERS AND DATA
Topics:
• Number bases; binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal
• Binary calculations; 2s compliments, addition, subtraction and Boolean operations
• Encoded values; BCD and ASCII
• Error detection; parity, gray code and checksums
Objectives:
• To be familiar with binary, octal and hexadecimal numbering systems.
• To be able to convert between different numbering systems.
• To understand 2s compliment negative numbers.
• To be able to convert ASCII and BCD values.
• To be aware of basic error detection techniques.
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Base 10 (decimal) numbers developed naturally because the original developers (probably)
had ten fingers, or 10 digits. Now consider logical systems that only have wires that can be on or
off. When counting with a wire the only digits are 0 and 1, giving a base 2 numbering system.
Numbering systems for computers are often based on base 2 numbers, but base 4, 8, 16 and 32 are
commonly used. A list of numbering systems is give in Figure 9.1. An example of counting in
these different numbering systems is shown in Figure 9.2.
Base
Name
Data Unit
2
8
10
16
Binary
Octal
Decimal
Hexadecimal
Bit
Nibble
Digit
Byte
Figure 9.1 - Numbering Systems
page 287
decimal
binary
octal
hexadecimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
10000
10001
10010
10011
10100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
20
21
22
23
24
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a
b
c
d
e
f
10
11
12
13
14
Note: As with all numbering systems
most significant digits are at left,
least significant digits are at right.
Figure 9.2 - Numbers in Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal
The effect of changing the base of a number does not change the actual value, only how it is
written. The basic rules of mathematics still apply, but many beginners will feel disoriented. This
chapter will cover basic topics that are needed to use more complex programming instructions
later in the book. These will include the basic number systems, conversion between different
number bases, and some data oriented topics.
9.2 NUMERICAL VALUES
9.2.1 Binary
Binary numbers are the most fundamental numbering system in all computers. A single
page 288
binary digit (a bit) corresponds to the condition of a single wire. If the voltage on the wire is true
the bit value is ’1’. If the voltage is off the bit value is ’0’. If two or more wires are used then each
new wire adds another significant digit. Each binary number will have an equivalent digital value.
Figure 9.3 shows how to convert a binary number to a decimal equivalent. Consider the digits,
starting at the right. The least significant digit is ’1’, and is in the 0th position. To convert this to a
decimal equivalent the number base (2) is raised to the position of the digit, and multiplied by the
digit. In this case the least significant digit is a trivial conversion. Consider the most significant
digit, with a value of ’1’ in the 6th position. This is converted by the number base to the exponent
6 and multiplying by the digit value of 1. This method can also be used for converting the other
number system to decimal.
26 = 64
25 = 32
24 = 16
23 = 8
22 = 4
21 = 2
20 = 1
1110001
1(26) =
1(25) =
1(24) =
0(23) =
0(22) =
0(21) =
1(20) =
64
32
16
0
0
0
1
113
Figure 9.3 - Conversion of a Binary Number to a Decimal Number
Decimal numbers can be converted to binary numbers using division, as shown in Figure 9.4.
This technique begins by dividing the decimal number by the base of the new number. The fraction after the decimal gives the least significant digit of the new number when it is multiplied by
the number base. The whole part of the number is now divided again. This process continues until
the whole number is zero. This method will also work for conversion to other number bases.
page 289
start with decimal number 932
for binary
(base 2)
932
--------- = 466.0
2
2(0.0) = 0
466
--------- = 233.0
2
2(0.0) = 0
233
--------- = 116.5
2
2(0.5) = 1
116
--------- = 58.0
2
2(0.0) = 0
58
------ = 29.0
2
2(0.0) = 0
29
------ = 14.5
2
2(0.5) = 1
14
------ = 7.0
2
2(0.0) = 0
7--= 3.5
2
2(0.5) = 1
3--= 1.5
2
2(0.5) = 1
1--= 0.5
2
2(0.5) = 1
done
1110100100
multiply places after decimal by division
base, in this case it is 2 because of the binary.
* This method works for other number bases also, the divisor and multipliers
should be changed to the new number bases.
Figure 9.4 - Conversion from Decimal to Binary
Most scientific calculators will convert between number bases. But, it is important to understand the conversions between number bases. And, when used frequently enough the conversions
can be done in your head.
Binary numbers come in three basic forms - a bit, a byte and a word. A bit is a single binary
page 290
digit, a byte is eight binary digits, and a word is 16 digits. Words and bytes are shown in Figure
9.5. Notice that on both numbers the least significant digit is on the right hand side of the numbers. And, in the word there are two bytes, and the right hand one is the least significant byte.
BYTE
MSB
WORD
LSB
MSB
LSB
0110 1011 0100 0010
0110 1011
most
significant
byte
least
significant
byte
Figure 9.5 - Bytes and Words
Binary numbers can also represent fractions, as shown in Figure 9.5x. The conversion to and
from binary is identical to the previous techniques, except that for values to the right of the decimal the equivalents are fractions.
binary: 101.011
2
1(2 ) = 4
1
0(2 ) = 0
0
1(2 ) = 1
–1
0(2 ) = 0
1
–2
1 ( 2 ) = --4
1
–3
1 ( 2 ) = --8
1 1
= 4 + 0 + 1 + 0 + --- + --- = 5.375 decimal
4 8
Figure 9.5x - A Binary Decimal Number
9.2.1.1 - Boolean Operations
In the next chapter you will learn that entire blocks of inputs and outputs can be used as a single binary number (typically a word). Each bit of the number would correspond to an output or
input as shown in Figure 9.6.
page 291
There are three motors M1, M2 and M3 represented with three bits in a binary
number. When any bit is on the corresponding motor is on.
100 = Motor 1 is the only one on
111 = All three motors are on
in total there are 2n or 23 possible combinations of motors on.
Figure 9.6 - Motor Outputs Represented with a Binary Number
We can then manipulate the inputs or outputs using Boolean operations. Boolean algebra has
been discussed before for variables with single values, but it is the same for multiple bits. Common operations that use multiple bits in numbers are shown in Figure 9.7. These operations compare only one bit at a time in the number, except the shift instructions that move all the bits one
place left or right.
Name
Example
Result
AND
OR
NOT
EOR
NAND
shift left
shift right
etc.
0010 * 1010
0010 + 1010
0010
0010 eor 1010
0010 * 1010
111000
111000
0010
1010
1101
1000
1101
110001 (other results are possible)
011100 (other results are possible)
Figure 9.7 - Boolean Operations on Binary Numbers
9.2.1.2 - Binary Mathematics
Negative numbers are a particular problem with binary numbers. As a result there are three
common numbering systems used as shown in Figure 9.8. Unsigned binary numbers are common,
but they can only be used for positive values. Both signed and 2s compliment numbers allow positive and negative values, but the maximum positive values is reduced by half. 2s compliment
numbers are very popular because the hardware and software to add and subtract is simpler and
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faster. All three types of numbers will be found in PLCs.
Type
Description
Range for Byte
unsigned
binary numbers can only have positive values.
0 to 255
signed
the most significant bit (MSB) of the binary number -127 to 127
is used to indicate positive/negative.
negative numbers are represented by complimenting -128 to 127
the binary number and then adding 1.
2s compliment
Figure 9.8 - Binary (Integer) Number Types
Examples of signed binary numbers are shown in Figure 9.9. These numbers use the most
significant bit to indicate when a number is negative.
decimal
2
1
0
-0
-1
-2
binary byte
00000010
00000001
00000000
10000000
10000001
10000010
Note: there are two zeros
Figure 9.9 - Signed Binary Numbers
An example of 2s compliment numbers are shown in Figure 9.10. Basically, if the number is
positive, it will be a regular binary number. If the number is to be negative, we start the positive
number, compliment it (reverse all the bits), then add 1. Basically when these numbers are negative, then the most significant bit is set. To convert from a negative 2s compliment number, subtract 1, and then invert the number.
page 293
decimal
2
1
0
-1
-2
binary byte
METHOD FOR MAKING A NEGATIVE NUMBER
00000010
00000001
00000000
11111111
11111110
1. write the binary number for the positive
for -30 we write 30 = 00011110
2. Invert (compliment) the number
00011110 becomes 11100001
3. Add 1
11100001 + 00000001 = 11100010
Figure 9.10 - 2s Compliment Numbers
Using 2s compliments for negative numbers eliminates the redundant zeros of signed binaries, and makes the hardware and software easier to implement. As a result most of the integer
operations in a PLC will do addition and subtraction using 2s compliment numbers. When adding
2s compliment numbers, we don’t need to pay special attention to negative values. And, if we
want to subtract one number from another, we apply the twos compliment to the value to be subtracted, and then apply it to the other value.
Figure 9.11 shows the addition of numbers using 2s compliment numbers. The three operations result in zero, positive and negative values. Notice that in all three operation the top number
is positive, while the bottom operation is negative (this is easy to see because the MSB of the
numbers is set). All three of the additions are using bytes, this is important for considering the
results of the calculations. In the left and right hand calculations the additions result in a 9th bit when dealing with 8 bit numbers we call this bit the carry ’C’. If the calculation started with a positive and negative value, and ended up with a carry bit, there is no problem, and the carry bit
should be ignored. If doing the calculation on a calculator you will see the carry bit, but when
using a PLC you must look elsewhere to find it.
page 294
00000001 = 1
+ 11111111 = -1
00000001 = 1
+ 11111110 = -2
00000010 = 2
+ 11111111 = -1
C+00000000 = 0
11111111 = -1
C+00000001 = 1
ignore the carry bits
Note: Normally the carry bit is ignored during the operation, but some additional logic is required to make
sure that the number has not ‘overflowed’ and moved
outside of the range of the numbers. Here the 2s compliment byte can have values from -128 to 127.
Figure 9.11 - Adding 2s Compliment Numbers
The integers have limited value ranges, for example a 16 bit word ranges from -32,768 to
32,767. In some cases calculations will give results outside this range, and the Overflow ’O’ bit
will be set. (Note: an overflow condition is a major error, and the PLC will probably halt when
this happens.) For an addition operation the Overflow bit will be set when the sign of both numbers is the same, but the sign of the result is opposite. When the signs of the numbers are opposite
an overflow cannot occur. This can be seen in figure 9.12 where the numbers two of the three calculations are outside the range. When this happens the result goes from positive to negative, or the
other way.
01111111 = 127
+ 00000011 = 3
10000010 = -126
C=0
O = 1 (error)
10000001 = -127
+ 11111111 = -1
10000001 = -127
+ 11111110 = -2
10000000 = -128
C=1
O = 0 (no error)
01111111 = 127
C=1
O = 1 (error)
Note: If an overflow bit is set this indicates that a calculation is outside and
acceptable range. When this error occurs the PLC will halt. Do not ignore the
limitations of the numbers.
Figure 9.12 - Carry and Overflow Bits
These bits also apply to multiplication and division operations. In addition the PLC will also
have bits to indicate when the result of an operation is zero ’Z’ and negative ’N’.
page 295
9.2.2 Other Base Number Systems
Other number bases are typically converted to and from binary for storage and mathematical
operations. Hexadecimal numbers are popular for representing binary values because they are
quite compact compared to binary. (Note: large binary numbers with a long string of 1s and 0s are
next to impossible to read.) Octal numbers are also popular for inputs and outputs because they
work in counts of eight; inputs and outputs are in counts of eight.
An example of conversion to, and from, hexadecimal is shown in figures 9.13 and 9.14. Note
that both of these conversions are identical to the methods used for binary numbers, and the same
techniques extend to octal numbers also.
163 = 4096
162 = 256 161 = 16 160 = 1
f8a3
15(163) = 61440
8(162) = 2048
10(161) =
160
0
3(16 ) =
3
63651
Figure 9.13 - Conversion of a Hexadecimal Number to a Decimal Number
page 296
5724
------------ = 357.75
16
16(0.75) = 12 ’c’
357
--------- = 22.3125
16
16(0.3125) = 5
22
------ = 1.375
16
16(0.375) = 6
1----= 0.0625
16
16(0.0625) = 1
165c
Figure 9.14 - Conversion from Decimal to Hexadecimal
9.2.3 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) numbers use four binary bits (a nibble) for each digit. (Note:
this is not a base number system, but it only represents decimal digits.) This means that one byte
can hold two digits from ’00’ to ’99’, whereas in binary it could hold from 0 to 255. A separate bit
must be assigned for negative numbers. This method is very popular when numbers are to be output or input to the computer. An example of a BCD number is shown in Figure 9.15. In the example there are four digits, therefore 16 bits are required. Note that the most significant digit and bits
are both on the left hand side. The BCD number is the binary equivalent of each digit.
decimal
1263
0001 0010 0110 0011
BCD
Note: this example shows four digits
in two bytes. The hex values
would also be 1263.
Figure 9.15 - A BCD Encoded Number
Most PLCs store BCD numbers in words, allowing values between ’0000’ and ’9999’. They
also provide functions to convert to and from BCD. It is also possible to calculations with BCD
numbers, but this is uncommon, and when necessary most PLCs have functions to do the calculations. But, when doing calculations you should probably avoid BCD and use integer mathematics
page 297
instead. Try to be aware when your numbers are BCD values and convert them to ’integer’ or
binary value before doing any calculations.
9.3 DATA CHARACTERIZATION
9.3.1 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
When dealing with non-numerical values or data we can use plain text characters and strings.
Each character is given a unique identifier and we can use these to store and interpret data. The
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a very common character
encryption system is shown in figure 9.16. The table includes the basic written characters, as well
as some special characters, and some control codes. Each one is given a unique number. Consider
the letter ‘A’, it is readily recognized by most computers world-wide when they see the number
65.
decimal
hexadecimal
binary
ASCII
decimal
hexadecimal
binary
ASCII
page 298
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
00000000
00000001
00000010
00000011
00000100
00000101
00000110
00000111
00001000
00001001
00001010
00001011
00001100
00001101
00001110
00001111
00010000
00010001
00010010
00010011
00010100
00010101
00010110
00010111
00011000
00011001
00011010
00011011
00011100
00011101
00011110
00011111
NUL
SOH
STX
ETX
EOT
ENQ
ACK
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
S0
S1
DLE
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
NAK
SYN
ETB
CAN
EM
SUB
ESC
FS
GS
RS
US
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
00100000
00100001
00100010
00100011
00100100
00100101
00100110
00100111
00101000
00101001
00101010
00101011
00101100
00101101
00101110
00101111
00110000
00110001
00110010
00110011
00110100
00110101
00110110
00110111
00111000
00111001
00111010
00111011
00111100
00111101
00111110
00111111
space
!
“
#
$
%
&
‘
(
)
*
+
,
.
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
<
=
>
?
Figure 9.16a - ASCII Character Table
decimal
hexadecimal
binary
ASCII
decimal
hexadecimal
binary
ASCII
page 299
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
5F
01000000
01000001
01000010
01000011
01000100
01000101
01000110
01000111
01001000
01001001
01001010
01001011
01001100
01001101
01001110
01001111
01010000
01010001
01010010
01010011
01010100
01010101
01010110
01010111
01011000
01011001
01011010
01011011
01011100
01011101
01011110
01011111
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
yen
]
^
_
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
6A
6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
01100000
01100001
01100010
01100011
01100100
01100101
01100110
01100111
01101000
01101001
01101010
01101011
01101100
01101101
01101110
01101111
01110000
01110001
01110010
01110011
01110100
01110101
01110110
01110111
01111000
01111001
01111010
01111011
01111100
01111101
01111110
01111111
‘
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
{
|
}
r arr.
l arr.
Figure 9.16b - ASCII Character Table
This table has the codes from 0 to 127, but there are more extensive tables that contain special graphics symbols, international characters, etc. It is best to use the basic codes, as they are
supported widely, and should suffice for all controls tasks.
page 300
An example of a string of characters encoded in ASCII is shown in Figure 9.17.
e.g. The sequence of numbers below will convert to
A
W
e
e
A
’space’
W
e
e
’space’
T
e
s
t
T
e
s
t
65
32
87
101
101
32
84
101
115
116
Figure 9.17 - A String of Characters Encoded in ASCII
When the characters are organized into a string to be transmitted and ’LF’ and/or ’CR’ code
are often put at the end to indicate the end of a line. When stored in a computer an ASCII value of
zero is used to end the string.
9.3.2 Parity
Errors often occur when data is transmitted or stored. This is very important when transmitting data in noisy factories, over phone lines, etc. Parity bits can be added to data as a simple
check of transmitted data for errors. If the data contains error it can be retransmitted, or ignored.
A parity bit is normally a 9th bit added onto an 8 bit byte. When the data is encoded the number of true bits are counted. The parity bit is then set to indicate if there are an even or odd number
of true bits. When the byte is decoded the parity bit is checked to make sure it that there are an
even or odd number of data bits true. If the parity bit is not satisfied, then the byte is judged to be
in error. There are two types of parity, even or odd. These are both based upon an even or odd
number of data bits being true. The odd parity bit is true if there are an odd number of bits on in a
page 301
binary number. On the other hand the Even parity is set if there are an even number of true bits.
This is illustrated in Figure 9.18.
data
bits
parity
bit
Odd Parity
10101110
10111000
1
0
Even Parity
00101010
10111101
0
1
Figure 9.18 - Parity Bits on a Byte
Parity bits are normally suitable for single bytes, but are not reliable for data with a number
of bits.
Note: Control systems perform important tasks that can be dangerous in certain circumstances. If an error occurs there could be serious consequences. As a result error
detection methods are very important for control system. When error detection occurs
the system should either be ’robust’ enough to recover from the error, or the system
should ’fail-safe’. If you ignore these design concepts you will eventually cause an
accident.
9.3.3 Checksums
Parity bits are suitable for a few bits of data, but checksums are better for larger data transmissions. These are simply an algebraic sum of all of the data transmitted. Before data is transmitted the numeric values of all of the bytes are added. This sum is then transmitted with the data. At
the receiving end the data values are summed again, and the total is compared to the checksum. If
they match the data is accepted as good. An example of this method is shown in Figure 9.19.
page 302
DATA
124
43
255
9
27
47
CHECKSUM
505
Figure 9.19 - A Checksum
Checksums are very common in data transmission, but these are also hidden from the average
user. If you plan to transmit data to or from a PLC you will need to consider parity and checksum
values to verify the data. Small errors in data can have major consequences in received data. Consider an oven temperature transmitted as a binary integer (1023d = 0000 0100 0000 0000b). If a
single bit were to be changed, and was not detected the temperature might become (0000 0110
0000 0000b = 1535d) This small change would dramatically change the process.
9.3.4 Gray Code
Parity bits and checksums are for checking data that may have any value. Gray code is used
for checking data that must follow a binary sequence. This is common for devices such as angular
encoders. The concept is that as the binary number counts up or down, only one bit changes at a
time. Thus making it easier to detect erroneous bit changes. An example of a gray code sequence
is shown in Figure 9.20. Notice that only one bit changes from one number to the next. If more
than a single bit changes between numbers, then an error can be detected.
page 303
ASIDE: When the signal level in a wire rises or drops, it induces a magnetic pulse that
excites a signal in other nearby lines. This phenomenon is known as ‘cross-talk’. This
signal is often too small to be noticed, but several simultaneous changes, coupled with
background noise could result in erroneous values.
decimal
gray code
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
0000
0001
0011
0010
0110
0111
0101
0100
1100
1101
1111
1110
1010
1011
1001
1000
Figure 9.20 - Gray Code for a Nibble
9.4 SUMMARY
• Binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal numbers were all discussed.
• 2s compliments allow negative binary numbers.
• BCD numbers encode digits in nibbles.
• ASCII values are numerical equivalents for common alphanumeric characters.
• Gray code, parity bits and checksums can be used for error detection.
page 304
9.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Why are binary, octal and hexadecimal used for computer applications?
(ans. base 2, 4, 8, and 16 numbers translate more naturally to the numbers stored in the computer.)
2. Is a word is 3 nibbles?
(ans. no, it is four nibbles)
3. What are the specific purpose for Gray code and parity?
.
Both of these are coding schemes designed to increase immunity to noise.
A parity bit can be used to check for a changed bit in a byte. Gray code
can be used to check for a value error in a stream of continuous values.
ans.
4. Convert the following numbers to/from binary
a) from base 10: 54,321
b) from base 2: 110000101101
(ans. a) 1101 0100 0011 0001, b) 3117)
5. Convert the BCD number below to a decimal number,
0110 0010 0111 1001
(ans. 6279)
6. Convert the following binary number to a BCD number,
0100 1011
(ans. 0111 0101)
7. Convert the following binary number to a Hexadecimal value,
0100 1011
page 305
(ans. 4B)
8. Convert the following binary number to a octal,
0100 1011
(ans. 113)
9. Convert the decimal value below to a binary byte, and then determine the odd parity bit,
97
(ans. 1100001 odd parity bit = 1)
10. Convert the following from binary to decimal, hexadecimal, BCD and octal.
(ans.
binary
BCD
decimal
hex
octal
a)
101101
c)
10000000001
b)
11011011
d)
0010110110101
101101
11011011
10000000001
0010110110101
0100 0101
45
2D
55
0010 0001 1001
219
5D
333
0001 0000 0010 0101
1025
401
2001
0001 0100 0110 0001
1461
5B5
2665
11. Convert the following from decimal to binary, hexadecimal, BCD and octal.
a)
1
c)
20456
b)
17
d)
-10
page 306
(ans.
decimal
BCD
binary
hex
octal
1
17
20456
-10
0001
1
1
1
0001 0111
10001
11
21
0010 0000 0100 0101 0110
0100 1111 1110 1000
4FE8
47750
-0001 0000
1111 1111 1111 0110
FFF6
177766
12. Convert the following from hexadecimal to binary, decimal, BCD and octal.
(ans.
hex
BCD
binary
decimal
octal
a)
1
c)
ABC
b)
17
d)
-A
1
17
ABC
-A
0001
1
1
1
0010 0011
10111
23
27
0010 0111 0100 1000
0000 1010 1011 1100
2748
5274
-0001 0000
1111 1111 1111 0110
-10
177766
13. Convert the following from BCD to binary, decimal, hexadecimal and octal.
(ans.
BCD
binary
decimal
hex
octal
a)
1001
c)
0011 0110 0001
b)
1001 0011
d)
0000 0101 0111 0100
1001
1001 0011
0011 0110 0001
0000 0101 0111 0100
1001
9
9
11
101 1101
93
5D
135
1 0110 1001
361
169
551
10 0011 1110
0574
23E
1076
14. Convert the following from octal to binary, decimal, hexadecimal and BCD.
a)
7
c)
777
b)
17
d)
32634
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(ans.
octal
binary
decimal
hex
BCD
7
17
777
32634
111
7
7
0111
1111
15
F
0001 0101
1 1111 1111
511
1FF
0101 0001 0001
0011 0101 1001 1100
13724
359C
0001 0011 0111 0010 0100
15.
a) Represent the following decimal value thumb wheel input as a Binary Coded Decimal
(BCD) and a Hexadecimal Value (without using a calculator).
3532
i) BCD
ii) Hexadecimal
b) What is the corresponding decimal value of the following BCD
1001111010011011
(ans. a. 3532 = 0011 0101 0011 0010 = DCC, b. the number is not a valid BCD)
16. Add/subtract/multiply/divide the following numbers.
a) binary 101101101 + 01010101111011
i) octal 123 - 777
b) hexadecimal 101 + ABC
j) 2s complement bytes 10111011 + 00000011
c) octal 123 + 777
k) 2s complement bytes 00111011 + 00000011
d) binary 110110111 - 0101111
l) binary 101101101 * 10101
e) hexadecimal ABC - 123
m) octal 123 * 777
f) octal 777 - 123
n) octal 777 / 123
g) binary 0101111 - 110110111
o) binary 101101101 / 10101
h) hexadecimal 123-ABC
p) hexadecimal ABC / 123
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ans.
a) 0001 0110 1110 1000
i) -654
b) BBD
j) 0000 0001 0111 1010
c) 1122
k) 0000 0000 0011 1110
d) 0000 0001 1000 1000
l) 0001 1101 1111 0001
e) 999
m) 122655
f) 654
n) 6
g) 1111 1110 0111 1000
o) 0000 0000 0001 0001
h) -999
p) 9
17. Do the following operations with 8 bit bytes, and indicate the condition of the overflow and
carry bits.
a) 10111011 + 00000011
d) 110110111 - 01011111
b) 00111011 + 00000011
e) 01101011 + 01111011
c) 11011011 + 11011111
f) 10110110 - 11101110
(ans.
a) 10111011 + 00000011=1011 1110
d) 110110111 - 01011111=0101 1000+C+O
b) 00111011 + 00000011=0011 1110
e) 01101011 + 01111011=1110 0110
c) 11011011 + 11011111=1011 1010+C+O
f) 10110110 - 11101110=1100 1000
18. Consider the three BCD numbers listed below.
1001 0110 0101 0001
0010 0100 0011 1000
0100 0011 0101 0001
a) Convert these numbers to their decimal values.
b) Convert the decimal values to binary.
c) Calculate a checksum for all three binary numbers.
d) What would the even parity bits be for the binary words found in b).
(ans. a) 9651, 2438, 4351, b) 0010 0101 1011 0011, 0000 1001 1000 0110, 0001 0000 1111 1111,
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c) 16440, d) 1, 0, 0)
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10. PLC MEMORY
Topics:
• PLC-5 memory types; program and data
• Data types; output, input, status, bit, timer, counter, integer, floating point, etc.
• Memory addresses; words, bits, data files, expressions, literal values and indirect.
Objectives:
• To know the basic memory types available
• To be able to use addresses for locations in memory
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Advanced ladder logic functions allow controllers to perform calculations, make decisions
and do other complex tasks. Timers and counters are examples of ladder logic functions. They are
more complex than basic input contacts and output coils and they rely upon data stored in the
memory of the PLC. The memory of the PLC is organized to hold different types of programs and
data.
10.2 MEMORY ADDRESSES
The memory in a PLC is organized by data type as shown in figure 10.1. There are two fundamental types of memory used in Allen-Bradley PLCs - Program and Data memory. Memory is
organized into blocks of up to 1000 elements in an array called a file. The Program file holds programs, such as ladder logic. There are eight Data files defined by default, but additional data files
can be added if they are needed.
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Program Files
2
3
999
These are a collection of up to 1000
slots to store up to 1000 programs. The main program will
be stored in program file 2. SFC
programs must be in file 1, and
file 0 is used for program and
password information. All other
program files from 3 to 999 can
be used for ‘subroutines’.
Data Files
O0
Outputs
I1
Inputs
S2
Status
B3
Bits
T4
Timers
C5
Counters
R6
Control
N7
Integer
F8
Float
This is where the variable data is
stored that the PLC programs
operate on. This is quite complicated, so a detailed explanation
follows.
Figure 10.1 - PLC Memory
10.3 PROGRAM FILES
In a PLC-5 the first three program files, from 0 to 2, are defined by default. File 0 contains
system information and should not be changed, and file 1 is reserved for SFCs. File 2 is available
for user programs and the PLC will run the program in file 2 by default. Other program files can
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be added from file 3 to 999. Typical reasons for creating other programs are for subroutines.
When a user creates a ladder logic program with programming software, it is converted to a
mnemonic-like form, and then transferred to the PLC, where it is stored in a program file. The
contents of the program memory cannot be changed while the PLC is running. If, while a program
was running, it was overwritten with a new program, serious problems could arise.
10.4 DATA FILES
Data files are used for storing different information types, as shown in Figure 10.2. These
locations are numbered from 0 to 999. The letter in front of the number indicates the data type.
For example, ’F8:’ is read as ’floating point numbers’ in ’data file 8’. Numbers are not given for
’O:’ and ’I:’, but they are implied to be ’O0:’ and ’I1:’. The number that follows the ’:’ is the location number. Each file may contain from 0 to 999 locations that may store values. For the input
’I:’ and output ’O:’ files the locations are converted to physical locations on the PLC using rack
and slot numbers. The addresses that can be used will depend upon the hardware configuration.
The status ’S2:’ file is more complex and is discussed later. The other memory locations are simply slots to store data in. For example, ’F8:35’ would indicate the 36th value in the 8th data file
which is floating point numbers.
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Rack
I/O slot number in rack
Interface to
outside world
Fixed types of
Data files
O:000
I:nnn
S2:nnn
B3:nnn
T4:nnn
C5:nnn
R6:nnn
N7:nnn
F8:nnn
outputs
inputs
processor status
bits in words
timers
counters
control words
integer numbers
floating point numbers
Other files 9-999 can be created and used.
The user defined data files can have different
data types.
Figure 10.2 - Data Files for an Allen Bradley PLC-5
Only the first three data files are fixed ’O:’, ’I:’ and ’S2:’, all of the other data files can be
moved. It is also reasonable to have multiple data files with the same data type. For example,
there could be two files for integer numbers ’N7:’ and ’N10:’. The length of the data files can be
from 0 up to 999 as shown in Figure 10.3. But, these files are often made smaller to save memory.
T4:0
T4:1
T4:999
Figure 10.3 - Locations in a Data File
Figure 10.2 shows the default data files for a PLC-5. There are many additional data types, a
full list is shown in Figure 10.4. Some of the data types are complex and contain multiple data
values, including ’BT’, ’C’, ’MG’, ’PD’, ’R’, ’SC’, and ’T’. Recall that timers require integers for
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the accumulator and preset, and TT, DN and EN bits are required. Other data types are based on
single bits, 8 bit bytes and 16 bit words.
Type
Length
(words)
A - ASCII
B - bit
BT - block transfer
C - counter
D - BCD
F - floating point
MG - message
N - integer (signed, unsigned, 2s compliment, BCD)
PD - PID controller
R - control
SC - SFC status
ST - ASCII string
T - timer
1/2
1/16
6
3
1
2
56
1
82
3
3
42
3
NOTE: Memory is a general term that refers to both files and locations. The term
’file’ is specific to PLC manufacturers and is not widely recognized elsewhere.
Figure 10.4 - Allen-Bradley Data Types
When using data files and functions we need to ask for information with an address. The simplest data addresses are data bits (we have used these for basic inputs and outputs already). An
example of Address bits is shown in Figure 10.5. Memory bits are normally indicated with a forward slash followed by a bit number ’/n’. The first example is from an input card ’I:000’, the third
input is indicated with the bit address ’/02’. The second example is for a counter ’C5:’ done bit ’/
DN’. This could also be replaced with ’C5:4/15’ to get equivalent results. The ’DN’ notation, and
others like it are used to simplify the task of programming. The example ’B3/4’ will get the fourth
bit in bit memory ’B3’. For bit memory the slash is not needed, because the data type is already
bits.
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bit - individual bits in accessed - this is like addressing a single output as a data bit.
I:000/02 - the third input bit from input card I:000
C5:4/DN - the DN bit of a counter
B3/4 - the fourth bit in bit memory
NOTE: Some bit addresses, especially inputs and outputs are addressed using octal.
This often leads to careless errors and mistakes. For example if you want the 11th
output bit, or bit 10, you would need to use 12 in octal to address it properly.
1st
00
2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Figure 10.5 - Bit Level Addressing
Entire words can be addressed as shown in Figure 10.6. These values will normally be
assumed to be 2s compliment, but some functions may assume otherwise. The first example
shows a simple integer memory value. The next example gets up to inputs (from card 0 in rack
zero) as a single word. The last two examples are more complex and they access the accumulator
and preset values for a timer. Here a ’.’ is used as the ’/’ was used for bit memory to indicate it is
an integer. The first two examples don’t need the ’.’ because they are both integer value types.
integer word - 16 bits can be manipulated as an integer.
N7:8 - the 9th value from integer memory
I:000 - an integer with all input values from an input card
T4:7.ACC - the accumulator value for a timer
T4:7.PRE - the preset value for a timer
Figure 10.6 - Integer Word Addressing
Data values do not always need to be stored in memory, they can be define literally. Figure
10.7 shows an example of two different data values. The first is an integer, the second is a real
number. Hexadecimal numbers can be indicated by following the number with ’H’, a leading zero
is also needed when the first digit is ’A’, ’B’, ’C’, ’D’, ’E’ or ’F’. A binary number is indicated by
adding a ’B’ to the end of the number.
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literal data value - a data value can be provided without storing it in memory.
8 - an integer
8.5 - a floating point number
08FH - a hexadecimal value ’8F’
01101101B - a binary number ’01101101’
Figure 10.7 - Literal Data Values
Sometimes we will want to refer to an array of values, as shown in Figure 10.8. This data
type is indicated by beginning the number with a pound or hash sign ’#’. The first example
describes an array of floating point numbers staring in file ’8’ at location ’5’. The second example
is for an array of integers in file ’7’ starting at location 0. The length of the array is determined
elsewhere.
file - the first location of an array of data values.
#F8:5 - indicates a group of values starting at F8:5
#N7:0 - indicates a group of values starting at I7:0
Figure 10.8 - File Addressing
Indirect addressing is a method for allowing a variable in a data address, as shown in Figure
10.9. The indirect (variable) part of the address is shown between brackets ’[’ and ’]’. If a PLC is
looking at an address and it finds an indirect address it will look in the specified memory location,
and put that number in place of the indirect address. Consider the first example below ’I:000/
[N7:2]’, if the value in the integer memory location ’N7:2’ is 45, then the address becomes ’I:000/
45’. The other examples are very similar. This type of technique is very useful when making programs that can be adapted for different recipes - by changing a data value in one memory location
the program can follow a new set of data.
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indirect - another memory location can be used in the description of a location.
I:000/[N7:2] -If N7:2 location contains 5 this will become I:000/05
I:[N7:1]/03 -If the integer memory location contains 2 this will become I:002/03
#I:[N7:1] -If the integer memory location contains 2 the file will start at I:002
N[N7:0]:8 - If the number in N7:1 is 10 the data address becomes ’N10:8’
Figure 10.9 - Indirect Addressing
Expressions allow addresses and functions to be typed in and interpreted when the program is
run. The example below will get a floating point number from file 8, location 3, perform a sine
transformation, and then add 1.3. The text string is not interpreted until the PLC is running, and if
there is an error, it may not occur until the program is running - so use this function cautiously.
expression - a text string that describes a complex operation.
“sin(F8:3) + 1.3” - a simple calculation
Figure 10.10 - Expression Data Values
These data types and addressing modes will be discussed more as applicable functions are
presented later in this chapter and book. Floating point numbers, expressions and indirect addressing may not be available on older or lower cost PLCs.
Figure 10.11 shows a simple example ladder logic with functions. The basic operation is such
that while input ’A’ is true the functions will be performed. The first statement will move (MOV)
the literal value of ’130’ into integer memory ’N7:0’. The next move function will copy the value
from ’N7:0’ to ’N7:1’. The third statement will add integers value in ’N7:0’ and ’N7:1’ and store
the results in ’N7:2’.
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A
MOV
source 130
destination N7:1
MOV
source N7:0
destination N7:1
ADD
sourceA N7:0
sourceB N7:1
destination N7:2
Figure 10.11 - An Example of Ladder Logic Functions
10.4.1 User Bit Memory
Individual data bits can be accessed in the bit memory. These can be very useful when keeping track of internal states that do not directly relate to an output or input. The bit memory can be
accessed with individual bits or with integer words. Examples of bit addresses are shown in Figure 10.12. The single blackened bit is in the third word ’B3:2’ and it is the 4th bit ’03’, so it can be
addressed with ’B3:2/03’. Overall, it is the 35th bit, so it could also be addressed with ’B3/35’.
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15
0
B3:0
B3:1
B3:2
This bit is B3:2/3
or B3/35.
(2) * 16 + (3) = (35)
B3:3
B3:4
B3:5
B3:6
B3:7
Other Examples: B3:0/0 = B3/0
B3:0/10 = B3/10
B3:1/0 = B3/16
B3:1/5 = B3/21
B3:2/0 = B3/32
etc...
Figure 10.12 - Bit Memory
This method can also be used to access bits in integer memory also.
10.4.2 Timer Counter Memory
Previous chapters have discussed the operation of timers and counters. The ability to address
their memory directly allows some powerful tools. Recall that by default timers are stored in the
’T4:’ file. The bits and words for timers are;
EN - timer enabled bit (bit 15)
TT - timer timing bit (bit 14)
DN - timer done bit (bit 13)
PRE - preset word
ACC - accumulated time word
Counter are stored in the ’C5:’ file and they have the following bits and words.
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CU - count up bit (bit 15)
CD - count down bit (bit 14)
DN - counter done bit (bit 13)
OV - overflow bit (bit 12)
UN - underflow bit (bit 11)
PRE - preset word
ACC - accumulated count word
As discussed before we can access timer and counter bits and words using the proper notation. Examples of these are shown in Figure 10.13. The bit values can only be read, and should
not be changed. The presets and accumulators can be read and overwritten.
Words
T4:0.PRE - the preset value for timer T4:0
T4:0.ACC - the accumulated value for timer T4:0
C5:0.PRE - the preset value for counter C5:0
C5:0.ACC - the accumulated value for counter C5:0
Bits
T4:0/EN - indicates when the input to timer T4:0 is true
T4:0/TT - indicates when the timer T4:0 is counting
T4:0/DN - indicates when timer T4:0 has reached the maximum
C5:0/CU - indicates when the count up instruction is true for C5:0
C5:0/CD - indicates when the count down instruction is true for C5:0
C5:0/DN - indicates when the counter C5:0 has reached the preset
C5:0/OV - indicates when the counter C5:0 has reached the maximum value (32767)
C5:0/UN - indicates when the counter C5:0 has reached the minimum value (-32768)
Figure 10.13 - Examples of Timer and Counter Addresses
Consider the simple ladder logic example in Figure 10.14. It shows the use of a timer timing
’TT’ bit to seal on the timer when a door input has gone true. While the timer is counting, the bit
will stay true and keep the timer counting. When it reaches the 10 second delay the ’TT’ bit will
turn off. The next line of ladder logic will turn on a light while the timer is counting for the first 10
seconds.
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DOOR
TON
T4:0
delay 10s
T4:0/TT
T4:0/TT
LIGHT
Figure 10.14 - Door Light Example
10.4.3 PLC Status Bits (for PLC-5s and Micrologix)
Status memory allows a program to check the PLC operation, and also make some changes.
A selected list of status bits is shown in Figure 10.15 for Allen-Bradley Micrologic and PLC-5
PLCs. More complete lists are available in the manuals. For example the first four bits ’S2:0/x’
indicate the results of calculations, including carry, overflow, zero and negative/sign. The ’S2:1/
15’ will be true once when the PLC is turned on - this is the first scan bit. The time for the last
scan will be stored in ’S2:8’. The date and clock can be stored and read from locations ’S2:18’ to
’S2:23’.
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S2:0/0 carry in math operation
S2:0/1 overflow in math operation
S2:0/2 zero in math operation
S2:0/3 sign in math operation
S2:1/15 first scan of program file
S2:8 the scan time (ms)
S2:18 year
S2:19 month
S2:20 day
S2:21 hour
S2:22 minute
S2:23 second
S2:28 watchdog setpoint
S2:29 fault routine file number
S2:30 STI (selectable timed interrupt) setpoint
S2:31 STI file number
S2:46-S2:54,S2:55-S2:56 PII (Programmable Input Interrupt) settings
S2:55 STI last scan time (ms)
S2:77 communication scan time (ms)
Figure 10.15 - Status Bits and Words for Micrologix and PLC-5s
The other status words allow more complex control of the PLC. The watchdog timer allows a
time to be set in ’S2:28’ so that if the PLC scan time is too long the PLC will give a fault condition - this is very important for dangerous processes. When a fault occurs the program number in
’S2:29’ will run. For example, if you have a divide by zero fault, you can run a program that
recovers from the error, if there is no program the PLC will halt. The locations from ’S2:30’ to
’S2:55’ are used for interrupts. Interrupts can be used to run programs at fixed time intervals, or
when inputs change.
10.4.4 User Function Control Memory
Simple ladder logic functions can complete operations in a single scan of ladder logic. Other
functions such as timers and counters will require multiple ladder logic scans to finish. While timers and counters have their own memory for control, a generic type of control memory is defined
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for other function. This memory contains the bits and words in Figure 10.16. Any given function
will only use some of the values. The meaning of particular bits and words will be described later
when discussing specific functions.
EN - enable bit (bit 15)
EU - enable unload (bit 14)
DN - done bit (bit 13)
EM - empty bit (bit 12)
ER - error bit (bit 11)
UL - unload bit (bit 10)
IN - inhibit bit (bit 9)
FD - found bit (bit 8)
LEN - length word
POS - position word
Figure 10.16 - Bits and Words for Control Memory
10.4.5 Integer Memory
Integer memory is 16 bit words that are normally used as 2s compliment numbers that can
store data values from -32768 to +32767. When decimal fractions are supplied they are rounded
to the nearest number. These values are normally stored in N7:xx by default, but new blocks of
integer memory are often created in other locations such as ’N9:xx’. Integer memory can also be
used for bits.
10.4.6 Floating Point Memory
Floating point memory is available in newer and higher cost PLCs, it is not available on the
Micrologix. This memory stores real numbers in 4 words, with 7 digits of accuracy over a range
from +/-1.1754944e-38 to +/-3.4028237e38. Floating point memory is stored in F8:xx by default,
but other floating point numbers can be stored in other locations. Bit level access is not permitted
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(or useful) for these numbers.
10.5 SUMMARY
• Program files store users programs in files 2 - 999.
• Data files are available to users and will be 0-999 locations long.
• Default data types on a PLC-5 include Output (O0:), Input (I1:), Status (S2:), Bit (B3:),
Timer (T4:), Counter (C5:), Control (R6:), Integer (N7:) and Float (F8:).
• Other memory types include Block Transfer (BT), ASCII (A), ASCII String (ST), BCD
(D), Message (MG), PID Control (PD), SFC Status (SC).
• In memory locations a ’/’ indicates a bit, ’.’ indicates a word.
• Indirect addresses will substitute memory values between ’[’, ’]’.
• Files are like arrays and are indicated with ’#’.
• Expressions allow equations to be typed in.
• Literal values for binary and hexadecimal values are followed by ’B’ and ’H’.
10.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Can PLC outputs can be set with Bytes instead of bits?
(ans. yes, for example the output word would be adressed as O:000)
2. How many types of memory can a PLC-5 have?
(ans. There are 13 different memory types, 10 of these can be defined by the user for data files
between 3 and 999.)
3. What are the default program memory locations?
(ans. Program files 0 and 1 are reserved for system functions. File 2 is the default ladder logic program, and files 3 to 999 can be used for other programs.)
4. How many types of number bases are used in PLC memory?
(ans. binary, octal, BCD, 2s compliment, signed binary, floating point, bits)
5. How are timer and counter memory similar?
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(ans. both are similar. The timer and counter memories both use words for the accumulator and
presets, and they use bits to track the status of the functions. These bits are somewhat different,
but parallel in function.)
6. What types of memory cannot be changed?
(ans. Inputs cannot be changed by the program, and some of the status bits/words cannot be
changed by the user.)
7. Develop Ladder Logic for a car door/seat belt safety system. When the car door is open, or the
seatbelt is not done up, a buzzer will sound for 5 seconds if the key has been switched on. A
cabin light will be switched on when the door is open and stay on for 10 seconds after it is
closed, unless a key has started the ignition power.
(ans.
Inputs
Outputs
door open
seat belt connected
key on
buzzer
light
door open
key on
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 5s
seat belt connected
T4:0/TT
buzzer
door open
TOF
Timer T4:1
Delay 10s
T4:1/DN
key on
light
8. Look at the manuals for the status memory in your PLC.
a) Find the first scan location
b) Describe how to run program 7 when a divide by zero error occurs.
c) Write the ladder logic needed to clear a PLC fault.
d) Describe how to set up a timed interrupt to run program 5 every 2 seconds.
(ans. 868 for SLC-150, S2:1/14 for micrologix, S2:1/15 for PLC-5.)
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9. Write ladder logic for the following problem description. When button ’A’ is pressed a value of
1001 will be stored in ’N7:0’. When button ’B’ is pressed a value of -345 will be stored in
’N7:1’, when it is not pressed a value of 99 will be stored in ’N7:1’. When button ’C’ is pressed
’N7:0’ and ’N7:1’ will be added, and the result will be stored in ’N7:2’.
(ans.
A
MOV
Source 1001
Dest N7:0
B
MOV
Source -345
Dest N7:1
B
MOV
Source 99
Dest N7:1
C
ADD
Source A N7:0
Source B N7:1
Dest N7:2
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11. LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS
Topics:
• Functions for data handling, mathematics, conversions, array operations, statistics, comparison and Boolean operations.
• Design examples
Objectives:
• To understand basic functions that allow calculations and comparisons
• To understand array functions using memory files
11.1 INTRODUCTION
Ladder logic input contacts and output coils allow simple logical decisions. Functions extend
basic ladder logic to allow other types of control. For example, the addition of timers and counters
allowed event based control. A longer list of functions is shown in Figure 11.1. Combinatorial
Logic and Event functions have already been covered. This chapter will discuss Data Handling
and Numerical Logic. The next chapter will cover Lists and Program Control and some of the
Input and Output functions. Remaining functions will be discussed in later chapters.
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Combinatorial Logic
- relay contacts and coils
Events
- timer instructions
- counter instructions
Data Handling
- moves
- mathematics
- conversions
Numerical Logic
- boolean operations
- comparisons
Lists
- shift registers/stacks
- sequencers
Program Control
- branching/looping
- immediate inputs/outputs
- fault/interrupt detection
Input and Output
- PID
- communications
- high speed counters
- ASCII string functions
Figure 11.1 - Basic PLC Function Categories
Most of the functions will use PLC memory locations to get values, store values and track
function status. Most function will normally become active when the input is true. But, some
functions, such as TOF timers, can remain active when the input is off. Other functions will only
operate when the input goes from false to true, this is known as positive edge triggered. Consider
a counter that only counts when the input goes from false to true, the length of time the input is
true does not change the function behavior. A negative edge triggered function would be triggered
when the input goes from true to false. Most functions are not edge triggered: unless stated
assume functions are not edge triggered.
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NOTE: I do not draw functions exactly as they appear in manuals and programming software. This helps save space and makes the instructions somewhat easier to read. All of
the necessary information is given.
11.2 DATA HANDLING
11.2.1 Move Functions
There are two basic types of move functions;
MOV(value,destination) - moves a value to a memory location
MVM(value,mask,destination) - moves a value to a memory location, but with a mask to
select specific bits.
The simple MOV will take a value from one location in memory and place it in another
memory location. Examples of the basic MOV are given in Figure 11.2. When ’A’ is true the
MOV function moves a floating point number from the source to the destination address. The data
in the source address is left unchanged. When ’B’ is true the floating point number in the source
will be converted to an integer and stored in the destination address in integer memory. The floating point number will be rounded up or down to the nearest integer. When ’C’ is true the integer
value of 123 will be placed in the integer file ’N7:23’.
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A
MOV
Source F8:07
Destination F8:23
B
MOV
Source F8:07
Destination N7:23
C
MOV
Source 123
Destination N7:23
NOTE: when a function changes a value, except for inputs and outputs, the value is
changed immediately. Consider Figure 11.2, if ’A’, ’B’ and ’C’ are all true, then the
value in ’F8:23’ will change before the next instruction starts. This is different than
the input and output scans that only happen before and after the logic scan.
Figure 11.2 - Examples of the MOV Function
A more complex example of move functions is given in Figure 11.13. When ’A’ becomes
true the first move statement will move the value of 130 into ’N7:0’. And, the second move statement will move the value of -9385 from ’N7:1’ to ’N7:2’. (Note: The number is shown as negative because we are using 2s compliment.) For the simple MOVs the binary values are not needed,
but for the MVM statement the binary values are essential. The statement moves the binary bits
from ’N7:3’ to ’N7:5’, but only those bits that are also on in the mask ’N7:4’, other bits in the destination will be left untouched. Notice that the first bit ’N7:5/0’ is true in the destination address
before and after, but it is not true in the mask. The MVM function is very useful for applications
where individual binary bits are to be manipulated, but they are less useful when dealing with
actual number values.
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A
MOV
source 130
dest N7:0
MOV
source N7:1
dest N7:2
MVM
source N7:3
mask N7:4
dest N7:5
MVM
source N7:3
mask N7:4
dest N7:6
binary
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
N7:3
N7:4
N7:5
N7:6
before
0000000000000000
1101101101010111
1000000000000000
0101100010111011
0010101010101010
0000000000000001
1111111111111111
after
decimal
binary
0
-9385
-32768
22715
10922
1
-1
0000000010000010
1101101101010111
1101101101010111
1101100010111011
0010101010101010
0000100010101011
1111111111111110
becomes
decimal
130
-9385
-9385
-10053
10922
2219
-2
NOTE: the concept of a mask is very useful, and it will be used in other functions.
Masks allow instructions to change a couple of bits in a binary number without having to change the entire number. You might want to do this when you are using bits in
a number to represent states, modes, status, etc.
Figure 11.3 - Example of the MOV and MVM Statement with Binary Values
11.2.2 Mathematical Functions
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Mathematical functions will retrieve one or more values, perform an operation and store the
result in memory. Figure 11.4 shows an ADD function that will retrieve values from ’N7:4’ and
’F8:35’, convert them both to the type of the destination address, add the floating point numbers,
and store the result in ’F8:36’. The function has two sources labelled ’source A’ and ’source B’. In
the case of ADD functions the sequence can change, but this is not true for other operations such
as subtraction and division. A list of other simple arithmetic function follows. Some of the functions, such as the negative function are unary, so there is only one source.
A
ADD
source A N7:04
source B F8:35
destination F8:36
ADD(value,value,destination) - add two values
SUB(value,value,destination) - subtract
MUL(value,value,destination) - multiply
DIV(value,value,destination) - divide
NEG(value,destination) - reverse sign from positive/negative
CLR(value) - clear the memory location
NOTE: To save space the function types are shown in the shortened notation above.
For example the function ’ADD(value, value, destination)’ requires two source values and will store it in a destination. It will use this notation in a few places to
reduce the bulk of the function descriptions.
Figure 11.4 - Arithmetic Functions
An application of the arithmetic function is shown in Figure 11.5. Most of the operations provide the results we would expect. The second ADD function retrieves a value from ’N7:3’, adds 1
and overwrites the source - this is normally known as an increment operation. The first DIV statement divides the integer 25 by 10, the result is rounded to the nearest integer, in this case 3, and
the result is stored in ’N7:6’. The ’NEG’ instruction takes the new value of ’-10’, not the original
value of ’0’, from ’N7:4’ inverts the sign and stores it in ’N7:7’.
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ADD
source A N7:0
source B N7:1
dest. N7:2
ADD
source A 1
source B N7:3
dest. N7:3
SUB
source A N7:1
source B N7:2
dest. N7:4
MULT
source A N7:0
source B N7:1
dest. N7:5
DIV
source A N7:1
source B N7:0
dest. N7:6
addr.
before
after
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
N7:3
N7:4
N7:5
N7:6
N7:7
N7:8
10
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
10
25
35
1
-10
250
3
10
0
F8:0
F8:1
F8:2
F8:3
10.0
25.0
0
0
10.0
25.0
2.5
2.5
NEG
source A N7:4
dest. N7:7
CLR
dest. N7:8
DIV
source A F8:1
source B F8:0
dest. F8:2
Note: recall, integer
values are limited
to ranges between 32768 and 32767,
and there are no
fractions.
DIV
source A N7:1
source B N7:0
dest. F8:3
Figure 11.5 - Arithmetic Function Example
A list of more advanced functions are given in Figure 11.6. This list includes basic trigonometry functions, exponents, logarithms and a square root function. The last function ’CPT’ will
accept an expression and perform a complex calculation.
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ACS(value,destination) - inverse cosine
COS(value,destination) - cosine
ASN(value,destination) - inverse sine
SIN(value,destination) - sine
ATN(value,destination) - inverse tangent
TAN(value,destination) - tangent
XPY(value,value,destination) - X to the power of Y
LN(value,destination) - natural log
LOG(value,destination) - base 10 log
SQR(value,destination) - square root
CPT(destination,expression) - does a calculation
Figure 11.6 - Advanced Mathematical Functions
Figure 11.7 shows an example where an equation has been converted to ladder logic. The first
step in the conversion is to convert the variables in the equation to unused memory locations in
the PLC. The equation can then be converted using the most nested calculations in the equation,
such as the ’LN’ function. In this case the results of the ’LN’ function are stored in another memory location, to be recalled later. The other operations are implemented in a similar manner. (Note:
This equation could have been implemented in other forms, using fewer memory locations.)
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given
A =
C
ln B + e acos ( D )
assign
A = F8:0
B = F8:1
C = F8:2
D = F8:3
A
LN
SourceA F8:1
Dest. F8:4
XPY
SourceA 2.718
SourceB F8:2
Dest F8:5
ACS
SourceA F8:3
Dest. F8:6
MUL
SourceA F8:5
SourceB F8:6
Dest F8:7
ADD
SourceA F8:4
SourceB F8:7
Dest F8:7
SQR
SourceA F8:7
Dest. F8:0
Figure 11.7 - An Equation in Ladder Logic
The same equation in Figure 11.7 could have been implemented with a CPT function as
shown in Figure 11.8. The equation uses the same memory locations chosen in Figure 11.7. The
expression is typed directly into the PLC programming software.
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A
CPT
Dest. F8:0
Expression
SQR(LN(F8:1)+XPY(2.718,F8:2)*ACS(F8:3))
Figure 11.8 - Calculations with a Compute Function
Math functions can result in status flags such as overflow, carry, etc. care must be taken to
avoid problems such as overflows. These problems are less common when using floating point
numbers. Integers are more prone to these problems because they are limited to the range from 32768 to 32767.
11.2.3 Conversions
Ladder logic conversion functions are listed in Figure 11.9. The example function will
retrieve a BCD number from the ’D’ type (BCD) memory and convert it to a floating point number that will be stored in ’F8:2’. The other function will convert from 2s compliment binary to
BCD, and between radians and degrees.
A
FRD
Source A D10:5
Dest. F8:2
TOD(value,destination) - convert from BCD to binary
FRD(value,destination) - convert from binary to BCD
DEG(value,destination) - convert from radians to degrees
RAD(value,destination) - convert from degrees to radians
Figure 11.9 - Conversion Functions
Examples of the conversion functions are given in Figure 11.10. The functions load in a
source value, do the conversion, and store the results. The TOD conversion to BCD could result in
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an overflow error.
FRD
Source A D9:1
Dest. N7:0
TOD
Source A N7:1
Dest. D9:0
DEG
Source A F8:0
Dest. F8:2
RAD
Source A F8:1
Dest. F8:3
Addr.
Before
after
N7:0
N7:1
F8:0
F8:1
F8:2
F8:3
D9:0
D9:1
0
548
3.141
45
0
0
0000 0000 0000 0000
0001 0111 1001 0011
1793
548
3.141
45
180
0.785
0000 0101 0100 1000
0001 0111 1001 0011
these are shown in
binary BCD form
Figure 11.10 - Conversion Example
11.2.4 Array Data Functions
Arrays allow us to store multiple data values. In a PLC this will be a sequential series of numbers in integer, floating point, or other memory. For example, assume we are measuring and storing the weight of a bag of chips in floating point memory starting at ’#F8:20’ (Note the ’#’ for a
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data file). We could read a weight value every 10 minutes, and once every hour find the average of
the six weights. This section will focus on techniques that manipulate groups of data organized in
arrays, also called blocks in the manuals.
11.2.4.1 - Statistics
Functions are available that allow statistical calculations. These functions are listed in Figure
11.11. When ’A’ becomes true the average (AVE) conversion will start at memory location ’F8:0’
and average a total of ’4’ values. The control word ’R6:1’ is used to keep track of the progress of
the operation, and to determine when the operation is complete. This operation, and the others, are
edge triggered. The operation may require multiple scans to be completed. When the operation is
done the average will be stored in ’F8:4’ and the ’R6:1/DN’ bit will be turned on.
A
AVE
File #F8:0
Dest F8:4
Control R6:1
length 4
position 0
AVE(start value,destination,control,length) - average of values
STD(start value,destination,control,length) - standard deviation of values
SRT(start value,control,length) - sort a list of values
Figure 11.11 - Statistic Functions
Examples of the statistical functions are given in Figure 11.12 for an array of data that starts
at ’F8:0’ and is 4 values long. When done the average will be stored in ’F8:4’, and the standard
deviation will be stored in ’F8:5’. The set of values will also be sorted in ascending order from
F8:0 to F8:3. Each of the function should have their own control memory to prevent overlap. It is
not a good idea to activate the sort and the other calculations at the same time, as the sort may
move values during the calculation, resulting in incorrect calculations.
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A
AVE
File #F8:0
Dest F8:4
Control R6:1
length 4
position 0
B
STD
File #F8:0
Dest F8:5
Control R6:2
length 4
position 0
C
SRT
File #F8:0
Control R6:3
length 4
position 0
Addr.
before
after A after B
after C
F8:0
F8:1
F8:2
F8:3
F8:4
F8:5
3
1
2
4
0
0
3
1
2
4
2.5
0
1
2
3
4
0
0
3
1
2
4
0
1.29
Figure 11.12 - Statistical Calculations
ASIDE: These function will allow a real-time calculation of SPC data for control limits, etc. The only PLC function missing is a random function that
would allow random sample times.
11.2.4.2 - Block Operations
A basic block function is shown in Figure 11.13. This COP (copy) function will copy an
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array of 10 values starting at ’N7:50’ to ’N7:40’. The ’FAL’ function will perform mathematical
operations using an expression string, and the FSC function will allow two arrays to be compared
using an expression. The ’FLL’ function will fill a block of memory with a single value.
A
COP
Source #N7:50
Dest #N7:40
Length 10
COP(start value,destination,length) - copies a block of values
FAL(control,length,mode,destination,expression) - will perform basic math
operations to multiple values.
FSC(control,length,mode,expression) - will do a comparison to multiple values
FLL(value,destination,length) - copies a single value to a block of memory
Figure 11.13 - Block Operation Functions
Figure 11.14 shows an example of the ’FAL’ function with different addressing modes. The
first FAL function will do the following calculations N7:5=N7:0+5, N7:6=N7:1+5,
N7:7=N7:2+5, N8:7=N7:3+5, N7:9=N7:4+5. The second FAL statement does not have a file ’#’
sign in front of the expression value, so the calculations will be N7:5=N7:0+5, N7:6=N7:0+5,
N7:7=N7:0+5, N8:7=N7:0+5, N7:9=N7:0+5. The result of the last FAL statement will be
N7:5=N7:0+5, N7:5=N7:1+5, N7:5=N7:2+5, N8:5=N7:3+5, N7:5=N7:4+5. The last operation
would seem to be useless, but notice that the mode is ’incremental’. This mode will do one calculation for each positive transition of ’A’. The ’all’ mode will perform all five calculations in a single scan. It is also possible to put in a number that will indicate the number of calculations per
scan. The calculation time can be long for large arrays and trying to do all of the calculations in
one scan may lead to a watchdog time-out fault.
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A
B
C
FAL
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
Mode all
Destination #N7:5
Expression #N7:0 + 5
file to file
FAL
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
Mode incremental
Destination #N7:5
Expression N7:0 + 5
element to file
file to element
FAL
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
Mode incremental
Destination N7:5
Expression #N7:0 + 5
file to element
Figure 11.14 - File Algebra Example
11.3 LOGICAL FUNCTIONS
11.3.1 Comparison of Values
Comparison functions are shown in Figure 11.15. Previous function blocks were outputs,
these replace input contacts. The example shows an EQU (equal) function that compares two
floating point numbers. If the numbers are equal, the output bit ’B3:5/1’ is true, otherwise it is
false. Other types of equality functions are also listed.
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EQU
A F8:01
B F8:02
B3:5
01
EQU(value,value) - equal
NEQ(value,value) - not equal
LES(value,value) - less than
LEQ(value,value) - less than or equal
GRT(value,value) - greater than
GEQ(value,value) - greater than or equal
CMP(expression) - compares two values for equality
MEQ(value,mask,threshold) - compare for equality using a mask
LIM(low limit,value,high limit) - check for a value between limits
Figure 11.15 - Comparison Functions
The example in Figure 11.16 shows the six basic comparison functions. To the right of the
figure are examples of the comparison operations.
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EQU
A N7:03
B N7:02
NEQ
A N7:03
B N7:02
LES
A N7:03
B N7:02
LEQ
A N7:03
B N7:02
GRT
A N7:03
B N7:02
GEQ
A N7:03
B N7:02
O:012
00
O:012
01
O:012
02
O:012
O:012/0=0
O:012/1=1
N7:3=5 O:012/2=0
N7:2=3 O:012/3=0
O:012/4=1
O:012/5=1
O:012/0=1
O:012/1=0
N7:3=3 O:012/2=0
N7:2=3 O:012/3=1
O:012/4=0
O:012/5=1
03
O:012
04
O:012
05
O:012/0=0
O:012/1=1
N7:3=1 O:012/2=1
N7:2=3 O:012/3=1
O:012/4=0
O:012/5=0
Figure 11.16 - Comparison Function Examples
The ladder logic in Figure 11.16 is recreated in Figure 11.17 with the CMP function that
allows text expressions.
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CMP
expression
N7:03 = N7:02
CMP
expression
N7:03 <> N7:02
CMP
expression
N7:03 < N7:02
CMP
expression
N7:03 <= N7:02
CMP
expression
N7:03 > N7:02
CMP
expression
N7:03 >= N7:02
O:012
00
O:012
01
O:012
02
O:012
03
O:012
04
O:012
05
Figure 11.17 - Equivalent Statements Using CMP Statements
Expressions can also be used to do more complex comparisons, as shown in Figure 11.18.
The expression will determine if ’F8:1’ is between ’F8:0’ and ’F8:1’.
CMP
expression
(F8:1 > F8:1) & (F8:1 < F8:2)
O:012
04
Figure 11.18 - A More Complex Comparison Expression
The LIM and MEQ functions are shown in Figure 11.19. The first three functions will compare a test value to high and low limits. If the high limit is above the low limit and the test value is
between or equal to one limit, then it will be true. If the low limit is above the high limit then the
function is only true for test values outside the range. The masked equal will compare the bits of
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two numbers, but only those bits that are true in the mask.
LIM
low limit N7:0
test value N7:1
high limit N7:2
N7:5/0
LIM
low limit N7:2
test value N7:1
high limit N7:0
N7:5/1
LIM
low limit N7:2
test value N7:3
high limit N7:0
N7:5/2
MEQ
source N7:0
mask N7:1
compare N7:2
N7:5/3
MEQ
source N7:0
mask N7:1
compare N7:4
N7:5/4
Addr.
before (decimal) before (binary)
after (binary)
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
N7:3
N7:4
N7:5
1
5
11
15
0000000000000001
0000000000000101
0000000000001011
0000000000001111
0000000000001000
0000000000001101
0
0000000000000001
0000000000000101
0000000000001011
0000000000001111
0000000000001000
0000000000000000
Figure 11.19 - Complex Comparison Functions
Figure 11.20 shows a numberline that helps determine when the LIM function will be true.
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high limit
low limit
low limit
high limit
Figure 11.20 - A Number Line for the LIM Function
File to file comparisons are also permitted using the FSC instruction shown in Figure 11.21.
The instruction uses the control word ’R6:0’. It will interpret the expression 10 times, doing two
comparisons per logic scan (the Mode is ’2’). The comparisons will be F8:10<F8:0, F8:11<F8:0
then F8:12<F8:0, F8:13<F8:0 then F8:14<F8:0, F8:15<F8:0 then F8:16<F8:0, F8:17<F8:0 then
F8:18<F8:0, F8:19<F8:0. The function will continue until a false statement is found, or the comparison completes. If the comparison completes with no false statements the output ’A’ will then
be true. The mode could have also been ’All’ to execute all the comparisons in one scan, or
’Increment’ to update when the input to the function is true - in this case the input is a plain wire,
so it will always be true.
FSC
Control R6:0
Length 10
Position 0
Mode 2
Expression #F8:10 < F8:0
Figure 11.21 - File Comparison Using Expressions
A
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11.3.2 Boolean Functions
Figure 11.22 shows Boolean algebra functions. The function shown will obtain data words
from bit memory, perform an and operation, and store the results in a new location in bit memory.
These functions are all oriented to word level operations. The ability to perform Boolean operations allows logical operations on more than a single bit.
A
AND
source A B3:0
source B B3:1
dest. B3:2
AND(value,value,destination) - Binary and function
OR(value,value,destination) - Binary or function
NOT(value,value,destination) - Binary not function
XOR(value,value,destination) - Binary exclusive or function
Figure 11.22 - Boolean Functions
The use of the Boolean functions is shown in Figure 11.23. The first three functions require
two arguments, while the last function only requires one. The AND function will only turn on bits
in the result that are true in both of the source words. The OR function will turn on a bit in the
result word if either of the source word bits is on. The XOR function will only turn on a bit in the
result word if the bit is on in only one of the source words. The NOT function reverses all of the
bits in the source word.
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AND
source A N7:0
source B N7:1
dest. N7:2
OR
source A N7:0
source B N7:1
dest. N7:3
XOR
source A N7:0
source B N7:1
dest. N7:4
NOT
source A N7:0
dest. N7:5
after
addr.
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
N7:3
N7:4
N7:5
data (binary)
0011010111011011
1010010011101010
1010010011001010
1011010111111011
1001000100110001
1100101000100100
Figure 11.23 - Boolean Function Example
11.4 DESIGN CASES
11.4.1 Simple Calculation
Problem: A switch will increment a counter on when engaged. This counter can be reset by a
second switch. The value in the counter should be multiplied by 2, and then displayed as a BCD
output using (O:0.0/0 - O:0.0/7)
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Solution:
CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 0
SW1
MUL
SourceA C5:0.ACC
SourceB 2
Dest. N7:0
MVM
Source N7:0
Mask 00FF
Dest. O:0.0
SW2
RES
C5:0
11.4.2 For-Next
Problem: Design a for-next loop that is similar to ones found in traditional programming languages. When ’A’ is true the ladder logic should be active for 10 scans, and the scan number from
1 to 10 should be stored in N7:0.
Solution:
A
GRT
SourceA N7:0
SourceB 10
LEQ
SourceA N7:0
SourceB 10
MOV
Source 0
Dest N7:0
ADD
SourceA N7:0
SourceB 1
Dest. N7:0
page 350
11.4.3 Series Calculation
Problem: Create a ladder logic program that will start when input ‘A’ is turned on and calculate the series below. The value of ‘n’ will start at 1 and with each scan of the ladder logic ‘n’ will
increase until n=100. While the sequence is being incremented, any change in ‘A’ will be ignored.
x = 2(n – 1 )
A = I:000/00
n = N7:0
x = N7:1
Solution:
A
B3:0
MOV
Source A 1
Dest. N7:0
A
B3:0
B3:0
B3:0
B3:0
LEQ
Source A N7:0
Source B 100
CPT
Dest. N7:1
Expression
2 * (N7:0 - 1)
ADD
Source A 1
Source B N7:0
Dest. N7:0
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11.4.4 Flashing Lights
Problem: We are designing a movie theater marquee, and they want the traditional flashing
lights. The lights have been connected to the outputs of the PLC from O:001/00 to O:001/17.
When the PLC is turned, every second light should be on. Every half second the lights should
reverse. The result will be that in one second two lights side-by-side will be on half a second each.
Solution:
T4:1/DN
TON
timer T4:0
Delay 0.5s
T4:0/DN
TON
timer T4:1
Delay 0.5s
T4:0/TT
MOV
Source B3:0
Dest O:001
T4:0/TT
NOT
Source B3:0
Dest O:001
B3:0 = 0101 0101 0101 0101
11.5 SUMMARY
• Functions can get values from memory, do simple operations, and return the results to
memory.
• Scientific and statistics math functions are available.
• Masked function allow operations that only change a few bits.
• Expressions can be used to perform more complex operations.
• Conversions are available for angles and BCD numbers.
• Array oriented file commands allow multiple operations in one scan.
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• Values can be compared to make decisions.
• Boolean functions allow bit level operations.
• Function change value in data memory immediately.
11.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Do the calculation below with ladder logic,
N7:2 = -(5 - N7:0 / N7:1)
(ans.
DIV
Source A N7:0
Source B N7:1
Dest N7:2
SUB
Source A 5
Source B N7:2
Dest N7:2
NEG
Source N7:2
Dest N7:2
2. Implement the following function,
+ log ( y ) 
x = atan  y  y-----------------------  y + 1 
page 353
(ans.
LOG
Source F8:0
Dest F8:1
ADD
Source A F8:0
Source B F8:1
Dest F8:2
y = F8:0
x = F8:6
ADD
Source A F8:0
Source B 1
Dest F8:3
DIV
Source A F8:2
Source B F8:3
Dest F8:4
MUL
Source A F8:0
Source B F8:4
Dest F8:5
ATN
Source F8:3
Dest F8:6
3. A switch will increment a counter on when engaged. This counter can be reset by a second
switch. The value in the counter should be multiplied by 5, and then displayed as a binary output using (O:000)
(ans.
count
CTU
Counter C5:0
Preset 1234
reset
RES C5:0
MUL
Source A 5
Source B C5:0.ACC
Dest O:000
page 354
4. Create a ladder logic program that will start when input ‘A’ is turned on and calculate the series
below. The value of ‘n’ will start at 0 and with each scan of the ladder logic ‘n’ will increase by
2 until n=20. While the sequence is being incremented, any change in ‘A’ will be ignored.
x = 2 ( log ( n ) – 1 )
(ans.
A = B3/10
n = N7:0
x = F8:15
A
LES
Source A N7:0
Source B 20
EQ
Source A 20
Source B N7:0
MOV
Source 0
Dest N7:0
LOG
Source N7:0
Dest F8:15
SUB
Source A F8:15
Source B 1
Dest F8:15
MUL
Source A F8:15
Source B 2
Dest F8:15
ADD
Source A N7:0
Source B 2
Dest N7:0
5. The following program uses indirect addressing. Indicate what the new values in memory will
be when button A is pushed after the first and second instructions.
page 355
A
ADD
Source A 1
Source B N7:0
Dest. N7:[N7:1]
A
addr
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
before
1
2
3
(ans.
after 1st
addr
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
ADD
Source A N7:[N7:0]
Source B N7:[N7:1]
Dest. N7:[N7:0]
after 2nd
before
1
2
3
after 1st
1
2
2
after 2nd
1
4
2
6. A thumbwheel input card acquires a four digit BCD count. A sensor detects parts dropping
down a chute. When the count matches the BCD value the chute is closed, and a light is turned
on until a reset button is pushed. A start button must be pushed to start the part feeding.
Develop the ladder logic for this controller. Use a structured design technique such as a state
diagram.
INPUT
OUTPUT
I:000 - BCD input card
I:001/00 - part detect
I:001/01 - start button
I:001/02 - reset button
O:002/00 - chute open
O:002/01 - light
page 356
first scan
ans.
start
S1
waiting
count
exceeded
S3
reset
S2
parts
counting
(chute open)
bin
full
(light on)
page 357
first scan
L
S1
U
S2
U
S3
S2
chute
S3
light
S1
MCR
start
L
S2
U
S1
FRD
Source A I:000
Dest. C5:0/ACC
MCR
page 358
S2
MCR
part detect
CTD
counter C5:0
preset 0
C5:0/DN
L
S3
U
S2
MCR
S3
MCR
reset
L
S1
U
S3
MCR
7. Describe the difference between incremental, all and a number for file oriented instruction,
such as ’FAL’.
(ans. an incremental mode will do one calculation when the input to the function is a positive edge
- goes from false to true. The all mode will attempt to complete the calculation in a single scan.
If a number is used, the function will do that many calculations per scan while the input is true.)
8. What is the maximum number of elements that moved with a file instruction? What might happen if too many are transferred in one scan?
(ans. The maximum number is 1000. If the instruction takes too long the instruction may be
paused and continued the next scan, or it may lead to a PLC fault because the scan takes too
long.)
page 359
9. Write a ladder logic program to do the following calculation. If the result is greater than 20.0,
then the output O:012/15 will be turned on.
A = D – Be
(ans.
T
– ---C
where,
A = F8:0
B = F8:1
C = F8:2
D = F8:3
T = F8:4
NEG
Source F8:4
Dest F8:0
NEG
Source A F8:0
Source B F8:2
Dest F8:0
XPY
Source A 2.718
Source B F8:0
Dest F8:0
MUL
Source A F8:1
Source B F8:0
Dest F8:0
SUB
Source A F8:3
Source B F8:0
Dest F8:0
page 360
12. ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS
Topics:
• Shift registers, stacks and sequencers
• Program control; branching, looping, subroutines, temporary ends and one shots
• Interrupts; timed, fault and input driven
• Immediate inputs and outputs
• Block transfer
• Conversion of State diagrams using program subroutines
• Design examples
Objectives:
• To understand shift registers, stacks and sequencers.
• To understand program control statements.
• To understand the use of interrupts.
• To understand the operation of immediate input and output instructions.
• To be prepared to use the block transfer instruction later.
• Be able to apply the advanced function in ladder logic design.
12.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter covers ’advanced’ functions, but this definition is somewhat arbitrary. The array
functions in the last chapter could be classified as advanced functions. The functions in this section tend to do things that are not oriented to simple data values. The list functions will allow storage and recovery of bits and words. These functions are useful when implementing buffered and
queued systems. The program control functions will do things that don’t follow the simple model
of ladder logic execution - these functions recognize the program is executed left-to-right top-tobottom. Finally, the input output functions will be discussed, and how they allow us to work
around the normal input and output scans.
12.2 LIST FUNCTIONS
page 361
12.2.1 Shift Registers
Shift registers are oriented to single data bits. A shift register can only hold so many bits, so
when a new bit is put in, one must be removed. An example of a shift register is given in Figure
12.1. The shift register is the word B3:1, and it is 5 bits long. When ’A’ becomes true the bits all
shift right to the least significant bit. When they shift a new bit is needed, and it is taken from
’I:000/0’. The bit that is shifted out, on the right hand side, is moved to the control word UL
(unload) bit ’R6:2/UL’. This function will not complete in a single ladder logic scan, so the control word ’R6:2’ is used. The function is edge triggered, so ’A’ would have to turn on 5 more
times before the bit just loaded from ’I:000/0’ would emerge to the unload bit. When ’A’ has a
positive edge the bits in ’B3:1’ will be shifted in memory. In this case it is taking the value of bit
B3:1/0 and putting it in the control word bit R6:2/UL. It then shifts the bits once to the right, B3:1/
0 = B3:1/1 then B3:1/1 = B3:1/2 then B3:1/2 = B3:1/3 then B3:1/3 = B3:1/4. Then the input bit is
put into the most significant bit B3:1/4 = I:000/00. The bits in the shift register can also be shifted
to the left with the BSL function.
bits shift right
B3:1
MSB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LSB
15
00
5
I:000/00
A
R6:2/UL
BSR
File B3:1
Control R6:2
Bit address I:000/00
Length 5
BSL - shifts left from the LSB to the MSB. The LSB must be supplied
BSR - similar to the BSL, except the bit is input to the MSB and shifted to the LSB
Figure 12.1 - Shift Register Functions
There are other types of shift registers not implemented in PLC-5s. These are shown in Fig-
page 362
ure 12.2. The primary difference is that the arithmetic shifts will put a zero into the shift register,
instead of allowing an arbitrary bit. The rotate functions shift bits around in an endless circle.
These functions can also be implemented using the BSR and BSL instructions when needed.
Arithmetic Shift Left (ASL)
carry
msb
0
0
lsb
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
carry
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
carry
0
0
0
Arithmetic Shift Right (ASR)
0
carry
0
Rotate Left (ROL)
Rotate Right (ROR)
0
Figure 12.2 - Shift Register Variations
12.2.2 Stacks
Stacks store integer words in a two ended buffer. There are two basic types of stacks; first-onfirst-out (FIFO) and last-in-first-out (LIFO). As words are pushed on the stack it gets larger, when
words are pulled off it gets smaller. When you retrieve a word from a LIFO stack you get the word
that is the entry end of the stack. But, when you get a word from a FIFO stack you get the word
from the exit end of the stack (it has also been there the longest). A useful analogy is a pile of
work on your desk. As new work arrives you drop it on the top of the stack. If your stack is LIFO,
you pick your next job from the top of the pile. If your stack is FIFO, you pick your work from the
page 363
bottom of the pile. Stacks are very helpful when dealing with practical situations such as buffers
in production lines. If the buffer is only a delay then a FIFO stack will keep the data in order. If
product is buffered by piling it up then a LIFO stack works better, as shown in Figure 12.3. In a
FIFO stack the parts pass through an entry gate, but are stopped by the exit gate. In the LIFO stack
the parts enter the stack and lower the plate, when more parts are needed the plate is raised. In this
arrangement the order of the parts in the stack will be reversed.
entry gate
exit gate
FIFO
LIFO
Figure 12.3 - Buffers and Stack Types
The ladder logic functions are FFL to load the stack, and FFU to unload it. The example in
Figure 12.4 shows two instructions to load and unload a FIFO stack. The first time this FFL is
activated (edge triggered) it will grab the word (16 bits) from the input card I:001 and store them
on the stack, at N7:0. The next value would be stored at N7:1, and so on until the stack length is
reached at N7:4. When the FFU is activated the word at N7:0 will be moved to the output card
O:003. The values on the stack will be shifted up so that the value previously in N7:1 moves to
N7:0, N7:2 moves to N7:1, etc. If the stack is full or empty, an a load or unload occurs the error
bit will be set ’R6:0/ER’.
page 364
A
FFL
source I:001
FIFO N7:0
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
B
FFU
FIFO N7:0
destination O:003
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
Figure 12.4 - FIFO Stack Instructions
The LIFO stack commands are shown in Figure 12.5. As values are loaded on the stack the
will be added sequentially N7:0, N7:1, N7:2, N7:3 then N7:4. When values are unloaded they will
be taken from the last loaded position, so if the stack is full the value of N7:4 will be removed
first.
A
LFL
source I:001
LIFO N7:0
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
B
LFU
LIFO N7:0
destination O:003
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
Figure 12.5 - LIFO Stack Commands
page 365
12.2.3 Sequencers
A mechanical music box is a simple example of a sequencer. As the drum in the music box
turns it has small pins that will sound different notes. The song sequence is fixed, and it always
follows the same pattern. Traffic light controllers are now controlled with electronics, but previously they used sequencers that were based on a rotating drum with cams that would open and
close relay terminals. One of these cams is shown in Figure 12.6. The cam rotates slowly, and the
surfaces under the contacts will rise and fall to open and close contacts. For a traffic light controllers the speed of rotation would set the total cycle time for the traffic lights. Each cam will control
one light, and by adjusting the circumferential length of rises and drops the on and off times can
be adjusted.
As the cam rotates it makes contact
with none, one, or two terminals, as
determined by the depressions and
rises in the rotating cam.
Figure 12.6 - A Single Cam in a Drum Sequencer
A PLC sequencer uses a list of words in memory. It recalls the words one at a time and moves
the words to another memory location or to outputs. When the end of the list is reached the
sequencer will return to the first word and the process begins again. A sequencer is shown in Figure 12.7. The SQO instruction will retrieve words from bit memory starting at ’B3:0’. The length
is ’4’ so the end of the list will be at ’B3:0+4’ or ’B3:4’ (the total length is actually 5). The
sequencer is edge triggered, and each time ’A’ becomes true the retrieve a word from the list and
move it to ’O:000’. When the sequencer reaches the end of the list the sequencer will return to the
second position in the list ’B3:1’. The first item in the list is ’B3:0’, and it will only be sent to the
page 366
output if the ’SQO’ instruction is active on the first scan of the PLC, otherwise the first word sent
to the output is ’B3:1’. The mask value is ’000F’, or ’0000000000001111’ so only the four least
significant bits will be transferred to the output, the other output bits will not be changed. The
other instructions allow words to be added or removed from the sequencer list.
A
SQO
File #B3:0
Mask 000F
Destination O:000
Control R6:0
Length 4
Position 0
SQO(start,mask,source,destination,control,length) - sequencer output from table to
memory address
SQI(start,mask,source,control,length) - sequencer input from memory address to table
SQL(start,source,control,length) - sequencer load to set up the sequencer parameters
Figure 12.7 - The Basic Sequencer Instruction
An example of a sequencer is given in Figure 12.8 for traffic light control. The light patterns
are stored in memory (entered manually by the programmer). These are then moved out to the
output card as the function is activated. The mask (003F = 0000000000111111) is used so that
only the 6 least significant bits are changed.
page 367
advance
SQO
File #B3:0
Mask 003F
Destination O:000
Control R6:0
Length 4
Position 0
B3:0
0
0
0
0
B3:4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
NS - red
NS - yellow
NS - green
EW - red
EW - yellow
EW - green
Figure 12.8 - A Sequencer For Traffic Light Control
Figure 12.9 shows examples of the other sequencer functions. When ’A’ goes from false to
true, the SQL function will move to the next position in the sequencer list, for example ’N7:21’,
and load a value from ’I:001’. If ’A’ then remains true the value in ’N7:21’ will be overwritten
each scan. When the end of the sequencer list is encountered, the position will reset to 1.
The sequencer input (SQI) function will compare values in the sequence list to the source
’I:002’ while ’B’ is true. If the two values match ’B3/10’ will stay on while ’B’ remains true. The
mask value is ’0005H’ or ’0000000000000101B’, so only the first and third bits will be compared. This instruction does not automatically change the position, so logic is shown that will
increment the position every scan while ’C’ is true.
page 368
A
B
SQL
File #N7:20
Source I:001
Control R6:1
Length 9
Position 0
SQI
File #N7:20
Mask 0005
Source I:002
Control R6:2
Length 9
Position 0
C
B3/10
ADD
SourceA R6:2.POS
SourceB 1
Dest R6:2.POS
GTH
SourceA R6:2.POS
SourceB 9
MOV
Source 1
Dest R6:2.POS
Figure 12.9 - Sequencer Instruction Examples
These instructions are well suited to processes with a single flow of execution, such as traffic
lights.
12.3 PROGRAM CONTROL
12.3.1 Branching and Looping
These functions allow parts of ladder logic programs to be included or excluded from each
program scan. These functions are similar to functions in other programming languages such as
C, C++, Java, Pascal, etc.
page 369
The MCR (Master Control Relay) function in figure 12.10 was discussed earlier. If ’A’ is
true, then the ladder logic after will be executed as normal.If ’A’ is false the following ladder
logic will be examined, but all of the outputs will be forced off. The second MCR function
appears on a line by itself and marks the end of the MCR block. After the second MCR the program execution returns to normal. While ’A’ is true, ’X’ will equal ’B’, and ’Y’ can be turned on
by ’C’, and off by ’D’. But, if ’A’ becomes false ’X’ will be forced off, and ’Y’ will be left in its
last state. Using MCR blocks to remove sections of programs will not increase the speed of program execution significantly because the logic is still examined.
A
B
If A is true then the MCR
will cause the ladder in
MCR
between to be executed.
If A is false it is skipped.
X
C
L
Y
U
Y
D
MCR
Note: If a normal input is used inside an MCR block it will be forced off. If the
output is also used in other MCR blocks the last one will be forced off. The
MCR is designed to fully stop an entire section of ladder logic, and is best
used this way in ladder logic designs.
Figure 12.10 - MCR Instructions
Entire sections of programs can be bypassed using the JMP instruction in figure 12.11. If’A’
is true the program will jump over the next three lines to the line with the ’LBL 01’. If ’A’ is false
the ’JMP’ statement will be ignored, and the program scan will continue normally. If ’A’ is false
page 370
’X’ will have the same value as ’B’, and ’Y’ can be turned on by ’C’ and off by ’D’. If ’A’ is true
then ’X’ and ’Y’ will keep their previous values, unlike the ’MCR’ statement. Any instructions
that follow the ’LBL’ statement will not be affected by the ’JMP’ so ’Z’ will always be equal to
’E’. If a jump statement is false the program will run faster.
A
JMP
Label 01
B
C
If A is true, the program
will jump to LBL:01.
If A the program
goes to the next line.
X
L
Y
U
Y
D
E
Z
LBL 01
Figure 12.11 - A JMP Instruction
Subroutines jump to other programs, as is shown in Figure 12.12. When ’A’ is true the ’JSR’
function will jump to the subroutine program in file 3. The ’JSR’ instruction two arguments are
passed, ’N7:0’ and ’123’. The subroutine (SBR) function receives these two arguments and puts
them in ’N10:0’ and ’N10:1’. When ’B’ is true the subroutine will end and return to program file
2 where it was called. The ’RET’ function can also returns the value ’N10:1’ to the calling program where it is put in location ’N7:1’. By passing arguments (instead of having the subroutine
use global memory locations) the subroutine can be used for more than one operation. For example, a subroutine could be given an angle in degrees and return a value in radians. A subroutine
can be called more than once in a program, but if not called, it will be ignored.
page 371
A
program file 2
JSR (Jump subroutine)
Program File 3
Input par N7:0
Input par 123
Return par N7:1
A separate ladder logic program is stored in program file 3. This feature allows the user to create their own ‘functions’. In this case if
A is true, then the program below will be executed and then when
done the ladder scan will continue after the subroutine instruction.
The number of data values passed and returned is variable.
SBR (subroutine arguments)
Input par N10:0
Input par N10:1
program file 3
If B is true the subroutine will return and the values listed will be
returned to the return par. For this example the value that is in
N10:1 will eventually end up in N7:1
B
RET
Return par N10:1
Figure 12.12 - Subroutines
The for-next loop in Figure 12.13 will repeat a section of a ladder logic program 5 times
(from 0 to 9 in steps of 2) when ’A’ is true. The loop starts at the ’FOR’ and ends at the ’NXT’
function. In this example there is an ’ADD’ function that will add 1 to the value of ’N7:1’. So
when this for-next statement is complete the value of ’N7:1’ will 5 larger. Notice that the label
number is the same in the ’FOR’ and ’NXT’, this allows them to be matched. For-next loops can
be put inside other for-next loops, this is called nesting. If ’A’ was false the program would skip to
the ’NXT’ statement. All 5 loops will be completed in a single program scan, so a control word is
not required. If ’B’ is true the ’NXT’ statement will no longer return the program scan to the
’FOR’ instruction, even if the loop is not complete. Care must be used for this instruction so that
the ladder logic does not get caught in an infinite, or long loop - if this happens the PLC will expe-
page 372
rience a fault and halt.
A
FOR
label number 0
index N7:0
initial value 0
terminal value 9
step size 2
ADD
Source A 1
Source B N7:1
Dest N7:1
B
BRK
NXT
label number 0
Note: if A is true then the loop will repeat 10 times, and the value of N7:1 will be
increased by 10. If A is not true, then the ADD function will only be executed once
and N7:1 will increase in value by 1.
Figure 12.13 - A For-Next Loop
Ladder logic programs always have an end statement, as shown in Figure 12.14. Most modern software automatically inserts this. PLCs will experience faults if this is not present. The temporary end (TND) statement will skip the remaining portion of a program. If ’C’ is true then the
program will end, and the next line with ’D’ and ’Y’ will be ignored. If ’C’ is false then the TND
will have no effect and ’Y’ will be equal to ’D’.
page 373
A
B
X
C
TND
D
Y
END
When the end (or End Of File) is encountered the PLC will stop scanning the
ladder, and start updating the outputs. This will not be true if it is a subroutine
or a step in an SFC.
Figure 12.14 - End Statements
The one shot contact in Figure 12.15 can be used to turn on a ladder run for a single scan.
When ’A’ has a positive edge the oneshot will turn on the run for a single scan. Bit ‘B3:0’ is used
here to track to rung status.
A
B3:0
ONS
A
B
Figure 12.15 - One Shot Instruction
B
page 374
12.3.2 Fault Detection and Interrupts
The PLC can be set up to run programs automatically using interrupts. This is routinely done
for a few reasons;
• to deal with errors that occur (e.g. divide by zero)
• to run a program at a regular timed interval (e.g. SPC calculations)
• to respond when a long instruction is complete (e.g. analog input)
• when a certain input changed (e.g. panic button)
These interrupt driven programs are put in their own program file. The program file number
is then put in a status memory ’S2’ location. Some other values are also put into status memory to
indicate the interrupt conditions.
A fault condition can stop a PLC. If the PLC is controlling a dangerous process this could
lead to significant damage to personnel and equipment. There are two types of faults that occur;
terminal (major) and warnings (minor). A minor fault will normally set an error bit, but not stop
the PLC. A major failure will normally stop the PLC, but an interrupt can be used to run a program that can reset the fault bit in memory and continue operation (or shut down safely). Not all
major faults are recoverable. A complete list of these faults is available in PLC processor manuals.
Figure 12.16 shows two programs. The default program (file 2) will set the interrupt program
file to ’3’ by moving it to ’S2:29’ on the first scan. When ’A’ is true a compute function will interpret the expression, using indirect addressing. If ’B’ becomes true then the value in ’N7:0’ will
become negative. If ’A’ becomes true after this then the expression will become ’N7:-10 +10’.
The negative value for the address will cause a fault, and program file 3 will be run. In fault program status memory ’S2:12’ is checked the error code 21, which indicates a bad indirect address.
If this code is found the index value ’N7:0’ is set back to zero, and ’S2:11’ is cleared. As soon as
’S2:11’ is cleared the fault routine will stop, and the normal program will resume. If ’S2:11’ is not
cleared, the PLC will enter a fault state and stop (the fault light on the front of the PLC will turn
on).
page 375
S2:1/15 - first scan
MOV
Source 3
Dest S2:29
program file 2
A
CPT
Dest N7:1
Expression
N7:[N7:0] + 10
B
MOV
Source -10
Dest N7:0
program file 3
EQU
SourceA S2:12
SourceB 21
MOV
Source 0
Dest N7:0
CLR
Dest. S2:11
Figure 12.16 - A Fault Recovery Program
A timed interrupt will run a program at regular intervals. To set a timed interrupt the program
in file number should be put in S2:31. The program will be run every S2:30 milliseconds. In Figure 12.17 program 2 will set up an interrupt that will run program ’3’ every 5 seconds. Program 3
will add the value of ’I:000’ to ’N7:10’. This type of timed interrupt is very useful when controlling processes where a constant time interval is important.
page 376
S2:1/15 - first scan
program file 2
MOV
Source 3
Dest S2:31
MOV
Source 5000
Dest S2:30
program file 3
ADD
SourceA I:000
SourceB N7:10
Dest N7:10
Figure 12.17 - A Timed Interrupt Program
Interrupts can also be used to monitor a change in an input. This is useful when waiting for a
change that needs a fast response. The relevant values that can be changed are listed below.
S:46 - the program file to run when the input bit changes
S:47 - the rack and group number (e.g. if in the main rack it is 000)
S:48 - mask for the input address (e.g. 0000000000000100 watches 02)
S:49 - for positive edge triggered =1 for negative edge triggered = 0
S:50 - the number of counts before the interrupt occurs 1 = always up to 32767
Figure 12.18 shows an interrupt driven interrupt. Program 2 sets up the interrupt to run program file ’3’ when input I:002/02 has 10 positive edges. (Note: the value of ’0004’ in binary is
’0000 0000 0000 0100’, or input 02.) When the input goes positive 10 times the bit B3/100 will be
set.
page 377
S2:1/15 - first scan
program file 2
MOV
Source 3
Dest S2:46
MOV
Source 002
Dest S2:47
MOV
Source 0004
Dest S2:48
MOV
Source 1
Dest S2:49
MOV
Source 10
Dest S2:50
B3/100
program file 3
Figure 12.18 - An Input Driven Interrupt
When activated, interrupt routines will stop the PLC, and the ladder logic is interpreted
immediately. If the PLC is in the middle of a program scan this can cause problems. To overcome
this a program can disable interrupts temporarily using the UID and UIE functions. Figure 12.19
shows an example where the interrupts are disabled for a FAL instruction. Only the ladder logic
between the ’UID’ and ’UIE’ will be disabled, the first line of ladder logic could be interrupted.
This would be important if an interrupt routine could change a value between ’N7:0’ and ’N7:4’.
For example, an interrupt could occur while the FAL instruction was at ’N7:7=N7:2+5’. The
interrupt could change the values of ’N7:1’ and ’N7:4’, and then end. The FAL instruction would
then complete the calculations. But, the results would be based on the old value for ’N7:1’ and the
new value for ’N7:4’.
page 378
A
X
UID
FAL
Control R6:0
length 5
position 0
Mode all
Destination #N7:5
Expression #N7:0 + 5
B
UIE
Figure 12.19 - Disabling Interrupts
12.4 INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS
12.4.1 Immediate I/O Instructions
The input scan normally records the inputs before the program scan, and the output scan normally updates the outputs after the program scan, as shown in Figure 12.20. Immediate input and
output instructions can be used to update some of the inputs or outputs during the program scan.
page 379
• The normal operation of the PLC is
fast [input scan]
Input values scanned
slow [ladder logic is checked]
fast [outputs updated]
Outputs are updated in
memory only, as the
ladder logic is scanned
Output values are
updated to match
values in memory
Figure 12.20 - Input, Program and Output Scan
Figure 12.21 shows a segment within a program that will update the input word ’I:001’,
determine a new value for ’O:010/01’, and update the output word ’O:010’ immediately. The process can be repeated many times during the program scan allowing faster than normal response
times.
page 380
e.g. Check for nuclear reactor overheat
I:001/03 overheat sensor
O:010/01 reactor shutdown
IIN I:001
I:001/03
O:010/01
O:010
IOT
These added statements can allow the ladder logic to examine a critical
input, and adjust a critical output many times during the execution of
ladder logic that might take too long for safety.
Note: When these instructions are used the normal assumption that all inputs and
outputs are updated before and after the program scan is no longer valid.
Figure 12.21 - Immediate Inputs and Outputs
12.4.2 Block Transfer Functions
Simple input and output cards usa a single word. Writing one word to an output card sets all
of the outputs. Reading one word from an input card reads all of the inputs. As a result the PLC is
designed to send and receive one word to input and from output cards. Later we will discuss more
complex input and output cards (such as analog I/O) that require more than one data word. To
communicate multiple words, one word must be sent at a time over multiple scans. To do this we
use special functions called Block Transfer Write (BTW) and Block Transfer Read (BTR).
Figure 12.22 shows a BTW function. The module type is defined from a given list, in this
case it is an ’Example Output Card’. The next three lines indicate the card location as ’00’, ’3’ or
’003’, the module number should normally be zero (except when using two slot addressing). This
instruction is edge triggered, and special control memory ’BT10:1’ is used in this example to
page 381
track the function progress (Note: regular control memory could have also been used, but the
function will behave differently). The instruction will send ’10’ words from ’N9:0’ to ’N9:9’ to
the output card when ’A’ becomes true. The enabled bit ’BT10:1/EN’ is used to block another
start until the instruction is finished. If the instruction is restarted before it is done an error will
occur. The length and contents of the memory ’N9:0’ to ’N9:9’ are specific to the type of input
and output card used, and will be discussed later for specific cards. This instruction is not continuous, meaning that when done it will stop. If it was continuous then when the previous write was
done the next write would begin.
BT10:1/EN
A
Block Transfer Write
Module Type Example Output Card
Rack 00
Group 3
Module 0
Control Block BT10:1
Data File N9:0
Length 10
Continuous No
Figure 12.22 - A BTW Function
The BTR function is similar to the BTW function, except that it will read multiple values
back from an input card. This gets values from the card ’O:000’, and places ’9’ values in memory
from ’N9:4’ to ’N9:13’. The function is continuous, so when it is complete, the process of reading
from the card will begin again.
BT10:0/15
A
BTR
Rack: 00
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT10:0
Data File: N9:4
Length: 9
Continuous: Yes
Figure 12.23 - A BTR Function
page 382
12.5 DESIGN TECHNIQUES
12.5.1 State Diagrams
The block logic method was introduced in chapter 8 to implement state diagrams using MCR
blocks. A better implementation of this method is possible using subroutines in program files. The
ladder logic for each state will be put in separate subroutines.
Consider the state diagram in Figure 12.24. This state diagram shows three states with four
transitions. There is a potential conflict between transitions ’A’ and ’C’.
STA
B
STC
D
A
C
O:000/00 = STA
O:000/01 = STB
O:000/02 = STC
STB
first scan
Figure 12.24 - A State Diagram
The main program for the state diagram is shown in Figure 12.25. This program is stored in
program file 2 so that it is run by default. The first rung in the program resets the states so that the
first scan state is on, while the other states are turned off. Each state in the diagram is given a
value in bit memory, so STA=B3/0, STB=B3/1 and STC=B3/2. The following logic will call the
subroutine for each state. The logic that uses the current state is placed in the main program. It is
also possible to put this logic in the state subroutines.
page 383
S2:1/15 - first scan
L
B3/1 - STB
U
B3/0 - STA
U
B3/2 - STC
L
O:000/0
L
O:000/1
L
O:000/2
B3/0 - STA
JSR
program 3
B3/1 - STB
JSR
program 4
B3/2 - STC
JSR
program 5
B3/0 - STA
B3/1 - STB
B3/2 - STC
Figure 12.25 - The Main Program for the State Diagram (Program File 2)
The ladder logic for each of the state subroutines is shown in Figure 12.26. These blocks of
logic examine the transitions and change states as required. Note that state ’STB’ includes logic to
give state ’C’ higher priority, by blocking ’A’ when ’C’ is active.
page 384
Program 3 for STA
B
Program 4 for STB
C
U
B3/0 - STA
L
B3/1 - STB
U
L
A
B3/1 - STB
B3/2 - STC
C
U
L
B3/1 - STB
B3/0 - STA
Program 5 for STC
D
U
L
B3/2 - STC
B3/1 - STB
Figure 12.26 - Subroutines for the States
The arrangement of the subroutines in Figures 12.25 and 12.26 could experience problems
with ’racing’ conditions. For example, if STA is active, and both ’B’ and ’C’ are true at the same
time the main program would jump to subroutine 3 where STB would be turned on. then the main
program would jump to subroutine 4 where STC would be turned on. For the output logic STB
would never have been on. If this problem might occur, the state diagram can be modified to slow
down these race conditions. Figure 12.27 shows a technique that blocks race conditions by blocking a transition out of a state until the transition into a state is finished. The solution may not
always be appropriate.
page 385
STA
B*A
D*C
STC
C*(B + D)
A*(B + D)
STB
first scan
Figure 12.27 - A Modified State Diagram to Prevent Racing
Another solution is to force the transition to wait for one scan as shown in Figure 12.28 for
state ’STA’. A wait bit is used to indicate when a delay of at least one scan has occurred since the
transition out of the state ’B’ became true. The wait bit is set by having the exit transition ’B’ true.
The ’B3/0-STA’ will turn off the wait ’B3/10-wait’ when the transition to state ’B3/1-STB’ has
occurred. If the wait was not turned off, it would still be on the next time we return to this state.
Program 3 for STA
B3/10 - wait
B
U
B3/0 - STA
L
B3/1 - STB
B3/0 - STA
B3/10 - wait
Figure 12.28 - Subroutines for State STA to Prevent Racing
12.6 DESIGN CASES
page 386
12.6.1 If-Then
Problem: Convert the following C/Java program to ladder logic.
void main(){
int A;
for(A = 1; A < 10 ; A++){
if (A >= 5) then A = add(A);
}
}
int add(int x){
x = x + 1;
return x;
}
Solution:
page 387
Program 2
S2:1/15 - first scan
A
FOR
label number 0
index N7:0
initial value 1
terminal value 10
step size 2
JSR
Program File 3
Input par N7:0
Return par N7:0
NXT
label number 0
Program 3
SBR
Input par N9:0
ADD
SourceA N9:0
SourceB 1
Dest N9:0
RET
Return par N9:0
Figure 12.29 - C Program Implementation
12.6.2 Traffic Light
Problem: Design and write ladder logic for a simple traffic light controller that has a single
fixed sequence of 16 seconds for both green lights and 4 second for both yellow lights. Use either
stacks or sequencers.
Solution: The sequencer is the best solution to this problem.
page 388
T4:0/DN
TON
T4:0
preset 4.0 sec
T4:0/DN
SQO
File #N7:0
mask 003F
Dest. O:000
Control R6:0
Length 10
OUTPUTS
O:000/00 NSG - north south green
O:000/01 NSY - north south yellow
O:000/02 NSR - north south red
O:000/03 EWG - east west green
O:000/04 EWY - east west yellow
O:000/05 EWR - east west red
Addr.
Contents (in binary)
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
N7:3
N7:4
N7:5
N7:6
N7:7
N7:8
N7:9
0000000000100001
0000000000100001
0000000000100001
0000000000100001
0000000000100010
0000000000001100
0000000000001100
0000000000001100
0000000000001100
0000000000010100
Figure 12.30 - An Example Traffic Light Controller
12.7 SUMMARY
• Shift registers move bits through a queue.
• Stacks will create a variable length list of words.
• Sequencers allow a list of words to be stepped through.
• Parts of programs can be skipped with jump and MCR statements, but MCR statements
shut off outputs.
• Subroutines can be called in other program files, and arguments can be passed.
• For-next loops allow parts of the ladder logic to be repeated.
• Interrupts allow parts to run automatically at fixed times, or when some event happens.
• Immediate inputs and outputs update I/O without waiting for the normal scans.
• Block transfer functions allow communication with special I/O cards that need more
than one word of data.
page 389
12.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Design and write ladder logic for a simple traffic light controller that has a single fixed
sequence of 16 seconds for both green lights and 4 second for both yellow lights. Use shift registers to implement it.
(ans.
T4:0/DN
T4:0/DN
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 4s
BSR
File B3:0
Control R6:0
Bit address R6:0/UL
Length 10
BSR
File B3:1
Control R6:1
Bit address R6:1/UL
Length 10
BSR
File B3:2
Control R6:2
Bit address R6:2/UL
Length 10
BSR
File B3:3
Control R6:3
Bit address R6:3/UL
Length 10
B3:0 = 0000 0000 0000 1111 (grn EW)
B3:1 = 0000 0000 0001 0000 (yel EW)
B3:2 = 0000 0011 1110 0000 (red EW)
B3:3 = 0000 0011 1100 0000 (grn NS)
B3:4 = 0000 0000 0010 0000 (yel NS)
B3:5 = 0000 0000 0001 1111 (red NS)
BSR
File B3:4
Control R6:4
Bit address R6:4/UL
Length 10
BSR
File B3:5
Control R6:5
Bit address R6:5/UL
Length 10
page 390
B3:0/0
O:000/0
B3:0/1
O:000/1
B3:0/2
O:000/2
B3:0/3
O:000/3
B3:0/4
O:000/4
B3:0/5
O:000/5
2. A PLC is to be used to control a carillon (a bell tower). Each bell corresponds to a musical note
and each has a pneumatic actuator that will ring it. The table below defines the tune to be programmed. Write a program that will run the tune once each time a start button is pushed. A
stop button will stop the song.
time sequence in seconds
O:000/00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
O:000/00
O:000/01
O:000/02
O:000/03
O:000/04
O:000/05
O:000/06
O:000/07
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
page 391
(ans.
N7:9 = 0000 0000 1000 0000
N7:10 = 0000 0000 0000 0100
N7:11 = 0000 0000 0000 1100
N7:12 = 0000 0000 0000 0000
N7:13 = 0000 0000 0100 1000
N7:14 = 0000 0000 0000 0010
N7:15 = 0000 0000 0000 0100
N7:16 = 0000 0000 0000 1000
N7:17 = 0000 0000 0000 0001
N7:0 = 0000 0000 0000 0000
N7:1 = 0000 0000 0000 0110
N7:2 = 0000 0000 0001 0000
N7:3 = 0000 0000 0001 0000
N7:4 = 0000 0000 0000 0100
N7:5 = 0000 0000 0000 1000
N7:6 = 0000 0000 0100 0000
N7:7 = 0000 0000 0110 0000
N7:8 = 0000 0000 0000 0001
start
stop
play
play
T4:0/DN
NEQ
Source A R6:0.POS
Source B 16
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 4s
SQO
File #N7:0
Mask 00FF
Destination O:000
Control R6:0
Length 17
Position 0
start
3. Consider a conveyor where parts enter on one end. they will be checked to be in a left or right
orientation with a vision system. If neither left nor right is found, the part will be placed in a
reject bin. The conveyor layout is shown below.
vision
part movement
along conveyor
part sensor
left
right
reject
page 392
(ans.
assume:
I:000/3
I:000/0 = left orientation
I:000/1 = right orientation
I:000/2 = reject
I:000/3 = part sensor
BSR
File B3:0
Control R6:0
Bit address I:000/0
Length 4
BSR
File B3:1
Control R6:1
Bit address I:000/1
Length 4
BSR
File B3:2
Control R6:2
Bit address I:000/2
Length 4
B3:0/2
left
B3:0/1
right
B3:0/0
reject
4. Why are MCR blocks different than JMP statements?
(ans. In MCR blocks the outputs will all be forced off. This is not a problem for outputs such as
retentive timers and latches, but it will force off normal outputs. JMP statements will skip over
logic and not examine it or force it off.)
5. What is a suitable reason to use interrupts?
(ans. Timed interrupts are useful for processes that must happen at regular time intervals. Polled
interrupts are useful to monitor inputs that must be checked more frequently than the ladder
scan time will permit. Fault interrputs are important for processes where the complete failure of
the PLC could be dangerous.)
6. When would immediate inputs and outputs be used?
page 393
(ans. These can be used to update inputs and outputs more frequently than the normal scan time
permits.)
7. Design a ladder logic program that will run once every 30 seconds using interrupts. It will
check to see if a water tank is full with input I:000/0. If it is full, then a shutdown value (B3/37)
will be latched on.
(ans.
S2:1/15 - first scan
MOV
Source 3
Dest S2:31
PROGRAM 2
MOV
Source 30000
Dest S2:30
I:000/0
PROGRAM 3
L
B3/37
page 394
13. OPEN CONTROLLERS
Topics:
• Open systems
• IEC 61131 standards
• Open architecture controllers
Objectives:
• To understand the decision between choosing proprietary and public standards.
• To understand the basic concepts behind the IEC 61131 standards.
13.1 INTRODUCTION
In previous decades (and now) PLC manufacturers favored “proprietary” or “closed” designs.
This gave them control over the technology and customers. Essentially, a proprietary architecture
kept some of the details of a system secret. This tended to limit customer choices and options. It
was quite common to spend great sums of money to install a control system, and then be unable to
perform some simple task because the manufacturer did not sell that type of solution. In these situations customers often had two choices; wait for the next release of the hardware/software and
hope for a solution, or pay exorbitant fees to have custom work done by the manufacturer.
“Open” systems have been around for decades, but only recently has their value been recognized. The most significant step occurred in 1981 when IBM broke from it’s corporate tradition
and released a personal computer that could use hardware and software from other companies.
Since that time IBM lost control of it’s child, but it has now adopted the open system philosophy
as a core business strategy. All of the details of an open system are available for users and developers to use and modify. This has produced very stable, flexible and inexpensive solutions. Controls manufacturers are also moving toward open systems. One such effort involves Devicenet,
which is discussed in a later chapter.
A troubling trend that you should be aware of is that many manufacturers are mislabeling
closed and semi-closed systems as open. An easy acid test for this type of system is the question
“does the system allow me to choose alternate suppliers for all of the components?” If even one
component can only be purchased from a single source, the system is not open. When you have a
page 395
choice you should avoid “not-so-open” solutions.
13.2 IEC 61131
The IEC 1131 standards were developed to be a common and open framework for PLC architecture, agreed to by many standards groups and manufacturers. They were initially approved in
1992, and since then they have been reviewed as the IEC-61131 standards. The main components
of the standard are;
IEC 61131-1 Overview
IEC 61131-2 Requirements and Test Procedures
IEC 61131-3 Data types and programming
IEC 61131-4 User Guidelines
IEC 61131-5 Communications
IEC 61131-7 Fuzzy control
This standard is defined loosely enough so that each manufacturer will be able to keep their
own look-and-feel, but the core data representations should become similar. The programming
models (IEC 61131-3) have the greatest impact on the user.
IL (Instruction List) - This is effectively mnemonic programming
ST (Structured Text) - A BASIC like programming language
LD (Ladder Diagram) - Relay logic diagram based programming
FBD (Function Block Diagram) - A graphical dataflow programming method
SFC (Sequential Function Charts) - A graphical method for structuring programs
Most manufacturers already support most of these models, except Function Block programming. The programming model also describes standard functions and models. Most of the functions in the models are similar to the functions described in this book. The standard data types are
shown in Figure 13.1.
page 396
Name
Type
Bits
Range
BOOL
SINT
INT
DINT
LINT
USINT
UINT
UDINT
ULINT
REAL
LREAL
TIME
DATE
TIME_OF_DAY, TOD
DATE_AND_TIME, DT
STRING
BYTE
WORD
DWORD
LWORD
boolean
short integer
integer
double integer
long integer
unsigned short integer
unsigned integer
unsigned double integer
unsigned long integer
real numbers
long reals
duration
date
time
date and time
string
8 bits
16 bits
32 bits
64 bits
1
8
16
32
64
8
16
32
64
32
64
not fixed
not fixed
not fixed
not fixed
variable
8
16
32
64
0 to 1
-128 to 127
-32768 to 32767
-2.1e-9 to 2.1e9
-9.2e19 to 9.2e19
0 to 255
0 to 65536
0 to 4.3e9
0 to 1.8e20
not fixed
not fixed
not fixed
not fixed
variable
NA
NA
NA
NA
Figure 13.1 - IEC 61131-3 Data Types
Previous chapters have described Ladder Logic (LD) programming in detail, and Sequential
Function Chart (SFC) programming briefly. Following chapters will discuss Instruction List (IL),
Structured Test (ST) and Function Block Diagram (FBD) programming in greater detail.
13.3 OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS
Personal computers have been driving the open architecture revolution. A personal computer
is capable of replacing a PLC, given the right input and output components. As a result there have
been many companies developing products to do control using the personal computer architecture. Most of these devices use two basic variations;
page 397
• a standard personal computer with a normal operating system, such as Windows NT,
runs a virtual PLC.
- the computer is connected to a normal PLC rack
- I/O cards are used in the computer to control input/output functions
- the computer is networked to various sensors
• a miniaturized personal computer is put into a PLC rack running a virtual PLC.
In all cases the system is running a standard operating system, with some connection to rugged input and output cards. The PLC functions are performed by a virtual PLC that interprets the
ladder logic and simulates a PLC. These can be fast, and more capable than a stand alone PLC,
but also prone to the reliability problems of normal computers. For example, if an employee
installs and runs a game on the control computer, the controller may act erratically, or stop working completely. Solutions to these problems are being developed, and the stability problem should
be solved in the near future.
13.4 SUMMARY
• Open systems can be replaced with software or hardware from a third party.
• Some companies call products open incorrectly.
• The IEC 61131 standard encourages interchangeable systems.
• Open architecture controllers replace a PLC with a computer.
13.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Describe why traditional PLC racks are not ’open’.
(ans. The hardware and software are only sold by Allen Bradley, and users are not given details to
modify or change the hardware and software.)
2. Discuss why the IEC 61131 standards should lead to open architecture control systems.
(ans. The IEC standards are a first step to make programming methods between PLCs the same.
The standard does not make programming uniform across all programming platforms, so it is
page 398
not yet ready to develop completely portable controller programs and hardware.)
page 399
14. INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING
Topics:
• Instruction list (IL) opcodes and operations
• Converting from ladder logic to IL
• Stack oriented instruction delay
• The Allen Bradley version of IL
Objectives:
• To learn the fundamentals of IL programming.
• To understand the relationship between ladder logic and IL programs
14.1 INTRODUCTION
Instruction list (IL) programming is defined as part of the IEC 61131 standard. It uses very
simple instructions similar to the original mnemonic programming languages developed for
PLCs. (Note: some readers will recognize the similarity to assembly language programming.) It is
the most fundamental level of programming language - all other programming languages can be
converted to IL programs. Most programmers do not use IL programming on a daily basis, unless
they are using hand held programmers.
14.2 THE IEC 61131 VERSION
To ease understanding, this chapter will focus on the process of converting ladder logic to IL
programs. A simple example is shown in Figure 14.1 using the definitions found in the IEC standard. The rung of ladder logic contains four inputs, and one output. It can be expressed in a Boolean equation using parentheses. The equation can then be directly converted to instructions. The
beginning of the program begins at the ’START:’ label. At this point the first value is loaded, and
the rest of the expression is broken up into small segments. The only significant change is that
’AND NOT’ becomes ’ANDN’.
page 400
I:000/00
I:000/01
O:001/00
I:000/02
I:000/03
read as O:001/00 = I:000/00 AND ( I:000/01 OR ( I:000/02 AND NOT I:000/03) )
Label
Opcode
Operand
Comment
START:
LD
AND(
OR(
ANDN
)
)
ST
%I:000/00
%I:000/01
%I:000/02
%I:000/03
(* Load input bit 00 *)
(* Start a branch and load input bit 01 *)
(* Load input bit 02 *)
(* Load input bit 03 and invert *)
%O:001/00
(* SET the output bit 00 *)
Figure 14.1 - An Instruction List Example
An important concept in this programming language is the stack. (Note: if you use a calculator with RPN you are already familiar with this.) You can think of it as a do later list. With the
equation in Figure 14.1 the first term in the expression is ’LD I:000/00’, but the first calculation
should be ’( I:000/02 AND NOT I:000/03)’. The instruction values are pushed on the stack until
the most deeply nested term is found. Figure 14.2 illustrates how the expression is pushed on the
stack. The ’LD’ instruction pushes the first value on the stack. The next instruction is an ’AND’,
but it is followed by a ’(’ so the stack must drop down. The ’OR(’ that follows also has the same
effect. The ’ANDN’ instruction does not need to wait, so the calculation is done immediately and
a ’result_1’ remains. The next two ’)’ instructions remove the blocking ’(’ instruction from the
stack, and allow the remaining ’OR I:000/1’ and ’AND I:000/0’ instructions to be done. The final
result should be a single bit ’result_3’. Two examples follow given different input conditions. If
the final result in the stack is 0, then the output ’ST O:001/0’ will set the output, otherwise it will
turn it off.
page 401
LD I:000/0 AND( I:000/1
OR( I:000/2
ANDN I:000/3 )
I:000/0
I:000/2
(
OR I:000/1
(
AND I:000/0
result_1
(
OR I:000/1
(
AND I:000/0
I:000/1
(
AND I:000/0
)
result_2
(
AND I:000/0
result_3
Given:
I:000/0 = 1 1
I:000/1 = 0
I:000/2 = 1
I:000/3 = 0
0
(
AND 1
1
(
OR 0
(
AND 1
1
(
OR 0
(
AND 1
1
(
AND 1
1
AND 1
1
Given:
I:000/0 = 0 0
I:000/1 = 1
I:000/2 = 0
I:000/3 = 1
1
(
AND 0
0
(
OR 1
(
AND 0
0
(
OR 1
(
AND 0
0
(
AND 1
0
AND 1
0
Figure 14.2 - Using a Stack for Instruction Lists
A list of operations is given in Figure 14.3. The modifiers are;
N - negates an input or output
( - nests an operation and puts it on a stack to be pulled off by ’)’
C - forces a check for the currently evaluated results at the top of the stack
These operators can use multiple data types, as indicated in the data types column. This list
should be supported by all vendors, but additional functions can be called using the ’CAL’ function.
page 402
Operator Modifiers
Data Types
Description
LD
ST
S, R
AND, &
OR
XOR
ADD
SUB
MUL
DIV
GT
GE
EQ
NE
LE
LT
JMP
CAL
RET
)
many
many
BOOL
BOOL
BOOL
BOOL
many
many
many
many
many
many
many
many
many
many
LABEL
NAME
set current result to value
store current result to location
set or reset a value (latches or flip-flops)
boolean and
boolean or
boolean exclusive or
mathematical add
mathematical subtraction
mathematical multiplication
mathematical division
comparison greater than >
comparison greater than or equal >=
comparison equals =
comparison not equal <>
comparison less than or equals <=
comparison less than <
jump to LABEL
call subroutine NAME
return from subroutine call
get value from stack
N
N
N, (
N, (
N, (
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
C, N
C, N
C, N
Figure 14.3 - IL Operations
14.3 THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION
Allen Bradley only supports IL programming on the Micrologix 1000, and does not plan to
support it in the future. Examples of the equivalent ladder logic and IL programs are shown in
Figures 14.4 and 14.5. The programs in Figure 14.4 show different variations when there is only a
single output. Multiple IL programs are given where available. When looking at these examples
recall the stack concept. When a ’LD’ or ’LDN’ instruction is encountered it will put a value on
the top of the stack. The ’ANB’ and ’ORB’ instructions will remove the top two values from the
stack, and replace them with a single value that is the result of an Boolean operation. The ’AND’
and ’OR’ functions take one value off the top of the stack, perform a Boolean operation and put
page 403
the result on the top of the stack. The equivalent programs (to the right) are shorter and will run
faster.
Ladder
Instruction List (IL)
A
X
LD A
ST X
A
X
LDN A
ST X
A
B
X
LD A
LD B
ANB
ST X
LD A
AND B
ST X
A
B
X
LD A
LDN B
ANB
ST X
LD A
ANDN B
ST X
X
LD A
LD B
ORB
LD C
ANB
ST X
LD A
OR B
AND C
ST X
X
LD A
LD B
LD C
ORB
ANB
ST X
LD A
LD B
OR C
ANB
ST X
X
LD A
LD B
ORB
LD C
LD D
ORB
ANB
ST X
LD A
OR B
LD C
OR D
ANB
ST X
A
C
B
A
B
C
A
C
B
D
Figure 14.4 - IL Equivalents for Ladder Logic
page 404
Figure 14.5 shows the IL programs that are generated when there are multiple outputs. This
often requires that the stack be used to preserve values that would be lost normally using the
’MPS’, ’MPP’ and ’MRD’ functions. The ’MPS’ instruction will store the current value of the top
of the stack. Consider the first example with two outputs, the value of ’A’ is loaded on the stack
with ’LD A’. The instruction ’ST X’ examines the top of the stack, but does not remove the value,
so it is still available for ’ST Y’. In the third example the value of the top of the stack would not
be correct when the second output rung was examined. So, when the output branch occurs the
value at the top of the stack is copied using ’MPS’, and pushed on the top of the stack. The copy is
then ANDed with ’B’ and used to set ’X’. After this the value at the top is pulled off with the
’MPP’ instruction, leaving the value at the top what is was before the first output rung. The last
example shows multiple output rungs. Before the first rung the value is copied on the stack using
’MPS’. Before the last rung the value at the top of the stack is discarded with the ’MPP’ instruction. But, the two center instructions use ’MRD’ to copy the right value to the top of the stack - it
could be replaced with ’MPP’ then ’MPS’.
page 405
Ladder
Instruction List (IL)
A
X
Y
A
X
B
A
B
C
A
B
C
Y
X
Y
W
X
Y
E
Z
LD A
ST X
ST Y
LD A
ST X
LD B
ANB
ST Y
LD A
ST X
AND B
ST Y
LD A
MPS
LD B
ANB
ST X
MPP
LD C
ANB
ST Y
LD A
MPS
AND B
ST X
MPP
AND C
ST Y
LD A
MPS
LD B
ANB
ST W
MRD
LD C
ANB
ST X
MRD
STY
MPP
LD E
ANB
ST Z
LD A
MPS
AND B
ST W
MRD
AND C
ST X
MRD
ST Y
MPP
AND E
ST Z
Figure 14.5 - IL Programs for Multiple Outputs
Complex instructions can be represented in IL, as shown in Figure 14.6. Here the function are
listed by their mnemonics, and this is followed by the arguments for the functions. The second
line does not have any input contacts, so the stack is loaded with a true value.
page 406
I:001/0
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 5s
ADD
SourceA 3
SourceB T4:0.ACC
Dest N7:0
START:LD I:001/0
TON(T4:0, 1.0, 5, 0)
LD 1
ADD (3, T4:0.ACC, N7:0)
END
Figure 14.6 - A Complex Ladder Rung and Equivalent IL
An example of an instruction language subroutine is shown in Figure 14.6. This program will
examine a BCD input on card I:000, and if it becomes higher than 100 then 2 seconds later output
O:001/00 will turn on.
page 407
Program File 2:
Label
Opcode
Operand
Comment
START:
CAL
3
(* Jump to program file 3 *)
Program File 3:
Label
Opcode
Operand
Comment
TEST:
LD
BCD_TO_INT
ST
GT
JMPC
CAL
LD
ST
CAL
LD
ST
RET
%I:000
(* Load the word from input card 000 *)
(* Convert the BCD value to an integer *)
(* Store the value in N7:0 *)
(* Check for the stored value (N7:0) > 100 *)
(* If true jump to ON *)
(* Reset the timer *)
(* Load a value of 2 - for the preset *)
(* Store 2 in the preset value *)
(* Update the timer *)
(* Get the timer done condition bit *)
(* Set the output bit *)
(* Return from the subroutine *)
ON:
%N7:0
100
ON
RES(C5:0)
2
%C5:0.PR
TON(C5:0)
%C5:0.DN
%O:001/00
Figure 14.6 - An Example of an IL Program
14.4 SUMMARY
• Ladder logic can be converted to IL programs, but IL programs cannot always be converted to ladder logic.
page 408
• IL programs use a stack to delay operations indicated by parentheses.
• The Allen Bradley version is similar, but not identical to the IEC 61131 version of IL.
14.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Explain the operation of the stack.
2. Convert the following ladder logic to IL programs
A
C
B
C
B
C
X
D
Y
3. Write the ladder diagram programs that correspond to the following Boolean programs.
LD 001
OR 003
LD 002
OR 004
AND LD
LD 005
OR 007
AND 006
OR LD
OUT 204
LD 001
AND 002
LD 004
AND 005
OR LD
OR 007
LD 003
OR NOT 006
AND LD
LD NOT 001
AND 002
LD 004
OR 007
AND 005
OR LD
LD 003
OR NOT 006
AND LD
OR NOT 008
OUT 204
AND 009
OUT 206
AND NOT 010
OUT 201
page 409
15. STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING
<TODO - find an implementation platform and write with examples>
Topics:
•
•
•
•
•
Objectives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
15.1 INTRODUCTION
If you know how to program in any high level language, such as Basic or C, you will be comfortable with Structured Text (ST) programming. ST programming is part of the IEC 61131 standard. An example program is shown in Figure 15.1. This program counts from 1 to 10 with a loop.
When the program starts the value of integer memory ’N7:0’ will be set to zero. The ’REPEAT’
and ’END_REPEAT’ statements define the loop. The ’UNTIL’ statement defines when the loop
must end. A line is present to increment the value of ’N7:0’ for each loop. Lines are terminated
with semicolons.
page 410
N7:0 := 0;
REPEAT
N7:0 := N7:0 + 1;
UNTIL N7:0 >= 10;
END_REPEAT;
Figure 15.1 - A Structured Text Example Program
ST has been designed to work with the other PLC programming languages. For example, a
ladder logic program can call a structured text subroutine. At the time of writing, Allen Bradley
offers limited support for ST programming, but they will expand their support in the future.
15.2 THE LANGUAGE
• Some general notes about the language are,
- The language can use normal I/O or memory values as well as named variables.
- Separate operators with spaces; when in doubt use spaces. Indents will also make the
program more readable.
- Comments will be on lines that start with ’;;’, or blank lines.
- the instructions can be upper or lower case.
- instructions can be nested.
• Remember - unlike normal programming languages these programs must run and then stop
each ladder logic scan.
• Variable names can be anything but those listed below, and the other instruction names.
page 411
Invalid variable names: START, DATA, PROJECT, SFC, SFC2, LADDER, I/O, ASCII,
CAR, FORCE, PLC2, CONFIG, INC, ALL, YES, NO, STRUCTURED TEXT
Valid memory/variable name examples: TESTER, I, I:000, I:000/00, T4:0, T4:0/DN,
T4:0.ACC
• Variables are defined with the following keywords.
Declaration
Description
VAR
VAR_INPUT
VAR_OUTPUT
VAR_IN_OUT
VAR_EXTERNAL
VAR_GLOBAL
VAR_ACCESS
RETAIN
CONSTANT
AT
the general variable declaration
defines a variable list for a function
defines output variables from a function
defines variable that are both inputs and outputs from a function
a global variable
a value will be retained when the power is cycled
a value that cannot be changed
can tie a variable to a specific location in memory (without this variable locations are chosen by the compiler
• Examples of variable declarations are given below,
page 412
Text Program Line
Description
VAR AT %B3:0 : WORD; END_VAR
VAR AT %N7:0 : INT; END_VAR
VAR RETAINAT %O:000 : WORD ; END_VAR
VAR_GLOBAL A AT %I:000/00 : BOOL ; END_VAR
VAR_GLOBAL A AT %N7:0 : INT ; END_VAR
VAR A AT %F8:0 : ARRAY [0..14] OF REAL; END_VAR
VAR A : BOOL; END_VAR
VAR A, B, C : INT ; END_VAR
VAR A : STRING[10] ; END_VAR
VAR A : ARRAY[1..5,1..6,1..7] OF INT; END_VAR
VAR RETAIN RTBT A : ARRAY[1..5,1..6] OF INT;
END_VAR
VAR A : B; END_VAR
VAR CONSTANT A : REAL := 5.12345 ; END_VAR
VAR A AT %N7:0 : INT := 55; END_VAR
VAR A : ARRAY[1..5] OF INT := [5(3)]; END_VAR
VAR A : STRING[10] := ‘test’; END_VAR
VAR A : ARRAY[0..2] OF BOOL := [1,0,1]; END_VAR
VAR A : ARRAY[0..1,1..5] OF INT := [5(1),5(2)];
END_VAR
a word in bit memory
an integer in integer memory
makes output bits retentive
variable ‘A’ as input bit
variable ‘A’ as an integer
an array ‘A’ of 15 real values
a boolean variable ‘A’
integers variables ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’
a string ‘A’ of length 10
a 5x6x7 array ‘A’ of integers
a 5x6 array of integers, filled
with zeros after power off
‘A’ is data type ‘B’
a constant value ‘A’
‘A’ starts with 55
‘A’ starts with 3 in all 5 spots
‘A’ contains ‘test’ initially
an array of bits
an array of integers filled with 1
for [0,x] and 2 for [1,x]
• Basic numbers are shown below. Note the underline ‘_’ can be ignored, it can be used to
break up long numbers, ie. 10_000 = 10000.
number type
examples
integers
real numbers
real with exponents
binary numbers
octal numbers
hexadecimal numbers
boolean
-100, 0, 100, 10_000
-100.0, 0.0, 100.0, 10_000.0
-1.0E-2, -1.0e-2, 0.0e0, 1.0E2
2#111111111, 2#1111_1111, 2#1111_1101_0110_0101
8#123, 8#777, 8#14
16#FF, 16#ff, 16#9a, 16#01
0, FALSE, 1, TRUE
page 413
• Character strings are shown below.
example
description
‘’
‘ ‘, ‘a’, ‘$’’, ‘$$’
a zero length string
a single character, a space, or ‘a’, or a single quote, or a dollar
sign $
produces ASCII CR, LF combination - end of line characters
form feed, will go to the top of the next page
tab
a string that results in ‘this<TAB>is a test<NEXT LINE>’
‘$R$L’, ‘$r$l’,‘$0D$0A’
‘$P’, ‘$p’
‘$T’, ‘4t’
‘this%Tis a test$R$L’
• Basic time duration values are described below.
Time Value
Examples
25ms
5.5hours
3days, 5hours, 6min, 36sec
T#25ms, T#25.0ms, TIME#25.0ms, T#-25ms, t#25ms
TIME#5.3h, T#5.3h, T#5h_30m, T#5h30m
TIME#3d5h6m36s, T#3d_5h_6m_36s
• Date values are given below. These are meant to be used to compare to system time and date
clocks.
description
examples
date values
time of day
date and time
DATE#1996-12-25, D#1996-12-25
TIME_OF_DAY#12:42:50.92, TOD#12:42:50.92
DATE_AND_TIME#1996-12-25-12:42:50.92, DT#1996-12-25-12:42:50.92
• Basic math functions include,
page 414
:=
+
/
*
MOD(A,B)
SQR(A)
FRD(A)
TOD(A)
NEG(A)
LN(A)
LOG(A)
DEG(A)
RAD(A)
SIN(A)
COS(A)
TAN(A)
ASN(A)
ACS(A)
ATN(A)
XPY(A,B)
A**B
assigns a value to a variable
addition
subtraction
division
multiplication
modulo - this provides the remainder for an integer divide A/B
square root of A
from BCD to decimal
to BCD from decimal
reverse sign +/natural logarithm
base 10 logarithm
from radians to degrees
to radians from degrees
sine
cosine
tangent
arcsine, inverse sine
arccosine - inverse cosine
arctan - inverse tangent
A to the power of B
A to the power of B
• Functions for logical comparison include,
>
>=
=
<=
<
<>
greater than
greater than or equal
equal
less than or equal
less than
not equal
• Functions for Boolean algebra and logic include,
page 415
AND(A,B)
OR(A,B)
XOR(A,B)
NOT(A)
!
logical and
logical or
exclusive or
logical not
logical not
• The precedence of operations are listed below from highest to lowest. As normal expressions that are the most deeply nested between brackets will be solved first. (Note: when in doubt
highest priority
use brackets to ensure you get the sequence you expect.)
!
()
XPY, **
SQR, TOD, FRD, NOT, NEG, LN, LOG, DEG, RAD, SIN, COS, TAN, ASN, ACS, ATN
*, /, MOD
+, AND (for word)
XOR (for word)
OR (for word)
>, >=, =, <=, <, <>
AND (bit)
XOR (bit)
OR (bit)
ladder instructions
• Language structures include those below,
IF-THEN-ELSIF-ELSE-END_IF;
CASE-value:-ELSE-END_CASE;
FOR-TO-BY-DO-END_FOR;
WHILE-DO-END_WHILE;
normal if-then structure
a case switching function
for-next loop
page 416
• Special instructions include those shown below.
RETAIN()
IIN();
EXIT;
EMPTY
causes a bit to be retentive
immediate input update
will quit a FOR or WHILE loop
• Consider the program below to find the average of five values in floating point memory.
F8:10 := 0;
FOR (N7:0 := 0 TO 4) DO
F8:10 := F8:10 + F8:[N7:0];
END_FOR;
• Consider the program below to find the average of five values in floating point memory.
F8:10 := 0;
WHILE (N7:0 < 5) DO
F8:10 := F8:10 + F8:[N7:0];
N7:0 := N7:0 + 1;
END_WHILE;
• The example below will set different outputs depending upon the stat of an input.
page 417
IF (I:000/00 = 1) THEN
O:001/00 := 1;
ELSIF (I:000/01 = 1 AND T4:0/DN = 1) THEN
O:001/00 := 1;
IF (I:000/02 = 0) THEN
O:001/01 := 1;
END_IF;
ELSE
O:001/01 := 1;
END_IF;
• The example below will set output bits 00-03 depending upon the value of the integer in
N7:0, if the value is not between 0 and 3 the outputs will all go off.
CASE N7:0 OF
0:
O:000/00 := 1;
1:
O:000/01 := 1;
2:
O:000/02 := 1;
3:
O:000/03 := 1;
ELSE
O:000 := 0;
END_CASE;
• The example below accepts a BCD input from (I:000) and will use it to change the delay
time for an on delay timer that will examine input I:002/00 drive output O:001/00.
page 418
FRD (I:000, DELAY_TIME);
IF (I:002/00) THEN
TON (T4:0, 1.0, DELAY_TIME, 0);
ELSE
RES (T4:0);
END_IF;
O:001/00 := T4:0.DN;
• Try the example below,
Write a structured text program to control a press that has an advance and retract with
limit switches. The press is started and stopped with start and stop buttons.
• Normal ladder logic output functions can be used except for those listed below.
page 419
not valid output functions: JMP, END, MCR, FOR, BRK, NXT, MSG, SDS, DFA,
AND, OR, XOR, TND
valid output functions include: OTL, OTU, OTE, TON, TOF, RTO, CTU, CTD, RES,
ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, etc...
• The list below gives a most of the IEC1131-3 defined functions with arguments. Some of
the functions can be overloaded (for example ADD could have more than two values to add), and
others have optional arguments. In most cases the optional arguments are things line preset values
for timers. When arguments are left out they default to values, typically 0.
page 420
Function
Description
ABS(A);
ACOS(A);
ADD(A,B,...);
AND(A,B,...);
ASIN(A);
ATAN(A);
BCD_TO_INT(A);
CONCAT(A,B,...);
COS(A);
CTD(CD:=A,LD:=B,PV:=C);
CTU(CU:=A,R:=B,PV:=C);
CTUD(CU:=A,CD:=B,R:=C,LD:
=D,PV:=E);
DELETE(IN:=A,L:=B,P:=C);
DIV(A,B);
EQ(A,B,C,...);
EXP(A);
EXPT(A,B);
FIND(IN1:=A,IN2:=B);
F_TRIG(A);
GE(A,B,C,...);
GT(A,B,C,...);
INSERT(IN1:=A,IN2:=B,P:=C);
INT_TO_BCD(A);
INT_TO_REAL(A);
LE(A,B,C,...);
LEFT(IN:=A,L:=B);
LEN(A);
LIMIT(MN:=A,IN:=B,MX:=C);
LN(A);
LOG(A);
LT(A,B,C,...);
absolute value of A
the inverse cosine of A
add A+B+...
logical and of inputs A,B,...
the inverse sine of A
the inverse tangent of A
converts a BCD to an integer
will return strings A,B,... joined together
finds the cosine of A
down counter active <=0, A decreases, B loads preset
up counter active >=C, A decreases, B resets
up/down counter combined functions of the up and
down counters
will delete B characters at position C in string A
A/B
will compare A=B=C=...
finds e**A where e is the natural number
A**B
will find the start of string B in string A
a falling edge trigger
will compare A>=B, B>=C, C>=...
will compare A>B, B>C, C>...
will insert string B into A at position C
converts an integer to BCD
converts A from integer to real
will compare A<=B, B<=C, C<=...
will return the left B characters of string A
will return the length of string A
checks to see if B>=A and B<=C
natural log of A
base 10 log of A
will compare A<B, B<C, C<...
page 421
Function
Description
MAX(A,B,...);
MID(IN:=A,L:=B,P:=C);
MIN(A,B,...);
MOD(A,B);
MOVE(A);
MUL(A,B,...);
MUX(A,B,C,...);
NE(A,B);
NOT(A);
OR(A,B,...);
REAL_TO_INT(A);
REPLACE(IN1:=A,IN2:=B,L:=
C,P:=D);
RIGHT(IN:=A,L:=B);
ROL(IN:=A,N:=B);
ROR(IN:=A,N:=B);
RS(A,B);
RTC(IN:=A,PDT:=B);
R_TRIG(A);
SEL(A,B,C);
SHL(IN:=A,N:=B);
SHR(IN:=A,N:=B);
SIN(A);
SQRT(A);
SR(S1:=A,R:=B);
SUB(A,B);
TAN(A);
TOF(IN:=A,PT:=B);
TON(IN:=A,PT:=B);
TP(IN:=A,PT:=B);
TRUNC(A);
XOR(A,B,...);
outputs the maximum of A,B,...
will return B characters starting at C of string A
outputs the minimum of A,B,...
the remainder or fractional part of A/B
outputs the input, the same as :=
multiply values A*B*....
the value of A will select output B,C,...
will compare A <> B
logical not of A
logical or of inputs A,B,...
converts A from real to integer
will replace C characters at position D in string A with
string B
will return the right A characters of string B
rolls left value A of length B bits
rolls right value A of length B bits
RS flip flop with input A and B
will set and/or return current system time
a rising edge trigger
if a=0 output B if A=1 output C
shift left value A of length B bits
shift right value A of length B bits
finds the sine of A
square root of A
SR flipflop with inputs A and B
A-B
finds the tangent of A
off delay timer
on delay timer
pulse timer - a rising edge fires a fixed period pulse
converts a real to an integer, no rounding
logical exclusive or of inputs A,B,...
page 422
• Try the example below,
Write a structured text program to sort a set of ten integer numbers and then find the
median value.
• We can define functions that return single values,
page 423
....
D := TEST(1.3, 3.4); (* sample calling program, here C will default to 3.14 *)
E := TEST(1.3, 3.4, 6.28); (* here C will be given a new value *)
....
FUNCTION TEST : REAL
VAR_INPUT A, B : REAL; C : REAL := 3.14159; END VAR
TEST := (A + B) / C;
END_FUNCTION
• Try the example below using a function or subroutine,
page 424
Write a structured text program control a set of traffic lights.
15.3 SUMMARY
15.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Write logic for a traffic light controller using structured text.
page 425
16. FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING
<TODO - Find an implementation platform and write this section to match.>
Topics:
•
•
•
•
•
Objectives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
16.1 INTRODUCTION
• This is a procedural programming language that resembles block diagrams. To date this has
been primarily popularized by programs such as Labview.
• This graphical language is part of the IEC 1131-3 standard.
• An example is given below.
page 426
N7:0
SIN
*
A<B
O:000/01
N7:1
LN
N7:2
• There are different data types for the connection lines.
• Inputs and outputs can be negated by adding a inverting input or output.
• The functions in the diagrams are based on the other functions available. The inputs to a
function enter on the left of the block, and the outputs of the function emerge from the right.
Structural Text Function
Function Block Equivalent
O := ADD(A, B);
A
B
ADD
O
• Some functions can have a variable number of arguments. Here there is a third value input
to the add block. This is known as overloading.
page 427
Structural Text Function
O := ADD(A, B, C);
Function Block Equivalent
A
B
C
ADD
O
• The ADD function in the example must always have the same inputs, other functions may
have variable numbers of arguments.
Structural Text Function
O := LIM(MN := A, IN := B, MX := C);
O := LIM(MN := A, IN := B);
Function Block Equivalent
A
B
C
MN
IN
MX
A
B
MN
IN
LIM
O
LIM
O
• The tables of
16.2 DEVELOPING FUNCTION BLOCKS
• A function block can be developed using structured text, ladder logic, or other programming
languages.
page 428
DIVIDE
A
C
B
16.3 SUMMARY
16.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1.
FUNCTION_BLOCK DIVIDE
VAR_INPUT
A: INT;
B: INT;
END_VAR
VAR_OUTPUT
C: INT;
END_VAR
IF B <> 0 THEN
C := A / B;
ELSE
C:= 0;
END_IF;
END_FUNCTION_BLOCK
page 429
17. ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
Topics:
• Analog inputs and outputs
• Sampling issues; aliasing, quantization error, resolution
• Analog I/O with a PLC
Objectives:
• To understand the basics of conversion to and from analog values.
• Be able to use analog I/O on a PLC.
17.1 INTRODUCTION
An analog value is continuous, not discrete, as shown in figure 17.1. In the previous chapters,
techniques were discussed for designing logical control systems that had inputs and outputs that
could only be on or off. These systems are less common than the logical control systems, but they
are very important. In this chapter we will examine analog inputs and outputs so that we may
design continuous control systems in a later chapter.
Voltage
logical
continuous
t
Figure 17.1 - Logical and Continuous Values
Typical analog inputs and outputs for PLCs are listed below. Actuators and sensors that can
be used with analog inputs and outputs will be discussed in later chapters.
Inputs:
• oven temperature
• fluid pressure
• fluid flow rate
Outputs:
page 430
• fluid valve position
• motor position
• motor velocity
This chapter will focus on the general principles behind digital-to-analog (D/A) and analogto-digital (A/D) conversion. The chapter will show how to output and input analog values with a
PLC.
17.2 ANALOG INPUTS
To input an analog voltage (into a PLC or any other computer) the continuous voltage value
must be ’sampled’ and then converted to a numerical value by an A/D converter. Figure 17.2
shows a continuous voltage changing over time. There are three samples shown on the figure. The
process of sampling the data is not instantaneous, so each sample has a start and stop time. The
time required to acquire the sample is called the ’sampling time’. A/D converters can only acquire
a limited number of samples per second. The time between samples is called the sampling period
’T’, and the inverse of the sampling period is the sampling frequency (also called sampling rate).
The sampling time is often much smaller than the sampling period. The sampling frequency is
specified when buying hardware, but for a PLC a maximum sampling rate might be 20Hz.
page 431
Voltage is sampled during these time periods
voltage
time
T = (Sampling Frequency)-1
Sampling time
Figure 17.2 - Sampling an Analog Voltage
A more realistic drawing of sampled data is shown in Figure 17.3. This data is noisier, and
even between the start and end of the data sample there is a significant change in the voltage
value. The data value sampled will be somewhere between the voltage at the start and end of the
sample. The maximum (Vmax) and minimum (Vmin) voltages are a function of the control hardware. These are often specified when purchasing hardware, but reasonable ranges are;
0V to 5V
0V to 10V
-5V to 5V
-10V to 10V
The number of bits of the A/D converter is the number of bits in the result word. If the A/D converter is ’8 bit’ then the result can read up to 256 different voltage levels. Most A/D converters
have 12 bits, 16 bit converters are used for precision measurements.
page 432
V(t)
V max
V ( t2 )
V ( t1 )
V min
t
τ
t1 t2
where,
V ( t ) = the actual voltage over time
τ = sample interval for A/D converter
t = time
t 1, t 2 = time at start,end of sample
V ( t 1 ), V ( t 2 ) = voltage at start, end of sample
V min, V max = input voltage range of A/D converter
N = number of bits in the A/D converter
Figure 17.3 - Parameters for an A/D Conversion
The parameters defined in Figure 17.3 can be used to calculate values for A/D converters.
These equations are summarized in Figure 17.4. Equation 17.1 relates the number of bits of an A/
D converter to the resolution. Equation 17.2 gives the error that can be expected with an A/D converter given the range between the minimum and maximum voltages, and the resolution (this is
commonly called the quantization error). Equation 17.3 relates the voltage range and resolution to
the voltage input to estimate the integer that the A/D converter will record. Finally, equation 17.4
allows a conversion between the integer value from the A/D converter, and a voltage in the computer.
page 433
R = 2
N
(17.1)
V max – V min
V ERROR =  ----------------------------

2R
(17.2)
V in – V min 
- R
V I = INT  ---------------------------V

max – V min
(17.3)
V
V C =  -----I ( V max – V min ) + V min
R
(17.4)
where,
R = resolution of A/D converter
V I = the integer value representing the input voltage
V C = the voltage calculated from the integer value
V ERROR = the maximum quantization error
Figure 17.4 - A/D Converter Equations
Consider a simple example, a 10 bit A/D converter can read voltages between -10V and 10V.
This gives a resolution of 1024, where 0 is -10V and 1023 is +10V. Because there are only 1024
steps there is a maximum error of ±9.8mV. If a voltage of 4.564V is input into the PLC, the A/D
converter converts the voltage to an integer value of 746. When we convert this back to a voltage
the result is 4.570V. The resulting quantization error is 4.570V-4.564V=+0.006V. This error can
be reduced by selecting an A/D converter with more bits. Each bit halves the quantization error.
page 434
Given,
N = 10
V max = 10V
V min = – 10V
V in = 4.564V
Calculate,
R = 2
N
= 1024
V max – V min
V ERROR =  ---------------------------- = 0.0098V
2R
V in – V min 
V I = INT  ---------------------------- R = 746
V

max – V min
V
V C =  -----I ( V max – Vmin ) + V min = 4.570V
 R
Figure 17.5 - Sample Calculation of A/D Values
If the voltage being sampled is changing too fast we may get false readings, as shown in Figure 17.6. In the upper graph the waveform completes seven cycles, and 9 samples are taken. The
bottom graph plots out the values read. The sampling frequency was too low, so the signal read
appears to be different that it actually is, this is called aliasing.
page 435
Figure 17.6 - Low Sampling Frequencies Cause Aliasing
The Nyquist criterion specifies that sampling frequencies should be at least twice the frequency of the signal being measured, otherwise aliasing will occur. The example in Figure 17.6
violated this principle, so the signal was aliased. If this happens in real applications the process
will appear to operate erratically. In practice the sample frequency should be 4 or more times
faster than the system frequency.
f AD > 2f signal
where,
f AD = sampling frequency
f signal = maximum frequency of the input
There are other practical details that should be considered when designing applications with
analog inputs;
• Noise - Since the sampling window for a signal is short, noise will have added effect on
the signal read. For example, a momentary voltage spike might result in a higher
than normal reading. Shielded data cables are commonly used to reduce the noise
levels.
• Delay - When the sample is requested, a short period of time passes before the final sample value is obtained.
• Multiplexing - Most analog input cards allow multiple inputs. These may share the A/D
converter using a technique called multiplexing. If there are 4 channels using an A/
page 436
D converter with a maximum sampling rate of 100Hz, the maximum sampling rate
per channel is 25Hz.
• Signal Conditioners - Signal conditioners are used to amplify, or filter signals coming
from transducers, before they are read by the A/D converter.
• Resistance - A/D converters normally have high input impedance (resistance), so they
affect circuits they are measuring.
• Single Ended Inputs - Voltage inputs to a PLC can use a single common for multiple
inputs, these types of inputs are called ’single’ ended inputs. These tend to be more
prone to noise.
• Double Ended Inputs - Each double ended input has its own common. This reduces problems with electrical noise, but also tends to reduce the number of inputs by half.
page 437
ASIDE: This device is an 8 bit A/D converter. The main concept behind this is the successive approximation logic. Once the reset is toggled the converter will start by setting
the most significant bit of the 8 bit number. This will be converted to a voltage ‘Ve’
that is a function of the ‘+/-Vref’ values. The value of ‘Ve’ is compared to ‘Vin’ and a
simple logic check determines which is larger. If the value of ‘Ve’ is larger the bit is
turned off. The logic then repeats similar steps from the most to least significant bits.
Once the last bit has been set on/off and checked the conversion will be complete, and
a done bit can be set to indicate a valid conversion value.
Vin above (+ve) or below (-ve) Ve
Vin
+
-
+Vref
clock
successive
approximation
logic
8
D to A
converter
Ve
reset
done
8
-Vref
data out
Quite often an A/D converter will multiplex between various inputs. As it switches the
voltage will be sampled by a ‘sample and hold circuit’. This will then be converted to a
digital value. The sample and hold circuits can be used before the multiplexer to collect
data values at the same instant in time.
Figure 17.7 - A Successive Approximation A/D Converter
17.2.1 Analog Inputs With a PLC
The PLC 5 ladder logic in Figure 17.8 will control an analog input card. The Block Transfer
Write (BTW) statement will send configuration data from integer memory to the analog card in
page 438
rack 0, slot 0. The data from ’N7:30’ to ’N7:66’ describes the configuration for different input
channels. Once the analog input card receives this it will start doing analog conversions. The
instruction is edge triggered, so it is run with the first scan, but the input is turned off while it is
active, ’BT10:0/EN’. This instruction will require multiple scans before all of the data has been
written to the card. The ’update’ input is only needed if the configuration for the input changes,
but this would be unusual. The Block Transfer Read (BTR) will retrieve data from the card and
store it in memory ’N7:10’ to ’N7:29’. This data will contain the analog input values. The function is edge triggered, so the enable bits prevent it from trying to read data before the card is configured ’BT10:0/EN’. The ’BT10:1/EN’ bit will prevent if from starting another read until the
previous one is complete. Without these the instructions experience continuous errors. The
’MOV’ instruction will move the data value from one analog input to another memory location
when the BTR instruction is done.
update
BT10:0/EN
S2:1/15
BT10:0/EN
BT10:1/DN
BT10:1/EN
BTW
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT10:0
Data File: N7:30
Length: 37
Continuous: no
BTR
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT10:1
Data File: N7:10
Length: 20
Continuous: no
MOV
Source N7:15
Dest N7:0
Note: The basic operation is that the BTW will send the control block to the input
card. The inputs are used because the BTR and BTW commands may take longer
than one scan.
page 439
Figure 17.8 - Ladder Logic to Control an Analog Input Card
The data to configure a ’1771-IFE Analog Input Card’ is shown in Figure 17.9. (Note: each
type of card will be different, and you need to refer to the manuals for this information.) The
1771-IFE is a 12 bit card, so the range will have up to 2**12 = 4096 values. The card can have 8
double ended inputs, or 16 single ended inputs (these are set with jumpers on the board). To configure the card a total of 37 data words are needed. The voltage range of different inputs are set
using the bits in word 0 (N7:30) and 1 (N7:31). For example, to set the voltage range on channel
10 to -5V to 5V we would need to set the bits, N7:31/3 = 1 and N7:31/2 = 0. Bits in data word 2
(N7:32) are set to determine the general configuration of the card. For example, if word 2 was
’0001 0100 0000 0000’ the card would be set for; a delay of ’00010’ between samples, to return
2s compliment results, using single ended inputs, and no filtering. The remaining data words,
from 3 to 36, allow data values to be scaled to a new range. In this case the values are all zeros, so
the data will not be scaled.
page 440
N7:30
0
1
2
3
R8
R8
R1
R1
R16 R16 R15 R15 R14 R14 R13 R13 R12 R12 R11 R11 R10 R10 R9
R9
S
0
F
0
S
0
R7
S
0
R7
S
0
R6
S
0
R6
N
0
R5
N
0
R5
T
0
R4
F
0
R4
F
0
R3
F
0
R3
F
0
R2
F
0
R2
F
0
F
0
Note: lines 3-36 allow data scaling so that
the inputs can be automatically converted
to a voltage, or other value. If the values
are left at 0, scaling is turned off.
36
0
0
0
0
R1,R2,...R16 - range values
0
0
0
00
01
10
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 to 5V
0 to 5V
-5 to 5V
-10 to 10V
T - input type - (0) gives single ended, (1) gives double ended
N - data format -
00
01
10
11
BCD
not used
2’s complement binary
signed magnitude binary
F - filter function - a value of (0) will result in no filtering, up to a value of (99BCD)
S - real time sampling mode - (0) samples always, (11111binary) gives long delays.
Figure 17.9 - Configuration Data for an 1771-IFE Analog Input Card
The block of data returned by the BTR statement is shown in Figure 17.10. Bits 0-2 in word 0
(N7:10) will indicate the status of the card, such as error conditions. Words 1 to 4 will reflect status values for each channel. Words 1 and 2 indicate if the input voltage is outside the set range
(e.g., -5V to 5V). Word 3 gives the sign of the data, which is important if the data is not in 2s
compliment form. Word 4 indicates when data has been read from a channel. The data values for
the analog inputs are stored in words from 5 to 19. In this example, the status for channel 9 are
N7:11/8 (under range), N7:12/8 (over range), N7:13/8 (sign) and N7:14/8 (data read). The data
value for channel 9 is in N7:13.
page 441
N7:10
0
1
2
3
4
19
D
D
D
u16
u15
u14
u13
u12
u11
u10
u9
u8
u7
u6
u5
u4
u3
u2
u1
v16
v15
v14
v13
v12
v11
v10
v9
v8
v7
v6
v5
v4
v3
v2
v1
s16
s15
s14
s13
s12
s11
s10
s9
s8
s7
s6
s5
s4
s3
s2
s1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
d16
D - diagnostics
u - under range for input channels
v - over range for input channels
s - sign of data
d - data values read from inputs
Figure 17.10 - Data Returned by the 1771-IFE Analog Input Card
Most new PLC programming software provides tools, such as dialog boxes to help set up the
data parameters for the card. If these aids are not available, the values can be set manually in the
PLC memory.
17.3 ANALOG OUTPUTS
Analog outputs are much simpler than analog inputs. To set an analog output an integer is
converted to a voltage. This process is very fast, and does not experience the timing problems
with analog inputs. But, analog outputs are subject to quantization errors. Figure 17.11 gives a
summary of the important relationships. These relationships are almost identical to those of the A/
D converter.
page 442
R = 2
N
(17.5)
V max – V min
V ERROR =  ----------------------------

2R
(17.6)
V desired – V min
R
VI = INT  ---------------------------------- V

–V
(17.7)
max
min
V
V output =  -----I ( V max – V min ) + V min (17.8)
R
where,
R = resolution of A/D converter
V ERROR = the maximum quantization error
V I = the integer value representing the desired voltage
V output = the voltage output using the integer value
Figure 17.11 - Analog Output Relationships
Assume we are using an 8 bit D/A converter that outputs values between 0V and 10V. We
have a resolution of 256, where 0 results in an output of 0V and 255 results in 10V. The quantization error will be 20mV. If we want to output a voltage of 6.234V, we would specify an output
integer of 160, this would result in an output voltage of 6.250V. The quantization error would be
6.250V-6.234V=0.016V.
page 443
Given,
N = 8
V max = 10V
V min = 0V
V desired = 6.234V
Calculate,
R = 2
N
= 256
V max – V min
V ERROR =  ---------------------------- = 0.020V
2R
V in – V min 
V I = INT  ---------------------------- R = 160
V

max – V min
V
V C =  -----I ( V max – Vmin ) + V min = 6.250V
 R
The current output from a D/A converter is normally limited to a small value, typically less
than 20mA. This is enough for instrumentation, but for high current loads, such as motors, a current amplifier is needed. This type of interface will be discussed later. If the current limit is
exceeded for 5V output, the voltage will decrease (so don’t exceed the rated voltage). If the current limit is exceeded for long periods of time the D/A output may be damaged.
page 444
ASIDE:
5KΩ
MSB bit 3
bit 2
10KΩ
20KΩ
V–
V
+
V ss
+
0
Computer
bit 1
+
Vo
40KΩ
-
LSB bit 0
80KΩ
First we write the obvious,
V
+
= 0 = V–
Next, sum the currents into the inverting input as a function of the output voltage and the
input voltages from the computer,
Vb3
V b2
Vb1
V b0
Vo
-------------- + -------------- + -------------- + -------------- = ----------10KΩ 20KΩ 40KΩ 80KΩ
5KΩ
∴V o = 0.5V b3 + 0.25V b2 + 0.125V b1 + 0.0625Vb 0
Consider an example where the binary output is 1110, with 5V for on,
∴V o = 0.5 ( 5V ) + 0.25 ( 5V ) + 0.125 ( 5V ) + 0.625 ( 0V ) = 4.375V
Figure 17.12 - A Digital-To-Analog Converter
17.3.1 Analog Outputs With A PLC
The PLC-5 ladder logic in Figure 17.13 can be used to set analog output voltages with a
1771-OFE Analog Output Card. The BTW instruction will write configuration memory to the
card (the contents are described later). Values can also be read back from the card using a BTR,
but this is only valuable when checking the status of the card and detecting errors. The BTW is
page 445
edge triggered, so the ’BT10:0/EN’ input prevents the BTW from restarting the instruction until
the previous block has been sent. The MOV instruction will change the output value for channel 1
on the card.
BT10:0/EN
update
Block Transfer Write
Module Type Generic Block Transfer
Rack 000
Group 3
Module 0
Control Block BT10:0
Data File N9:0
Length 13
Continuous No
MOV
Source 300
Dest N9:0
Figure 17.13 - Controlling a 1771-OFE Analog Output Card
The configuration memory structure for the 1771-OFE Analog Output Card is shown in Figure 17.14. The card has four 12 bit output channels. The first four words set the output values for
the card. Word 0 (N9:0) sets the value for channel 1, word 1 (N9:1) sets the value for channel 2,
etc. Word 4 configures the card. Bit 16 (N9:4/15) will set the data format, bits 5 to 12 (/4 to /11)
will enable scaling factors for channels, and bits 1 to 4 (/0 to /3) will provide signs for the data in
words 0 to 3. The words from 5 to 13 allow scaling factors, so that the values in words 0 to 3 can
be provided in another range of values, and then converted to the appropriate values.
page 446
N9:0
0
1
2
3
4
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d1
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d2
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d3
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
d4
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
p4
p3
p2
p1
F
The following
values are for
scaling the
values.
d - data values for channels 1, 2, 3, or 4
F - data formats (1) binary, (0) BCD
s - scaling factors
p - data signs for the four input channels
Figure 17.14 - Configuration Data for a 1771-OFE Output Card
17.4 DESIGN CASES
17.4.1 Process Monitor
Problem: Design ladder logic that will monitor the dimension of a part in a die. If the
Solution:
17.5 SUMMARY
• A/D conversion will convert a continuous value to an integer value.
• D/A conversion is easier and faster and will convert a digital value to an analog value.
• Resolution limits the accuracy of A/D and D/A converters.
• Sampling too slowly will alias the real signal.
• Analog inputs are sensitive to noise.
• The analog I/O cards are configured with a few words of memory.
• BTW and BTR functions are needed to communicate with the analog I/O cards.
page 447
17.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Analog inputs require:
a) A Digital to Analog conversion at the PLC input interface module
b) Analog to Digital conversion at the PLC input interface module
c) No conversion is required
d) None of the above
(ans. b)
2. You need to read an analog voltage that has a range of -10V to 10V to a precision of 0.1V.
What resolution of A/D converter is needed?
(ans.
10V – ( – 10V )
R = ---------------------------------- = 200
0.1V
7 bits = 128
8 bits = 256
The minimum number of bits is 8.
3. We are given a 12 bit analog input with a range of -10V to 10V. If we put in 2.735V, what will
the integer value be after the A/D conversion? What is the error? What voltage can we calculate?
(ans.
N = 12
R = 4096
V min = – 10V
V max = 10V
V in = 2.735V
V in – V min 
V I = INT  ---------------------------- R = 2608
V
max – V min
V
V C =  -----I ( V max – Vmin ) + V min = 2.734V
R
4. Use manuals on the web for an analog input card, and describe the process that would be
needed to set up the card to read an input voltage between -2V and 7V. This description should
include jumper settings, configuration memory and ladder logic.
(ans. for the 1771-IFE card you would put keying in the back of the card, because voltage is being
measured, jumpers inside the card are already in the default position. Calibration might be
required, this can be done using jumper settings and suppling known voltages, then adjusting
trim potentiometers on the card. The card can then be installed in the rack - it is recommended
that they be as close to the CPU as possible. After the programming software is running the
card can by adding it to the IO configuration, and automatic settings can be used to set values in
integer memory.)
page 448
6. We need to select a digital to analog converter for an application. The output will vary from 5V to 10V DC, and we need to be able to specify the voltage to within 50mV. What resolution
will be required? How many bits will this D/A converter need? What will the accuracy be?
(ans.
A card with a voltage range from -10V to +10V will be selected to cover the
entire range.
10V – ( – 10V )
R = ---------------------------------- = 400
minimum resolution
0.050V
8 bits = 256
9 bits = 512
10 bits = 1024
The A/D converter needs a minimum of 9 bits, but this number of bits is not
commonly available, but 10 bits is, so that will be selected.
V max – V min
10V – ( – 10V )
- = ---------------------------------- = ± 0.00976V
V ERROR =  ---------------------------

2 ( 1024 )
2R
7. Write a program that will input an analog voltage, do the calculation below, and output an analog voltage.
V out = ln ( V in )
page 449
(ans.
FS
BT9:1/EN
BT9:0/EN
BTW
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:0
Data N7:0
Length 37
Continuous No
BT9:0/EN
BTR
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:1
Data N7:37
Length 20
Continuous No
BT9:1/EN
BTW
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:2
Data N7:57
Length 13
Continuous No
BT9:1/DN
CPT
Dest N7:57
Expression
"LN (N7:41)"
8. The following calculation will be made when input ‘A’ is true. If the result ‘x’ is between 1 and
10 then the output ‘B’ will be turned on. The value of ‘x’ will be output as an analog voltage.
Create a ladder logic program to perform these tasks.
x = 5
y
1 + sin y
A = I:000/00
B = O:001/00
x = F8:0
y = F8:1
page 450
ans.
SIN
Source A F8:1
Dest. F8:0
A
ADD
Source A 1
Source B F8:0
Dest. F8:0
SQR
Source A F8:0
Dest. F8:0
XPY
Source A 5
Source B F8:1
Dest. F8:2
MUL
Source A F8:0
Source B F8:2
Dest. F8:0
LIM
lower lim. 1
value F8:0
upper lim. 10
B
A
A
MOV
Source A F8:0
Dest. N7:0
BT9:0/EN
BTW
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:0
Data N7:0
Length 13
Continuous No
9. You are developing a controller for a game that measures hand strength. To do this a ‘START’
button is pushed, 3 seconds later a ‘LIGHT’ is turned on for one second to let the user know
when to start squeezing. The analog value is read at 0.3s after the light is on. The value is converted to a force ‘F’ with the equation below. The force is displayed by converting it to BCD
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and writing it to an output card (O:001). If the value exceeds 100 then a ‘BIG_LIGHT’ and
‘SIREN’ are turned on for 5sec. Use a structured design technique to develop ladder logic.
V in
F = ------6
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ans.
FS
S1
waiting
START
S2
sampling
F>100
S3
winner
TON(S2, 1sec)
TON(S3, 5sec)
FS
TON
T4:1
preset 1s
L ST1
U ST2
T4:0/DN
U ST3
BTW
Device Analog Input
location 000
Control BT10:0
Data N9:0
Length 37
ST2
BT10:1/DN
T4:1/DN
T4:1/DN
LIGHT
ST3
START
DIV
Source A N9:40
Source B 6
Dest. N7:0
U ST2
L ST1
BIG_LIGHT
TOD
Source A N7:0
Dest. O:001
SIREN
ST1
BTR
Device Analog Input
location 000
Control BT10:1
Data N9:40
Length 20
MCR
T4:1/DN
U ST1
GRT
Source A N7:0
Source B 100
L ST2
MCR
MOV
Source 0.0
Dest F8:0
ST3
TON
T4:2
preset 5s
MCR
ST2
MCR
TON
T4:0
preset 0.3s
MCR
T4:2/DN
U ST3
L ST1
MCR
U ST1
L ST3
page 453
10. Develop a program to sample analog data values and calculate the average, standard deviation, and the control limits. The general steps are listed below.
1. Read sampled inputs.
2. Randomly select values and calculate the average and store in memory. Calculate the
standard deviation of the stored values.
3. Compare the inputs to the standard deviation. If it is larger than 3 deviations from the
mean, halt the process.
4. If it is larger than 2 then increase a counter A, or if it is larger than 1 increase a second
counter B. If it is less than 1 reset the counters.
5. If counter A is =3 or B is =5 then shut down.
6. Goto 1.
m
X =
∑ Xj
j=1
UCL = X + 3σ X
LCL = X – 3σ X
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18. CONTINUOUS SENSORS
Topics:
• Continuous sensor issues; accuracy, resolution, etc.
• Angular measurement; potentiometers, encoders and tachometers
• Linear measurement; potentiometers, LVDTs, Moire fringes and accelerometers
• Force measurement; strain gages and piezoelectric
• Liquid and fluid measurement; pressure and flow
• Temperature measurement; RTDs, thermocouples and thermistors
• Other sensors
• Continuous signal inputs and wiring
• Glossary
Objectives:
• To understand the common continuous sensor types.
• To understand interfacing issues.
18.1 INTRODUCTION
Continuous sensors convert physical phenomena to measurable signals, typically voltages or
currents. Consider a simple temperature measuring device, there will be an increase in output
voltage proportional to a temperature rise. A PLC could measure the voltage, and convert it to a
temperature. The basic physical phenomena typically measured with sensors include;
- angular or linear position
- acceleration
- temperature
- pressure or flow rates
- stress, strain or force
- light intensity
- sound
Most of these sensors are based on subtle electrical properties of materials and devices. As a
result the signals often require ’signal conditioners’. These are often amplifiers that boost currents
and voltages to larger voltages.
Sensors are also called transducers. This is because they convert an input phenomena to an
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output in a different form. This transformation relies upon a manufactured device with limitations
and imperfection. As a result sensor limitations are often characterized with;
Accuracy - This is the maximum difference between the indicated and actual reading. For
example, if a sensor reads a force of 100N with a ±1% accuracy, then the force
could be anywhere from 99N to 101N.
Resolution - Used for systems that ‘step’ through readings. This is the smallest increment
that the sensor can detect, this may also be incorporated into the accuracy value.
For example if a sensor measures up to 10 inches of linear displacements, and it
outputs a number between 0 and 100, then the resolution of the device is 0.1
inches.
Repeatability - When a single sensor condition is made and repeated, there will be a small
variation for that particular reading. If we take a statistical range for repeated readings (e.g., ±3 standard deviations) this will be the repeatability. For example, if a
flow rate sensor has a repeatability of 0.5cfm, readings for an actual flow of
100cfm should rarely be outside 99.5cfm to 100.5cfm.
Precision - This considers accuracy, resolution and repeatability or one device relative to
another.
Range - Natural limits for the sensor. For example, a sensor for reading angular rotation
may only rotate 200 degrees.
Dynamic Response - The frequency range for regular operation of the sensor. Typically
sensors will have an upper operation frequency, occasionally there will be lower
frequency limits. For example, our ears hear best between 10Hz and 16KHz.
Environmental - Sensors all have some limitations over factors such as temperature,
humidity, dirt/oil, corrosives and pressures. For example many sensors will work
in relative humidities (RH) from 10% to 80%.
Calibration - When manufactured or installed, many sensors will need some calibration to
determine or set the relationship between the input phenomena, and output. For
example, a temperature reading sensor may need to be ’zeroed’ or adjusted so that
the measured temperature matches the actual temperature. This may require special equipment, and need to be performed frequently.
Cost - Generally more precision costs more. Some sensors are very inexpensive, but the
signal conditioning equipment costs are significant.
18.2 INDUSTRIAL SENSORS
This section describes sensors that will be of use for industrial measurements. The sections
have been divided by the phenomena to be measured. Where possible details are provided.
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18.2.1 Angular Displacement
18.2.1.1 - Potentiometers
Potentiometers measure the angular position of a shaft using a variable resistor. A potentiometer is shown in Figure 18.1. The potentiometer is resistor, normally made with a thin film of
resistive material. A wiper can be moved along the surface of the resistive film. As the wiper
moves toward one end there will be a change in resistance proportional to the distance moved. If a
voltage is applied across the resistor, the voltage at the wiper interpolate the voltages at the ends
of the resistor.
V1
resistive
film
V1
Vw
Vw
V2
wiper
V2
physical
schematic
Figure 18.1 - A Potentiometer
The potentiometer in Figure 18.2 is being used as a voltage divider. As the wiper rotates the
output voltage will be proportional to the angle of rotation.
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V1
θ max
θw
V out
θw 
V out = ( V 2 – V 1 )  ---------- + V1
θ max
V2
Figure 18.2 - A Potentiometer as a Voltage Divider
Potentiometers are popular because they are inexpensive, and don’t require special signal
conditioners. But, they have limited accuracy, normally in the range of 1% and they are subject to
mechanical wear.
Potentiometers measure absolute position, and they are calibrated by rotating them in their
mounting brackets, and then tightening them in place. The range of rotation is normally limited to
less than 360 degrees or multiples of 360 degrees. Some potentiometers can rotate without limits,
and the wiper will jump from one end of the resistor to the other.
Faults in potentiometers can be detected by designing the potentiometer to never reach the
ends of the range of motion. If an output voltage from the potentiometer ever reaches either end of
the range, then a problem has occurred, and the machine can be shut down. Two examples of
problems that might cause this are wires that fall off, or the potentiometer rotates in its mounting.
18.2.2 Encoders
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Encoders use rotating disks with optical windows, as shown in Figure 18.3. The encoder contains an optical disk with fine windows etched into it. Light from emitters passes through the
openings in the disk to detectors. As the encoder shaft is rotated, the light beams are broken. The
encoder shown here is a quadrature encode, and it will be discussed later.
light
emitters
light
detectors
Shaft rotates
Figure 18.3 - An Encoder Disk
There are two fundamental types of encoders; absolute and incremental. An absolute encoder
will measure the position of the shaft for a single rotation. The same shaft angle will always produce the same reading. The output is normally a binary or grey code number. An incremental (or
relative) encoder will output two pulses that can be used to determine displacement. Logic circuits
or software is used to determine the direction of rotation, and count pulses to determine the displacement. The velocity can be determined by measuring the time between pulses.
Encoder disks are shown in Figure 18.4. The absolute encoder has two rings, the outer ring is
the most significant digit of the encoder, the inner ring is the least significant digit. The relative
encoder has two rings, with one ring rotated a few degrees ahead of the other, but otherwise the
same. Both rings detect position to a quarter of the disk. To add accuracy to the absolute encoder
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more rings must be added to the disk, and more emitters and detectors. To add accuracy to the relative encoder we only need to add more windows to the existing two rings. Typical encoders will
have from 2 to thousands of windows per ring.
sensors read across
a single radial line
relative encoder
(quadrature)
absolute encoder
Figure 18.4 - Encoder Disks
When using absolute encoders, the position during a single rotation is measured directly. If
the encoder rotates multiple times then the total number of rotations must be counted separately.
When using a relative encoder, the distance of rotation is determined by counting the pulses
from one of the rings. If the encoder only rotates in one direction then a simple count of pulses
from one ring will determine the total distance. If the encoder can rotate both directions a second
ring must be used to determine when to subtract pulses. The quadrature scheme, using two rings,
is shown in Figure 18.5. The signals are set up so that one is out of phase with the other. Notice
that for different directions of rotation, input ’B’ either leads or lags ’A’.
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Quad input A
clockwise rotation
Quad Input B
Note the change
as direction
is reversed
total displacement can be determined
by adding/subtracting pulse counts
(direction determines add/subtract)
Quad input A
counterclockwise rotation
Quad Input B
Note: To determine direction we can do a simple check. If both are off or on, the first
to change state determines direction. Consider a point in the graphs above where
both A and B are off. If A is the first input to turn on the encoder is rotating clockwise. If B is the first to turn on the rotation is counterclockwise.
Aside: A circuit (or program) can be built for this circuit using an up/down counter. If
the positive edge of input ’A’ is used to trigger the clock, and input ’B’ is used to
drive the up/down count, the counter will keep track of the encoder position.
Figure 18.5 - Quadrature Encoders
Interfaces for encoders are commonly available for PLCs and as purchased units. Newer
PLCs will also allow two normal inputs to be used to decode encoder inputs.
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Normally absolute and relative encoders require a calibration phase when a controller is
turned on. This normally involves moving an axis until it reaches a logical sensor that marks the
end of the range. The end of range is then used as the zero position. Machines using encoders, and
other relative sensors, are noticeable in that they normally move to some extreme position before
use.
18.2.2.1 - Tachometers
Tachometers measure the velocity of a rotating shaft. A common technique is to mount a
magnet to a rotating shaft. When the magnetic moves past a stationary pick-up coil, current is
induced. For each rotation of the shaft there is a pulse in the coil, as shown in Figure 18.6. When
the time between the pulses is measured the period for one rotation can be found, and the frequency calculated. This technique often requires some signal conditioning circuitry.
rotating
shaft
pickup
coil
Vout
Vout
t
magnet
1/f
Figure 18.6 - A Magnetic Tachometer
Another common technique uses a simple permanent magnet DC generator (note: you can
also use a small DC motor). The generator is hooked to the rotating shaft. The rotation of a shaft
will induce a voltage proportional to the angular velocity. This technique will introduce some
drag into the system, and is used where efficiency is not an issue.
Both of these techniques are common, and inexpensive.
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18.2.3 Linear Position
18.2.3.1 - Potentiometers
Rotational potentiometers were discussed before, but potentiometers are also available in linear/sliding form. These are capable of measuring linear displacement over long distances. Figure
18.7 shows the output voltage when using the potentiometer as a voltage divider.
V2
Vout = V 1 + ( V 2 – V1 )  --a-
 L
V out
L
a
V1
Figure 18.7 - Linear Potentiometer
Linear/sliding potentiometers have the same general advantages and disadvantages of rotating potentiometers.
18.2.3.2 - Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) measure linear displacements over a
limited range. The basic device is shown in Figure 18.8. It consists of outer coils with an inner
moving magnetic core. High frequency alternating current (AC) is applied to the center coil. This
generates a magnetic field that induces a current in the two outside coils. The core will pull the
magnetic field towards it, so in the figure more current will be induced in the left hand coil. The
outside coils are wound in opposite directions so that when the core is in the center the induced
currents cancel, and the signal out is zero (0Vac). The magnitude of the ’signal out’ voltage on
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either line indicates the position of the core. Near the center of motion the change in voltage is
proportional to the displacement. But, further from the center the relationship becomes nonlinear.
A rod drives
the sliding core
∆x
∆V = K∆x
where,
AC input
∆V = output voltage
K = constant for device
∆x = core displacement
signal out
Figure 18.8 - An LVDT
Aside: The circuit below can be used to produce a voltage that is proportional to position.
The two diodes convert the AC wave to a half wave DC wave. The capacitor and resistor values can be selected to act as a low pass filter. The final capacitor should be large
enough to smooth out the voltage ripple on the output.
Vac out
Vac in
Vdc out
LVDT
Figure 18.9 - A Simple Signal Conditioner for an LVDT
These devices are more accurate than linear potentiometers, and have less friction. Typical
page 464
applications for these devices include measuring dimensions on parts for quality control. They are
often used for pressure measurements with Bourdon tubes and bellows/diaphragms. A major disadvantage of these sensors is the high cost, often in the thousands.
18.2.3.3 - Moire Fringes
High precision linear displacement measurements can be made with Moire Fringes, as shown
in Figure 18.10. Both of the strips are transparent (or reflective), with black lines at measured
intervals. The spacing of the lines determines the accuracy of the position measurements. The stationary strip is offset at an angle so that the strips interfere to give irregular patterns. As the moving strip travels by a stationary strip the patterns will move up, or down, depending upon the
speed and direction of motion.
Moving
Stationary
Note: you can recreate this effect with the strips below. Photocopy the pattern twice,
overlay the sheets and hold them up to the light. You will notice that shifting one
sheet will cause the stripes to move up or down.
Figure 18.10 - The Moire Fringe Effect
A device to measure the motion of the moire fringes is shown in Figure 18.11. A light source
is collimated by passing it through a narrow slit to make it one slit width. This is then passed
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through the fringes to be detected by light sensors. At least two light sensors are needed to detect
the bright and dark locations. Two sensors, close enough, can act as a quadrature pair, and the
same method used for quadrature encoders can be used to determine direction and distance of
motion.
on
off
on
off
Figure 18.11 - Measuring Motion with Moire Fringes
These are used in high precision applications over long distances, often meters. They can be
purchased from a number of suppliers, but the cost will be high. Typical applications include
Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs).
18.2.3.4 - Accelerometers
Accelerometers measure acceleration using a mass suspended on a force sensor, as shown in
Figure 18.12. When the sensor accelerates, the inertial resistance of the mass will cause the force
sensor to deflect. By measuring the deflection the acceleration can be determined. In this case the
mass is cantilevered on the force sensor. A base and housing enclose the sensor. A small mounting stud (a threaded shaft) is used to mount the accelerometer.
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Base
Mounting
Stud
Force
Sensor
Mass
Housing
Figure 18.12 - A Cross Section of an Accelerometer
Accelerometers are dynamic sensors, typically used for measuring vibrations between 10Hz
to 10KHz. Temperature variations will affect the accuracy of the sensors. Standard accelerometers can be linear up to 100,000 m/s**2: high shock designs can be used up to 1,000,000 m/s**2.
There is often a trade-off between a wide frequency range and device sensitivity (note: higher
sensitivity requires a larger mass). Table 18.1 shows the sensitivity of two accelerometers with
different resonant frequencies. A smaller resonant frequency limits the maximum frequency for
the reading. The smaller frequency results in a smaller sensitivity. The units for sensitivity is
charge per m/s**2.
Table 18.1 - Piezoelectric Accelerometer Sensitivities
resonant freq. (Hz)
sensitivity
22 KHz
180KHz
4.5 pC/(m/s**2)
.004
The force sensor is often a small piece of piezoelectric material (discussed later in this chapter). The piezoelectic material can be used to measure the force in shear or compression. Piezoelectric based accelerometers typically have parameters such as,
-100to250°C operating range
1mV/g to 30V/g sensitivity
operate well below one forth of the natural frequency
The accelerometer is mounted on the vibration source as shown in Figure 18.13. The accelerometer is electrically isolated from the vibration source so that the sensor may be grounded at the
page 467
amplifier (to reduce electrical noise). Cables are fixed to the surface of the vibration source, close
to the accelerometer, and are fixed to the surface as often as possible to prevent noise from the
cable striking the surface. Background vibrations can be detected by attaching control electrodes
to ‘non-vibrating’ surfaces. Each accelerometer is different, but some general application guidelines are;
• The control vibrations should be less than 1/3 of the signal for the error to be less than
12%).
• Mass of the accelerometers should be less than a tenth of the measurement mass.
• These devices can be calibrated with shakers, for example a 1g shaker will hit a peak
velocity of 9.81 m/s**2.
Sealant to prevent moisture
hookup wire
isolated
stud
accelerometer
isolated
wafer
surface
Figure 18.13 - Mounting an Accelerometer
Equipment normally used when doing vibration testing is shown in Figure 18.14. The sensor
needs to be mounted on the equipment to be tested. A pre-amplifier normally converts the charge
generated by the accelerometer to a voltage. The voltage can then be analyzed to determine the
vibration frequencies.
page 468
Sensor
preamp
signal processor/
recorder
Source of vibrations,
or site for vibration
measurement
control system
Figure 18.14 - Typical Connection for Accelerometers
Accelerometers are commonly used for control systems that adjust speeds to reduce vibration
and noise. Computer Controlled Milling machines now use these sensors to actively eliminate
chatter, and detect tool failure. The signal from accelerometers can be integrated to find velocity
and acceleration.
Currently accelerometers cost hundreds or thousands per channel. But, advances in micromachining are already beginning to provide integrated circuit accelerometers at a low cost. Their current use is for airbag deployment systems in automobiles.
18.2.4 Forces and Moments
18.2.4.1 - Strain Gages
Strain gages measure strain in materials using the change in resistance of a wire. The wire is
glued to the surface of a part, so that it undergoes the same strain as the part (at the mount point).
Figure 8.15 shows the basic properties of the undeformed wire. Basically, the resistance of the
wire is a function of the resistivity, length, and cross sectional area.
page 469
w
t
L
V
+
I
V
LR = --- = ρ --L- = ρ ----I
A
wt
where,
R = resistance of wire
V, I = voltage and current
L = length of wire
w, t = width and thickness
A = cross sectional area of conductor
ρ = resistivity of material
Figure 8.15 - The Electrical Properties of a Wire
After the wire in Figure 8.15 has been deformed it will take on the new dimensions and resistance shown in Figure 8.16. If a force is applied as shown, the wire will become longer, as predicted by Young’s modulus. But, the cross sectional area will decrease, as predicted by Poison’s
ratio. The new length and cross sectional area can then be used to find a new resistance.
page 470
w’
t’
L’
F
F
σ = --- = ------ = Eε
A
wt
F
F
∴ε = ---------Ewt
L'- = ρ  --------------------------------------------L(1 + ε)

R' = ρ ------ w ( 1 – νε )t ( 1 – νε )-
w't'
(1 + ε)
∴∆R = R' – R = R ---------------------------------------- – 1
( 1 – νε ) ( 1 – νε )
where,
ν =
F =
E =
σ, ε
poissons ratio for the material
applied force
Youngs modulusforthematerial
= stress and strain of material
Figure 8.16 - The Electrical and Mechanical Properties of the Deformed Wire
page 471
Aside: Changes in strain gauge resistance are typically small (large values would require
strains that would cause the gauges to plastically deform). As a result, Wheatstone
bridges are used to amplify the small change. In this circuit the variable resistor R2
would be tuned until Vo = 0V. Then the resistance of the strain gage can be calculated
using the given equation.
R2 R1
R strain = ----------R3
V+
R2
when Vo = 0V
R4
R1
+
Rstrain
Vo
R3
R5
Figure 8.17 - Measuring Strain with a Wheatstone Bridge
A strain gage must be small for accurate readings, so the wire is actually wound in a uniaxial
or rosette pattern, as shown in Figure 8.18. When using uniaxial gages the direction is important,
it must be placed in the direction of the normal stress. (Note: the gages cannot read shear stress.)
Rosette gages are less sensitive to direction, and if a shear force is present the gage will measure
the resulting normal force at 45 degrees. These gauges are sold on thin films that are glued to the
surface of a part. The process of mounting strain gages involves surface cleaning. application of
adhesives, and soldering leads to the strain gages.
stress
direction
page 472
uniaxial
rosette
Figure 8.18 - Wire Arrangements in Strain Gages
A design techniques using strain gages is to design a part with a narrowed neck to mount the
strain gage on, as shown in Figure 8.19. In the narrow neck the strain is proportional to the load on
the member, so it may be used to measure force. These parts are often called ’load cells’.
mounted in narrow section
to increase strain effect
F
F
Figure 8.19 - Using a Narrow to Increase Strain
Strain gauges are inexpensive, and can be used to measure a wide range of stresses with accuracies under 1%. Gages require calibration before each use. This often involves making a reading
with no load, or a known load applied. An example application includes using strain gages to
measure die forces during stamping to estimate when maintenance is needed.
18.2.4.2 - Piezoelectric
When a crystal undergoes strain it displaces a small amount of charge. In other words, when
the distance between atoms in the crystal lattice changes some electrons are forced out or drawn
in. This also changes the capacitance of the crystal. This is known as the Piezoelectric effect. Fig-
page 473
ure 18.20 shows the relationships for a crystal undergoing a linear deformation. The charge generated is a function of the force applied, the strain in the material, and a constant specific to the
material. The change in capacitance is proportional to the change in the thickness.
F
b
c
+
q
a
F
εab
d
C = --------i = εg ----- F
c
dt
where,
C = capacitance change
a, b, c = geometry of material
ε = dielectric constant (quartz typ. 4.06*10**-11 F/m)
i = current generated
F = force applied
g = constant for material (quartz typ. 50*10**-3 Vm/N)
E = Youngs modulus (quartz typ. 8.6*10**10 N/m**2)
Figure 18.20 - The Piezoelectric Effect
These crystals are used for force sensors, but they are also used for applications such as
microphones and pressure sensors. Applying an electrical charge can induce strain, allowing them
to be used as actuators, such as audio speakers.
When using piezoelectric sensors charge amplifiers are needed to convert the small amount
of charge to a larger voltage. These sensors are best suited to dynamic measurements, when used
for static measurements they tend to ’drift’ or slowly lose charge, and the signal value will
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change.
18.2.5 Fluids and Liquids
18.2.5.1 - Pressure
Figure 8.21 shows different two mechanisms for pressure measurement. The Bourdon tube
uses a circular pressure tube. When the pressure inside is higher than the surrounding air pressure
(14.5psi approx.) the tube will straighten. A position sensor, connected to the end of the tube, will
be elongated when the pressure increases.
pressure
increase
pressure
increase
position sensor
position sensor
pressure
pressure
a) Bourdon Tube
b) Baffle
Figure 8.21 - Pressure Transducers
These sensors are very common and have typical accuracies of 0.5%.
18.2.5.2 - Venturi Valves
page 475
When a flowing fluid or gas passes through a narrow pipe section (neck) the pressure drops.
If there is no flow the pressure before and after the neck will be the same. The faster the fluid
flow, the greater the pressure difference before and after the neck. This is known as a Venturi
valve. Figure 8.22 shows a Venturi valve being used to measure a fluid flow rate. The fluid flow
rate will be proportional to the pressure difference before and at the neck of the valve.
differential
pressure
transducer
fluid flow
Figure 8.22 - A Venturi Valve
page 476
Aside: Bernoulli’s equation can be used to relate the pressure drop in a venturi valve.
2
--p- + v----- + gz = C
ρ 2
where,
p = pressure
ρ = density
v = velocity
g = gravitational constant
z = height above a reference
C = constant
Consider the centerline of the fluid flow through the valve. Assume the fluid is incompressible, so the density does not change. And, assume that the center line of the valve
does not change. This gives us a simpler equation, as shown below, that relates the
velocit and pressure before and after it is compressed.
2
2
p before v before
p after v after
---------------- + ------------------ + gz = C = ------------ + -------------- + gz
ρ
2
ρ
2
2
2
p before v before
p after v after
---------------- + ------------------ = ----------- + -------------ρ
2
ρ
2
2
p before – p after
2
 v after v before 
= ρ  -------------- – ------------------
2 
 2
The flow velocity ’v’ in the valve will be larger than the velocity in the larger pipe section before. So, the right hand side of the expression will be positive. This will
mean that the pressure before will always be higher than the pressure after, and the
difference will be proportional to the velocity squared.
Figure 8.23 - The Pressure Relationship for a Venturi Valve
Venturi valves allow pressures to be read without moving parts, which makes them very reliable and durable. They work well for both fluids and gases. It is also common to useVenturi
valves to generate vacuums for actuators, such as suction cups.
18.2.5.3 - Pitot Tubes
page 477
Gas flow rates can be measured using Pitot tubes, as shown in figure 8.24. These are small
tubes that project into a flow. The diameter of the tube is small (typically less than 1/8") so that it
doesn’t affect the flow.
gas flow
pitot
tube
connecting hose
pressure
sensor
Figure 8.24 - Pitot Tubes for Measuring Gas Flow Rates
18.2.6 Temperature
Temperature measurements are very common with control systems. The temperature ranges
are normally described with the following classifications.
very low temperatures <-60 deg C - e.g. superconductors in MRI units
low temperature measurement -60 to 0 deg C - e.g. freezer controls
fine temperature measurements 0 to 100 deg C - e.g. environmental controls
high temperature measurements <3000 deg F - e.g. metal refining/processing
very high temperatures > 2000 deg C - e.g. plasma systems
18.2.6.1 - Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
When a metal wire is heated the resistance increases. So, a temperature can be measured
using the resistance of a wire. Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs) normally use a wire or
film of platinum, nickel, copper or nickel-iron alloys. The metals are wound or wrapped over an
page 478
insulator, and covered for protection. The resistances of these alloys are shown in table 18.2.
Table 18.2 - RTD Properties
Material
Temperature
Range C (F)
Typical
Resistance
(ohms)
Platinum
Nickel
Copper
-200 - 850 (-328 - 1562)
-80 - 300 (-112 - 572)
-200 - 260 (-328 - 500)
100
120
10
These devices have positive temperature coefficients that cause resistance to increase linearly
with temperature. A platinum RTD might have a resistance of 100 ohms at 0C, that will increase
by 0.4 ohms/°C. The total resistance of an RTD might double over the temperature range.
A current must be passed through the RTD to measure the resistance. (Note: a voltage divider
can be used to convert the resistance to a voltage.) The current through the RTD should be kept to
a minimum to prevent self heating. These devices are more linear than thermocouples, and can
have accuracies of 0.05%. But, they can be expensive
18.2.6.2 - Thermocouples
Each metal has a natural potential level, and when two different metals touch there is a small
potential difference, a voltage. (Note: when designing assemblies, dissimilar metals should not
touch, this will lead to corrosion.) Thermocouples use a junction of dissimilar metals to generate a
voltage proportional to temperature. This principle was discovered by T.J. Seebeck.
The basic calculations for thermocouples are shown in Figure 18.25. This calculation provides the measured voltage using a reference temperature and a constant specific to the device.
The equation can also be rearranged to provide a temperature given a voltage.
page 479
+
- V out
measuring
device
V out = α ( T – T ref )
V out
∴T = ---------- + T ref
α
where,
50 µV
------- (typical)
°C
= current and reference temperatures
α = constant (V/C)
T, T ref
Figure 18.25 - Thermocouple Calculations
The list in Table 1 shows different junction types, and the normal temperature ranges. Both
thermocouples, and signal conditioners are commonly available, and relatively inexpensive. For
example, most PLC vendors sell thermocouple input cards that will allow multiple inputs into the
PLC.
Table 1: Thermocouple Types
ANSI
Type
Materials
Temperature
Range
(°C)
Voltage Range
(mV)
T
copper/constantan
-200 to 400
-5.60 to 17.82
J
iron/constantan
0 to 870
0 to 42.28
E
chromel/constantan
-200 to 900
-8.82 to 68.78
K
chromel/aluminum
-200 to 1250
-5.97 to 50.63
R
platinum-13%rhodium/platinum
0 to 1450
0 to 16.74
S
platinum-10%rhodium/platinum
0 to 1450
0 to 14.97
C
tungsten-5%rhenium/tungsten-26%rhenium
0 to 2760
0 to 37.07
page 480
80
E
60
K
J
C
40
20
T
R
S
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Figure 18.25X - Thermocouple Temperature Voltage Relationships (Approximate)
The junction where the thermocouple is connected to the measurement instrument is normally cooled to reduce the thermocouple effects at those junctions. When using a thermocouple
for precision measurement, a second thermocouple can be kept at a known temperature for reference. A series of thermocouples connected together in series produces a higher voltage and is
called a thermopile. Readings can approach an accuracy of 0.5%.
18.2.6.3 - Thermistors
Thermistors are non-linear devices, their resistance will decrease with an increase in temperature. (Note: this is because the extra heat reduces electron mobility in the semiconductor.) The
resistance can change by more than 1000 times. The basic calculation is shown in Figure 18.26.
often metal oxide semiconductors The calculation uses a reference temperature and resistance, with a constant for the device, to predict the resistance at another temperature. The expression can be rearranged to calculate the temperature given the resistance.
page 481
Rt = Ro e
1 1
β  --- – -----
 T T o
βT o
∴T = --------------------------------R
T o ln  ------t  + β
R 
o
where,
R o, R t = resistances at reference and measured temps.
T o, T = reference and actual temperatures
β = constant for device
Figure 18.26 - Thermistor Calculations
Aside: The circuit below can be used to convert the resistance of the thermistor to a voltage using a Wheatstone bridge and an inverting amplifier.
+V
R1
R3
R5
+
R2
Vout
R4
Figure 18.27 - Thermistor Signal Conditioning Circuit
Thermistors are small, inexpensive devices that are often made as beads, or metallized surfaces. The devices respond quickly to temperature changes, and they have a higher resistance, so
page 482
junction effects are not an issue. Typical accuracies are 1%, but the devices are not linear, have a
limited temperature/resistance range and can be self heating.
18.2.6.4 - Other Sensors
IC sensors are becoming more popular. They output a digital reading and can have accuracies
better than 0.01%. But, they have limited temperature ranges, and require some knowledge of
interfacing methods for serial or parallel data.
Pyrometers are non-contact temperature measuring devices that use radiated heat. These are
normally used for high temperature applications, or for production lines where it is not possible to
mount other sensors to the material.
18.2.7 Light
18.2.7.1 - Light Dependant Resistors (LDR)
Light dependant resistors (LDRs) change from high resistance (>Mohms) in the dark to low
resistance (<Kohms) in bright light. The change in resistance is non-linear, and is also relatively
slow (ms).
page 483
Aside: an LDR can be used in a voltage divider to convert the change in resistance to a
measurable voltage.
V high
V out
V low
Figure 18.28 - A Light Level Detector Circuit
18.3 INPUT ISSUES
Signals from sensors are often not in a form that can be directly input to a controller. In these
cases it may be necessary to buy or build signal conditioners. Normally, a signal conditioner is an
amplifier, but it may also include noise filters, and circuitry to convert from current to voltage.
This section will discuss the electrical and electronic interfaces between sensors and controllers.
Analog signal are prone to electrical noise problems. This is often caused by electromagnetic
fields on the factory floor inducing currents in exposed conductors. Some of the techniques for
dealing with electrical noise include;
twisted pairs - the wires are twisted to reduce the noise induced by magnetic fields.
shielding - shielding is used to reduce the effects of electromagnetic interference.
single/double ended inputs - shared or isolated reference voltages (commons).
page 484
When a signal is transmitted through a wire, it must return along another path. If the wires
have an area between them the magnetic flux enclosed in the loop can induce current flow and
voltages. If the wires are twisted, a few times per inch, then the amount of noise induced is
reduced. This technique is common in signal wires and network cables.
A shielded cable has a metal sheath, as shown in Figure 18.29. This sheath needs to be connected to the measuring device to allow induced currents to be passed to ground. This prevents
electromagnetic waves to induce voltages in the signal wires.
A Shield is a metal sheath that
surrounds the wires
Analog Input
Analog voltage source
IN1
+
-
REF1
SHLD
Figure 18.29 - Cable Shielding
When connecting analog voltage sources to a controller the common, or reference voltage
can be connected different ways, as shown in Figure 18.30. The least expensive method uses one
shared common for all analog signals, this is called single ended. The more accurate method is to
use separate commons for each signal, this is called double ended. Most analog input cards allow
a choice between one or the other. But, when double ended inputs are used the number of available inputs is halved. Most analog output cards are double ended.
page 485
device +
#1
-
Ain 0
device +
#1
-
Ain 1
device +
#1
-
Ain 2
Ain 0
Ain 0
device +
#1
-
Ain 1
Ain 3
Ain 1
Ain 4
Ain 2
Ain 5
Ain 2
Ain 6
Ain 3
Ain 7
Ain 3
COM
Single ended - with this arrangement the
signal quality can be poorer, but more
inputs are available.
Double ended - with this arrangement the
signal quality can be better, but fewer
inputs are available.
Figure 18.30 - Single and Double Ended Inputs
Signals from transducers are typically too small to be read by a normal analog input card.
Amplifiers are used to increase the magnitude of these signals. An example of a single ended signal amplifier is shown in Figure 18.31. The amplifier is in an inverting configuration, so the output will have an opposite sign from the input. Adjustments are provided for ’gain’ and ’offset’
adjustments.
Note: op-amps are used in this section to implement the amplifiers because they are
inexpensive, common, and well suited to simple design and construction projects.
When purchasing a commercial signal conditioner, the circuitry will be more complex, and include other circuitry for other factors such as temperature compensation.
page 486
+V
offset
Ro
Rf
Rg
-V
Vin
gain
+
Ri
Vout
R f + R g
- V + offset
V out =  ---------------R  in
i
Figure 18.31 - A Single Ended Signal Amplifier
A differential amplifier with a current input is shown in Figure 18.32. Note that Rc converts a
current to a voltage. The voltage is then amplified to a larger voltage.
R1
Iin
+
Rc
R2
Rf
Vout
R3
R4
Figure 18.32 - A Current Amplifier
The circuit in Figure 18.33 will convert a differential (double ended) signal to a single ended
page 487
signal. The two input op-amps are used as unity gain followers, to create a high input impedance.
The following amplifier amplifies the voltage difference.
+
+
Vin
Vout
+
CMRR
adjust
Figure 18.34 - A Differential Input to Single Ended Output Amplifier
The Wheatstone bridge can be used to convert a resistance to a voltage output, as shown in
figure 18.35. If the resistor values are all made the same (and close to the value of R3) then the
equation can be simplified.
page 488
+V
R1
R3
R5
+
R2
Vout
R4
R2   1
1
1
1
V out = V ( R 5 )   -----------------  ------ + ------ + ------ – ------
R1 + R2 R3 R4 R5 R3
or if R = R 1 = R 2 = R 4 = R 5
R -
V out = V  -------2R 3
Figure 18.35 - A Resistance to Voltage Amplifier
18.4 SENSOR GLOSSARY
• Common transducers,
Ammeter - A meter to indicate electrical current. It is normally part of a DMM
Bellows - This is a flexible volumed that will expand or contract with a pressure change.
This often looks like a cylinder with a large radius (typ. 2") but it is very thin (type
1/4"). It can be set up so that when pressure changes, the displacement of one side
can be measured to determine pressure.
Bourdon tube - Widely used industrial gage to measure pressure and vacuum. It resembles
a crescent moon. When the pressure inside changes the moon shape will tend to
straighten out. By measuring the displacement of the tip the pressure can be measured.
page 489
Chromatographic instruments - laboratory-type instruments used to analyze chemical
compounds and gases.
Inductance-coil pulse generator - transducer used to measure rotational speed. Output is
pulse train.
Interferometers - These use the interference of light waves 180 degrees out of phase to
determine distances. Typical sources of the monochromatic light required are
lasers.
Linear-Variable-Differential transformer (LVDT) electromechanical transducer used to
measure angular or linear displacement. Output is Voltage
Manometer - liquid column gage used widely in industry to measure pressure.
Ohmmeter - meter to indicate electrical resistance
Optical Pyrometer - device to measure temperature of an object at high temperatures by
sensing the brightness of an objects surface.
Orifice Plate - widely used flowmeter to indicate fluid flow rates
Photometric Transducers - a class of transducers used to sense light, including phototubes,
photodiodes, phototransistors, and photoconductors.
Piezoelectric Accelerometer - Transducer used to measure vibration. Output is emf.
Pitot Tube - Laboratory device used to measure flow.
Positive displacement Flowmeter - Variety of transducers used to measure flow. Typical
output is pulse train.
Potentiometer - instrument used to measure voltage
Pressure Transducers - A class of transducers used to measure pressure. Typical output is
voltage. Operation of the transducer can be based on strain gages or other devices.
Radiation pyrometer - device to measure temperature by sensing the thermal radiation
emitted from the object.
Resolver - this device is similar to an incremental encoder, except that it uses coils to generate magnetic fields. This is like a rotary transformer.
Strain Gage - Widely used to indicate torque, force, pressure, and other variables. Output
is change in resistance due to strain, which can be converted into voltage.
Thermistor - Also called a resistance thermometer; an instrument used to measure temperature. Operation is based on change in resistance as a function of temperature.
Thermocouple - widely used temperature transducer based on the Seebeck effect, in which
a junction of two dissimilar metals emits emf related to temperature.
Turbine Flowmeter - transducer to measure flow rate. Output is pulse train.
Venturi Tube - device used to measure flow rates.
18.5 SUMMARY
• Selection of continuous sensors must include issues such as accuracy and resolution.
• Angular positions can be measured with potentiometers and encoders (more accurate).
• Tachometers are usefule for measuring angular velocity.
• Linear positions can be measured with potentiometers (limited accuracy), LVDTs (lim-
page 490
ited range), moire fringes (high accuracy).
• Accelerometers measure acceleration of masses.
• Strain gauges and piezoelectric elements measure force.
• Pressure can be measured indirectly with bellows and Bourdon tubes.
• Flow rates can be measured with Venturi valves and pitot tubes.
• Temperatures can be measured with RTDs, thermocouples, and thermistors.
• Input signals can be single ended for more inputs or double ended for more accuracy.
18.6 REFERENCES
Bryan, L.A. and Bryan, E.A., Programmable Controllers; Theory and Implementation, Industrial
Text Co., 1988.
Swainston, F., A Systems Approach to Programmable Controllers, Delmar Publishers Inc., 1992.
18.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Name two types of inputs that would be analog input values (versus a digital value).
(ans. temperature and displacement)
2. Search the web for common sensor manufacturers for 5 different types of continuous sensors. If
possible identify prices for the units. Sensor manufacturers include (hyde park, banner, allen
bradley, omron, etc.)
(ans. Sensors can be found at www.ab.com, www.omron.com, etc)
3. What is the resolution of an absolute optical encoder that has six tracks? nine tracks? twelve
tracks?
(ans. 360°/64steps, 360°/512seps, 360°/4096 steps)
4. Suggest a couple of methods for collecting data on the factory floor
(ans. data bucket, smart machines, PLCs with analog inputs and network connections)
5. If a thermocouple generates a voltage of 30mV at 800F and 40mV at 1000F, what voltage will
be generated at 1200F?
page 491
(ans.
V out = α ( T – T ref )
0.030 = α ( 800 – T ref )
0.040 = α ( 1000 – T ref )
800 – T ref
1000 – T ref
1
--= ------------------------ = --------------------------α
0.030
0.040
800 – T ref = 750 – 0.75T ref
50 = 0.25T ref
0.040
50µV
α = --------------------------- = ------------1000 – 200
C
T ref = 200C
V out = 0.00005 ( 1200 – 200 ) = 0.050V
6. A potentiometer is to be used to measure the position of a rotating robot link (as a voltage
divider). The power supply connected across the potentiometer is 5.0 V, and the total wiper
travel is 300 degrees. The wiper arm is directly connected to the rotational joint so that a given
rotation of the joint corresponds to an equal rotation of the wiper arm.
a) To position the joint at 42 degrees, what voltage is required from the potentiometer?
b) If the joint has been moved, and the potentiometer reads 2.765V, what is the position of
the potentiometer?
(ans.
a)
θw 
42deg- + 0V = 0.7V
- + V 1 = ( 5V – 0V )  ----------------V out = ( V2 – V 1 )  ---------θ 
 300deg
max
b)
θw 
2.765V = ( 5V – 0V )  ---------------- 300deg- + 0V
θw 
2.765V = ( 5V – 0V )  ----------------- + 0V
300deg
θ w = 165.9deg
7. A motor has an encoder mounted on it. The motor is driving a reducing gear box with a 50:1
ratio. If the position of the geared down shaft needs to be positioned to 0.1 degrees, how many
divisions are needed on the encoder?
(ans.
deg θ output = 0.1 ------------count
θ input
--------------- = 50
-----θ output
1
360 deg
--------rot
R = ------------------ = 72 count
-------------deg
rot
5 -------------count
deg - = 5 ------------deg θ input = 50  0.1 ------------ count
count
page 492
8. A potentiometer is connected to a PLC analog input card. The potentiometer can rotate 300
degrees, and the voltage supply for the potentiometer is +/-10V. Write a ladder logic program to read the voltage from the potentiometer and convert it to an angle in radians stored
in F8:0.
FS
BT9:0/EN
BT9:1/DN
BT9:0/EN
BT9:1/EN
BTW
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:0
Data File: N7:0
Length: 37
Continuous: no
BTR
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:1
Data File: N7:37
Length: 20
Continuous: no
CPT
Dest F8:0
Expression
"10.0 * N7:41 / 4095.0"
CPT
Dest F8:0
Expression
"300.0 * (F8:0 + 10) / 20"
RAD
Source F8:0
Dest F8:1
page 493
19. CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS
<TODO - add new material and write text>
Topics:
•
•
•
•
•
Objectives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
19.1 INTRODUCTION
19.2 MOTORS
19.2.1 DC Motors
page 494
command
generator
(PLC,
computer,etc)
motion/position
command
controller
voltage/
current
power
amp
amplified
voltage/
current
position/
velocity
sensor
motor
• Servo loops with DC motors and encoder/resolver feedback are used for positions or velocities
• Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) controllers normally.
•
19.2.2 Stepper Motors
• Stepper motors often have no feedback. They use four wires changed in pattern to turn the
rotor.
page 495
1A
controller
2A
1B
2B
stepper
motor
Step
1A
2A
1B
2B
1
2
3
4
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
To turn the motor the phases are stepped through 1, 2, 3, 4, and then back to 1.
To reverse the direction of the motor the sequence of steps can be reversed,
eg. 4, 3, 2, 1, 4, ..... If a set of outputs is kept on constantly the motor will be
held in position.
• Basic types of motor controllers include,
translators - the user indicates maximum velocity and acceleration and a distance to move
indexer - the user indicates direction and number of steps to take
microstepping - each step is subdivided into smaller steps to give more resolution
• These motors do not provide much torque, but they are excellent for positioning applications.
torque
speed
• Transistors switch coils
page 496
19.2.3 Separately Excited DC Motor
+
Armature (rotor)
V
Field (stator)
Torque equation, T = K t I
Voltage to drive a manipulator motor is
V – IR = K v ω
T = magnetic torque (Nm)
I = current in armature circuit (A)
V = voltage supplied to armature (volts)
IR = Voltage drop across thearmaturecircuit
ω = angular velocity (rad/sec)
K t = torque constant
K v = voltage constant
in practice K t = K v
19.2.4 AC Motors
• Synchronous drives - use AC motors with a synthesized frequency signal to control speed
page 497
19.3 HYDRAULICS
actuating
signal
servo valve
amplifier
position
servovalve
hydraulic
power
supply
hydraulic
actuator
sump
• Can position with accuracy
servo systems can be used to position variable position valves
page 498
19.4 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
• PWM
• AC wave synthesis
• Amplifiers
19.5 SUMMARY
19.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. A stepping motor is to be used to drive each of the three linear axes of a cartesian coordinate
robot. The motor output shaft will be connected to a screw thread with a screw pitch of 0.125”.
It is desired that the control resolution of each of the axes be 0.025”
a) to achieve this control resolution how many step angles are required on the stepper
motor?
b) What is the corresponding step angle?
c) Determine the pulse rate that will be required to drive a given joint at a velocity of 3.0”/
sec.
page 499
(ans
a)
in-
P = 0.125  -----rot
in R = 0.025 --------step
in 0.025 --------R
step
rotθ = --- = --------------------------- = 0.2 --------P
step
in-
0.125  -----rot
b)
c)
Thus
1
-----------------= 5 step
---------rotrot
0.2 --------step
rot
deg
θ = 0.2 ---------- = 72 ---------step
step
3 in
----s
PPS = ------------------------ = 120 steps
------------in
s
0.025 ---------step
2. For the stepper motor in the previous question, a pulse train is to be generated by the robot controller.
a) How many pulses are required to rotate the motor through three complete revolutions?
b) If it is desired to rotate the motor at a speed of 25 rev/min, what pulse rate must be generated by the robot controller?
(ans.
a)
pulses = ( 3rot )  5 step
---------- = 15steps
 rot 
b)
pulses
rot-  5 step
1min- steps
---------------- =  25 ----------------- = 125 steps
------------- = 125  ------------------------ = 2.08 step
---------





s
min
rot
min
60s min
s
page 500
20. CONTINUOUS CONTROL
Topics:
• Feedback control of continuous systems
• Control of systems with logical actuators
• PID control with continuous actuators
• Analysis of PID controlled systems
• PID control with a PLC
• Design examples
Objectives:
• To understand the concepts behind continuous control
• Be able to control a system with logical actuators
• Be able to analyze and control system with a PID controller
20.1 INTRODUCTION
Continuous processes require continuous sensors and/or actuators. For example, an oven
temperature can be measured with a thermocouple. Simple decision-based control schemes can
use continuous sensor values to control logical outputs, such as a heating element. Linear control
equations can be used to examine continuous sensor values and set outputs for continuous actuators, such as a variable position gas valve.
Two continuous control systems are shown in Figure 20.1. The water tank can be controlled
valves. In a simple control scheme, one of the valves is set by the process, but we control the other
to maximize some control object. If the water tank was actually a city water tank, the outlet valve
would be the domestic and industrial water users. The inlet valve would be set to keep the tank
level at maximum. If the level drops there will be a reduced water pressure at the outlet, and if the
tank becomes too full it could overflow. The conveyor will move boxes between stations. Two
common choices are to have it move continuously, or to move the boxes between positions, and
then stop. When starting and stopping the boxes should be accelerated quickly, but not so quickly
that they slip. And, the conveyor should stop at precise positions. In both of these systems, a good
control system design will result in better performance.
page 501
valve
q1
a) Water Tank
valve
q2
h
motor
controller
Vin
b) Motor Driven Conveyor
Figure 20.1 - Continuous Systems
A mechanical control system is pictured in Figure 20.2 that could be used for the water tank
in Figure 20.1. This controller will adjust the valve position, therefore controlling the flow rate
into the tank. The height of the fluid in the tank will change the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom
of the tank. A pressure line is connected to a pressure cell. As the pressure inside the cell changes,
the cell will expand and contract, opening and closing the valve. As the tank fills the pressure
becomes higher, the cell expands, and the valve closes, reducing the flow in. The desired height of
the tank can be adjusted by sliding the pressure cell up/down a distance ’x’. In this example the
height ’x’ is called the setpoint. The ’control variable’ is the position of the valve, and, the ’feedback’ variable is the water pressure from the tank. The ’controller’ is the pressure cell.
page 502
q1
Main water
supply
q2
x
1. Feedback of hydrostatic pressure through a rubber tube.
2. This input slider adjusts the position of the bellows (can
be adjusted with a screwdriver).
3. Bellows expand/contract as pressure increases/decreases,
and move the rod that closes/opens the valve
4. The valve changes the flow into the tank, thus changing
the water height.
For control add,
feedback
setpoint
system error
1. Some means of measuring the water height (system state)
2. Some input for desired control height
3. Some error compensation
4. An actuator to change the system input
Figure 22.2 - A Feedback Controller
Continuous control systems typically need a target value, this is called a ’setpoint’. The controller should be designed with some objective in mind. Typical objectives are listed below.
fastest response - reach the setpoint as fast as possible (e.g., hard drive speed)
smooth response - reduce acceleration and jerks (e.g., elevators)
energy efficient - minimize energy usage (e.g., industrial oven)
noise immunity - ignores disturbances in the system (e.g., variable wind gusts)
An engineer can design a controller mathematically when performance and stability are
important issues. A common industrial practice is to purchase a ’PID’ unit, connect it to a process,
and tune it through trial and error. This is suitable for simpler systems, but these systems are less
page 503
efficient and prone to instability. In other words it is quick and easy, but these systems can go
’out-of-control’.
20.2 CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
Many continuous systems will be controlled with logical actuators. Common examples
include building HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) systems. The system setpoint is entered on a ’thermostat’. The controller will then attempt to keep the temperature within
a few degrees as shown in Figure 20.3. If the temperature is below the bottom limit the heater is
turned on. When it passes the upper limit it is turned off, and it will stay off until if passes the
lower limit. If the gap between the upper and lower the boundaries is larger, the heater will turn
on less often, but be on for longer, and the temperature will vary more. This technique is not
exact, and time lags will often lead to overshoot above and below the temperature limits.
upper
temp.
limit
room
temp.
overshoot
set temp.
(nominal)
lower
temp.
limit
time
heater on
heater off
heater on
heater off
heater on
Note: This system turns on/off continuously. This behavior is known hunting. If the limits
are set too close to the nominal value, the system will hunt at a faster rate. Therefore, to
prevent wear and improve efficiency we normally try to set the limits as far away from
nominal as possible.
Figure 20.3 - Continuous Control with a Logical Actuator
page 504
Figure 20.4 shows a controller that will keep the temperature between 72 and 74 (degrees
presumably). The temperature will be read and stored in ’N7:0’, and the output to turn the heater
on is connected to ’O:000/0’.
GRT
SourceA N7:0
SourceB 74
U
O:000/0
LES
SourceA N7:0
SourceB 72
L
O:000/0
Figure 20.4 - A Ladder Logic Controller for a Logical Actuator
20.3 CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS
20.3.1 Block Diagrams
Figure 20.5 shows a simple block diagram for controlling arm position. The system setpoint,
or input, is the desired position for the arm. The arm position is expressed with the joint angles.
The input enters a summation block, shown as a circle, where the actual joint angles are subtracted from the desired joint angles. The resulting difference is called the ’error’. The ’error’ is
transformed to joint torques by the first block labeled ’neural system and muscles’. The next
block, ’arm structure and dynamics’, converts the torques to new arm positions. The new arm
positions are converted back to joint angles by the ’eyes’.
page 505
θ error
θ desired +
neural
system and
muscles
τ applied
arm structure
and dynamics
real world
arm position
-
θ actual
eyes
** This block diagram shows a system that has dynamics, actuators,
feedback sensors, error determination, and objectives
Figure 20.5 - A Block Diagram
The blocks in block diagrams represent real systems that have inputs and outputs. The inputs
and outputs can be real quantities, such as fluid flow rates, voltages, or pressures. The inputs and
outputs can also be calculated as values in computer programs. In continuous systems the blocks
can be described using differential equations. Laplace transforms and transfer functions are often
used for linear systems.
20.3.2 Feedback Control Systems
As introduced in the previous section, feedback control systems compare the desired and
actual outputs to find a system error. A controller can use the error to drive an actuator to minimize the error. When a system uses the output value for control, it is called a feedback control
system. When the feedback is subtracted from the input, the system has negative feedback. A negative feedback system is desirable because it is generally more stable, and will reduce system
errors. Systems without feedback are less accurate and may become unstable.
page 506
A car is shown in Figure 20.5, without and with a velocity control system. First, consider the
car by itself, the control variable is the gas pedal angle. The output is the velocity of the car. The
negative feedback controller is shown inside the dashed line. Normally the driver will act as the
control system, adjusting the speed to get a desired velocity. But, most automobile manufacturers
offer ’cruise control’ systems that will automatically control the speed of the system. The driver
will activate the system and set the desired velocity for the cruise controller with buttons. When
running, the cruise control system will observe the velocity, determine the speed error, and then
adjust the gas pedal angle to increase or decrease the velocity.
INPUT
(e.g. θgas)
Control
variable
SYSTEM
(e.g. a car)
vdesired
verror
+
OUTPUT
(e.g. velocity)
_
Driver or
cruise control
θgas
car
vactual
Figure 20.5 - Addition of a Control System to a Car
The control system must perform some type of calculation with ’Verror’, to select a new
’θgas’. This can be implemented with mechanical mechanisms, electronics, or software. Figure
20.6 lists a number of rules that a person would use when acting as the controller. The driver will
have some target velocity (that will occasionally be based on speed limits). The driver will then
compare the target velocity to the actual velocity, and determine the difference between the target
and actual. This difference is then used to adjust the gas pedal angle.
page 507
1. If verror is a little positive/negative, increase/decrease θgas a little.
2. If verror is very big/small, increase/decrease θgas a lot.
3. If verror is near zero, keep θgas the same.
4. If verror suddenly becomes bigger/smaller, then increase/decrease θgas quickly.
Figure 20.6 - Human Control Rules for Car Speed
Mathematical rules are required when developing an automatic controller. The next two sections describe different approaches to controller design.
20.3.3 Proportional Controllers
Figure 20.7 shows a block diagram for a common servo motor controlled positioning system.
The input is a numerical position for the motor, designated as ’C’. (Note: The relationship
between the motor shaft angle and ’C’ is determined by the encoder.) The difference between the
desired and actual ’C’ values is the system error. The controller then converts the error to a control voltage ’V’. The current amplifier keeps the voltage ’V’ the same, but increases the current
(and power) to drive the servomotor. The servomotor will turn in response to a voltage, and drive
an encoder and a ball screw. The encoder is part of the negative feedback loop. The ball screw
converts the rotation into a linear displacement ’x’. In this system, the position ’x’ is not measured
directly, but it is estimated using the motor shaft angle.
C desired +
C actual
e
V
Controller
V
Current
Amplifier
DC
Servomotor
ω, θ actual
Ball
Screw
x
Encoder
Figure 20.7 - A Servomotor Feedback Controller
The blocks for the system in Figure 20.7 could be described with the equations below. The
summation block becomes a simple subtraction. The control equation is the simplest type, called a
page 508
proportional controller. It will simply multiply the error by a constant ’Kp’. A larger value for
’Kp’ will give a faster response. The current amplifier keeps the voltage the same. The motor is
assumed to be a permanent magnet DC servo motor, and the ideal equation for such a motor is
given. In the equation ’J’ is the polar mass moment of inertia, ’R’ is the resistance of the motor
coils, and ’Km’ is a constant for the motor. The velocity of the motor shaft must be integrated to
get position. The ball screw will convert the rotation into a linear position if the angle is divided
by the Threads Per Inch (TPI) on the screw. The encoder will count a fixed number of Pulses Per
Revolution (PPR).
Summation Block:
e = C desired – C actual
(20.1)
Controller:
Vc = Kp e
(20.2)
Current Amplifier:
Vm = Vc
(20.3)
2
Servomotor:
d- ω  K m 
 ---K
+
--------ω
=
------m- V m (20.4)


 dt

JR
JR


d- θ
ω = ---(20.5)
dt actual
Ball Screw:
θ actual
x = ------------TPI
(20.6)
Encoder:
C actual = PPR ( θ actual )
(20.7)
Figure 20.8 - A Servomotor Feedback Controller
The system equations can be combined algebraically to give a single equation for the entire
system as shown in Figure 20.9. The resulting equation (20.12) is a second order non-homogeneous differential equation that can be solved to model the performance of the system.
page 509
2
(20.4), (20.5)
 Km   d 
Km
d- 2 θ
 ---  ----- θ actual =  ------- V m
 dt actual +  --------JR  dt
JR
(20.8)
(20.2), (20.3)
Vm = Kp e
(20.9)
(20.1), (20.9)
Vm = K p ( C desired – C actual )
(20.10)
2
 Km   d 
K
d- 2 θ
(20.8), (20.10)  ---+  ------------- θ actual =  ------m- K p ( C desired – C actual )

actual
 dt
 JR 
 JR   dt
(20.11)
2
 Km   d 
K
d- 2 θ
(20.7), (20.11)  ------------ ----- θ
+
=  ------m- K p ( C desired – PPRθ actual )
 JR 
 dt actual  JR   dt actual
2
 K m + K m ( PPR )K p  d 
K p K m
d- 2 θ
 ---+  ---------------------------------------------- ----- θ actual =  ------------- C
actual
 JR  desired
 dt
JR

  dt
(20.12)
Figure 20.9 - A Combined System Model
A proportional control system can be implemented with the ladder logic shown in Figure
20.10. The first ladder logic sections setup and read the analog input value, this is the feedback
value.
page 510
S2:1/15 - first scan
MOV
Source 0000 0000 0000 0001
Dest N7:0
MOV
Source 0000 0101 0000 0000
Dest N7:2
BTW
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:0
Data File: N7:0
Length: 37
Continuous: no
BT9:0/EN
BT9:1/EN
BTR
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:1
Data File: N7:37
Length: 20
Continuous: no
Figure 20.10a - Implementing a Proportional Controller with Ladder Logic
The control system has a start/stop button. When the system is active ’B3/0’ will be on, and
the proportional controller calculation will be performed with the ’SUB’ and ’MUL’ functions.
When the system is inactive the ’MOV’ function will set the output to zero. The last ’BTW’ function will continually output the calculated controller voltage.
page 511
I:001/1 - START
I:001/0 - ESTOP
B3/0 - ON
BT9:0/DN
B3/0 - ON
MOV
Source 0
Dest N7:60
B3/0 - ON BT9:1/DN
SUB
SourceA N7:80
SourceB N7:42
Dest N7:81
MUL
SourceA N7:81
SourceB 2
Dest N7:60
BT9:2/EN
Block Transfer Write
Module Type Generic Block Transfer
Rack 000
Group 1
Module 0
Control Block BT9:2
Data File N9:60
Length 13
Continuous No
Figure 20.10b - Implementing a Proportional Controller with Ladder Logic
This controller may be able to update a few times per second. This is an important design
consideration - recall that the Nyquist Criterion requires that the actual system response be much
slower than the controller. This controller will only be suitable for systems that don’t change
faster than once per second. This must also be considered if you choose to do a numerical analysis
of the control system.
page 512
20.3.4 PID Control Systems
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are the most common controller choice.
The basic controller equation is shown in Figure 20.11. The equation uses the system error ’e’, to
calculate a control variable ’u’. The equation uses three terms. The proportional term, ’Kp’, will
push the system in the right direction. The derivative term, ’Kd’ will respond quickly to changes.
The integral term, ’Ki’ will respond to long-term errors. The values of ’Kp’, ’Kd’ and ’Ki’ can be
selected, or tuned, to get a desired system response.
de
u = K c e + K i ∫ edt + K d  ------
dt
Kc
Ki
Relative weights of components
Kd
Figure 20.11 - PID Equation
Figure 20.12 shows a (partial) block diagram for a system that includes a PID controller. The
desired setpoint for the system is a potentiometer set up as a voltage divider. A summer block will
subtract the input and feedback voltages. The error then passes through terms for the proportional,
integral and derivative terms; the results are summed together. An amplifier increases the power
of the control variable ’u’, to drive a motor. The motor then turns the shaft of another potentiometer, which will produce a feedback voltage proportional to shaft position.
proportional
PID Controller
Kp ( e )
V
V
+
integral
e
+
-
Ki ( ∫ e )
derivative
d- e
K d  ---dt 
+V
u
amp
+
+
-V
motor
page 513
Figure 20.12 - A PID Control System
Recall the cruise control system for a car. Figure 20.13 shows various equations that could be
used as the controller.
PID Controller
dv error
θ gas = K p v error + K i ∫ v error dt + K d  ---------------dt 
PI Controller
θ gas = K p v error + K i ∫ v error dt
PD Controller
dv error
θgas = K p v error + K d  -------------- dt 
P Controller
θ gas = K p v error
Figure 20.13 - Different Controllers
When implementing these equations in a computer program the equations can be rewritten as
shown in Figure 20.14. To do this calculation, previous error and control values must be stored.
The calculation also require the scan time ’T’ between updates.
Kd
K
K
u n = u n – 1 + e n  K p + K i T + ------ + e n – 1  – K p – 2 -----d- + e n – 2  -----d-


 T
T
T
Figure 20.14 - A PID Calculation
The PID calculation is available as a ladder logic function, as shown in Figure 20.15. This
can be used in place of the ’SUB’ and ’MUL’ functions in Figure 20.10. In this example the calculation uses the feedback variable stored in ‘Proc Location’ (as read from the analog input). The
result is stored in N7:2 (to be an analog output). The control block uses the parameters stored in
’PD12:0’ to perform the calculations. Most PLC programming software will provide dialogues to
set these value.
page 514
PID
Control Block: PD12:0
Proc Variable: N7:0
Tieback: N7:1
Control Output: N7:2
Note: When entering the ladder logic program into the computer you will be able to
enter the PID parameters on a popup screen.
Figure 20.15 - PID Control Block
PID controllers can also be purchased as cards or stand-alone modules that will perform the
PID calculations in hardware. These are useful when the response time must be faster than is possible with a PLC and ladder logic.
20.4 DESIGN CASES
20.4.1 Oven Temperature Control
Problem: Design an analog controller that will read an oven temperature between 1200F and
1500F. When it passes 1500 degrees the oven will be turned off, when it falls below 1200F it will
be turned on again. The voltage from the thermocouple is passed through a signal conditioner that
gives 1V at 500F and 3V at 1500F. The controller should have a start button and E-stop.
Solution:
page 515
Select a 12 bit 1771-IFE card and use the 0V to 5V range on channel 1 with
double ended inputs.
V in – V min 
V 1V = INT  ---------------------------- R = 819
V max – V min
N
R = 2 = 4096
V in – V min 
V 3V = INT  ---------------------------- R = 2458
V max – V min
Cards:
I:000 - Analog Input
I:001 - DC Inputs
I:002 - DC Outputs
page 516
MOV
Source 0000 0000 0000 0001
Dest N7:0
S2:1/15 - first scan
MOV
Source 0000 0101 0000 0000
Dest N7:2
BTW
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:0
Data File: N7:0
Length: 37
Continuous: no
BT9:0/EN
I:001/1 - START
BTR
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:1
Data File: N7:37
Length: 20
Continuous: no
BT9:1/EN
I:001/0 - ESTOP
B3/0 - ON
B3/0 - ON
BT9:0/DN BT9:1/DN
B3/0 - ON
GRT
SourceA N7:42
SourceB 2458
U
B3/1 - HEAT
LES
SourceA N7:42
SourceB 819
L
B3/1 - HEAT
B3/1 - HEAT
Figure 17.15 - Oven Control Program
O:002/0
HEATER
page 517
20.4.2 Water Tank Level Control
Problem: The system in Figure 17.16 will control the height of the water in a tank. The input
from the pressure transducer, Vp, will vary between 0V (empty tank) and 5V (full tank). A voltage output, Vo, will position a valve to change the tank fill rate. Vo varies between 0V (no water
flow) and 5V (maximum flow). The system will always be on: the emergency stop is connected
electrically. The desired height of a tank is specified by another voltage, Vd. The output voltage is
calculated using Vo = 0.5 (Vd - Vp). If the output voltage is greater than 5V is will be made 5V,
and below 0V is will be made 0V.
Analog
to Digital
Converter
Amp
Water
Supply
PLC
Running
Control
Program
Analog
to Digital
Converter
Amp
Water Tank
pressure
transducer
Figure 17.16 - Water Tank Level Controller
Solution:
page 518
Analog Input:
Select a 12 bit 1771-IFE card and use the 0V to 5V range
on channel 1 with double ended inputs.
R = 2
N
= 4096
Analog Output: Select a 12 bit 1771-OFE card and use the 0V to 5V range
on channel 1.
R = 2
Cards:
N
= 4096
I:000 - Analog Input
I:001 - Analog Output
Memory: N7:80 - Vd
S2:1/15 - first scan
MOV
Source 0000 0000 0000 0001
Dest N7:0
MOV
Source 0000 0101 0000 0000
Dest N7:2
MOV
Source 1000 0000 0000 0000
Dest N7:64
BTW
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:0
Data File: N7:0
Length: 37
Continuous: no
BT9:0/EN
BT9:1/EN
BTR
Rack: 0
Group: 0
Module: 0
BT Array: BT9:1
Data File: N7:37
Length: 20
Continuous: no
page 519
Figure 17.17a - A Water Tank Level Control Program
BT9:0/DN BT9:1/DN
SUB
SourceA N7:80
SourceB N7:42
Dest N7:81
DIV
SourceA N7:81
SourceB 2
Dest N7:60
BT9:2/EN
Block Transfer Write
Module Type Generic Block Transfer
Rack 000
Group 1
Module 0
Control Block BT9:2
Data File N9:60
Length 13
Continuous No
Figure 17.17b - A Water Tank Level Control Program
20.5 SUMMARY
• Negative feedback controllers make a continuous system stable.
• When controlling a continuous system with a logical actuator set points can be used.
• Block diagrams can be used to describe controlled systems.
• Block diagrams can be converted to equations for analysis.
• Continuous actuator systems can use P, PI, PD, PID controllers.
•
20.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. What is the advantage of feedback in a control system?
(ans. Feedback control, more specifically negative feedback, can improve the stability and accu-
page 520
racy of a control system.)
2. Can PID control solve problems of inaccuracy in a machine?
(ans. A PID controller will compare a setpoint and output variable. If there is a persistant error,
the integral part of the controller will adjust the output to reduce long term errors.)
3. If a control system should respond to long term errors, but not respond to sudden changes, what
type of control equation should be used?
(ans. A PI controller)
4. Develop a ladder logic program that implements a PID controller using the discrete equation.
page 521
(ans.
Assume the values:
update
N7:0 = Analog input value
N7:1 = Analog output value
N7:2 = Setpoint
MOV
Source F8:4
Dest F8:5
F8:0 = Kp
F8:1 = Kd
F8:2 = Ki
F8:3 = ei
F8:4 = ei-1
F8:5 = ei-2
F8:6 = T (Scan Time)
MOV
Source F8:3
Dest F8:4
SUB
Source A N7:2
Source B N7:0
Dest F8:3
CPT
Dest F8:10
Expression "F8:0 + F8:2 * F8:6 + F8:1 | F8:6"
CPT
Dest F8:11
Expression "-F8:0 - 2 * F8:1 | F8:6"
CPT
Dest F8:12
Expression "F8:1 | F8:6"
CPT
Dest N7:1
Expression
"N7:1+F8:3*F8:10+F8:4*F8:11+F8:5*F8:12"
5. Why is logical control so popular when continuous control allows more precision?
(ans. Logical control is more popular because the system is more controllable. This means either
happen, or they don’t happen. If a system requires a continuous control system then it will tend
to be unstable, and even when controlled a precise values can be hard to obtain. The need for
control also implies that the system requires some accuracy, thus the process will tend to vary,
and be a source of quality control problems.)
6. Design the complete ladder logic for a control system that implements the control equation
below for motor speed control. Assume that the motor speed is read from a tachometer, into an
analog input card in rack 0, slot 0, input 1. The tachometer voltage will be between 0 and 8Vdc,
page 522
for speeds between 0 and 1000rpm. The voltage output to drive the motor controller is output
from an analog output card in rack 0, slot 1, output 1. Assume the desired RPM is stored in
N7:0
V motor = ( rpm moter – rpm desired )0.02154
where,
V motor = The voltage output to the motor
rpm moter = The RPM of the motor
rpmdesired = The desired RPM of the motor
(ans.
FS
BT9:1/EN
BT9:0/EN
BTW
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:0
Data N7:0
Length 37
Continuous No
BT9:0/EN
BTR
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:1
Data N7:37
Length 20
Continuous No
BT9:1/EN
BTW
Rack 0
Group 0
Module 0
Control Block BT9:2
Data N7:57
Length 13
Continuous No
BT9:1/DN
CPT
Dest N7:57
Expression
"0.02154*(N7:41-F8:0)"
page 523
21. FUZZY LOGIC
<TODO - Find an implementation platform and add section>
Topics:
• Fuzzy logic theory; sets, rules and solving
•
Objectives:
• To understand fuzzy logic control.
• Be able to implement a fuzzy logic controller.
21.1 INTRODUCTION
Fuzzy logic is well suited to implementing control rules that can only be expressed verbally,
or systems that cannot be modelled with linear differential equations. Rules and membership sets
are used to make a decision. A simple verbal rule set is shown in Figure 21.1. These rules concern
how fast to fill a bucket, based upon how full it is.
1. If (bucket is full) then (stop filling)
2. If (bucket is half full) then (fill slowly)
3. If (bucket is empty) then (fill quickly)
Figure 21.1 - A Fuzzy Logic Rule Set
The outstanding question is "What does it mean when the bucket is empty, half full, or full?"
And, what is meant by filling the bucket slowly or quickly. We can define sets that indicate when
something is true (1), false (0), or a bit of both (0-1), as shown in Figure 21.2. Consider the
’bucket is full’ set. When the height is 0, the set membership is 0, so nobody would think the
bucket is full. As the height increases more people think the bucket is full until they all think it is
full. There is no definite line stating that the bucket is full. The other bucket states have similar
functions. Notice that the ’angle’ function relates the valve angle to the fill rate. The sets are
page 524
shifted to the right. In reality this would probably mean that the valve would have to be turned a
large angle before flow begins, but after that it increases quickly.
1
0
1
bucket is full
1
stop filling
0
1
bucket is half full
fill slowly
0
0
1
1
bucket is empty
0
0
height
fill quickly
angle
Figure 21.2 - Fuzzy Sets
Now, if we are given a height we can examine the rules, and find output values, as shown in
Figure 21.3. This begins be comparing the bucket height to find the membership for ’bucket is
full’ at 0.75, ’bucket is half full’ at 1.0 and ’bucket is empty’ at 0. Rule 3 is ignored because the
membership was 0. The result for rule 1 is 0.75, so the 0.75 membership value is found on the
’stop filling’ and a value of ’a1’ is found for the valve angle. For rule 2 the result was 1.0, so the
’fill slowly set is examined to find a value. In this case there is a range where ’fill slowly’ is 1.0,
so the center point is chosen to get angle ’a2’. These two results can then be combined with a
0.75 ( a1 ) + 1.0 ( a2 )
weighted average to get angle = ---------------------------------------------- .
0.75 + 1.0
page 525
1. If (bucket is full) then (stop filling)
1
bucket is full
0
height
1
stop filling
0
angle
a1
2. If (bucket is half full) then (fill slowly)
1
1
bucket is half full
0
fill slowly
0
height
a2
angle
3. If (bucket is empty) then (fill quickly)
1
1
bucket is empty
0
0
height
fill quickly
angle
Figure 21.3 - Fuzzy Rule Solving
An example of a fuzzy logic controller for controlling a servomotor is shown in Figure 21.4
[Lee and Lau, 1988]. This controller rules examines the system error, and the rate of error change
to select a motor voltage. In this example the set memberships are defined with straight lines, but
this will have a minimal effect on the controller performance.
page 526
vdesired
verror
+
-
Fuzzy
Vmotor Motor
Imotor
Logic
Power
Controller
Amplifier
vactual
Servo
Motor
The rules for the fuzzy logic controller are;
1. If verror is LP and d/dtverror is any then Vmotor is LP.
2. If verror is SP and d/dtverror is SP or ZE then Vmotor is SP.
3. If verror is ZE and d/dtverror is SP then Vmotor is ZE.
4. If verror is ZE and d/dtverror is SN then Vmotor is SN.
5. If verror is SN and d/dtverror is SN then Vmotor is SN.
6. If verror is LN and d/dtverror is any then Vmotor is LN.
The sets for verror, d/dtverror, and Vmotor are;
d/
verror
1
LN
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
rps
0
rps
1
0
-6
0
rps
1
0 3
6
rps/s
-6
-3
0 3
6
rps/s
0
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
rps/s
0
-3
0 3
-100 -50 0 50 100
rps
12 18 24
0
6
12 18 24
0
6
12 18 24
0
0
V
V
V
V
0
6
1
0
6
1
rps/s
-6
1
0
1
1
rps
0
1
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
LP
-3
1
-100 -50 0 50 100
SP
1
1
-100 -50 0 50 100
ZE
Vmotor
1
1
SN
dtverror
0
6
12 18 24
0
6
12 18 24
1
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
rps/s
0
V
Figure 21.4 - A Fuzzy Logic Servo Motor Controller
Consider the case where verror = 30 rps and d/dt verror = 1 rps/s. Rule 1to 6 are calculated in
Figure 21.5.
page 527
1. If verror is LP and d/dtverror is any then Vmotor is LP.
1
1
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
rps
1
0
-6
-3
0 3
0
rps/s
6
0
6
12 18 24
ANY VALUE
(so ignore)
30rps
V
17V
(could also
have chosen
some value
above 17V)
This has about 0.6 (out of 1) membership
Figure 21.5a - Rule Calculation
2. If verror is SP and d/dtverror is SP or ZE then Vmotor is SP.
the AND means take the
lowest of the two
memberships
the OR means take the
highest of the two
memberships
1
1
rps
0
-100-50 0 50 100
rps/s
0
-6 -3 0 3 6
1
1
0
rps/s 0
-6 -3 0 3 6
1rps/s
V
0
6
14V
1rps/s
30rps
12 18 24
This has about 0.4 (out of 1) membership
Figure 21.5b - Rule Calculation
3. If verror is ZE and d/dtverror is SP then Vmotor is ZE.
1
1
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
30rps
rps
1
rps/s
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
1rps/s
This has about 0.0 (out of 1) membership
Figure 21.5c - Rule Calculation
0
0
6
12 18 24
the lowest results in 0 set
membership
V
page 528
4. If verror is ZE and d/dtverror is SN then Vmotor is SN.
1
1
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
1
0
rps
-6
-3
0 3
1rps/s
30rps
0
rps/s
6
This has about 0.0 (out of 1) membership
0
6
V
12 18 24
the lowest results in 0 set
membership
Figure 21.5d - Rule Calculation
5. If verror is SN and d/dtverror is SN then Vmotor is SN.
1
1
0
rps
-100 -50 0 50 100
1
0
-6
-3
0 3
rps/s
6
0
0
6
12 18 24
V
1rps
30rps
This has about 0.0 (out of 1) membership
Figure 21.5e - Rule Calculation
6. If verror is LN and d/dtverror is any then Vmotor is LN.
1
1
1
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
30rps
rps
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
rps/s
0
0
6
12 18 24
V
ANY VALUE
This has about 0 (out of 1) membership
Figure 21.5f - Rule Calculation
The results from the individual rules can be combined using the calculation in Figure 21.6. In
this case only two of the rules matched, so only two terms are used, to give a final motor control
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voltage of 15.8V.
n
∑ ( Vmotor ) ( membershipi )
i
V motor =
i--------------------------------------------------------------------=1
n
∑ ( membershipi )
i=1
0.6 ( 17V ) + 0.4 ( 14V )
V motor = --------------------------------------------------- = 15.8V
0.6 + 0.4
Figure 21.6 - Rule Results Calculation
21.2 COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS
At the time of writing Allen Bradley did not offer any Fuzzy Logic systems for their PLCs.
But, other vendors such as Omron offer commercial controllers. Their controller has 8 inputs and
2 outputs. It will accept up to 128 rules that operate on sets defined with polygons with up to 7
points.
It is also possible to implement a fuzzy logic controller manually, possible in structured text.
21.3 REFERENCES
Li, Y.F., and Lau, C.C., “Application of Fuzzy Control for Servo Systems”, IEEE International
Conference on Robotics and Automation, Philadelphia, 1988, pp. 1511-1519.
21.4 SUMMARY
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• Fuzzy rules can be developed verbally to describe a controller.
• Fuzzy sets can be developed statistically or by opinion.
• Solving fuzzy logic involves finding fuzzy set values and then calculating a value for
each rule. These values for each rule are combined with a weighted average.
21.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Find products that include fuzzy logic controllers in their designs.
2. Suggest 5 control problems that might be suitable for fuzzy logic control.
3. Two fuzzy rules, and the sets they use are given below. If verror = 30rps, and d/dtverror = 3rps/s,
find Vmotor.
1. If (verror is ZE) and (d/dtverror is ZE) then (Vmotor is ZE).
2. If (verror is SP) or (d/dtverror is SP) then (Vmotor is SP).
d/
verror
1
SN
0
rps
1
1
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
rps/s
1
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
rps
1
SP
Vmotor
1
-100 -50 0 50 100
ZE
dtverror
0
-100 -50 0 50 100
0
6
12 18 24
0
6
12 18 24
V
1
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
rps/s
1
rps
0
0
V
1
rps/s
0
-6
-3
0 3
6
V
0
0
6
4. Develop a set of fuzzy control rules adjusting the water temperature in a sink.
5. Develop a fuzzy logic control algorithm and implement it in structured text.
12 18 24
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22. DATA COMMUNICATION
<TODO - get AB ethernet specs for MSG instruction>
<TODO - clean up internet materials>
Topics:
• Serial communication and RS-232c
• ASCII ladder logic functions
• Networks; topology, OSI model, hardware and design issues
• Network types; Devicenet, CANbus, Controlnet, Ethernet, and DH+
• Internet; addressing, protocols, formats, etc.
• Design case
Objectives:
• To understand serial communications with RS-232
• Be able to use serial communications with a PLC
• To understand network types and related issues
• Be able to network using Devicenet, Ethernet and DH+
• To understand the Internet topics related to shop floor monitoring and control
22.1 INTRODUCTION
Multiple control systems will be used for complex processes. These control systems may be
PLCs, but other controllers include robots, data terminals and computers. For these controllers to
work together, they must communicate. This chapter will discuss communication techniques
between computers, and how these apply to PLCs.
The simplest form of communication is a direct connection between two computers. A network will simultaneously connect a large number of computers on a network. Data can be transmitted one bit at a time in series, this is called serial communication. Data bits can also be sent in
parallel. The transmission rate will often be limited to some maximum value, from a few bits per
second, to billions of bits per second. The communications often have limited distances, from a
few feet to thousands of miles/kilometers.
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Data communications have evolved from the 1800’s when telegraph machines were used to
transmit simple messages using Morse code. This process was automated with teletype machines
that allowed a user to type a message at one terminal, and the results would be printed on a remote
terminal. Meanwhile, the telephone system began to emerge as a large network for interconnecting users. In the late 1950s Bell Telephone introduced data communication networks, and Texaco
began to use remote monitoring and control to automate a polymerization plant. By the 1960s data
communications and the phone system were being used together. In the late 1960s and 1970s
modern data communications techniques were developed. This included the early version of the
Internet, called ARPAnet. Before the 1980s the most common computer configuration was a centralized mainframe computer with remote data terminals, connected with serial data line. In the
1980s the personal computer began to displace the central computer. As a result, high speed networks are now displacing the dedicated serial connections. Serial communications and networks
are both very important in modern control applications.
An example of a networked control system is shown in Figure 22.1. The computer and PLC
are connected with an RS-232 (serial data) connection. This connection can only connect two
devices. Devicenet is used by the Computer to communicate with various actuators and sensors.
Devicenet can support up to 63 actuators and sensors. The PLC inputs and outputs are connected
as normal to the process.
Devicenet
Computer
RS-232
Process
Actuators
Process
Sensors
Process
Process
Actuators
PLC
Normal I/O on PLC
Figure 22.1 - A Communication Example
Process
Sensors
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22.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
Serial communications send a single bit at a time between computers. This only requires a
single communication channel, as opposed to 8 channels to send a byte. With only one channel
the costs are lower, but the communication rates are slower. The communication channels are
often wire based, but they may also be can be optical and radio. Figure 22.2 shows some of the
standard electrical connections. RS-232c is the most common standard that is based on a voltage
change levels. At the sending computer an input will either be true or false. The ’line driver’ will
convert a false value ’in’ to a ’Txd’ voltage between +3V to +15V, true will be between -3V to 15V. A cable connects the ’Txd’ and ’com’ on the sending computer to the ’Rxd’ and ’com’
inputs on the receiving computer. The receiver converts the positive and negative voltages back to
logic voltage levels in the receiving computer. The cable length is limited to 50 feet to reduce the
effects of electrical noise. When RS-232 is used on the factory floor, care is required to reduce the
effects of electrical noise - careful grounding and shielded cables are often used.
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50 ft
RS-232c
Txd
Rxd
In
Out
com
3000 ft
RS-422a
In
Out
3000 ft
RS-423a
In
Out
Figure 22.2 - Serial Data Standards
The RS-422a cable uses a 20 mA current loop instead of voltage levels. This makes the systems more immune to electrical noise, so the cable can be up to 3000 feet long. The RS-423a standard uses a differential voltage level across two lines, also making the system more immune to
electrical noise, thus allowing longer cables. To provide serial communication in two directions
these circuits must be connected in both directions.
To transmit data, the sequence of bits follows a pattern, like that shown in Figure 22.3. The
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transmission starts at the left hand side. Each bit will be true or false for a fixed period of time,
determined by the transmission speed.
A typical data byte looks like the one below. The voltage/current on the line is made true or
false. The width of the bits determines the possible bits per second (bps). The value shown before
is used to transmit a single byte. Between bytes, and when the line is idle, the ’Txd’ is kept true,
this helps the receiver detect when a sender is present. A single start bit is sent by making the
’Txd’ false. In this example the next eight bits are the transmitted data, a byte with the value 17.
The data is followed by a parity bit that can be used to check the byte. In this example there are
two data bits set, and even parity is being used, so the parity bit is set. The parity bit is followed
by two stop bits to help separate this byte from the next one.
true
false
before
start
data
parity
stop
idle
Descriptions:
before - this is a period where no bit is being sent and the line is true.
start - a single bit to help get the systems synchronized.
data - this could be 7 or 8 bits, but is almost always 8 now. The value shown here is a
byte with the binary value 00010010 (the least significant bit is sent first).
parity - this lets us check to see if the byte was sent properly. The most common
choices here are no parity bit, an even parity bit, or an odd parity bit. In this case
there are two bits set in the data byte. If we are using even parity the bit would be
true. If we are using odd parity the bit would be false.
stop - the stop bits allow a pause at the end of the data. One or two stop bits can be
used.
idle - a period of time where the line is true before the next byte.
Figure 22.3 - A Serial Data Byte
Some of the byte settings are optional, such as the number of data bits (7 or 8), the parity bit
(none, even or odd) and the number of stop bits (1 or 2). The sending and receiving computers
must know what these settings are to properly receive and decode the data. Most computers send
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the data asynchronously, meaning that the data could be sent at any time, without warning. This
makes the bit settings more important.
Another method used to detect data errors is half-duplex and full-duplex transmission. In
half-duplex transmission the data is only sent in one direction. But, in full-duplex transmission a
copy of any byte received is sent back to the sender to verify that it was sent and received correctly. (Note: if you type and nothing shows up on a screen, or characters show up twice you may
have to change the half/full duplex setting.)
The transmission speed is the maximum number of bits that can be sent per second. The units
for this is ’baud’. The baud rate includes the start, parity and stop bits. For example a 9600 baud
9600
transmission of the data in Figure 22.3 would transfer up to ----------------------------------bytes each - = 800
(1 + 8 + 1 + 2)
second. Lower baud rates are 120, 300, 1.2K, 2.4K and 9.6K. Higher speeds are 19.2K, 28.8K and
33.3K. (Note: When this is set improperly you will get many transmission errors, or ’garbage’ on
your screen.)
Serial lines have become one of the most common methods for transmitting data to instruments: most personal computers have two serial ports. The previous discussion of serial communications techniques also applies to devices such as modems.
22.2.1 RS-232
The RS-232c standard is based on a low/false voltage between +3 to +15V, and an high/true
voltage between -3 to -15V (+/-12V is commonly used). Figure 22.4 shows some of the common
connection schemes. In all methods the ’txd’ and ’rxd’ lines are crossed so that the sending ’txd’
outputs are into the listening ’rxd’ inputs when communicating between computers. When communicating with a communication device (modem), these lines are not crossed. In the ’modem’
connection the ’dsr’ and ’dtr’ lines are used to control the flow of data. In the ’computer’ the ’cts’
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and ’rts’ lines are connected. These lines are all used for handshaking, to control the flow of data
from sender to receiver. The ’null-modem’ configuration simplifies the handshaking between
computers. The three wire configuration is a crude way to connect to devices, and data can be lost.
Modem
Computer
Null-Modem
Three wire
Computer
Computer
A
Computer
A
Computer
A
com
txd
rxd
dsr
dtr
com
txd
rxd
dsr
dtr
com
txd
rxd
cts
rts
com
txd
rxd
cts
rts
com
txd
rxd
dsr
dtr
cts
rts
com
txd
rxd
dsr
dtr
cts
rts
com
txd
rxd
cts
rts
com
txd
rxd
cts
rts
Modem
Computer
B
Computer
B
Computer
B
Figure 22.4 - Common RS-232 Connection Schemes
Common connectors for serial communications are shown in Figure 22.5. These connectors
are either male (with pins) or female (with holes), and often use the assigned pins shown. The
DB-9 connector is more common now, but the DB-25 connector is still in use. In any connection
the ’RXD’ and ’TXD’ pins must be used to transmit and receive data. The ’COM’ must be connected to give a common voltage reference. All of the remaining pins are used for ’handshaking’.
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DB-25
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Commonly used pins
1 - GND (chassis ground)
2 - TXD (transmit data)
3 - RXD (receive data)
4 - RTS (request to send)
5 - CTS (clear to send)
6 - DSR (data set ready)
7 - COM (common)
8 - DCD (Data Carrier Detect)
20 - DTR (data terminal ready)
Other pins
9 - Positive Voltage
10 - Negative Voltage
11 - not used
12 - Secondary Received Line Signal Detector
13 - Secondary Clear to Send
14 - Secondary Transmitted Data
15 - Transmission Signal Element Timing (DCE)
16 - Secondary Received Data
17 - Receiver Signal Element Timing (DCE)
18 - not used
19 - Secondary Request to Send
21 - Signal Quality Detector
22 - Ring Indicator (RI)
23 - Data Signal Rate Selector (DTE/DCE)
24 - Transmit Signal Element Timing (DTE)
25 - Busy
DB-9
1
2
6
3
7
4
8
5
9
1 - DCD
2 - RXD
3 - TXD
4 - DTR
5 - COM
6 - DSR
7 - RTS
8 - CTS
9 - RI
Note: these connectors often have
very small numbers printed on
them to help you
identify the pins.
Figure 22.5 - Typical RS-232 Pin Assignments and Names
The ’handshaking’ lines are to be used to detect the status of the sender and receiver, and to
regulate the flow of data. It would be unusual for most of these pins to be connected in any one
application. The most common pins are provided on the DB-9 connector, and are also described
below.
TXD/RXD - (transmit data, receive data) - data lines
DCD - (data carrier detect) - this indicates when a remote device is present
RI - (ring indicator) - this is used by modems to indicate when a connection is about to be
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made.
CTS/RTS - (clear to send, ready to send)
DSR/DTR - (data set ready, data terminal ready) these handshaking lines indicate when
the remote machine is ready to receive data.
COM - a common ground to provide a common reference voltage for the TXD and RXD.
When a computer is ready to receive data it will set the "CTS" bit, the remote machine will
notice this on the ’RTS’ pin. The ’DSR’ pin is similar in that it indicates the modem is ready to
transmit data. ’XON’ and ’XOFF’ characters are used for a software only flow control scheme.
Many PLC processors have an RS-232 port that is normally used for programming the PLC.
Figure 22.6 shows a PLC-5 processor connected to a personal computer with a Null-Modem line.
It is connected to the ’channel 0’ serial connector on the PLC-5 processor, and to the ’com 1’ port
on the computer. In this example the ’terminal’ could be a personal computer running a terminal
emulation program. The ladder logic below will send a string to the serial port ’channel 0’ when
’A’ goes true. In this case the string is stored is string memory ’ST9:0’ and has a length of 4 characters. If the string stored in ’ST9:0’ is "HALFLIFE", the terminal program will display the string
"HALF".
PLC5
RS-232 Cable
com 1
Terminal
Emulator
channel 0
A
AWT
Channel 0
String Location ST9:0
Length 4
Figure 22.6 - Serial Output Using Ladder Logic
The AWT (Ascii WriTe) function below will write to serial ports on the CPU only. To write to
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other serial ports the message function in Figure 22.7 must be used. In this example the message
block will become active when ’A’ goes true. It will use the message parameters stored in message memory ’MG9:0’. The parameters set indicate that the message is to ’Write’ data stored at
’N7:50’, ’N7:51’ and ’N7:52’. This will write the ASCII string "ABC" to the serial port.
A
MSG
Control Block MG9:0
Memory Values:
setup stored
in MG9:0
Data Stored in memory
Read/Write
Data Table
Size
Local/Remote
Remote Station
Link ID
Remote Link type
Local Node Addr.
Processor Type
Dest. Addr.
Write
N7:50
3
Local
N/A
N/A
N/A
20
ASCII
N/A
N7:50
N7:51
N7:52
65
66
67
Figure 22.7 - Message Function for Serial Communication
22.2.1.1 - ASCII Functions
ASCII functions allow programs to manipulate strings in the memory of the PLC. The basic
functions are listed in Figure 22.8.
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ABL(channel, control)- reports the number of ASCII characters including line endings
ACB(channel, control) - reports the numbers of ASCII characters in buffer
ACI(string, dest) - convert ASCII string to integer
ACN(string, string,dest) - concatenate strings
AEX(string, start, length, dest) - this will cut a segment of a string out of a larger string
AIC(integer, string) - convert an integer to a string
AHL(channel, mask, mask, control) - does data handshaking
ARD(channel, dest, control, length) - will get characters from the ASCII buffer
ARL(channel, dest, control, length) - will get characters from an ASCII buffer
ASC(string, start, string, result) - this will look for one string inside another
AWT(channel, string, control, length) - will write characters to an ASCII output
Figure 22.8 - PLC-5 ASCII Functions
In the example below, the characters "Hi " are placed into string memory ’ST10:1’. A zero is
used to indicate the end of the string. The ARD (Ascii ReaD) function will wait for 2 characters to
arrive from the terminal. When two characters have been received the done bit ’R6:0/DN’ will be
set. This done bit will cause the two characters to be concatenated to the "Hi ", and the result written back to the serial port. So, if I typed in my initial "HJ", I would get the response "HI HJ".
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First Scan
MOV
Source
Dest ST10:1/0
MOV
Source
Dest ST10:1/0
MOV
Source
Dest ST10:1/0
MOV
Source
Dest ST10:1/0
ARD
Channel 0
Dest ST10:0
Control R6:0
Length 2
R6:0/DN
ACN
StringA ST10:1
StringB ST10:0
Dest ST10:2
AWT
Channel 0
String ST10:2
Length 7
Figure 22.9 - An ASCII String Example
The ASCII functions can also be used to support simple number conversions. The example in
Figure 22.10 will convert the strings in ’ST9:10’ and ’ST9:11’ to integers, add the numbers, and
store the result as a string in ’ST9:12’.
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ACI
String ST9:10
Dest N7:0
ACI
String ST9:11
Dest N7:1
ADD
SourceA N7:0
SourceB N7:1
Dest N7:2
AIC
Source N7:2
String ST9:12
Figure 22.10 - A String to Integer Conversion Example
Many of the remaining string functions are illustrated in Figure 22.11. When ’A’ is true the
’ABL’ and ’ACB’ functions will check for characters that have arrived on channel 1, but have not
been retrieved with an ’ARD’ function. If the characters "ABC<CR>" have arrived (<CR> is an
ASCII carriage return) the ’ACB’ would count the three characters, and store the value in
’R6:0.POS’. The ’ABL’ function would also count the ’<CR>’ and store a value of four in
’R6:1.POS’. If ’B’ is true, and the string in ’ST9:0’ is "ABCDEFGHIJKL", then "EF" will be
stored in ’ST9:1’. The last function will compare the strings in ’ST9:2’ and ’ST9:3’, and if they
are equal, output ’O:001/2’ will be turned on.
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ACB
Channel 1
Control R6:0
A
ABL
Channel 1
Control R6:1
AEX
Source ST9:0
Index 5
Length 2
Dest ST9:1
B
ASR
StringA ST9:2
StringB ST9:3
O:001/2
Figure 22.11 - String Manipulation Functions
The ’AHL’ function can be used to do handshaking with a remote serial device.
22.3 PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS
Parallel data transmission will transmit multiple bits at the same time over multiple wires.
This does allow faster data transmission rates, but the connectors and cables become much larger,
more expensive and less flexible. These interfaces still use handshaking to control data flow.
These interfaces are common for computer printer cables and short interface cables, but they
are uncommon on PLCs. A list of common interfaces follows.
Centronics printer interface - These are the common printer interface used on most personal computers. It was made popular by the now defunct Centronics printer company.
GPIB/IEEE-488 - (General Purpose Instruments Bus) This bus was developed by Hewlett
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Packard Inc. for connecting instruments. It is still available as an option on many
new instruments.
22.4 NETWORKS
A computer with a single network interface can communicate with many other computers.
This economy and flexibility has made networks the interface of choice, eclipsing point-to-point
methods such as RS-232. Typical advantages of networks include resource sharing and ease of
communication. But, networks do require more knowledge and understanding.
Small networks are often called Local Area Networks (LANs). These may connect a few
hundred computers within a distance of hundreds of meters. These networks are inexpensive,
often costing $100 or less per network node. Data can be transmitted at rates of millions of bits
per second. Many controls system are using networks to communicate with other controllers and
computers. Typical applications include;
• taking quality readings with a PLC and sending the data to a database computer.
• distributing recipes or special orders to batch processing equipment.
• remote monitoring of equipment.
Larger Wide Area Networks (WANs) are used for communicating over long distances
between LANs. These are not common in controls applications, but might be needed for a very
large scale process. An example might be an oil pipeline control system that is spread over thousands of miles.
22.4.1 Topology
The structure of a network is called the topology. Figure 22.12 shows the basic network
topologies. The ’Bus’ and ’Ring’ topologies both share the same network wire. In the ’Star’ configuration each computer has a single wire that connects it to a central hub.
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LAN
A Wire Loop
Central Connection
...
Bus
Ring
Star
Figure 22.12 - Network Topologies
In the ’Ring’ and ’Bus’ topologies the network control is distributed between all of the computers on the network. The wiring only uses a single loop or run of wire. But, because there is
only one wire, the network will slow down significantly as traffic increases. This also requires
more sophisticated network interfaces that can determine when a computer is allowed to transmit
messages. It is also possible for a problem on the network wires to halt the entire network.
The ’Star’ topology requires more wire overall to connect each computer to an intelligent
hub. But, the network interfaces in the computer become simpler, and the network becomes more
reliable. Another term commonly used is that it is deterministic, this means that performance can
be predicted. This can be important in critical applications.
For a factory environment the bus topology is popular. The large number of wires required
for a star configuration can be expensive and confusing. The loop of wire required for a ring
topology is also difficult to connect, and it can lead to ground loop problems. Figure 12.13 shows
a tree topology that is constructed out of smaller bus networks. Repeaters are used to boost the
signal strength and allow the network to be larger.
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...
R
Repeater
R
R
R
Figure 22.13 - The Tree Topology
22.4.2 OSI Network Model
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) model in Figure 22.14 was developed as a tool to
describe the various hardware and software parts found in a network system. It is most useful for
educational purposes, and explaining the things that should happen for a successful network
application. The model contains seven layers, with the hardware at the bottom, and the software at
the top. The darkened arrow shows that a message originating in an application program in computer #1 must travel through all of the layers in both computers to arrive at the application in computer #2. This could be part of the process of reading email.
page 548
Unit of Transmission
Computer #2
Layer
Computer #1
7
Application
Message
Application
6
Presentation
Message
Presentation
5
Session
Message
Session
4
Transport
Message
Transport
3
Network
Packet
Network
2
Data Link
Frame
Data Link
1
Physical
Bit
Physical
Interconnecting Medium
Application - This is high level software on the computer.
Presentation - Translates application requests into network operations.
Session - This deals with multiple interactions between computers.
Transport - Breaks up and recombines data to small packets.
Network - Network addresses and routing added to make frame.
Data Link - The encryption for many bits, including error correction added to a
frame.
Physical - The voltage and timing for a single bit in a frame.
Interconnecting Medium - (not part of the standard) The wires or transmission
medium of the network.
Figure 22.14 - The OSI Network Model
The ’Physical’ layer describes items such as voltage levels and timing for the transmission of
single bits. The ’Data Link’ layer deals with sending a small amount of data, such as a byte, and
error correction. Together, these two layers would describe the serial byte shown in Figure 22.3.
The ’Network’ layer determines how to move the message through the network. If this were for
an internet connection this layer would be responsible for adding the correct network address. The
’Transport’ layer will divide small amounts of data into smaller packets, or recombine them into
one larger piece. This layer also checks for data integrity, often with a checksum. The ’Session’
layer will deal with issues that go beyond a single block of data. In particular it will deal with
page 549
resuming transmission if it is interrupted or corrupted. The ’Session’ layer will often make long
term connections to the remote machine. The ’Presentation’ layer acts as an application interface
so that syntax, formats and codes are consistent between the two networked machines. For example this might convert ’\’ to ’/’ in HTML files. This layer also provides subroutines that the user
may call to access network functions, and perform functions such as encryption and compression.
The ’Application’ layer is where the user program resides. On a computer this might be a web
browser, or a ladder logic program on a PLC.
Most products can be described with only a couple of layers. Some networking products may
omit layers in the model. Consider the networks shown in Figure 22.15.
22.4.3 Networking Hardware
The following is a description of most of the hardware that will be needed in the design of
networks.
• Computer (or network enabled equipment)
• Network Interface Hardware - The network interface may already be built into the computer/PLC/sensor/etc. These may cost $15 to over $1000.
• The Media - The physical network connection between network nodes.
10baseT (twisted pair) is the most popular. It is a pair of twisted copper wires terminated with an RJ-45 connector.
10base2 (thin wire) is thin shielded coaxial cable with BNC connectors
10baseF (fiber optic) is costly, but signal transmission and noise properties are
very good.
• Repeaters (Physical Layer) - These accept signals and retransmit them so that longer networks can be built.
• Hub/Concentrator - A central connection point that network wires will be connected to.
It will pass network packets to local computers, or to remote networks if they are
available.
• Router (Network Layer) - Will isolate different networks, but redirect traffic to other
LANs.
• Bridges (Data link layer) - These are intelligent devices that can convert data on one type
of network, to data on another type of network. These can also be used to isolate
two networks.
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• Gateway (Application Layer) - A Gateway is a full computer that will direct traffic to
different networks, and possibly screen packets. These are often used to create firewalls for security.
Figure 22.15 shows the basic OSI model equivalents for some of the networking hardware
described before.
7 - application
6 - presentation
gateway
5 - session
4 - transport
3 - network
switch
2 - data link
1 - physical
bridge
router
repeater
Figure 22.15 - Network Devices and the OSI Model
Layer
Computer #2
Computer #1
7
Application
Application
6
Presentation
Presentation
5
Session
Session
4
Transport
3
Network
Network
Network
2
Data Link
Data Link
Data Link
1
Physical
Physical
Physical
Router
Interconnecting Medium
Figure 22.15X - The OSI Network Model with a Router
Transport
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22.4.4 Control Network Issues
A wide variety of networks are commercially available, and each has particular strengths and
weaknesses. The differences arise from their basic designs. One simple issue is the use of the network to deliver power to the nodes. Some control networks will also supply enough power to
drive some sensors and simple devices. This can eliminate separate power supplies, but it can
reduce the data transmission rates on the network. The use of network taps or tees to connect to
the network cable is also important. Some taps or tees are simple ’passive’ electrical connections,
but others involve sophisticated ’active’ tees that are more costly, but allow longer networks.
The transmission type determines the communication speed and noise immunity. The simplest transmission method is baseband, where voltages are switched off and on to signal bit states.
This method is subject to noise, and must operate at lower speeds. RS-232 is an example of baseband transmission. Carrierband transmission uses FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) that will switch
a signal between two frequencies to indicate a true or false bit. This technique is very similar to
FM (Frequency Modulation) radio where the frequency of the audio wave is transmitted by
changing the frequency of a carrier frequency about 100MHz. This method allows higher transmission speeds, with reduced noise effects. Broadband networks transmit data over more than one
channel by using multiple carrier frequencies on the same wire. This is similar to sending many
cable television channels over the same wire. These networks can achieve very large transmission
speeds, and can also be used to guarantee real time network access.
The bus network topology only uses a single transmission wire for all nodes. If all of the
nodes decide to send messages simultaneously, the messages would be corrupted (a collision
occurs). There are a variety of methods for dealing with network collisions, and arbitration.
CSMA/CD (Collision Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) - if two nodes start
talking and detect a collision then they will stop, wait a random time, and then start
again.
CSMA/BA (Collision Sense Multiple Access/Bitwise Arbitration) - if two nodes start
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talking at the same time the will stop and use their node addresses to determine
which one goes first.
Master-Slave - one device one the network is the master and is the only one that may start
communication. slave devices will only respond to requests from the master.
Token Passing - A token, or permission to talk, is passed sequentially around a network so
that only one station may talk at a time.
The token passing method is deterministic, but it may require that a node with an urgent message wait to receive the token. The master-slave method will put a single machine in charge of
sending and receiving. This can be restrictive if multiple controllers are to exist on the same network. The CSMA/CD and CSMA/BA methods will both allow nodes to talk when needed. But, as
the number of collisions increase the network performance degrades quickly.
22.5 BUS TYPES
Bus types are listed below.
Low level busses - these are low level protocols that other networks are built upon.
RS-485, Bitbus, CAN bus, Lonworks, Arcnet
General open buses - these are complete network types with fully published standards.
ASI, Devicenet, Interbus-S, Profibus, Smart Distributed System (SDS), Seriplex
Specialty buses - these are buses that are proprietary.
Genius I/O, Sensoplex
22.5.1 Devicenet
Devicenet has become one of the most widely supported control networks. It is an open standard, so components from a variety of manufacturers can be used together in the same control system. It is supported and promoted by the Open Devicenet Vendors Association (ODVA) (see http:/
/www.odva.org). This group includes members from all of the major controls manufacturers.
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This network has been designed to be noise resistant and robust. One major change for the
control engineer is that the PLC chassis can be eliminated and the network can be connected
directly to the sensors and actuators. This will reduce the total amount of wiring by moving I/O
points closer to the application point. This can also simplify the connection of complex devices,
such as HMIs. Two way communications inputs and outputs allow diagnosis of network problems
from the main controller.
Devicenet covers all seven layers of the OSI standard. The protocol has a limited number of
network address, with very small data packets. But this also helps limit network traffic and ensure
responsiveness. The length of the network cables will limit the maximum speed of the network.
The basic features of are listed below.
• A single bus cable that delivers data and power.
• Up to 64 nodes on the network.
• Data packet size of 0-8 bytes.
• Lengths of 500m/250m/100m for speeds of 125kbps/250kbps/500kbps respectively.
• Devices can be added/removed while power is on.
• Based on the CANbus (Controller Area Network) protocol for OSI levels 1 and 2.
• Addressing includes peer-to-peer, multicast, master/slave, polling or change of state.
An example of a Devicenet network is shown in Figure 22.16. The dark black lines are the
network cable. Terminators are required at the ends of the network cable to reduce electrical
noise. In this case the PC would probably be running some sort of software based PLC program.
The computer would have a card that can communicate with Devicenet devices. The ’FlexIO
rack’ is a miniature rack that can hold various types of input and output modules. Power taps (or
tees) split the signal to small side branches. In this case one of the taps connects a power supply,
to provide the 24Vdc supply to the network. Another two taps are used to connect a ’smart sensor’
and another ’FlexIO rack’. The ’Smart sensor’ uses power from the network, and contains enough
logic so that it is one node on the network. The network uses ’thin trunk line’ and ’thick trunk
line’ which may limit network performance.
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thin
trunk
line
power tap
drop
line
tap
thick trunk line
FlexIO
rack
terminator
terminator
thin
trunk tap
line
PC
drop
line
Smart
sensor
power
supply
FlexIO
rack
Figure 22.16 - A Devicenet Network
The network cable is important for delivering power and data. Figure 22.17 shows a basic
cable with two wires for data and two wires for the power. The cable is also shielded to reduce the
effects of electrical noise. The two basic types are thick and thin trunk line. The cables may come
with a variety of connections to devices.
• bare wires
• unsealed screw connector
• sealed mini connector
• sealed micro connector
• vampire taps
power (24Vdc)
data
drain/shield
Thick trunk - carries up to 8A for power up to 500m
Thin trunk - up to 3A for power up to 100m
Figure 22.17 - Shielded Network Cable
page 555
Some of the design issues for this network include;
• Power supplies are directly connected to the network power lines.
• Length to speed is 156m/78m/39m to 125Kbps/250Kbps/500Kbps respectively.
• A single drop is limited to 6m.
• Each node on the network will have its own address between 0 and 63.
If a PLC-5 was to be connected to Devicenet a scanner card would need to be placed in the
rack. The ladder logic in Figure 22.18 would communicate with the sensors through a scanner
card in slot 3. The read and write blocks would read and write the Devicenet input values to integer memory from ’N7:40’ to ’N7:59’. The outputs would be copied from the integer memory
between ’N7:20’ to ’N7:39’. The ladder logic to process inputs and outputs would need to examine and set bits in integer memory.
page 556
MG9:0/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:0
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MG9:1/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:1
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MG9:1
MG9:0
Read/Write
Data Table
Size
Local/Remote
Remote Station
Link ID
Remote Link type
Local Node Addr.
Processor Type
Dest. Addr.
Write
N7:20
20
Remote
??
??
??
N/A
????
????
Read/Write
Data Table
Size
Local/Remote
Remote Station
Link ID
Remote Link type
Local Node Addr.
Processor Type
Dest. Addr.
Read
N7:40
20
Remote
??
??
??
N/A
????
????
Note: Get exact settings for these parametersXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Figure 22.18 - Communicating with Devicenet Inputs and Outputs
On an Allen Bradley Softlogix PLC the I/O will be copied into blocks of integer memory.
These blocks are selected by the user in setup software. The ladder logic would then using integer
memory for inputs and outputs, as shown in Figure 22.19. Here the inputs are copied into N9 integer memory, and the outputs are set by copying the N10 block of memory back to the outputs.
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N9:0
N10:23
Figure 22.19 - Devicenet Inputs and Outputs in Software Based PLCs
22.5.2 CANbus
The CANbus (Controller Area Network bus) standard is part of the Devicenet standard. Integrated circuits are now sold by many of the major vendors (Motorola, Intel, etc.) that support
some, or all, of the standard on a single chip. This section will discuss many of the technical
details of the standard.
CANbus covers the first two layers of the OSI model. The network has a bus topology and
uses bit wise resolution for collisions on the network (i.e., the lower the network identifier, the
higher the priority for sending). A data frame is shown in Figure 22.20. The frame is like a long
serial byte, like that seen in Figure 22.3. The frame begins with a start bit. This is then followed
with a message identifier. For Devicenet this is a 5 bit address code (for up to 64 nodes) and a 6
bit command code. The ’ready to receive it’ bit will be set by the receiving machine. (Note: both
the sender and listener share the same wire.) If the receiving machine does not set this bit the
remainder of the message is aborted, and the message is resent later. While sending the first few
bits, the sender monitors the bits to ensure that the bits send are heard the same way. If the bits do
not agree, then another node on the network has tried to write a message at the same time - there
was a collision. The two devices then wait a period of time, based on their identifier and then start
to resend. The second node will then detect the message, and wait until it is done. The next 6 bits
indicate the number of bytes to be sent, from 0 to 8. This is followed by two sets of bits for CRC
(Cyclic Redundancy Check) error checking, this is a checksum of earlier bits. The next bit ’ACK
slot’ is set by the receiving node if the data was received correctly. If there was a CRC error this
bit would not be set, and the message would be resent. The remaining bits end the transmission.
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The ’end of frame’ bits are equivalent to stop bits. There must be a delay of at least 3 bits before
the next message begins.
1 bit
start of frame
11 bits
identifier
1 bit
ready to receive it
6 bits
control field - contains number of data bytes
0-8 bytes
data - the information to be passed
15 bits
CRC sequence
1 bit
CRC delimiter
1 bit
ACK slot - other listeners turn this on to indicate frame received
1 bit
ACK delimiter
7 bits
end of frame
>= 3 bits
delay before next frame
arbitration field
Figure 22.20 - A CANbus Data Frame
Because of the bitwise arbitration, the address with the lowest identifier will get the highest
priority, and be able to send messages faster when there is a conflict. As a result the controller is
normally put at address ’0’. And, lower priority devices are put near the end of the address range.
22.5.3 Controlnet
Controlnet is complimentary to Devicenet. It is also supported by a consortium of companies,
(http://www.controlnet.org) and it conducts some projects in cooperation with the Devicenet
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group. The standard is designed for communication between controllers, and permits more complex messages than Devicenet. It is not suitable for communication with individual sensors and
actuators, or with devices off the factory floor.
Controlnet is more complicated method than Devicenet. Some of the key features of this network include,
• Multiple controllers and I/O on one network
• Deterministic
• Data rates up to 5Mbps
• Multiple topologies (bus, star, tree)
• Multiple media (coax, fiber, etc.)
• Up to 99 nodes with addresses, up to 48 without a repeater
• Data packets up to 510 bytes
• Unlimited I/O points
• Maximum length examples
1000m with coax at 5Mbps - 2 nodes
250m with coax at 5Mbps - 48 nodes
5000m with coax at 5Mbps with repeaters
3000m with fiber at 5Mbps
30Km with fiber at 5Mbps and repeaters
• 5 repeaters in series, 48 segments in parallel
• Devices powered individually (no network power)
• Devices can be removed while network is active
This control network is unique because it supports a real-time messaging scheme called Concurrent Time Domain Multiple Access (CTDMA). The network has a scheduled (high priority)
and unscheduled (low priority) update. When collisions are detected, the system will wait a time
of at least 2ms, for unscheduled messages. But, scheduled messages will be passed sooner, during
a special time window.
22.5.4 Ethernet
Ethernet has become the predominate networking format. Version I was released in 1980 by a
consortium of companies. In the 1980s various versions of ethernet frames were released. These
include Version II and Novell Networking (IEEE 802.3). Most modern ethernet cards will support
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different types of frames.
The ethernet frame is shown in Figure 20.21. The first six bytes are the destination address
for the message. If all of the bits in the bytes are set then any computer that receives the message
will read it. The first three bytes of the address are specific to the card manufacturer, and the
remaining bytes specify the remote address. The address is common for all versions of ethernet.
The source address specifies the message sender. The first three bytes are specific to the card
manufacturer. The remaining bytes include the source address. This is also identical in all versions of ethernet. The ’ethernet type’ identifies the frame as aVersion II ethernet packet if the
value is greater than 05DChex. The other ethernet types use these to bytes to indicate the datalength. The ’data’ can be between 46 to 1500 bytes in length. The frame concludes with a ’checksum’ that will be used to verify that the data has been transmitted correctly. When the end of the
transmission is detected, the last four bytes are then used to verify that the frame was received
correctly.
6 bytes
destination address
6 bytes
source address
2 bytes
ethernet type
46-1500 bytes
data
4 bytes
checksum
Figure 22.21 - Ethernet Version II Frame
22.5.5 Profibus
Another control network that is popular in europe, but also available world wide. It is also
promoted by a consortium of companies (http://www.profibus.com). General features include;
• A token passing between up to three masters
• Maximum of 126 nodes
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• Straight bus topology
• Length from 9600m/9.6Kbps with 7 repeaters to 500m/12Mbps with 4 repeaters
• With fiber optic cable lengths can be over 80Km
• 2 data lines and shield
• Power needed at each station
• Uses RS-485, ethernet, fiber optics, etc.
• 2048 bits of I/O per network frame
22.5.6 Proprietary Networks
22.5.6.1 - Data Highway
Allen-Bradley has developed the Data Highway II (DH+) network for passing data and programs between PLCs and to computers. This bus network allows up to 64 PLCs to be connected
with a single twisted pair in a shielded cable. Token passing is used to control traffic on the network. Computers can also be connected to the DH+ network, with a network card to download
programs and monitor the PLC. The network will support data rates of 57.6Kbps and 230 Kbps
The DH+ basic data frame is shown in Figure 22.22. The frame is byte oriented. The first
byte is the ’DLE’ or delimiter byte, which is always $10. When this byte is received the PLC will
interpret the next byte as a command. The ’SOH’ identifies the message as a DH+ message. The
next byte indicates the destination station - each node one the network must have a unique number. This is followed by the ’DLE’ and ’STX’ bytes that identify the start of the data. The data follows, and its’ length is determined by the command type - this will be discussed later. This is then
followed by a ’DLE’ and ’ETX’ pair that mark the end of the message. The last byte transmitted is
a checksum to determine the correctness of the message.
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1 byte
DLE = 10H
1 byte
SOH = 01H
1 byte
STN - the destination number
1 byte
DLE = 10H
1 byte
STX = 02H
header fields
start fields
data
1 byte
DLE = 10H
1 byte
ETX = 03H
1 byte
block check - a 2s compliment checksum of the DATA and STN values
termination fields
Figure 22.22 - The Basic DH+ Data Frame
The general structure for the data is shown in Figure 22.23. This packet will change for different commands. The first two bytes indicate the destination, ’DST’, and source, ’SRC’, for the
message. The next byte is the command, ’CMD’, which will determine the action to be taken.
Sometimes, the function, ’FNC’, will be needed to modify the command. The transaction, ’TNS’,
field is a unique message identifier. The two address, ’ADDR’, bytes identify a target memory
location. The ’DATA’ fields contain the information to be passed. Finally, the ’SIZE’ of the data
field is transmitted.
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1 byte
DST - destination node for the message
1 byte
SRC - the node that sent the message
1 byte
CMD - network command - sometime FNC is required
1 byte
STS - message send/receive status
2 byte
TNS - transaction field (a unique message ID)
optional
1 byte
FNC may be required with some CMD values
optional
2 byte
ADDR - a memory location
optional
variable
DATA - a variable length set of data
optional
1 byte
SIZE - size of a data field
Figure 22.23 - Data Filed Values
Examples of commands are shown in Figure 22.24. These focus on moving memory and status information between the PLC, and remote programming software, and other PLCs. More
details can be found in the Allen-Bradley DH+ manuals.
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CMD
00
01
02
05
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
06
08
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
0F
FNC
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
00
01
02
11
17
18
26
29
3A
41
50
52
53
55
57
5E
67
68
A2
AA
Description
Protected write
Unprotected read
Protected bit write
Unprotected bit write
Echo
Read diagnostic counters
Set variables
Diagnostic status
Set timeout
Set NAKs
Set ENQs
Read diagnostic counters
Unprotected write
Word range write
Word range read
Bit write
Get edit resource
Read bytes physical
Write bits physical
Read-modify-write
Read section size
Set CPU mode
Disable forces
Download all request
Download completed
Upload all request
Upload completed
Initialize memory
Modify PLC-2 compatibility file
typed write
typed read
Protected logical read - 3 address fields
Protected logical write - 3 addr. fields
Figure 22.24 - DH+ Commands for a PLC-5 (all numbers are hexadecimal)
The ladder logic in Figure 22.25 can be used to copy data from the memory of one PLC to
another. Unlike other networking schemes, there are no ’login’ procedures. In this example the
first MSG instruction will write the message from the local memory ’N7:20’ - ’N7:39’ to the
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remote PLC-5 (node 2) into its memory from ’N7:40’ to ’N7:59’. The second ’MSG’ instruction
will copy the memory from the remote PLC-5 memory ’N7:40’ to ’N7:59’ to the remote PLC-5
memory ’N7:20’ to ’N7:39’. This transfer will require many scans of ladder logic, so the ’EN’
bits will prevent a read or write instruction from restarting until the previous ’MSG’ instruction is
complete.
MG9:0/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:0
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MG9:1/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:1
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MG9:1
MG9:0
Read/Write
Data Table
Size
Local/Remote
Remote Station
Link ID
Remote Link type
Local Node Addr.
Processor Type
Dest. Addr.
Write
N7:20
20
Local
N/A
N/A
N/A
2
PLC-5
N7:40
Read/Write
Data Table
Size
Local/Remote
Remote Station
Link ID
Remote Link type
Local Node Addr.
Processor Type
Dest. Addr.
Read
N7:40
20
Local
N/A
N/A
N/A
2
PLC-5
N7:20
Figure 22.25 - Ladder Logic for Reading and Writing to PLC Memory
The DH+ data packets can be transmitted over other data links, including ethernet and RS232.
22.6 INTERNET
• The Internet is just a lot of LANs and WANs connected together. If your computer is on one
LAN that is connected to the Internet, you can reach computers on other LANs.
page 566
• The information that networks typically communicate includes,
email - text files, binary files (MIME encoded)
programs - binary, or uuencoded
web pages - (HTML) Hyper Text Markup Language
• To transfer this information we count on access procedures that allow agreement about
when computers talk and listen, and what they say.
email - (SMTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, POP3, IMAP
programs - (FTP) File Transfer Protocol
login sessions - Telnet
web access - (HTTP) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Aside: Open a Dos window and type ‘telnet river.it.gvsu.edu 25’. this will connect you to the
main student computer. But instead of the normal main door, you are talking to a program
that delivers mail. Type the following to send an email message.
ehlo northpole.com
mail from: santa
rcpt to: jackh
data
Subject: Bogus mail
this is mail that is not really from santa
.
22.6.1 Computer Addresses
• Computers are often given names, because names are easy to remember.
• In truth the computers are given numbers.
Machine Name:
claymore.engineer.gvsu.edu
Alternate Name:
www.eod.gvsu.edu
IP Number:
148.61.104.215
• When we ask for a computer by name, your computer must find the number. It does this using a
DNS (Domain Name Server). On campus we have two ‘148.61.1.10’ and ‘148.61.1.15’.
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EXERCISE: In netscape go to the location above using the name, and using the IP number
(148.61.104.215).
• The number has four parts. The first two digits ‘148.61’ indicate to all of the internet that the
computer is at ‘gvsu.edu’, or on campus here (we actually pay a yearly fee of about $50 to register this internationally). The third number indicates what LAN the computer is located on
(Basically each hub has its own number). Finally the last digit is specific to a machine.
EXERCISE: Run the program ‘winipcfg’. You will see numbers come up, including an IP
number, and gateway. The IP number has been temporarily assigned to your computer. The
gateway number is the IP address for the router. The router is a small computer that controls traffic between local computers (it is normally found in a locked cabinet/closet).
• Netmask, name servers, gateway
22.6.1.1 - IPV6
22.6.2 Phone Lines
• The merit dialup network is a good example. It is an extension of the internet that you can reach
by phone.
• The phone based connection is slower (about 5 MB/hour peak)
• There are a few main types,
SLIP - most common
PPP - also common
ISDN - an faster, more expensive connection, geared to permanent connections
• You need a modem in your computer, and you must dial up to another computer that has a
modem and is connected to the Internet. The slower of the two modems determines the speed
of the connection. Typical modem speeds are,
- 52.4 kbps - very fast
- 28.8/33.3 kbps - moderate speed, inexpensive
- 14.4 kbps - a bit slow for internet access
- 2.4, 9.6 kpbs - ouch
- 300 bps - just shoot me
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22.6.3 Mail Transfer Protocols
• Popular email methods include,
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - for sending mail
POP3 - for retrieving mail
IMAP - for retrieving mail
EXERCISE: In netscape go to the ‘edit-preferences’ selection. Choose the ‘mail and groups’
option. Notice how there is a choice for mail service type under ‘Mail Server’. It should be
set for ‘POP3’ and refer to ‘mailhost.gvsu.edu’. This is where one of the campus mail servers lives. Set it up for your river account, and check to see if you have any mail.
• Note that the campus mail system ‘ccmail’ is not standard. It will communicate with other mail
programs using standard services, but internally special software must be used. Soon ccmail
will be available using the POP3 standard, so that you will be able to view your ccmail using
Netscape, but some of the features of ccmail will not be available.
• Listservers allow you to send mail to a single address, and it will distribute it to many users (IT
can set this up for you).
22.6.4 FTP - File Transfer Protocol
• This is a method for retrieving or sending files to remote computers.
Aside: In Netscape ask for the location ‘ftp://sunsite.unc.edu’ This will connect you via ftp the
same way as with the windows and the dos software.
22.6.5 HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
• This is the protocol used for talking to a web server.
22.6.6 Novell
• Allows us to share files stored on a server.
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22.6.7 Security
• Security problems usually arise through protocols. For example it is common for a hacker to
gain access through the mail system.
• The system administrator is responsible for security, and if you are using the campus server,
security problems will normally be limited to a single user.
• Be careful with passwords, this is your own protection again hacking. General rules include,
1. Don’t leave yourself logged in when somebody else has access to your computer.
2. Don’t give your password to anybody (even the system administrator).
3. Pick a password that is not,
- in the dictionary
- some variation of your name
- all lower case letters
- found in television
- star trek, the bible
- pet/children/spouse/nick names
- swear words
- colloquial phrases
- birthdays
- etc.
4. Watch for unusual activity in you computer account.
5. Don’t be afraid to call information technology and ask questions.
6. Don’t run software that comes from suspect or unknown sources.
7. Don’t write your password down or give it to others.
22.6.7.1 - Firewall
22.6.7.2 - IP Masquerading
22.6.8 HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language
• This is a format that is invisible to the user on the web. It allows documents to be formatted to fit
the local screen.
Aside: While looking at a home page in Netscape select ‘View - Page Source’. You will see a
window that includes the actual HTML file - This file was interpreted by Netscape to make
the page you saw previously. Look through the file to see if you can find any text that was
on the original page.
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• Editors are available that allow users to update HTML documents the same way they use word
processors.
• Keep in mind that the website is just another computer. You have directories and files there too.
To create a web site that has multiple files we need to create other files or directory names.
• Note that some web servers do not observe upper/lower case and cut the ‘html’ extension to
‘htm’. Microsoft based computers are notorious for this, and this will be the most common
source of trouble.
22.6.9 URLs
• In HTML documents we need to refer to resources. To do this we use a label to identify the type
of resource, followed by a location.
• Universal Resource Locators (URLs)
- http:WEB_SITE_NAME
- ftp:FTP_SITE_NAME
- mailto:[email protected]_SERVER
- news:NEWSGROUP_NAME
EXERCISE: In netscape type in ‘mailto:[email protected]’. After you are
done try ‘news:gvsu’.
22.6.10 Encryption
• Allows some degree of privacy, but this is not guaranteed.
• Basically, if you have something you don’t want seen, don’t do it on the computer.
22.6.11 Compression
• We can make a file smaller by compressing it (unless it is already compressed, then it gets
larger)
• File compression can make files harder to use in Web documents, but the smaller size makes
page 571
them faster to download. A good rule of thumb is that when the file is MB is size, compression
will have a large impact.
• Many file formats have compression built in, including,
images - JPG, GIF
video - MPEG, AVI
programs - installation programs are normally compressed
• Typical compression formats include,
zip - zip, medium range compression
gz - g-zip - good compression
Z - unix compression
Stuffit - A Mac compression format
• Some files, such as text, will become 1/10 of their original size.
22.6.12 Clients and Servers
• Some computers are set up to serve others as centers of activity, sort of like a campus library.
Other computers are set up only as users, like bookshelves in a closed office. The server is
open to all, while the private bookshelf has very limited access.
• A computer server will answer requests from other computers. These requests may be,
- to get/put files with FTP
- to send email
- to provide web pages
• A client does not answer requests.
• Both clients and servers can generate requests.
EXERCISE: Using Netscape try to access the IP number of the machine beside you. You will
get a message that says the connection was refused. This is because the machine is a client.
You have already been using servers to get web pages.
• Any computer that is connected to the network Client or Server must be able to generate
requests. You can see this as the Servers have more capabilities than the Clients.
• Microsoft and Apple computers have limited server capabilities, while unix and other computer
types generally have more.
Windows 3.1 - No client or server support without special software
Windows 95 - No server support without special software
page 572
Windows NT - Limited server support with special versions
MacOS - Some server support with special software
Unix - Both client and server models built in
• In general you are best advised to use the main campus servers. But in some cases the extra
effort to set up and maintain your own server may also be useful.
• To set up your own server machine you might,
1. Purchase a computer and network card. A Pentium class machine will actually provide
more than enough power for a small web site.
2. Purchase of copy of Windows NT server version.
3. Choose a name for your computer that is easy to remember. An example is ‘artsite’.
4. Call the Information technology people on campus, and request an IP address. Also ask
for the gateway number, netmask, and nameserver numbers. They will add your
machine to the campus DNS so that others may find it by name (the number will
always work if chosen properly).
5. Connect the computer to the network, then turn it on.
6. Install Windows NT, and when asked provide the network information. Indicate that
web serving will be permitted.
7. Modify web pages as required.
22.6.13 Java
• This is a programming language that is supported on most Internet based computers.
• These programs will run on any computer - there is no need for a Mac, PC and Unix version.
• Most users don’t need to program in Java, but the results can be used in your web pages
EXERCISE: Go to ‘www.javasoft.com’ and look at some sample java programs.
22.6.14 Javascript
• Simple programs can be written as part of an html file that will add abilities to the HTML page.
22.6.15 CGI
page 573
• CGI (Common Gateway Interface) is a very popular technique to allow the html page on the client to run programs on the server.
• Typical examples of these include,
- counters
- feedback forms
- information requests
22.6.16 ActiveX
• This is a programming method proposed by Microsoft to reduce the success of Java - It has been
part of the antitrust suit against Microsoft by the Justice Department.
• It will only work on IBM PC computers running the ‘Internet Explorer’ browser from Microsoft.
• One major advantage of ActiveX is that it allows users to take advantage of programs written for
Windows machines.
• Note: Unless there is no choice avoid this technique. If similar capabilities are needed, use Java
instead.
22.6.17 Graphics
• Two good formats are,
GIF - well suited to limited color images - no loss in compression. Use these for line
images, technical drawings, etc
JPG - well suited to photographs - image can be highly compressed with minimal distortion. Use these for photographs.
• Digital cameras will permit image capture and storage - images in JPG format are best.
• Scanners will capture images, but this is a poor alternative as the image sizes are larger and
image quality is poorer
- Photographs tend to become grainy when scanned.
- Line drawings become blurred.
• Screen captures are also possible, but do these with a lower color resolution on the screen (256
color mode).
page 574
22.7 DESIGN CASES
22.7.1 PLC Interface To a Robot
Problem: A robot will be loading parts into a box until the box reaches a prescribed weight. A
PLC will feed parts into a pickup fixture when it is empty. The PLC will tell the robot when to
pick up a part and load it into the box by passing it an ASCII string, "pickup".
RS-232
"pickup" = pickup part
Robot
PLC
feed part
Parts
Feeder
part waiting
Parts Pickup
Fixture
box full
Box and
Weigh Scale
Figure 22.26 - Box Loading System
Solution: The following ladder logic will implement part of the control system for the system
in Figure 22.26.
page 575
part waiting
box full
feed part
part waiting
ONS
Bit B3:0
AWT
Channel 0
String ST10:0
Length 6
ST10:0 = "pickup"
22.8 SUMMARY
• Serial communications pass data one bit at a time.
• RS-232 communications use voltage levels for short distances. A variety of communications cables and settings were discussed.
• ASCII functions are available of PLCs making serial communications possible.
• Networks come in a variety of topologies, but buses are most common on factory floors.
• The OSI model can help when describing network related hardware and software.
• Networks can be connected with a variety of routers, bridges, gateways, etc.
• Devicenet is designed for interfacing to a few inputs and outputs.
• Controlnet is designed for interfacing between controllers.
• Controlnet and devicenet are based on CANbus.
• Ethernet is common, and can be used for high speed communication.
• Profibus is another control network.
• The internet can be use to monitor and control shop floor activities.
22.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Explain why networks are important in manufacturing controls.
ans. These networks allow us to pass data between devices so that individually controlled systems
can be integrated into a more complex manufacturing facility. An example might be a serial
connection to a PLC so that SPC data can be collected as product is made, or recipes downloaded as they are needed.
page 576
2. Describe what the bits would be when an ‘A’ (ASCII 65) is transmitted in an RS-232 interface
with 8 data bits, even parity and 1 stop bit.
ans)
before
start
data
parity
stop
3. Divide the string in ST10:0 by the string in ST10:1 and store the results in ST10:2. Check for a
divide by zero error.
ST10:0 “100”
ST10:1 “10”
ST10:2
ans)
AIC
Source ST10:0
Dest N7:0
AIC
Source ST10:1
Dest N7:1
NEQ
Source A 0
Source B N7:1
DIV
Source A N7:0
Source B N7:1
Dest N7:2
IAC
Source N7:2
Dest ST10:2
4. We will use a PLC to control a cereal box filling machine. For single runs the quantities of
cereal types are controlled using timers. There are 6 different timers that control flow, and these
page 577
result in different ratios of product. The values for the timer presets will be downloaded from
another PLC using the DH+ network. Write the ladder logic for the PLC.
page 578
ans.
MG9:0/EN
on
MG9:0/DN
on
start
MSG
MG9:0
Read Message
Remote station #1
Remote Addr. N7:0
Length 6
Destination N7:0
FAL
DEST. #T4:0.PRE
EXPR. #N7:0
stop
on
on
box present
on
TON
T4:0
TON
T4:1
TON
T4:2
TON
T4:3
TON
T4:4
TON
T4:5
T4:0/TT
fill hearts
T4:1/TT
fill moons
ETC...
page 579
5. a) We are developing ladder logic for an oven to be used in a baking facility. A PLC is controlling the temperature of an oven using an analog voltage output. The oven must be started with a
push button and can be stopped at any time with a stop push button. A recipe is used to control
the times at each temperature (this is written into the PLC memory by another PLC). When idle,
the output voltage should be 0V, and during heating the output voltages, in sequence, are 5V,
7.5V, 9V. The timer preset values, in sequence, are in N7:0, N7:1, N7:2. When the oven is on, a
value of 1 should be stored in N7:3, and when the oven is off, a value of 0 should be stored in
N7:3. Draw a state diagram and write the ladder logic for this station.
b) We are using a PLC as a master controller in a baking facility. It will update recipes in remote
PLCs using DH+. The master station is #1, the remote stations are #2 and #3. When an operator
pushes one of three buttons, it will change the recipes in two remote PLCs if both of the remote
PLCs are idle. While the remote PLCs are running they will change words in their internal
memories (N7:3=0 means idle and N7:3=1 means active). The new recipe values will be written to the remote PLCs using DH+. The table below shows the values for each PLC. Write the
ladder logic for the master controller.
PLC #2
PLC #3
button A
button B
button C
13
690
45
17
235
75
14
745
34
76
345
987
345
764
87
72
234
12
34
456
67
56
645
23
456
568
8
page 580
start
(ans. a)
stop
T4:2/DN
on N7:3/0
MOV
Source N7:0
Dest T4:0.PRE
on N7:3/0
MOV
Source N7:1
Dest T4:1.PRE
MOV
Source N7:2
Dest T4:2.PRE
on
T4:0/DN
TON
Timer T4:0
Delay 0s
T4:1/DN
TON
Timer T4:1
Delay 0s
BT10:0/EN
T4:0/TT
T4:1/TT
T4:2/TT
on
TON
Timer T4:2
Delay 0s
Block Transfer Write
Module Type Generic Block Transfer
Rack 000
Group 3
Module 0
Control Block BT10:0
Data File N9:0
Length 13
Continuous No
MOV
Source 2095
Dest N9:0
MOV
Source 3071
Dest N9:0
MOV
Source 3686
Dest N9:0
MOV
Source 0
Dest N9:0
page 581
(ans. b)
MG9:0/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:0
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MG9:1/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:1
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MG9:2/EN
MSG
Send/Rec Message
Control Block MG9:2
MG9:3/EN
MG9:0
Read/Write
Data Table
Size
Local/Remote
Remote
Link ID
Remote Link
Local Node
Processor
Dest. Addr.
N7:10
N7:20
N7:30
Write
N7:40
3
Local
N/A
N/A
N/A
2
PLC-5
N7:0
MG9:0
Read/Write Write
Data Table N7:43
Size
6
Local/Remote Local
Remote
N/A
Link ID
N/A
Remote Link N/A
Local Node 3
Processor
PLC-5
Dest. Addr. N7:0
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
MSG
(EN)
Send/Rec Message
(DN)
Control Block MG9:3
(ER)
MG9:2
MG9:3
Read/Write Read
Read/Write Read
Data Table N7:3
Data Table N7:3
Size
Size
1
1
Local/Remote Local Local/Remote Local
Remote
Remote
N/A
N/A
Link ID
Link ID
N/A
N/A
Remote Link N/A
Remote Link N/A
Local Node 2
Local Node 3
Processor
PLC-5 Processor
PLC-5
Dest. Addr. N7:0
Dest. Addr. N7:1
A
N7:0/0
N7:0/1
COP
Source N7:10
Dest N7:40
Length 9
B
N7:0/0
N7:0/1
COP
Source N7:20
Dest N7:40
Length 9
C
N7:0/0
N7:0/1
13
17
14
690
235
745
45
75
34
76
72
56
345
234
645
987
12
23
COP
Source N7:30
Dest N7:40
Length 9
345 764 87
0
34
456 67
0
456 568 8
0
page 582
6. A controls network is to be 1500m long. Suggest three different types of networks that would
meet the specifications.
(ans. Controlnet, Profibus, Ethernet with multiple subnets)
7 How many data bytes (maximum) could be transferred in one second with DH+?
(ans. the maximum transfer rate is 230 Kbps, with 11 bits per byte (1start+8data+2+stop) for
20909 bytes per second. Each memory write packet contains 17 overhead bytes, and as many as
2000 data bytes. Therefore as many as 20909*2000/(2000+17) = 20732 bytes could be transmitted per second. Note that this is ideal, the actual maximum rates would be actually be a fraction of this value.)
8. How long would it take to transmit an ASCII file over a serial line with 8 data bits, no parity, 1
stop bit? What if the data were 7 bits long?
(ans. If we assume 9600 baud, for (1start+8data+0parity+1stop)=10 bits/byte we get 960 bytes per
second. If there are only 7 data bits per byte this becomes 9600/9 = 1067 bytes per second.)
9. Is the OSI model able to describe all networked systems?
(ans. The OSI model is just a model, so it can be used to describe parts of systems, and what their
functions are. When used to describe actual networking hardware and software, the parts may
only apply to one or two layers. Some parts may implement all of the layers in the model.)
10. What are the different methods for resolving collisions on a bus network?
(ans. When more than one client tries to start talking simulataneously on a bus network they interfere, this is called a collision. When this occurs they both stop, and will wait a period of time
before starting again. If they both wait different amounts of time the next one to start talking
will get priority, and the other will have to wait. With CSMA/CD the clients wait a random
amount of time. With CSMA/BA the clients wait based upon their network address, so their priority is related to their network address. Other networking methods prevent collisions by limiting communications. Master-slave networks require that client do not less talk, unless they are
responding to a request from a master machine. Token passing only permits the holder of the
token to talk.)
11. Write a number guessing program that will allow a user to enter a number on a terminal that
transmits it to a PLC where it is compared to a value in ’N7:0’. If the guess is above "Hi" will
be returned. If below "Lo" will be returned. When it matches "ON" will be returned.
page 583
(ans.
R6:0/EN
ARL
Channel 0
Dest ST9:0
Control R6:0
Length 3
R6:0/DN
ST9:1="Lo"
ST9:2="ON"
ST9:3="Hi"
AIC
Source ST9:0
Dest N7:1
LES
Source A N7:1
Source B N7:0
AWT
Channel 0
Source ST9:1
Control R6:1
Length 2
EQ
Source A N7:1
Source B N7:0
AWT
Channel 0
Source ST9:2
Control R6:2
Length 2
GRT
Source A N7:1
Source B N7:0
AWT
Channel 0
Source ST9:3
Control R6:3
Length 2
page 584
23. HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACES (HMI)
<TODO - Find an implementation platform and write text>
Topics:
•
•
Objectives:
•
•
•
23.1 INTRODUCTION
• These allow control systems to be much more interactive than before.
• The basic purpose of an HMI is to allow easy graphical interface with a process.
• These devices have been known by a number of names,
- touch screens
- displays
- Man Machine Interface (MMI)
- Human Machine Interface (HMI)
• These allow an operator to use simple displays to determine machine condition and make
simple settings.
• The most common uses are,
- display machine faults
- display machine status
- allow the operator to start and stop cycles
page 585
- monitor part counts
• These devices allow certain advantages such as,
- color coding allows for easy identification (eg. red for trouble)
- pictures/icons allow fast recognition
- use of pictures eases problems of illiteracy
- screen can be changed to allow different levels of information and access
• The general implementation steps are,
1. Layout screens on PC based software.
2. Download the screens to the HMI unit.
3. Connect the unit to a PLC.
4. Read and write to the HMI using PLC memory locations to get input and update
screens.
• To control the HMI from a PLC the user inputs set bits in the PLC memory, and other bits in
the PLC memory can be set to turn on/off items on the HMI screen.
23.2 HMI/MMI DESIGN
• The common trend is to adopt a user interface which often have,
- Icons
- A pointer device (such as a mouse)
- Full color
- Support for multiple windows, which run programs simultaneously
- Popup menus
- Windows can be moved, scaled, moved forward/back, etc.
• The current demands on user interfaces are,
- on-line help
- adaptive dialog/response
- feedback to the user
- ability to interrupt processes
- consistent modules
- a logical display layout
- deal with many processes simultaneously
page 586
• To design an HMI interface, the first step is to identify,
1. Who needs what information?
2. How do they expect to see it presented?
3. When does information need to be presented?
4. Do the operators have any special needs?
5. Is sound important?
6. What choices should the operator have?
23.3 DESIGN CASES
• Design an HMI for a press controller. The two will be connected by a Devicenet network.
Press and PLC
23.4 SUMMARY
23.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1.
HMI
page 587
page 588
24. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
<TODO - add PLC wiring schematic>
<TODO - expand ISA SP5 Instrumentation Symbols section>
Topics:
• Electrical wiring issues; cabinet wiring and layout, JIC symbols, grounding,
shielding and inductive loads
• Controller design; failsafe, debugging, troubleshooting, forcing and enclosures
• Process modelling with the ANSI/ISA-S5.1-1984 standard
• Programming large systems
• Documentation
Objectives:
• To learn the major issues in designing controllers including; electrical schematics, panel layout, grounding, shielding, program design, enclosures.
• Be able to document a process with a process diagram.
• Be able to document a design project.
• Be able to develop a project strategy for large programs.
24.1 INTRODUCTION
It is uncommon for engineers to build their own controller designs. For example, once the
electrical designs are complete, they must be built by an electrician. Therefore, it is your responsibility to effectively communicate your design intentions to the electricians through drawings. In
some factories, the electricians also enter the ladder logic and do debugging. This chapter discusses the design issues in implementation that must be considered by the designer.
24.2 ELECTRICAL
24.2.1 Electrical Wiring Diagrams
page 589
In an industrial setting a PLC is not simply "plugged into a wall socket". The electrical design
for each machine must include at least the following components.
transformers - to step down AC supply voltages to lower levels
power contacts - to manually enable/disable power to the machine with e-stop buttons
terminals - to connect devices
fuses or breakers - will cause power to fail if too much current is drawn
grounding - to provide a path for current to flow when there is an electrical fault
enclosure - to protect the equipment, and users from accidental contact
A control system will normally use AC and DC power at different voltage levels. Control
cabinets are often supplied with single phase AC at 220/440/550V, or two phase AC at 220/
440Vac, or three phase AC at 330/550V. This power must be dropped down to a lower voltage
level for the controls and DC power supplies. 110Vac is common in North America, and 220Vac
is common in Europe and the Commonwealth countries. It is also common for a controls cabinet
to supply a higher voltage to other equipment, such as motors.
An example of a wiring diagram for a motor controller is shown in Figure 24.1 (note: the
symbols are discussed in detail later). Dashed lines indicate a single purchased component. This
system uses 3 phase AC power (L1, L2 and L3) connected to the terminals. The three phases are
then connected to a power interrupter. Next, all three phases are supplied to a motor starter that
contains three contacts, ’M’, and three thermal overload relays (breakers). The contacts, ’M’, will
be controlled by the coil, ’M’. The output of the motor starter goes to a three phase AC motor.
Power is supplied by connecting a step down transformer to the control electronics by connecting
to phases ’L2’ and ’L3’. The lower voltage is then used to supply power to the left and right rails
of the ladder below. The ’neutral’ rail is also grounded. The logic consists of two push buttons.
The ’start’ push button is normally open, so that if something fails the motor cannot be started.
The ’stop’ push button is normally closed, so that if a wire or connection fails the system halts
safely. The system controls the ’motor starter’ coil ’M’, and uses a spare contact on the starter,
’M’, to seal in the motor stater.
page 590
terminals
power interrupter
motor starter
M
L1
M
motor
3 phase
AC
L2
M
L3
step down transformer
start
stop
M
M
**Add in wire numbering**************
Aside: The voltage for the step down transformer is connected between phases L2 and
L3. This will increase the effective voltage by 50%(??????) of the magnitude of the
voltage on a single phase.
Figure 24.1 - A Motor Controller Schematic
The diagram also shows numbering for the wires in the device. This is essential for industrial
control systems that may contain hundreds or thousands of wires. These numbering schemes are
often particular to each facility, but there are tools to help make wire labels that will appear in the
page 591
final controls cabinet. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXx
Once the motor controller has been designed, it must be given a layout so that it can be
mounted in the control cabinet. Figure 24.2 shows a layout for the control cabinet that shows the
major components. The physical dimensions of the devices must be considered, and adequate
space is needed to ’run’ wires between components. In the cabinet the AC power would enter at
the ’terminal block’, and be connected to the ’main breaker’. It would then be connected to the
’contactors’ and ’overload’ relays that constitute the motor starter. Two of the phases are also connected to the transformer to power the logic. The start and stop buttons are at the left of the box
(note: normally these are mounted elsewhere, and a separate layout drawing would be needed).
Contactors
Main
Breaker
Overload
Transformer
Start
Stop
Terminal Block
Figure 24.2 - A Physical Layout for the Control Cabinet
The final layout in the cabinet might look like the one shown in Figure 24.3.
L3
L2
L1
page 592
start
stop
3 phase AC
Figure 24.3 - Final Panel Wiring
motor
3 phase
AC
page 593
When being built the system will follow certain standards that may be company policy, or
legal requirements. This often includes items such as;
hold downs - the will secure the wire so they don’t move
labels - wire labels help troubleshooting
strain reliefs - these will hold the wire so that it will not be pulled out of screw terminals
grounding - grounding wires may be needed on each metal piece for safety
A photograph of an industrial controls cabinet is shown in Figure 24.4.
Get a photo of a controls cabinet with
wire runs, terminal strip, buttons on panel front, etc
Figure 24.4 - An Industrial Controls Cabinet
When including a PLC in the ladder diagram still remains. But, it does tend to become more
complex. Figure 24.5 shows a schematic diagram for a PLC based motor control system, similar
to the previous motor control example.
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX This figure shows the E-stop wired to cutoff power to all of the
devices in the circuit, including the PLC. All critical safety functions should be hardwired this
way.
page 594
M
L1
M
L2
M
L3
PLC
Figure 24.5 - An Electrical Schematic with a PLC
page 595
24.2.1.1 - JIC Wiring Symbols
To standardize electrical schematics, the Joint International Committee (JIC) symbols were
developed, these are shown in Figure 24.6.
disconnect
(3 phase AC)
circuit interrupter
(3 phase AC)
normally closed
limit switch
normally open
limit switch
normally closed
push-button
double pole
push-button
mushroom head
push-button
F
normally open
push-button
breaker (3 phase AC)
thermal
overload relay
liquid level
normally open
fuse
motor (3 phase AC)
liquid level
normally closed
vacuum pressure
normally open
vacuum pressure
normally closed
page 596
Figure 24.6a - JIC Schematic Symbols
temperature
normally open
temperature
normally closed
flow
normally closed
flow
normally open
R
relay contact
normally open
relay contact
normally closed
relay time delay on
normally open
relay time delay on
normally closed
indicator lamp
relay coil
relay time delay off
normally open
relay time delay off
normally closed
H1 H3 H2 H4
horn
buzzer
bell
2-H
solenoid
normally open
proximity switch
2-position
hydraulic solenoid
normally closed
proximity switch
Figure 24.6b - JIC Schematic Symbols
X1
X2
control transformer
Male connector
Female connector
page 597
Resistor
Tapped Resistor
Variable Resistor
(potentiometer)
+
Rheostat
(potentiometer)
Capacitor
Polarized Capacitor
+
Variable Capacitor
Crystal
Shielded Conductor
Common
Tapped Coil
Capacitor
Battery
Thermocouple
Antenna
Shielded
Grounded
Coil or Inductor
Coil with magnetic core
Transformer
Transformer magnetic core
Figure 24.6c - JIC Schematic Symbols
page 598
24.2.2 Selecting Voltages
When selecting voltage ranges and types for inputs and outputs of a PLC some care can save
time, money and effort. Figure 24.7 that shows three different voltage levels being used, therefore
requiring three different input cards. If the initial design had selected a ’standard’ supply voltage
for the system, then only one power supply, and PLC input card would have been required.
PLC Input Cards
+
48Vdc
I0
-
com
+
24Vdc
I0
-
com
I0
+
com
5Vdc
PLC Input Card
+
I0
I1
24Vdc
I2
I3
-
com
Figure 24.7 - Standardized Voltages
page 599
24.2.3 Grounding
The term ’ground’ and ’common’ are often interchanged (I do this often), but they do mean
different things. The term, ground, comes from the fact that most electrical systems find a local
voltage level by placing some metal in the earth (ground). This is then connected to all of the electrical outlets in the building. If there is an electrical fault, the current will be drawn off to the
ground. The term, common, refers to a reference voltage that components of a system will use as
common zero voltage. Therefore the function of the ground is for safety, and the common is for
voltage reference. Sometimes the common and ground are connected.
The most important reason for grounding is human safety. Electrical current running through
the human body can have devastating effects, especially near the heart. Figure 24.8 shows some
of the different current levels, and the probable physiological effects. The current is dependant
upon the resistance of the body, and the contacts. A typical scenario is, a hand touches a high voltage source, and current travels through the body and out a foot to ground. If the person is wearing
rubber gloves and boots, the resistance is high and very little current will flow. But, if the person
has a sweaty hand (salty water is a good conductor), and is standing barefoot in a pool of water
their resistance will be much lower. The voltages in the table are suggested as reasonable for a
healthy adult in normal circumstances. But, during design, you should assume that no voltage is
safe.
current in body (mA) effect
0-1
1-5
10-20
20-50
50-100
100-300
300+
negligible (normal circumstances, 5VDC)
uncomfortable (normal circumstances, 24VDC)
possibility for harm (normal circumstances, 120VAC)
muscles contract (normal circumstances, 220VAC)
pain, fainting, physical injuries
heart fibrillates
burns, breathing stops, etc.
Figure 24.8 - Current Levels
page 600
Aside: Step potential is another problem. Electron waves from a fault travel out in a radial
direction through the ground. If a worker has two feet on the ground at different radial
distances, there will be a potential difference between the feet that will cause a current
to flow through the legs. The gist of this is - if there is a fault, don’t run/walk away/
towards.
Figure 24.9 shows a grounded system with a metal enclosures. The left-hand enclosure contains a transformer, and the enclosure is connected directly to ground. The wires enter and exit the
enclosure through insulated strain reliefs so that they don’t contact the enclosure. The second
enclosure contains a load, and is connected in a similar manner to the first enclosure. In the event
of a major fault, one of the "live" electrical conductors may come loose and touch the metal enclosure. If the enclosure were not grounded, anybody touching the enclosure would receive an electrical shock. When the enclosure is grounded, the path of resistance between the case and the
ground would be very small (about 1 ohm). But, the resistance of the path through the body would
be much higher (thousands of ohms or more). So if there were a fault, the current flow through the
ground might "blow" a fuse. If a worker were touching the case their resistance would be so low
that they might not even notice the fault.
wire break off
and touches case
Current can flow two ways, but most will follow the path of least
resistance, good grounding will keep the worker relatively safe
in the case of faults.
Figure 24.9 - Grounding for Safety
page 601
Note: Always ground systems first before applying power. The first time a system is
activated it will have a higher chance of failure.
When improperly grounded a system can behave erratically or be destroyed. Ground loops
are caused when too many separate connections to ground are made creating loops of wire. Figure
24.10 shows ground wires as darker lines. A ground loop caused because an extra ground was
connected between ’device A’ and ground. The last connection creates a loop. If a current is
induced, the loop may have different voltages at different points. The connection on the right is
preferred, using a ’tree’ configuration. The grounds for devices ’A’ and ’B’ are connected back to
the power supply, and then to the ground.
extra ground
creates a loop
device A
Preferred
device A
ground loop
+V -V
device B
+V
gnd
-V
device B
gnd
power
supply
power
supply
Figure 24.10 - Eliminating Ground Loops
Problems often occur in large facilities because they may have multiple ground points at different end of large buildings, or in different buildings. This can cause current to flow through the
ground wires. As the current flows it will create different voltages at different points along the
wire. This problem can be eliminated by using electrical isolation systems, such as optocouplers.
page 602
When designing and building electrical control systems, the following points should prove
useful.
• Avoid ground loops
- Connect the enclosure to the ground bus.
- Each PLC component should be grounded back to the main PLC chassis. The
PLC chassis should be grounded to the backplate.
- The ground wire should be separated from power wiring inside enclosures.
- Connect the machine ground to the enclosure ground.
• Ensure good electrical connection
- Use star washers to ensure good electrical connection.
- Mount ground wires on bare metal, remove paint if needed.
- Use 12AWG stranded copper for PLC equipment grounds and 8AWG stranded
copper for enclosure backplate grounds.
- The ground connection should have little resistance (<0.1 ohms is good).
24.2.4 Shielding
When a changing magnetic field cuts across a conductor, it will induce a current flow. The
resistance in the circuits will convert this to a voltage. These unwanted voltages result in erroneous readings from sensors, and signal to outputs. Shielding will reduce the effects of the interference. When shielding and grounding are done properly, the effects of electrical noise will be
negligible. Shielding is normally used for; all logical signals in noisy environments, high speed
counters or high speed circuitry, and all analog signals.
There are two major approaches to reducing noise; shielding and twisted pairs. Shielding
involves encasing conductors and electrical equipment with metal. As a result electrical equipment is normally housed in metal cases. Wires are normally put in cables with a metal sheath surrounding both wires. The metal sheath may be a thin film, or a woven metal mesh. Shielded wires
are connected at one end to "drain" the unwanted signals into the cases of the instruments. Figure
24.11 shows a thermocouple connected with a thermocouple. The cross section of the wire contains two insulated conductors. Both of the wires are covered with a metal foil, and final covering
of insulation finishes the cable. The wires are connected to the thermocouple as expected, but the
page 603
shield is only connected on the amplifier end to the case. The case is then connected to the shielding ground, shown here as three diagonal lines.
Insulated wires
Two conductor
shielded cable
cross section
Metal sheath
Insulating cover
Figure 24.11 - Shielding for a Thermocouple
A twisted pair is shown in Figure 24.12. The two wires are twisted at regular intervals, effectively forming small loops. In this case the small loops reverse every twist, so any induced currents are cancel out for every two twists.
1" or less typical
Figure 24.12 - A Twisted Pair
When designing shielding, the following design points will reduce the effects of electromagnetic interference.
• Avoid “noisy” equipment when possible.
• Choose a metal cabinet that will shield the control electronics.
• Use shielded cables and twisted pair wires.
• Separate high current, and AC/DC wires from each other when possible.
• Use current oriented methods such as sourcing and sinking for logical I/O.
• Use high frequency filters to eliminate high frequency noise.
• Use power line filters to eliminate noise from the power supply.
page 604
24.3 CONNECTING LARGE LOADS
Most of us have seen a Vandegraaf generator, or some other inductive device that can generate large sparks using inductive coils. On the factory floor there are some massive inductive loads
that make this a significant design problem. This includes devices such as large motors and inductive furnaces. The root of the problem is that coils of wire act as inductors and when current is
applied they build up magnetic fields, requiring energy. When the applied voltage is removed and
the fields collapse the energy is dumped back out into the electrical system. As a result, when an
inductive load is turned on it draws an excess amount of current (and lights dim), and when it is
turn it off there is a power surge. In practical terms this means that large inductive loads will create voltage spikes that will damage our equipment.
Surge suppressors can be used to protect equipment from voltage spikes caused by inductive
loads. Figure 24.X shows the schematic equivalent of an uncompensated inductive load. For this
to work reliably we would need to over design the system above the rated loads. The second schematic shows a technique for compensating for an AC inductive load using a resistor capacitor
pair. It effectively acts as a high pass filter that allows a high frequency voltage spike to be short
circuited. The final surge suppressor is common for DC loads. The diode allows current to flow
from the negative to the positive. If a negative voltage spike is encountered it will short circuit
through the diode.
page 605
inductive load
output
VDC+/VAC
Uncompensated
VDC-/COM.
common
Control Relay (PLC)
Power supply
inductive load
L
output
C
common
Relay or Triac
R
VAC
+
Vs
-
Compensating
for AC loads
COM.
Power supply
R = Vs*(.5 to 1) ohms
C = (.5 to 1)/Adc (microfarads)
Vcapacitor = 2(Vswitching) + (200 to 300) V
where,
Adc is the rated amperage of the load
Vs is the voltage of the load/power supply
Vswitching may be up to 10*Vs
inductive load
output
+
Compensating
for DC loads
-
common
Relay or Transistor
Power supply
Figure 24.X - Surge Suppressors
24.4 FAIL-SAFE DESIGN
All systems will fail eventually. A fail-safe design will minimize the damage to people and
page 606
equipment. Consider the selection electrical connections. If wires are cut or connections fail, the
equipment should still be safe. For example, if a normally closed stop button is used, and the connector is broken, it will cause the machine to stop as if the stop button has been pressed.
NO (Normally open) - When wiring switches or sensors that start actions, use normally
open switches so that if there is a problem the process will not start.
NC (Normally Closed) - When wiring switches that stop processes use normally closed so
that if they fail the process will stop. E-Stops must always be NC, and they must
cut off the master power, not just be another input to the PLC.
It is necessary to predict how systems will fail. Some of the common problems that will occur
are listed below.
Component jams - An actuator or part becomes jammed. This can be detected by adding
sensors for actuator positions and part presence.
Operator detected failure - Some unexpected failures will be detected by the operator. In
those cases the operator must be able to shut down the machine easily.
Erroneous input - An input could be triggered unintentionally. This could include something falling against a start button.
Unsafe modes - Some systems need to be entered by the operators or maintenance crew.
People detectors can be used to prevent operation while people are present.
Programming errors - A large program that is poorly written can behave erratically when
an unanticipated input is encountered. This is also a problem with assumed startup
conditions.
Sabotage - For various reasons, some individuals may try to damage a system. These
problems can be minimized preventing access.
Random failure - Each component is prone to random failure. It is worth considering what
would happen if any of these components were to fail.
Some design rules that will help improve the safety of a system are listed below.
Programs
• A fail-safe design - Programs should be designed so that they check for problems, and shut down in safe ways. Most PLC’s also have imminent power failure
sensors, use these whenever danger is present to shut down the system safely.
• Proper programming techniques and modular programming will help detect possible problems on paper instead of in operation.
• Modular well designed programs.
• Use predictable, non-configured programs.
• Make the program inaccessible to unauthorized persons.
• Check for system OK at start-up.
• Use PLC built in functions for error and failure detection.
Hardware
• Use redundancy in hardware.
page 607
• Directly connect emergency stops to the PLC, or the main power supply.
• Use well controlled startup procedures that check for problems.
• Shutdown buttons must be easily accessible from all points around the machine.
People
• Provide clear and current documentation for maintenance and operators.
• Provide training for new users and engineers to reduce careless and uninformed
mistakes.
24.5 DEBUGGING
Most engineers have taken a programming course where they learned to write a program and
then debug it. Debugging involves running the program, testing it for errors, and then fixing them.
Even for an experienced programmer it is common to spend more time debugging than writing
software. For PLCs this is not acceptable! If you are running the program and it is operating irrationally it will often damage hardware. Also, if the error is not obvious, you should go back and
reexamine the program design. When a program is debugged by trial and error, there are probably
errors remaining in the logic, and the program is very hard to trust. Remember, a bug in a PLC
program might kill somebody.
Note: when running a program for the first time it can be a good idea to keep one hand
on the E-stop button.
24.5.1 Troubleshooting
After a system is in operation it will eventually fail. When a failure occurs it is important to
be able to identify and solve problems quickly. The following list of steps will help track down
errors in a PLC system.
1. Look at the process and see if it is in a normal state. i.e. no jammed actuators, broken
parts, etc. If there are visible problems, fix them and restart the process.
page 608
2. Look at the PLC to see which error lights are on. Each PLC vendor will provide documents that indicate which problems correspond to the error lights. Common error
lights are given below. If any off the warning lights are on, look for electrical supply problems to the PLC.
HALT - something has stopped the CPU
RUN - the PLC thinks it is OK (and probably is)
ERROR - a physical problem has occurred with the PLC
3. Check indicator lights on I/O cards, see if they match the system. i.e., look at sensors
that are on/off, and actuators on/off, check to see that the lights on the PLC I/O
cards agree. If any of the light disagree with the physical reality, then interface
electronics/mechanics need inspection.
4. Consult the manuals, or use software if available. If no obvious problems exist the problem is not simple, and requires a technically skilled approach.
5. If all else fails call the vendor (or the contractor) for help.
24.5.2 Forcing
Most PLCs will allow a user to ’force’ inputs and outputs. This means that they can be turned
on, regardless of the physical inputs and program results. This can be convenient for debugging
programs, and, it makes it easy to break and destroy things! When forces are used they can make
the program perform erratically. They can also make outputs occur out of sequence. If there is a
logic problem, then these don’t help a programmer identify these problems.
Many companies will require extensive paperwork and permissions before forces can be
used. I don’t recommend forcing inputs or outputs, except in the most extreme circumstances.
24.5.3 PLC Enclosures
PLCs are well built and rugged, but they are still relatively easy to damage on the factory
floor. As a result, enclosures are often used to protect them from the local environment. Some of
the most important factors are listed below with short explanations.
Dirt - Dust and grime can enter the PLC through air ventilation ducts. As dirt clogs internal circuitry, and external circuitry, it can effect operation. A storage cabinet such
as Nema 4 or 12 can help protect the PLC.
page 609
Humidity - Humidity is not a problem with many modern materials. But, if the humidity
condenses, the water can cause corrosion, conduct current, etc. Condensation
should be avoided at all costs.
Temperature - The semiconductor chips in the PLC have operating ranges where they are
operational. As the temperature is moved out of this range, they will not operate
properly, and the PLC will shut down. Ambient heat generated in the PLC will
help keep the PLC operational at lower temperatures (generally to 0°C). The upper
range for the devices is about 60°C, which is generally sufficient for sealed cabinets, but warm temperatures, or other heat sources (e.g. direct irradiation from the
sun) can raise the temperature above acceptable limits. In extreme conditions heating, or cooling units may be required. (This includes “cold-starts” for PLCs before
their semiconductors heat up).
Shock and Vibration - The nature of most industrial equipment is to apply energy to
change workpieces. As this energy is applied, shocks and vibrations are often produced. Both will travel through solid materials with ease. While PLCs are
designed to withstand a great deal of shock and vibration, special elastomer/spring
or other mounting equipment may be required. Also note that careful consideration
of vibration is also required when wiring.
Interference - Electromagnetic fields from other sources can induce currents.
Power - Power will fluctuate in the factory as large equipment is turned on and off. To
avoid this, various options are available. Use an isolation transformer. A UPS
(Uninterruptable Power Supply) is also becoming an inexpensive option, and are
widely available for personal computers.
A standard set of enclosures was developed by NEMA (National Electric Manufacturers
Association). These enclosures are intended for voltage ratings below 1000Vac. Figure 24.13
shows some of the rated cabinets. Type 12 enclosures are a common choice for factory floor
applications.
page 610
Type 1 - General purpose - indoors
Type 2 - Dirt and water resistant - indoors
Type 3 - Dust-tight, rain-tight and sleet (ice) resistant - outdoors
Type 3R- Rainproof and sleet (ice) resistant - outdoors
Type 3S- Rainproof and sleet (ice) resistant - outdoors
Type 4 - Water-tight and dust-tight - indoors and outdoors
Type 4X - Water-tight and Dust-tight - indoors and outdoors
Type 5 - Dust-tight and dirt resistant - indoors
Type 6 - Waterproof - indoors and outdoors
Type 6P - Waterproof submersible - indoors and outdoors
Type 7 - Hazardous locations - class I
Type 8 - Hazardous locations - class I
Type 9 - Hazardous locations - class II
Type 10 - Hazardous locations - class II
Type 11 - Gas-tight, water-tight, oiltight - indoors
Type 12 - Dust-tight and drip-tight - indoors
Type 13 - Oil-tight and dust-tight - indoors
Factor
1
2
3
3R 3S 4
4X 5
6
6P 11 12 12K 13
Prevent human contact
falling dirt
liquid drop/light splash
airborne dust/particles
wind blown dust
liquid heavy stream/splash
oil/coolant seepage
oil/coolant spray/splash
corrosive environment
temporarily submerged
prolonged submersion
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Figure 24.13 - NEMA Enclosures
24.6 PROCESS MODELLING
There are many process modeling techniques, but only a few are suited to process control.
The ANSI/ISA-S5.1-1984 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification standard provides good
tools for documenting processes. A simple example is shown in Figure 24.14.
page 611
MODEL GOES HERE
Figure 24.14 - A Process Model
The process model is carefully labeled to indicate the function of each of the function on the
diagram. Table 2 shows a list of the different instrumentation letter codes.
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Table 2: ANSI/ISA-S5.1-1984 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification
LETTER
FIRST LETTER
SECOND LETTER
A
Analysis
Alarm
B
Burner, Combustion
User’s Choice
C
User’s Choice
Control
D
User’s Choice
page 612
Table 2: ANSI/ISA-S5.1-1984 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification
LETTER
FIRST LETTER
SECOND LETTER
E
Voltage
Sensor (Primary Element)
F
Flow Rate
G
User’s Choice
H
Hand (Manually Initiated)
I
Current (Electric)
J
Power
K
Time or Time Schedule
Control Station
L
Level
Light (pilot)
M
User’s Choice
N
User’s Choice
User’s Choice
O
User’s Choice
Orifice, Restriction
P
Pressure, Vacuum
Point (Test Connection)
Q
Quantity
R
Radiation
Record or Print
S
Speed or Frequency
Switch
T
Temperature
Transmit
U
Multivariable
Multifunction
V
Vibration, Mechanical Analysis
Valve, Damper, Louver
W
Weight, Force
Well
X
Unclassified
Unclassified
Y
Event, State or Presence
Relay, Compute
Z
Position, Dimension
Driver, Actuator, Unclassified
Glass (Sight Tube)
Indicate
The line symbols also describe the type of flow. Figure 24.15 shows a few of the popular flow
lines.
page 613
Capillary Tube
Electric Signal
EM, Sonic, Radioactive
Hydraulic
Pneumatic
Process
Figure 24.15 - Flow Line Symbols and Types
Figure 24.16 shows some of the more popular sensor and actuator symbols.
page 614
FE
11
FE
11
orifice plate
venturi or nozzle
FI
6
EE
2
rotameter
magnetic
control valve
FV
11
Figure 24.16 - Sensor and Actuator Symbols and Types
24.7 PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS
Previous chapters have explored design techniques to solve large problems using techniques
such as state diagrams and SFCs. Large systems may contain hundreds of those types of problems. This section will attempt to lay a philosophical approach that will help you approach these
designs. The most important concepts are clarity and simplicity.
Understanding the process will simplify the controller design. When the system is only partially understood, or vaguely defined the development process becomes iterative. Programs will
be developed, and modified until they are acceptable. When information and events are clearly
page 615
understood the program design will become obvious. Questions that can help clarify the system
include;
"What are the inputs?"
"What are the outputs?"
"What are the sequences of inputs and outputs?"
"Can a diagram of the system operation be drawn?"
"What information does the system need?"
"What information does the system produce?"
When possible a large controls problems should be broken down into smaller problems. This
often happens when parts of the system operate independent of each other. This may also happen
when operations occur in a fixed sequence. If this is the case the controls problem can be divided
into the two smaller (and simpler) portions. The questions to ask are;
"Will these operations ever occur at the same time?"
"Will this operation happen regardless of other operations?"
"Is there a clear sequence of operations?"
"Is there a physical division in the process or machine?"
After examining the system the controller should be broken into operations. This can be done
with a tree structure as shown in Figure 24.17. This breaks control into smaller tasks that need to
be executed. This technique is only used to divide the programming tasks into smaller sections
that are distinct.
page 616
Press
Conveyor in
part detected
Press
advance
bin replaced
adv./retract
advancing
Pickup bin
idle
full detect
part detect
retracting
Figure 24.17 - Functional Diagram for Press Control
Each block in the functional diagram can be written as a separate subroutine. A higher level
’executive’ program will call these subroutines as needed. The executive program can also be broken into smaller parts. This keeps the main program more compact, and reduces the overall execution time. And, because the subroutines only run when they should, the change of unexpected
operation is reduced. This is the method promoted by methods such as SFCs and FBDs.
Each functional program should be given its’ own block of memory so that there are no conflicts with shared memory. System wide data or status information can be kept in common areas.
Typical examples include a flag to indicate a certain product type, or a recipe oriented system.
Testing should be considered during software planning and writing. The best scenario is that
the software is written in small pieces, and then each piece is tested. This is important in a large
system. When a system is written as a single large piece of code, it becomes much more difficult
to identify the source of errors.
page 617
The most disregarded statement involves documentation. All documentation should be written when the software is written. If the documentation can be written first, the software is usually
more reliable and easier to write. Comments should be entered when ladder logic is entered. This
often helps to clarify thoughts and expose careless errors. Documentation is essential on large
projects where others are likely to maintain the system. Even if you maintain it, you are likely to
forget what your original design intention was.
Some of the common pitfalls encountered by designers on large projects are listed below.
• Amateur designers rush through design to start work early, but details they missed take
much longer to fix when they are half way implemented.
• Details are not planned out and the project becomes one huge complex task instead of
groups of small simple tasks.
• Designers write one huge program, instead of smaller programs. This makes proof reading much harder, and not very enjoyable.
• Programmers sit at the keyboard and debug by trial and error. If a programmer is testing
a program and an error occurs, there are two possible scenarios. First, the programmer knows what the problem is, and can fix it immediately. Second, the programmer only has a vague idea, and often makes no progress doing trial-and-error
debugging. If trial-and-error programming is going on the program is not understood, and it should be fixed through replanning.
• Small details are left to be completed later. These are sometimes left undone, and lead to
failures in operation.
• The design is not frozen, and small refinements and add-ons take significant amounts of
time, and often lead to major design changes.
• The designers use unprofessional approaches. They tend to follow poor designs, against
the advice of their colleagues. This is often because the design is their ‘child’
• Designers get a good dose of the ‘not invented here’ syndrome. Basically, if we didn’t
develop it, it must not be any good.
• Limited knowledge will cause problems. The saying goes “If the only tool you know
how to use is a hammer every problem looks like a nail.”
• Biting off more than you can chew. some projects are overly ambitious. Avoid adding
wild extras, and just meet the needs of the project. Sometimes an unnecessary
extra can take more time than the rest of the project.
24.8 DOCUMENTATION
page 618
Poor documentation is a common complaint lodged against control system designers. Good
documentation is developed as a project progresses. Many engineers will leave the documentation
to the end of a project as an afterthought. But, by that point many of the details have been forgotten. So, it takes longer to recall the details of the work, and the report is always lacking.
A set of PLC design forms are given in Figures 24.18 to 24.23. These can be used before,
during and after a controls project. These forms can then be kept in design or maintenance offices
so that others can get easy access and make updates at the controller is changed. Figure 24.18
shows a design cover page. This should be completed with information such as a unique project
name, contact person, and controller type. The list of changes below help to track design, redesign
and maintenance that has been done to the machine. This cover sheet acts as a quick overview on
the history of the machine. Figures 24.19 to 24.21 show sheets that allow free form planning of
the design. Figure 24.22 shows a sheet for planning the input and output memory locations. Figure 24.23 shows a sheet for planning internal memory locations, and finally Figure 24.24 shows a
sheet for planning the ladder logic. The sheets should be used in the order they are given, but they
do not all need to be used. When the system has been built and tested, a copy of the working ladder logic should be attached to the end of the bundle of pages.
page 619
PLC Project Sheet
Project ID:
Start Date:
Contact Person:
PLC Model:
Attached Materials/Revisions:
Date
Name
# Sheets
Reason
Figure 24.18 - Design Cover Page
page 620
Project Notes
Project ID:
Date:
System Description
I/O Notes
Power Notes
Other Notes
Page
Name:
Figure 24.19 - Project Note Page
of
page 621
Design Notes
Project ID:
Date:
State Diagram
Flow Chart
Sequential Function Chart
Boolean Equations
Truth Table
Safety
Communications
Other Notes
Page
Name:
Figure 24.20 - Project Diagramming Page
of
page 622
Application Notes
Project ID:
Test Plan
Electrical I/O
PLC Modules
Other Notes
Date:
Page
Name:
Figure 24.21 - Project Diagramming and Notes Page
of
page 623
Input/Output Card
Project I.D.
Name
Card Type
Rack #
Notes:
input/output
JIC symbol
Description
Vin
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08/10
09/11
10/12
11/13
12/14
13/15
14/16
15/17
com
Figure 24.22 - IO Planning Page
Page
of
Date
Slot #
page 624
Page
Internal Locations
Project I.D.
Register or Word
Internal Word
Name
Description
Figure 24.23 - Internal Memory Locations Page
of
Date
page 625
Program Listing
Project I.D.
Name
rung#
Page
Date
comments
Figure 24.24 - Ladder Logic Page
of
page 626
These design sheets are provided as examples. PLC vendors often supply similar sheets.
Many companies also have their own internal design documentation procedures. If you are in a
company without standardized design formats, you should consider implementing such a system.
24.9 REFERENCES
Paques, Joseph-Jean, “Basic Safety Rules for Using Programmable Controllers”, ISA Transactions, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1990.
24.10 SUMMARY
• Electrical schematics used to layout and wire controls cabinets.
• JIC wiring symbols can be used to describe electrical components.
• Grounding and shielding can keep a system safe and running reliably.
• Failsafe designs ensure that a controller will cause minimal damage in the event of a failure.
• Debugging and forcing are signs of a poorly written program.
• PLC enclosure are selected to protect a PLC from its environment.
• Process models can be used to completely describe a process.
• When programming large systems, it is important to subdivide the project into smaller
parts.
• Documentation should be done at all phases of the project.
24.11 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. Where is the best location for a PLC enclosure?
2. What documentation is requires for a ladder logic based controller? Are comments important?
Why?
3. When should inputs and outputs be assigned when planning a control system?
page 627
4. List 5 advantages of using structured design and documentation techniques.
(ans. - more reliable programs - less debugging time - more routine - others can pick up where you
left off - reduces confusion)
5. What is a typical temperature and humidity range for a PLC?
6. Discuss when I/O placement and wiring documentation should be updated?
7. What steps are required to replace a defective PLC?
(ans. in a rack the defective card is removed and replaced. If the card has wiring terminals these
are removed first, and connected to the replacement card.)
8. Draw the electrical schematic and panel layout for the relay logic below. The system will be
connected to 3 phase power. Be sure to include a master power disconnect.
A
C
B
B
9. Why are nodes and wires labelled on a schematic, and in the controls cabinet?
10. Locate at least 10 JIC symbols for the sensors and actuators in earlier chapters.
11. How are shielding and grounding alike? Are shields and grounds connected?
12. What are significant grounding problems?
13. Should you use output forces?
14. Why should grounds be connected in a tree configuration?
15. Find web addresses for 10 PLC vendors. Investigate their web sites to determine how they
would be as suppliers.
page 628
25. SELECTING A PLC
Topics:
• The PLC selection process
• Estimating program memory and time requirements
• Selecting hardware
Objectives:
• Be able to select a hardware and software vendor.
• Be able to size a PLC to an application
• Be able to select needed hardware and software.
25.1 INTRODUCTION
After the planning phase of the design, the equipment can be ordered. This decision is usually based upon the required inputs, outputs and functions of the controller. The first decision is
the type of controller; rack, mini, micro, or software based. This decision will depend upon the
basic criteria listed below.
• Number of logical inputs and outputs.
• Memory - Often 1K and up. Need is dictated by size of ladder logic program. A ladder
element will take only a few bytes, and will be specified in manufacturers documentation.
• Number of special I/O modules - When doing some exotic applications, a large number
of special add-on cards may be required.
• Scan Time - Big programs or faster processes will require shorter scan times. And, the
shorter the scan time, the higher the cost. Typical values for this are 1 microsecond
per simple ladder instruction
• Communications - Serial and networked connections allow the PLC to be programmed
and talk to other PLCs. The needs are determined by the application.
• Software - Availability of programming software and other tools determines the programming and debugging ease.
The process of selecting a PLC can be broken into the steps listed below.
1. Understand the process to be controlled (Note: This is done using the design sheets in
the previous chapter).
• List the number and types of inputs and outputs.
page 629
• Determine how the process is to be controlled.
• Determine special needs such as distance between parts of the process.
2. If not already specified, a single vendor should be selected. Factors that might be considered are, (Note: Vendor research may be needed here.)
• Manuals and documentation
• Support while developing programs
• The range of products available
• Support while troubleshooting
• Shipping times for emergency replacements
• Training
• The track record for the company
• Business practices (billing, upgrades/obsolete products, etc.)
3. Plan the ladder logic for the controls. (Note: Use the standard design sheets.)
4. Count the program instructions and enter the values into the sheets in Figures 25.1 and
25.2. Use the instruction times and memory requirements for each instruction to
determine if the PLC has sufficient memory, and if the response time will be adequate for the process. Samples of scan times and memory are given in Figures 25.3
and 25.4.
page 630
PLC MEMORY TIME ESTIMATES - Part A
Project ID:
Name:
Date:
Instruction Time Time Instruction Instruction Instruction Total
Type
Max Min. Memory
Data
Count
Memory
(us) (us) (words)
(words)
(number)
(words)
contacts
outputs
timers
counter
Total
Figure 25.1 - Memory and Time Tally Sheet
Min. Max.
Time Time
(us) (us)
page 631
PLC MEMORY TIME REQUIREMENTS - Part B
Project ID:
Name:
Date:
TIME
Input Scan Time
Output Scan Time
Overhead Time
Program Scan Time
us
us
us
us
Communication Time
Other Times
TOTAL
us
us
us
MEMORY
Total Memory
Other Memory
TOTAL
words
words
words
bytes
Figure 25.2 - Memory and Timer Requirement Sheet
page 632
Typical values for an Allen-Bradley micrologix controller are,
input scan time 8us
output scan times 8us
housekeeping 180us
overhead memory for controller 280 words
Instruction
Type
Time
Max
(us)
Time
Min.
(us)
Instruction Instruction
Memory
Data
(words)
(words)
CTD - count down
CTU- count up
XIC - normally open contact
XIO - normally closed contact
OSR - one shot relay
OTE - output enable
OTL - output latch
OTU - output unlatch
RES - reset
RTO - retentive on time
TOF - off timer
TON - on timer
27.22
26.67
1.72
1.72
11.48
4.43
3.16
3.16
4.25
27.49
31.65
30.38
32.19
29.84
1.54
1.54
13.02
4.43
4.97
4.97
15.19
38.34
39.42
38.34
1
1
.75
.75
1
.75
.75
.75
1
1
1
1
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
Figure 25.3 - Typical Instruction Times and Memory Usage for a Micrologix Controller
page 633
Typical values for an Allen-Bradley PLC-5 controller are,
input scan time ?us
output scan times ?us
housekeeping ?us
overhead memory for controller ? words
Instruction
Type
Time
Max
(us)
Time
Min.
(us)
Instruction Instruction
Memory
Data
(words)
(words)
CTD - count down
CTU- count up
XIC - normally open contact
XIO - normally closed contact
OSR - one shot relay
OTE - output enable
OTL - output latch
OTU - output unlatch
RES - reset
RTO - retentive on time
TOF - off timer
TON - on timer
3.3
3.4
0.32
0.32
6.2
0.48
0.48
0.48
2.2
4.1
2.6
4.1
3.4
3.4
0.16
0.16
6.0
0.48
0.16
0.16
1.0
2.4
3.2
2.6
3
3
1
1
6
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
Figure 25.4 - Typical Instruction Times and Memory Usage for a PLC-5 Controller
5. Look for special program needs and check the PLC model. (e.g. PID)
6. Estimate the cost for suitable hardware, programming software, cables, manuals, training, etc., or ask for a quote from a vendor.
25.2 SPECIAL I/O MODULES
Many different special I/O modules are available. Some module types are listed below for
illustration, but the commercial selection is very large. Generally most vendors offer competitive
modules. Some modules, such as fuzzy logic and vision, are only offered by a few supplier, such
as Omron. This may occasionally drive a decision to purchase a particular type of controller.
PLC CPU’s
page 634
• A wide variety of CPU’s are available, and can often be used interchangeably in
the rack systems. the basic formula is price/performance. The table below compares a few CPU units in various criteria.
PLC
Siemens
S5-90U
Siemens
S5-100U
Siemens
S5-115U
(CPU 944)
Siemens
CPU03
AEG
PC-A984-145
4
<= 20
96
20
8
FEATURE
RAM (KB)
Scan times (us)
per basic instruc.
overhead
Package
Power Supply
Maximum Cards
Maximum Racks
Maximum Drops
Distance
0.8
2000
mini-module
24 VDC
6 with addon
N/A
mini-module
24 VDC
card
24 VDC
5
card
115/230VAC
2.5m or 3km
128
128
2048
Counters
Timers
Flags
I/O - Digital
on board
maximum
I/O - Analog
on board
maximum
Communication
network
line
human
other
Functions
PID
16
208
0
448
0
1024
0
256
0
16
0
32
0
64
0
32
Sinec-L1
Sinec-L1
Sinec-L1, prop.
printer,
ASCII
Sinec-L1
Modbus/Modubs+
option
option
option
0
256
Legend:
prop. - proprietary technology used by a single vendor
option - the vendor will offer the feature at an additional cost
Figure 25.5 - CPU Comparison Chart
Programmers
page 635
• There are a few basic types of programmers in use. These tend to fall into 3 categories,
1. PLC Software for Personal Computers - Similar to the specialized programming units, but the software runs on a multi-use, user supplied computer. This approach is typically preferred.
2. Hand held units (or integrated) - Allow programming of PLC using a
calculator type interface. Often done using mnemonics.
3. Specialized programming units - Effectively a portable computer that
allows graphical editing of the ladder logic, and fast uploading/downloading/monitoring of the PLC.
Ethernet/modem
• For communication with remote computers. This is now an option on many
CPUs.
TTL input/outputs
• When dealing with lower TTL voltages (0-5Vdc) most input cards will not recognize these. These cards allow switching of these voltages.
Encoder counter module
• Takes inputs from an encoder and tracks position. This allows encoder changes
that are much faster than the PLC can scan.
Human Machine Interface (HMI)
• A-B/Siemens/Omron/Modicon/etc offer human interface systems. The user can
use touch screens, screen and buttons, LCD/LED and a keypad.
ASCII module
• Adds an serial port for communicating with standard serial ports RS-232/422.
IBM PC computer cards
• An IBM compatible computer card that plugs into a PLC bus, and allows use of
common software.
• For example, Siemens CP580 the Simatic AT;
- serial ports: RS-232C, RS-422, TTY
- RGB monitor driver (VGA)
- keyboard and mouse interfaces
- 3.5” disk
Counters
• Each card will have 1 to 16 counters at speeds up to 200KHz.
• The counter can be set to zero, or up/down, or gating can occur with an external
input.
Thermocouple
• Thermocouples can be used to measure temperature, but these low voltage
devices require sensitive electronics to get accurate temperature readings.
Analog Input/Output
• These cards measure voltages in various ranges, and allow monitoring of continuous processes. These cards can also output analog voltages to help control
external processes, etc.
PID modules
• There are 2 types of PID modules. In the first the CPU does the calculation, in the
second, a second controller card does the calculation.
page 636
- when the CPU does the calculation the PID loop is slower.
- when a specialized card controls the PID loop, it is faster, but it costs less.
• Typical applications - positioning workpieces.
Stepper motor
• Allows control of a stepper motor from a PLC rack.
Servo control module
• Has an encoder and amplifier pair built in to the card.
Diagnostic Modules
• Plug in and they monitor the CPU status.
Specialty cards for IBM PC interface
• Siemens/Allen-Bradley/etc. have cards that fit into IBM buses, and will communicate with PLC’s.
Communications
• This allows communications or networks protocols in addition to what is available on the PLC. This includes DH+, etc.
Thumb Wheel Module
• Numbers can be dialed in on wheels with digits from 0 to 9.
BCD input/output module
• Allows numbers to be output/input in BCD.
BASIC module
• Allows the user to write programs in the BASIC programming language.
Short distance RF transmitters
• e.g., Omron V600/V620 ID system
• ID Tags - Special “tags” can be attached to products, and as they pass within
range of pickup sensors, they transmit an ID number, or a packet of data. This
data can then be used, updated, and rewritten to the tags by the PLC. Messages
are stored as ASCII text.
Voice Recognition/Speech
• In some cases verbal I/O can be useful. Speech recognition methods are still very
limited, the user must control their speech, and background noise causes problems.
25.3 SUMMARY
• Both suppliers and products should be evaluated.
• A single supplier can be advantageous in simplifying maintenance.
• The time and memory requirements for a program can be estimated using design work.
• Special I/O modules can be selected to suit project needs.
page 637
25.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS
1. What is the most commonly used type of I/O interface?
2. What is a large memory size for a PLC?
3. What factors affect the selection of the size of a PLC.
page 638
26. FUNCTION REFERENCE
The function references that follow are meant to be an aid for programming. There are some
notes that should be observed, especially because this list discusses instructions for more than one
type of PLC.
• The following function descriptions are for both the Micrologix and PLC-5 processor
families. There are some differences between PLC models and families.
- Floating point operations are not available on the micrologix.
- Some instruction names, definition and terminologies have been changed from
older to newer models. I attempt to point these out, or provide a general description that is true for all.
- Details for specific instructions can be found in the manuals available at (http://
www.ab.com)
• Many flags in status memory can be used with functions, including;
S2:0/0 carry in math operation
S2:0/1 overflow in math operation
S2:0/2 zero in math operation
S2:0/3 sign in math operation
26.1 FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
26.1.1 General Functions
AFI - Always False Instruction
AFI
Description:
Putting this instruction in a line will force the line to be false. This is primarily designed for debugging programs.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 639
IIN, IOT - Immediate INput, Immediate OuTput
A
B
Description:
IIN
I:001
IOT
O:002
These functions update a few inputs and outputs during a program scan,
instead of the beginning and end. In this example the IIN function will
update the input values on ’I:001’ if ’A’ is true. If ’B’ is true then the
output values will be updated for ’O:002’.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
OTL, OTU - OutpuT Latch, OutpuT Unlatch
A
B
Description:
Status Bits:
Registers:
L
X
U
X
The OTL ’L’ will latch on an output or memory bit, and the ’OTL’ ’U’ will
unlatch it. If a value has been changed with a latch its value will stay
fixed even if the PLC has been restarted.
none
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 640
XIC, XIO, OTE - eXamine If Closed, eXamine If Open, OuTput Enable
A
I:001/0
B
Description:
I:001/1
These are the three most basic and common instructions. The input ’A’ is a
normally open contact (XIC), the input ’B’ is a normally closed contact
(XIO). Both of the outputs are normally off (OTE).
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.1.2 Program Control
JMP, LBL - JuMP, LaBeL
A
2
LBL
Description:
JMP
JUMP
Label
B
2
X
The JMP instruction will allow the PLC to bypass some ladder logic
instructions. When ’A’ is true in this example the JMP will go to label
’2’, after which the program scan will continue normally. If ’A’ is false
the JMP will be ignored and program execution will continue normally.
In either case, ’X’ will be equal to ’B’.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 641
MCR - Master Control Relay
A
MCR
MCR
Description:
MCR instructions need to be used in pairs. If the first MCR line is true the
instructions up to the next MCR will be examined normally. If the first
MCR line is not true the outputs on the lines after will be FORCED
OFF. Be careful when using normal outputs in these blocks.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
ONS - ONe Shot
A
B3/10
ONS
Description:
X
This instruction will allow a line to be true for only one scan. If ’A’
becomes true then output of the ’ONS’ instruction will turn on for only
one scan. ’A’ must be turned off for one scan before the ’ONS’ can be
triggered again. The bit is used to track the previous input state, it is
similar to an enabled bit.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 642
OSR, OSF - One Shot Rising, One Shot Falling
A
OSR
ONE SHOT RISING
Storage Bit B3:4/5
Output Bit 2
Output Word O:001
Description:
This instruction will convert a single positive edge and convert it to a bit
that is on for only one scan. When ’A’ goes from false to true a positive
(or rising) edge occurs, and bit ’O:001/2’ will be on for one scan. Bit
’B3:4/5’ is used to track the state of the input to the function, and it can
be considered equivalent to an enable bit.
The OSF function is similar to the OSR function, except it is triggered on a
negative edge where the input falls from true to false.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
TND - Temporary eND
A
TND
Description:
When ’A’ is true this statement will cause the PLC to stop examining the
ladder logic program, as if it has encountered the normal end-of-program statement.
Status Bits:
Registers:
none
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.1.3 Timers and Counters
Counter memory instructions can share the same memory location, so some redundant bits
page 643
are mentioned here.
CTD - CounT Down
A
CTD
COUNT DOWN
Counter
C5:0
Preset
50
Accum.
0
Description:
The counter accumulator will decrease once each time the input goes from
false to true. If the accumulator value reaches the preset the done bit,
DN, will be set. The accumulator value will still decrease even when the
done bit is set
Status Bits:
CU
CD
DN
OV
UN
Not used for this instruction
Will be true when the input is true
Will be set when ACC < PRE
Not used for this instruction
Will be set if the counter value has gone below -32,768
Registers:
ACC
PRE
The time that has passed since the input went true
The maximum time delay before the timer goes on
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 644
CTU - CounT Up
A
CTU
COUNT UP
Counter
Preset
Accum.
C5:0
50
0
Description:
The counter accumulator will increase once each time the input goes from
false to true. If the accumulator value reaches the preset the done bit,
DN, will be set. The accumulator value will still increase even when the
done bit is set
Status Bits:
CU
CD
DN
OV
UN
Will be true when the input is true
Not used for this instruction
Will be set when ACC >= PRE
Will be set if the counter value has gone above 32,767
Not used for this instruction
Registers:
ACC
PRE
The total count
The maximum count before the counter goes on
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 645
TOF - Timer OFf
A
TOF
TIMER OFF DELAY
Timer
T4:0
Time Base
1.0
Preset
10
Accum.
0
Description:
This timer will delay turning off (the done bit, DN, will turn on immediately). Once the input turns off the accumulated value (ACC) will start
to increase from zero. When the preset (PRE) value is reached the DN
bit is turned off and the accumulator will reset to zero. If the input turns
on before the off delay is complete the accumulator will reset to zero.
Status Bits:
EN
TT
DN
This bit is true while the input to the timer is true
This bit is true while the accumulator value is increasing
This bit is true when the accumulator value is less than the preset
value and the input is true, or the accumulator is changing
Registers:
ACC
PRE
The time that has passed since the input went false
The maximum time delay before the timer goes off
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 646
TON - Timer ON
A
TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer
T4:0
Time Base
1.0
Preset
10
Accum.
0
Description:
This timer will delay turning on, but will turn off immediately. Once the
input turns on the accumulated value (ACC) will start to increase from
zero. When the preset (PRE) value is reached the DN bit is set. The done
bit will turn off and the accumulator will reset to zero if the input goes
false.
Status Bits:
EN
TT
DN
This bit is true while the input to the timer is true
This bit is true while the accumulator value is increasing
This bit is true when the accumulator value is equal to the preset
value
Registers:
ACC
PRE
The time that has passed since the input went true
The maximum time delay before the timer goes on
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 647
RTO - RetentiveTimer On
A
RTO
RETENTIVE TIMER ON
Timer
T4:0
Time Base
1.0
Preset
10
Accum.
0
Description:
This timer will delay turning on. When the input turns on the accumulated
value (ACC) will start to increase from zero. When the preset (PRE)
value is reached the DN bit is set. If the input goes false the accumulator
value is not reset to zero. To reset the timer and turn off the timer the
RES instruction should be used.
Status Bits:
EN
TT
DN
This bit is true while the input to the timer is true
This bit is true while the accumulator value is increasing
This bit is true when the accumulator value is less than the preset
value
Registers:
ACC
PRE
The time that has passed since the input went true
The maximum time delay before the timer goes on
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.1.4 Compare
CMP - CoMPare
CMP
COMPARE
Expression
“(N7:0 + 8) > N7:1”
A
Description:
This function uses a free form expression to compare the two values. The
comparison values that are allowed include =, >, >=, <>, <, <=. The
expression must not be more than 80 characters long.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: PLC-5
page 648
DTR - Data TRansition
DTR
DATA TRANSITION
A
Source
N7:0
Mask
00FF
Reference
N7:1
Description:
This function will examine the source value and mask out bits using the
mask. The value will be compared to the Reference value, and if the
values agree, then the function will be true for one scan, after that it
will be false.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
EQU, GEQ, GRT, LEQ, LES, NEQ - EQUals, Greater than or EQuals, GReater Than,
Less than or EQuals, LESs than, Not EQuals
EQU
EQUALS
Source A
Source B
A
N7:0
N7:1
Description:
The basic compare has six variations. Each of these will look at the values in source A and B and check for the comparison case. If the comparison case is true, the output will be true. The types are,
EQU - Equals
GEQ - Greater than or equals
GRT - Greater than
LEQ - Less than or equals
LES - Less than
NEQ - Not equal
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 649
FBC, DDT - File Bit Compare, Diagnostic DetecT
A
CLR
Dest S2:24
FBC
FILE BIT COMPARE
Source
#B3:0
#B9:0
Reference
#N10:0
Result
R6:0
Cmp Control
10
Length
0
Position
Result Control R6:1
3
Length
0
Position
Description:
This instruction will compare the bits in two files and store the positions
of differences in a result file. In this example the files compared when
’A’ goes true. Both files start at ’B3:0’ and ’B9:0’ and 10 bits are to be
compared. When differences are found the bit numbers will be stored
in a list starting at ’N10:0’, the list can have up to three values (integer
words). The ’Cmp Control’ word is for the bits being compared. The
’Result Control’ word is for the list of differences. The manual recommends clearing ’S:24’ before running this instruction to avoid a possible processor fault.
The DDT instruction is the same as the FBC instruction, except that
when a different bit is found the source bit overwrites the reference
bit. It is useful for storing a reference pattern for later use by a FBC.
Status Bits:
EN (Cmp)
DN (Cmp)
ER (Cmp)
IN (Cmp)
FD (Cmp)
DN (Result)
ER (Result)
Registers:
enable - enabled when the instruction input is active
done - enabled when the operation is complete
error - set if an error occurred during the operation
inhibit - set when mismatch found, must be cleared to
continue the comparison
found - set when a mismatch is found
done - set when the result list is full
error - set if an error occurred with the results list
LEN (Cmp)
POS (Cmp)
LEN (Result)
POS (Result)
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
length - the number of bits to be compared
position - the position of the current bit being compared
length - the number of result positions allowed
position - the location of the last result added
page 650
LIM - LIMit
LIM
LIMIT TEST (CIRC)
Low limit
N7:0
Test
N7:1
High Limit
N7:2
A
Description:
This function will check to see if a value is between two limits. If the
high limit is larger than the low limit and the test value is >= low limit
or <= high limit, then the output is true. If the low limit is higher than
the high limit, then a value not between the low and high limits will be
true.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
MEQ - Masked EQual
MEQ
MASKED EQUAL
Source
N7:0
Mask
N7:1
Compare
N7:2
A
Description:
The Source and Mask values are ANDed together. This will screenout
bits not on in the mask. The value is then compared to the ‘Compare’
value. If the values are equal, the output is true.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 651
26.1.5 Calculation and Conversion
ACS, ASN, ATN, COS, LN, LOG, NEG, SIN, SQR, TAN - ArcCosine, ArcSiNe,
ArcTaNgent, COSine, Logarythm Natural, LOGarythm,
NEGative, SINe, SQuare Root, TANgent
ACS
ARCCOSINE
Source
Dest
A
N7:0
N7:1
Description:
These are unary math functions that will load a value from the source, do
the calculation indicated, and store the results in the destination. Functions possible include
ACS - Arccosine (inverse cosine) in radians
ASN - Arcsine (inverse sine) in radians
ATN - Arctangent (inverse tangent) in radians
COS - Cosine using radians
LN - Natural Logarithm
LOG - Base 10 logarithm
NEG - Sign change from positive to negative, or reverse
SIN - Sine using radians
SQR - Square root
TAN - Tangent using radians
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - set if a carry is generated
Overflow - only set if value exceeds maximum for number type
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - set if result is negative
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 652
ADD, DIV, MUL, SUB, XPY - ADDition, DIVision, MULtiplication,
SUBtraction, X to the Power of Y
ADD
ADD
Source A
Source B
Dest
A
N7:0
N7:1
N7:2
Description:
These are binary math functions that will load two values from sources A
and B, do the calculation indicated, and store the results in the destination. Functions possible include
ADD - Add two numbers
DIV - Divide source A by source B
MUL - Multiply A and B
SUB - Subtract B from A
XPY - Raise X to the power of Y
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - sets if a carry is generated
Overflow - only set if value exceeds maximum for number type
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the result is negative
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 653
AVE, STD - AVErage, STandard Deviation
AVE
AVERAGE FILE
File
#N7:0
Dest
N7:10
Control
R6:0
Length
10
Postion
0
A
Description:
These functions do the basic statistical calculations, average (AVE) and
standard deviation (STD). When the input goes from false to true the
calculation is begun. The values to be used for the calculation are
taken from the memory starting at the start of the file location, for the
length indicated. The final result is stored in the Dest. The control file
is used for the calculation to keep track of position, and indicate when
the calculation is done (it may take more than one PLC scan).
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
EN
DN
ER
Registers:
none
Carry - always 0
Overflow - only set if value exceeds maximum for number type
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the result is negative
Enable - on when the instruction input is on
Done - set when the calculation is complete
Error - set if an error was encountered during calculation
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
CLR - CLeaR
A
CLR
CLR
Dest
N7:0
Description:
This value will clear a memory location by putting a zero in it when the
input to the function is true.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 654
CPT - ComPuTe
A
CPT
COMPUTE
Dest
Expression
“N7:1 - N7:3”
N7:0
Description:
This expression allows free-form entry of equations. A maximum of 80
characters is permitted. Operations allowed include +, -, | (divide), *,
FRD, BCD, SQR, AND, OR, NOT, XOR, ** (x**y = x to power y),
RAD, DEG, LOG, LN, SIN, COS, TAN, ASN, ACS, ATN
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: PLC-5
FRD, TOD, DEG, RAD - FRom bcD to integer, TO bcD from integer,
DEGrees from radians, RADians from degrees
FRD
FROM BCD
Source
N7:0
Dest
N7:1
This function will convert the value in the source location and store the
result in the Dest location. The functions possible include,
FRD - From BCD to a 2s compliment integer number
TOD - From 2s compliment integer number to BCD
DEG - Convert from radians to degrees
RAD - Convert from degrees to radians
A
Description:
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - always 0
Overflow - sets if an overflow as generated during conversion
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the MSB of the result is set
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 655
SRT - SoRT
SRT
SORT
File
Control
Length
Position
A
#N7:0
R6:0
10
0
Description:
This functions sort the values in memory from lowest value in the first
location to the highest value. When the input goes from false to true
the calculation is begun. The values to be used for the calculation are
sorted in the memory starting at the start of the file location, for the
length indicated. The control file is used for the calculation to keep
track of position, and indicate when the calculation is done (it may
take more than one PLC scan).
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
Registers:
none
Enable - on when the instruction input is on
Done - set when the calculation is complete
Error - set if an error was encountered during calculation
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 656
26.1.6 Logical
AND, OR, XOR - AND, OR, eXclusive OR
AND
BITWISE AND
Source A
N7:0
Source B
N7:1
Dest
N7:2
A
Description:
These functions do basic boolean operations to the numbers in locations
A and B. The results of the operation are stored in Dest. These calculations will be perform whenever the input is true. The functions are,
AND - Bitwise and
OR - Bitwise or
XOR - Bitwise exclusive or
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - always 0
Overflow - always 0
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the MSB of the result is set
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
NOT - NOT
NOT
NOT
Source
N7:0
Dest
N7:1
This function will invert all of the bits in a word in memory whenever the
input is true.
A
Description:
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - always 0
Overflow - always 0
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the MSB of the result is set
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 657
26.1.7 Move
BTD - BiT Distribute
BTD
BIT FIELD DISTRIB
Source
N7:0
Source bit
0
Dest
N7:1
Dest bit
4
Length
5
A
Description:
This function will copy the bits starting at N7:0/0 to N7:1/4 for a length
of 5 bits.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
MOV - MOVe
MOV
MOVE
Source
N7:0
Dest
N7:1
This instruction will move values from one location to another, and if
necessary change value types, such as integer to a floating point.
A
Description:
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - always 0
Overflow - Sets if an overflow occurred during conversion
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the MSB of the result is set
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 658
MVM - MoVe Masked
MVM
MAKSED MOVE
Source
N7:0
Mask
N7:1
Dest
N7:2
A
Description:
This function will retrieve the values from the source and mask memory
and AND them together. Only the bits that are true in the mask will be
copied to the new location.
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
S
Registers:
none
Carry - always 0
Overflow - always 0
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the MSB of the result is set
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.1.8 File
Most file instructions will contain ’Mode’ options. The user may choose these with the implications listed below.
All - All of the operations will be completed in a single scan when the input to the function
is edge triggered. Care must be used not to create an operation so long it causes a
watchdog fault in the PLC
Incremental - Each time there is a positive input edge the function will advance the file
operation by one.
’number’ - when a number is supplied the function will perform that many iterations while
the input rung is true.
page 659
COP - file COPy
A
COP
COPY FILE
Source
Dest
Length
#N7:50
#N7:20
4
Description:
This instruction copies from one list to another. When ’A’ is true the
instruction will copy the entire source list to the destination location in
a single scan. In this example this would mean N7:20=N7:50,
N7:21=N7:51, N7:22=N7:52 and N7:23=N7:53. The source values
are not changed. This instruction will not convert data types.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 660
FAL - File Arithmetic and Logic
A
FAL
FILE ARITH/LOGICAL
Control
R6:0
Length
10
Position
0
Mode
ALL
Dest
#N7:10
Expression
#N7:0 - N7:21
Description:
This function will evaluate the expression over a range of values. The
length specifies the number of positions in the expression and destination files. The position value will be updated to indicate the current
position in the calculation. See earlier in this section for a description
of the Mode variable. This example would perform all of the calculations in a single scan. These calculations would be N7:10=N7:0N7:21, N7:11=N7:1-N7:21, ......N7:19=N7:9-N7:21. More complex
mathematical expressions can be used with the following operators;
+, -, *, | - basic math
BCD/FRD - BCD conversion
SQR - square root
AND, OR, NOT, XOR - Boolean operators
Note: advanced math operators are also available
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
enable - this will be on while the function is active
done - this will be on when a calculation has completed
error - this will be set if there was an error during calculation
Registers:
POS
LEN
position - tracks the current position in the list
length - the length of the file
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 661
FLL - file FiLL
A
FLL
FILE FILL
Source
Destination
Length
F8:0
#F8:30
10
Description:
The contents of a single memory location are copied into a list. In this
example the value in ’F8:0’ is copied into locations ’F8:30’ to ’F8:39’
each scan when ’A’ is true. The source value is not changed. This
instruction will not convert data types.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 662
FSC - File Search and Compare
A
FSC
FILE SEARCH/COMPARE
Control
R6:36
Length
14
Position
0
Mode
3
Expression
#F8:5 > F8:0
X
Description:
lists of numbers can be compared using the FSC command. When ’A’
becomes true the function will start to compare values as determined
by the ’Mode’ (see the beginning of this section for details on the
mode). The expression will be evaluated from the initial locations in
the expression. The end of the list is determined by the Length. In this
example 3 values will be evaluated for each scan. The comparison in
the first scan will be F8:5>F8:0, F8:6>F8:0 and F8:7>F8:0. This
instruction will continue until all 14 values have been compared, and
all are true, at which time X will turn on and stay on while A is on. If
any values are false the compare will stop, and the output will stay off.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
FD
enable - will be on while the instruction input is on
done - will be on when the length is reached, or a false compare
occurred
error - will occur if there is an error in the expression or range
inhibit - if a false statement is found the inhibit bit will be set. if
this is turned off (i.e., R6:36/IN=0) the search will continue
found - this bit will be set when a false condition is found
LEN
POS
length - the number of the comparison list
position - the current position in the comparison list
ER
IN
Registers:
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.1.9 List
page 663
BSL, BSR - Bit Shift Left, Bit Shift Right
A
Description:
BSL
BIT SHIFT LEFT
File
#B3:0
Control
R6:0
Bit Address
I:0.0/0
Length
6
These functions will shift bits through left or right through a string of bits
starting at #B3:0 with a length of 6 in the example above. As the bits
shift the bit shifted out will be put in the UL bit. A new bit will be
shifted into the vacant spot from the Bit Address. When the bits are
shifted they are moved in the memory locations starting at file #B3:0.
The two options available are:
BSR - Bit Shift Right
BSL - Bit Shift Left
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
UL
Registers:
none
Enable - is on when the input to the function is on
Done - is on when the shift operation is complete
Error - indicates when an error has occurred
Unload - the unloaded value is stored in this bit
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 664
FFL, FFU, LFL, LFU - FiFo Load, FiFo Unload, LiFo Load, LiFo Unload
FFL
A
FIFO LOAD
Source
N7:0
FIFO
N7:10
Control
R6:0
Length
10
Position
0
FFU
FIFO UNLOAD
FIFO
Dest
Control
Length
Position
B
N7:10
N7:11
R6:0
10
0
Description:
Stack instructions will take integer words and store them, and then allow
later retrieval. The load instructions will store a value on the stack on a
false to true input change. The Unload instructions will remove a
value from that stack and store it in the Dest location. A Last On First
Off stack will return the last value pushed on. A First On First Off
stack will give the oldest value on the stack. If an attempt to load more
than the stack length, the values will be ignored. The instructions
available are:
FFL - FIFO stack load
FFU - FIFO stack unload
LFL - LIFO stack load
LFU - LIFO stack unload
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
UL
Registers:
none
Enable - is on when the input to the function is on
Done - is on when the shift operation is complete
Error - indicates when an error has occurred
Unload - the unloaded value is stored in this bit
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 665
SQI - SeQuencer Input
A
SQI
SEQUENCER INPUT
File
#N7:10
Mask
FF00
Source
N7:0
Control
R6:0
Length
7
Position
0
Description:
This will compare a source value to a set of values in a sequencer table.
In this example the 8 most significant bits of ’N7:0’ will be loaded
each time ’A’ goes from false to true. The sequencer will load words
from ’N7:10’ to ’N7:17’.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
enable - true when the function is enabled
done - set when the sequencer is full
error - set if an error has occured
Registers:
POS
LEN
position - the current location in the sequencer
length - the total length of the sequencer
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
SQL - SeQuencer Load
A
SQL
SEQUENCER LOAD
File
#N7:10
Source
N7:0
Control
R6:0
Length
6
Position
0
Description:
When the input goes from false to true the value at the source will be
loaded into the sequencer. After the position has reached the length the
following values will be ignored, and the done bit will be set.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
Registers:
none
Enable - will be true when the input to the function is true
Done - will be set when the sequencer is fully loaded
Error - will be set when there has been an error
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 666
SQO - SeQuencer Output
A
SQO
SEQUENCER OUTPUT
File
#N7:10
Mask
FF00
Dest
N7:0
Control
R6:0
Length
6
Position
0
Description:
When the input goes from false to true the sequencer will output a value
from a new position in the sequencer table. After the position has
reached the length the sequencer will reset to position 1. Note that the
first entry in the sequencer table will only be output the first time the
function is un, or if reset has been used.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
Registers:
none
Enable - will be true when the input to the function is true
Done - will be set when the sequencer is fully loaded
Error - will be set when there has been an error
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.1.10 Program Control
EOT - End Of Transition
A
EOT
Description:
This function will cause a transition in an SFC. This will be in a program
file for an SFC step. When ’A’ becomes true the transition will end
and the SFC will move to the next step and transitions.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: PLC-5
page 667
FOR, NXT, BRK - For, Next, Break
A
FOR
FOR
Label Number
Index
Initial Value
Terminal Value
Step Size
0
N7:0
0
10
2
B
BRK
NXT
NEXT
Label Number
C
0
Description:
This instruction will create a loop like traditional programming languages with a start and end value with a step size for each loop.
Instructions between the FOR and NXT will be repeated. If the line
with the BRK statement becomes true, the NXT command will be
ignored.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 668
JSR/SBR/RET - Jump Subroutine / Subroutine / Return
JSR
A
JUMP TO SUBROUTINE
Program File
3
Input par
N7:0
Input par
N7:1
Return par
N7:10
Return par
N7:11
Return par
N7:12
B
SBR
SUBROUTINE
Input par
N7:20
Input par
N7:21
C
RET
RETURN()
Return par
Return par
Return par
N7:22
N7:23
N7:24
Description:
The JSR will jump to another program file and pass a list of arguments
that can be a variable length. The first statement in the subroutine program file should be SBR to retrieve the arguments passed. The subroutine will end with the RET command that will go back to where the
JSR function was encountered. The RET function can return a variable number of arguments.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 669
SFR - Sequential Function chart Reset
A
SFR
SFC RESET
Prog File Number
Restart Step At
3
Description:
This function will reset a SFC. In this example when ’A’ goes true the
SFC main program stored in program file 3 will be examined. All sub
programs will be examined, and then the SFC will be reset to the initial position.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: PLC-5
UID, UIE - User Interrupt Disable, User Interrupt Enable
A
UID
B
UIE
Description:
This instruction is used to turn of interrupts. If ’A’ is true, then the following ladder logic will be run without interrupts. If ’B’ is true the
interrupts will be reenabled. These instructions will only be of concern
when using user programmed interrupt functions. These are normally
only used when a critical process may be completed within a given
time, or when the ladder logic between the UID and UIE conflicts
with one of the interrupt programs.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: PLC-5
page 670
26.1.11 Advanced Input/Output
BTR, BTW - Block Transfer Read, Block Transfer Write
BTR
A
BLOCK TRANSFER READ
Rack
2
Group
3
Module
0
Control Block BT10:2
Data File
N9:10
Length
13
Continuous
N
Description:
These instructions communicate with complex input-output cards in a
PLC rack. The instruction is needed when a card requires more than
one word of input and/or output data. The rack and group indicate the
location of the card as ’O:023’. The module number is needed when
using two slot addressing for larger racks (this is not needed for racks
with less than 8 cards). The control memory is ’BT’, although integer
memory could also be used. The data file indicates the location of the
data to be sent, in this case it is from ’N9:10’ to ’N9:22’. The length
and contents of the data file are dependant upon the card type. If the
instruction is continuous, it will send out the data as soon as the last
transmission is complete. If it is not continuous ’A’ must go from false
to true to trigger a transmission.
Status Bits:
EN
ST
DN
ER
CO
EW
NR
TO
RW
enable start done error continuous enable waiting no response time out read write -
Registers:
RLEN
DLEN
FILE
ELEM
RGS
requested data length transmitted data length file number element number rack, group, slot - card address
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 671
MSG - MeSsaGe
A
MSG
SEND/RECEIVE MESSAGE
Control Block MG9:0
Description:
This is a multipurpose instruction that deals with communications in general. The instruction is controlled by the contents of the control block,
which is normally set up using the programming software. The
instruction can send and receive data across most interfaces including
DH, DH+, Ethernet, RS-232, RS-422 and RS-485. The message
blocks ’MG’ are preferred for storing the configuration, but integer
memory may also be used. The messages are segments of PLC memory. These can be read from, or written to a remote destination.
Status Bits:
EN
ST
DN
ER
CO
EW
NR
TO
enable - indicates when the instruction is active
start done - indicates when the instruction is complete
error - an error occurred
continuous - when set the instruction doesn’t need a true input
enabled waiting no response - the remote destination was not detected
time out - the remote destination did not respond in time
Registers:
many
refer to manuals
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 672
PID - Proportional Integral Derivative controller
A
PID
PID
PID File
PD9:0
Process Variable N10:0
Control Variable N10:30
Description:
This function calculates a value for a control output based on a feedback
value. When ’A’ is true the instruction will do a PID calculation. In
this example the PID calculation is based on the parameters stored in
’PD9:0’. It will use the setpoint ’PD9:0.SP’, and the feedback value
’N10:0’ to calculate a new control output ’N10:30’. The control variables are normally set using the programming software, although it is
possible to set up this instruction using MOV instructions.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
enable - indicates when the input is active
done - this indicates when the instruction is done (not available
when using the ’PD’ control block.
Registers:
KC
TI
TD
MAXS
MINS
SP
controller gain - the overall gain for the controller
reset time - this gives a relative time for integration
rate time - this gives a relative time for the derivative
maximum setpoint - the largest value for the setpoint
minimum setpoint - the smallest value for the setpoint
setpoint - the setpoint for the process
Note: This is only a partial list, see the manuals for additional
status bits and registers.
Available on: PLC-5
26.1.12 String
page 673
ABL, ACB - Ascii availaBle Line, Ascii Characters in Buffer
ABL
ASCII TEST FOR LINE
Channel
0
Control
R6:0
Characters
A
Description:
The ABL instruction checks for available characters in the input buffer.
In this example, when ’A’ goes true the function will check the input
buffer for channel ’0’ and put characters in ’R6:0.POS’. The count
will include end of line characters such as ’CR’ and ’LF’.
The ACB instruction is the same, except that it does not include the end
of line characters.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
POS
the number of characters waiting in the buffer.
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
ACI, AIC - Ascii string Convert to Integer, Ascii Integer to string Conversion
ACI
STRING TO INTEGER CONVERSION
Source
ST10:2
Dest
N9:5
A
Description:
The ACI instruction will convert a string to an integer value. In this
example it retrieve the string in ’ST10:2’, convert it to an integer and
store it in ’N9:5’. When converting to an integer it is possible to have
an overflow error.
The AIC function will convert an integer to a string.
Status Bits:
C
V
Z
N
Carry - sets if a carry is generated
Overflow - only set if value exceeds maximum for number type
Zero - sets if the result is zero.
Sign - sets if the result is negative
Registers:
POS
the number of characters waiting in the buffer.
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 674
ACN - Ascii string CoNcatenate
A
ACN
STRING CONCATENATE
SourceA
ST10:0
SourceB
ST10:1
ST10:2
Dest
Description:
This will concatenate two strings together into one combined string. In
this example while ’A’ is true the strings in ’ST10:0’ and ’ST10:1’
will be added together and stored in ’ST10:2’.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
AEX - Ascii string EXtract
A
AEX
STRING EXTRACT
Source
ST9:4
Index
11
3
Number
ST9:0
Dest
Description:
This function will remove part of a string. In this example the characters
in the 12th, 13th and 14th positions (’3’ charaters starting at the 11th
position), are copied to the location ST9:0. The original string is not
changed.
Status Bits:
none
Registers:
none
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 675
AHL - Ascii Handshake Line
A
AHL
ASCII HANDSHAKE LINE
Channel
1
AND Mask
0000
0003
OR Mask
R6:1
Control
Channel Status
Description:
This instruction will check the serial interface using the DTR and RTS
send bits. Bit 0 is DTR and bit 1 is the RTS. If a bit is set in the AND
mask the bits will be turned off, otherwise they will be left alone. If a
bit is set in the OR word a bit will be turned on, otherwise they will be
left alone. In this example the DTR and RTS bits will be turned on for
channel 1.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
Registers:
none
enable - this is set when the instruction is active
done - when the bits have been reset this bit is on
error - this bit is set if an error has occurred
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 676
ARD, ARL - Ascii ReaD, Ascii Read Line
ARD
ASCII READ
Channel
Dest
Control
String Length
Characters Read
A
0
ST10:0
R6:10
15
Description:
The ARD instruction will read characters and write them to a string. In
this example the characters are read from channel 0 and written to
’ST10:0’. All of the characters in the buffer, up to 15 in total, will be
removed and written to the string memory. The number of characters
will be stored in ’R6:10.POS’.
The ARL function is similar to the ARD function, except that the end-ofline values ’CR’ or ’LF’ will mark the end of a line. With the parameters above the string will be copied until 15 characters are reached, or
there are fewer than 15 characters, or an end-of-line character is
found.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
UL
EM
EU
enable - will be set while the instruction is enabled
done - will be set when then string has been read
error - will be set if an error has occurred
unload empty - will be set if no characters were found
queue -
Registers:
POS
the number of characters copied
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 677
ASC - Ascii string Search for Character
A
ASC
STRING SEARCH
Source
ST9:0
Index
20
ST9:1
Search
Result
Description:
This function will search a string for a character. In this example the
character will look for the character in string ’ST9:0’ in position 20
(21st) in string ’ST9:1’. If a match is NOT found the bit ’S2:17/8’ will
be turned on.
Status Bits:
S2:17/8
Registers:
none
ascii minor fault bit - this bit will be set if there was no match
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
ASR - Ascii StRing compare
ASR
ASCII STRING COMPARE
SourceA
ST10:10
SourceB
ST10:11
A
X
Description:
This instruction will compare two strings. In this example, if ’A’ is true
then the strings ’ST10:10’ and ’ST10:11’ will be compared. If they are
equal then ’X’ will be true, otherwise it will be false. If the strings are
different lengths then the bit ’S2:17/8’ will be set.
Status Bits:
S2:17/8
Registers:
none
ascii minor fault bit - this bit will be set if the string lengths
don’t match.
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
page 678
AWT, AWA - Ascii WriTe, Ascii Write Append
AWT
ASCII WRITE
Channel
Source
Control
String Length
Characters Sent
A
0
ST11:9
R6:3
14
Description:
The AWT instruction will send a character string. In this example, when
’A’ goes from false to true, up to 14 characters will be sent from
’ST11:9’ to channel 0. This does not append any end of line characters.
The AWA function has a similar operation, except that the channel configuration characters are added - by default these are ’CR’ and ’LF’.
Status Bits:
EN
DN
ER
UL
EM
EU
enable - this will be set while the instruction is active
done - this will be set after the string has been sent
error bit - set when an error has occurred
unload empty - set if no string was found
queue -
Registers:
POS
the number of characters sent instructions
Available on: Micrologix, PLC-5
26.2 DATA TYPES
The following table describes the arguments and return values for functions. Some notes are;
• ’immediate’ values are numerical, not memory addresses.
• ’returns’ indicates that the function returns that data value.
• numbers between ’[’ and ’]’ indicate a range of values.
• values such as ’yes’ and ’no’ are typed in literally.
page 679
Table 3: Instruction Data Types
Function
Argument
Data Types
Edge Triggered
ABL
channel
control
characters
immediate int [0-4]
R
returns N
yes
ACB
channel
control
characters
immediate int [0-4]
R
returns N
yes
ACI
source
destination
ST
N
no
ACN
source A
source B
ST
ST
no
ACS
source
destination
N,F,immediate
N,F
no
ADD
source A
source B
destination
N,F,immediate
N,F,immediate
N,F
no
AEX
source
index
number
destination
ST
immediate int [0-82]
immediate int [0-82]
ST
no
AFI
no
AHL
channel
AND mask
OR mask
control
immediate int [0-4]
immediate hex [0000-ffff]
immediate hex [0000-ffff]
R
yes
AIC
source
destination
N, immediate int
ST
no
ARD
channel
destination
control
string length
characters read
immediate int [0-4]
ST
R
immediate int [0-83]
returns N
yes
page 680
Table 3: Instruction Data Types
Function
Argument
Data Types
Edge Triggered
ARL
channel
destination
control
string length
characters read
immediate int [0-4]
ST
R
immediate int [0-83]
returns N
yes
ASC
source
index
search
result
ST
N, immediate
ST
R
no
ASN
source
destination
N,F,immediate
N,F
no
ASR
source A
source B
ST
ST
no
ATN
source
destination
N,F,immediate
N,F
no
AVE
file
destination
control
length
position
#F,#N
F,N
R
N,immediate int
returns N
yes
AWA
channel
source
control
string length
characters sent
immediate int [0-4]
ST
R
immediate int [0-82]
returns N
yes
AWT
channel
source
control
length
characters sent
N, immediate int
ST
R
immediate int [0-82]
returns N
yes
BSL
file
control
bit address
length
#B,#N
R
any bit
immediate int [0-16000]
yes
page 681
Table 3: Instruction Data Types
Function
Argument
Data Types
Edge Triggered
BSR
file
control
bit address
length
#B,#N
R
any bit
immediate int [0-16000]
yes
BTD
source
source bit
destination
destination bit
length
N,B,immediate
N,immediate int [0-15]
N
immediate int [0-15]
immediate int [0-15]
no
BTR
rack
group
module
control block
data file
length
continuous
immediate octal [000-277]
immediate octal [0-7]
immediate octal [0-1]
BT,N
N
immediate int [0-64]
’yes’,’no’
yes
BTW
rack
group
module
control block
data file
length
continuous
immediate octal [000-277]
immediate octal [0-7]
immediate octal [0-1]
BT,N
N
immediate int [0-64]
’yes’,’no’
yes
CLR
destination
N,F
no
CMP
expression
expression
no
COP
source
destination
length
#any
#any
immediate int [0-1000]
no
COS
source
destination
F,immediate
F
no
CPT
destination
expression
N,F
expression
no
CTD
counter
preset
accumulated
C
returns N
returns N
yes
page 682
Table 3: Instruction Data Types
Function
Argument
Data Types
CTU
counter
preset
accumulated
C
returns N
returns N
DDT
source
reference
result
compare control
length
position
result control
length
position
binary
Edge Triggered
yes
page 683
Table 3: Instruction Data Types
Function
Argument
Data Types
Edge Triggered
page 684
Table 3: Instruction Data Types
Function
Argument
Data Types
Edge Triggered
page 685
27. COMBINED GLOSSARY OF TERMS
27.1 A
abort - the disrupption of normal operation.
absolute pressure - a pressure measured relative to zero pressure.
absorption loss - when sound or vibration energy is lost in a transmitting or reflecting medium.
This is the result of generation of other forms of energy such as heat.
absorbtive law - a special case of Boolean algebra where A(A+B) becomes A.
AC (Alternating Current) - most commonly an electrical current and voltage that changes in a
sinusoidal pattern as a function of time. It is also used for voltages and currents that are not
steady (DC). Electrical power is normally distributed at 60Hz or 50Hz.
AC contactor - a contactor designed for AC power.
acceptance test - a test for evaluating a newly purchased system’s performance, capabilities, and
conformity to specifications, before accepting, and paying the supplier.
accumulator - a temporary data register in a computer CPU.
accuracy - the difference between an ideal value and a physically realizable value. The companion
to accuracy is repeatability.
acidity - a solution that has an excessive number of hydrogen atoms. Acids are normally corrosive.
acoustic - another term for sound.
acknowledgement (ACK) - a response that indicates that data has been transmitted correctly.
actuator - a device that when activated will result in a mechanical motion. For example a motor, a
solenoid valve, etc.
A/D - Analog to digital converter (see ADC).
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) - a circuit that will convert an analog voltage to a digital
value, also refered to as A/D.
ADCCP (Advanced Data Communications Procedure) - ANSI standard for synchronous commu-
page 686
nication links with primary and secondary functions.
address - a code (often a number) that specifies a location in a computers memory.
address register - a pointer to memory locations.
adsorption - the ability of a material or apparatus to adsorb energy.
agitator - causes fluids or gases to mix.
AI (Artificial Intelligence) - the use of computer software to mimic some of the cognitive human
processes.
algorithms - a software procedure to solve a particular problem.
aliasing - in digital systems there are natural limits to resolution and time that can be exceeded,
thus aliasing the data. For example. an event may happen too fast to be noticed, or a point may
be too small to be displayed on a monitor.
alkaline - a solution that has an excess of HO pairs will be a base. This is the compliment to an
acid.
alpha rays - ions that are emitted as the result of atomic fission or fusion.
alphanumeric - a sequence of characters that contains both numbers and letters.
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) - a part of a computer that is dedicated to mathematical operations.
AM (Amplitude Modulation) - a fixed frequency carrier signal that is changed in amplitude to
encode a change in a signal.
ambient - normal or current environmental conditions.
ambient noise - a sort of background noise that is difficult to isolate, and tends to be present
throughout the volume of interest.
ambient temperature - the normal temperature of the design environment.
analog signal - a signal that has continuous values, typically voltage.
analysis - the process of review to measure some quality.
and - a Boolean operation that requires all arguments to be true before the result is true.
annealing - heating of metal to relieve internal stresses. In many cases this may soften the material.
page 687
annotation - a special note added to a design for explanatory purposes.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) - a developer of standards, and a member of ISO.
APF (All Plastic Fibre cable) - fiber optic cable that is made of plastic, instead of glass.
API (Application Program Interface) - a set of functions, and procedures that describes how a program will use another service/library/program/etc.
APT (Automatically Programmed Tools) - a language used for directing computer controlled
machine tools.
application - the task which a tool is put to, This normally suggets some level of user or real world
interaction.
application layer - the top layer in the OSI model that includes programs the user would run, such
as a mail reader.
arc - when the electric field strength exceeds the dielectric breakdown voltage, electrons will flow.
architecture - they general layout or design at a higher level.
armature - the central rotating portion of a DC motor or generator, or a moving part of a relay.
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) - now DARPA. Originally funded ARPANET.
ARPANET - originally sponsored by ARPA. A packet switching network that was in service from
the early 1970s, until 1990.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - a set of numerical codes that correspond to numbers, letters, special characters, and control codes. The most popular standard
ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) - a specially designed and programmed logic circuit. Used for medium to low level production of complex functions.
aspirator - a device that moves materials with suction.
assembler - converts assembly language into machine code.
assembly language - a mnemonic set of commands that can be directly converted into commands
for a CPU.
associative dimensioning - a method for linking dimension elements to elements in a drawing.
associative laws - Boolean algebra laws A+(B+C) = (A+B)+C or A(BC) = (AB)C
page 688
asynchronous - events that happen on an irregular basis, and are not predictable.
asynchronous communications (serial) - strings of characters (often ASCII) are broken down into
a series of on/off bits. These are framed with start/stop bits, and parity checks for error detection, and then send out one character at a time. The use of start bits allows the characters to be
sent out at irregular times.
attenuation - to decrease the magnitude of a signal.
attenuation - as the sound/vibration energy propagates, it will undergo losses. The losses are
known as attenuation, and are often measured in dB. For general specifications, the attenuation
may be tied to units of dB/ft.
attribute - a nongraphical feature of a part, such as color.
audible range - the range of frequencies that the human ear can normally detect from 16 to 20,000
Hz.
automatic control - a feedback of a system state is compared to a desired value and the control
value for the system is adjusted by electronics, mechanics and/or computer to compensate for
differences.
automated - a process that operates without human intervention.
auxiliary power - secondary power supplies for remote or isolated systems.
AWG (American Wire Gauge) - specifies conductor size. As the number gets larger, the conductors get smaller.
27.2 B
B-spline - a fitted curve/surface that is commonly used in CAD and graphic systems.
backbone - a central network line that ties together distributed networks.
background - in multitasking systems, processes may be running in the background while the user
is working in the foreground, giving the user the impression that they are the only user of the
machine (except when the background job is computationally intensive).
background suppression - the ability of a sensing system to discriminate between the signal of
interest, and background noise or signals.
backplane - a circuit board located at the back of a circuit board cabinet. The backplane has con-
page 689
nectors that boards are plugged into as they are added.
backup - a redundant system to replace a system that has failed.
backward chaining - an expert system looks at the results and looks at the rules to see logically
how to get there.
band pressure Level - when measuring the spectrum of a sound, it is generally done by looking at
frequencies in a certain bandwidth. This bandwidth will have a certain pressure value that is an
aggregate for whatever frequencies are in the bandwidth.
base - 1. a substance that will have an excess of HO ions in solution form. This will react with an
acid. 2. the base numbering system used. For example base 10 is decimal, base 2 is binary
baseband - a network strategy in which there is a single carrier frequency, that all connected
machines must watch continually, and participate in each transaction.
BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) - a computer language designed to
allow easy use of the computer.
batch processing - an outdated method involving running only one program on a computer at
once, sequentially. The only practical use is for very intensive jobs on a supercomputer.
battery backup - a battery based power supply that keeps a computer (or only memory) on when
the master power is off.
BAUD - The maximum number of bits that may be transmitted through a serial line in one second. This also includes some overhead bits.
baudot code - an old code similar to ASCII for teleprinter machines.
BCC (Block Check Character) - a character that can check the validity of the data in a block.
BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) - numerical digits (0 to 9) are encoded using 4 bits. This allows
two numerical digits to each byte.
beam - a wave of energy waves such as light or sound. A beam implies that it is not radiating in all
directions, and covers an arc or cone of a few degrees.
bearing - a mechanical support between two moving surfaces. Common types are ball bearings
(light weight) and roller bearings (heavy weight), journal bearings (rotating shafts).
beats - if two different sound frequencies are mixed, they will generate other frequencies. if a
1000Hz and 1001Hz sound are heard, a 1Hz (=1000-1001) sound will be perceived.
benchmark - a figure to compare with. If talking about computers, these are often some numbers
page 690
that can be use to do relative rankings of speeds, etc. If talking about design, we can benchmark our products against our competitors to determine our weaknesses.
Bernoulli’s principle - a higher fluid flow rate will result in a lower pressure.
beta ratio - a ratio of pipe diameter to orifice diameter.
beta rays - electrons are emitted from a fission or fusion reaction.
beta site - a software tester who is actually using the software for practical applications, while
looking for bugs. After this stage, software will be released commercially.
big-endian - a strategy for storing or transmitting the most significant byte first.
BIOS (Basic Input Output System) - a set of basic system calls for accessing hardware, or software services in a computer. This is typically a level lower than the operating system.
binary - a base 2 numbering system with the digits 0 and 1.
bit - a single binary digit. Typically the symbols 0 and 1 are used to represent the bit value.
bit/nibble/byte/word - binary numbers use a 2 value number system (as opposed to the decimal 09, binary uses 0-1). A bit refers to a single binary digit, and as we add digits we get larger numbers. A bit is 1 digit, a nibble is 4 digits, a byte is 8 digits, and a word is 16 digits.
decimal(base 10) binary(base 2)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
.
.
.
0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
.
.
.
octal(base 8)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
13
.
.
.
page 691
e.g. differences
decimal
binary
15 ... tens
3,052 ... thousands
1,000,365 ... millions
1 ... bit
0110 .... nibble (up to 16 values)
10011101 ... byte (up to 256 values)
0101000110101011 ... work (up to 64,256 values)
Most significant bit
least significant bit
BITNET (Because It’s Time NET) - An academic network that has been merged with CSNET.
blackboard - a computer architecture when different computers share a common memory area
(each has its own private area) for sharing/passing information.
block - a group of bytes or words.
block diagrams - a special diagram for illustrating a control system design.
binary - specifies a number system that has 2 digits, or two states.
binary number - a collection of binary values that allows numbers to be constructed. A binary
number is base 2, whereas normal numbering systems are base 10.
blast furnace - a furnace that generates high temperatures by blowing air into the combustion.
bleed nozzle - a valve or nozzle for releasing pressure from a system.
block diagram - a symbolic diagram that illustrates a system layout and connection. This can be
ued for analysis, planning and/or programming.
BOC (Bell Operating Company) - there are a total of 7 regional telephone companies in the
U.S.A.
boiler - a device that will boil water into steam by burning fuel.
BOM (Bills Of Materials) - list of materials needed in the production of parts, assemblies, etc.
These lists are used to ensure all required materials are available before starting an operation.
Boolean - a system of numbers based on logic, instead of real numbers. There are many similarities to normal mathematics and algebra, but a separate set of operators, axioms, etc. are used.
page 692
bottom-up design - the opposite of top-down design. In this methodology the most simple/basic
functions are designed first. These simple elements are then combined into more complex elements. This continues until all of the hierarchical design elements are complete.
bounce - switch contacts may not make absolute contact when switching. They make and break
contact a few times as they are coming into contact.
Bourdon tube - a pressure tube that converts pressure to displacement.
BPS (Bits Per Second) - the total number of bits that can be passed between a sender and listener
in one second. This is also known as the BAUD rate.
branch - a command in a program that can cause it to start running elsewhere.
bread board - a term used to describe a temporary electronic mounting board. This is used to prototype a circuit before doing final construction. The main purpose is to verify the basic design.
breadth first search - an AI search technique that examines all possible decisions before making
the next move.
breakaway torque - the start-up torque. The value is typically high, and is a function of friction,
inertia, deflection, etc.
breakdown torque - the maximum torque that an AC motor can produce at the rated voltage and
frequency.
bridge - 1. an arrangement of (typically 4) balanced resistors used for measurement. 2. A network
device that connects two different networks, and sorts out packets to pass across.
broadband networks - multiple frequencies are used with multiplexing to increase the transmission rates in networks.
broad-band noise - the noise spectrum for a particular noise source is spread over a large range of
frequencies.
broadcast - a network term that describes a general broadcast that should be delivered to all clients
on a network. For example this is how Ethernet sends all of its packets.
brush - a sliding electrical conductor that conducts power to/from a rotor.
BSC (Binary Synchronous Communication) - a byte oriented synchronous communication protocol developed by IBM.
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) - one of the major versions of UNIX.
page 693
buffer - a temporary area in which data is stored on its way from one place to another. Used for
communication bottlenecks and asynchronous connections.
bugs - hardware or software problems that prevent desired components operation.
burn-in - a high temperature pre-operation to expose system problems.
burner - a term often used for a device that programs EPROMs, PALs, etc. or a bad cook.
bus - a computer has buses (collections of conductors) to move data, addresses, and control signals between components. For example to get a memory value, the address value provided the
binary memory address, the control bus instructs all the devices to read/write, and to examine
the address. If the address is valid for one part of the computer, it will put a value on the data
bus that the CPU can then read.
byte - an 8 bit binary number. The most common unit for modern computers.
27.3 C
C - A programming language that followed B (which followed A). It has been widely used in software development in the 80s and 90s. It has grown up to become C++ and Java.
CAA (Computer Aided Analysis) - allows the user to input the definition of a part and calculate
the performance variables.
cable - a communication wire with electrical and mechanical shielding for harsh environments.
CAD (Computer Aided Design) - is the creation and optimization of the design itself using the
computer as a productivity tool. Components of CAD include computer graphics, a user interface, and geometric modelling.
CAD (Computer Aided Drafting) - is one component of CAD which allows the user to input engineering drawings on the computer screen and print them out to a plotter or other device.
CADD (Computer Aided Design Drafting) - the earliest forms of CAD systems were simple electronic versions of manual drafting, and thus are called CADD.
CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) - the use of computers to assist in engineering. One example
is the use of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to verify the strength of a design.
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) - a family of methods that involves computer supported
manufacturing on the factory floor.
capacitor - a device for storing energy or mass.
page 694
capacitance - referring to the ability of a device to store energy. This is used for electrical capacitors, thermal masses, gas cylinders, etc.
capacity - the ability to absorb something else.
carrier - a high/low frequency signal that is used to transmit another signal.
carry flag - an indication when a mathematical operator has gone past the limitations of the hardware/software.
cascade - a method for connecting devices to increase their range, or connecting things so that
they operate in sequence. This is also called chaining.
CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) - software tools are used by the developer/programmer to generate code, track changes, perform testing, and a number of other possible
functions.
cassette - a holder for tapes.
CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone) - recommended
X25. A member of the ITU of the United Nations.
CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) - originally developed for home entertainment,
these have turned out to be high density storage media available for all platforms at very low
prices (< $100 at the bottom end). The storage of these drives is well over 500 MB.
CE (Concurrent Engineering) - an engineering method that involves people from all stages of a
product design, from marketing to shipping.
CE - a mark placed on products to indicate that they conform to the standards set by the European
Common Union.
Celsius - a temperature scale the uses 0 as the freezing point of water and 100 as the boiling point.
centrifugal force - the force on an orbiting object the would cause it to accelerate outwards.
centripetal force - the force that must be applied to an orbiting object so that it will not fly outwards.
channel - an independent signal pathway.
character - a single byte, that when displayed is some recognizable form, such as a letter in the
alphabet, or a punctuation mark.
checksum - when many bytes of data are transmitted, a checksum can be used to check the valid-
page 695
ity of the data. It is commonly the numerical sum of all of the bytes transmitted.
chip - a loose term for an integrated circuit.
chromatography - gases or liquids can be analyzed by how far their constituent parts can migrate
through a porous material.
CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) - computers can be used at a higher level to track and
guide products as they move through the facility. CIM may or may not include CAD/CAM.
CL (Cutter Location) - an APT program is converted into a set of x-y-z locations stored in a CL
file. In turn these are sent to the NC machine via tapes, etc.
clear - a signal or operation to reset data and status values.
client-server - a networking model that describes network services, and user programs.
clipping - the automatic cutting of lines that project outside the viewing area on a computer
screen.
clock - a signal from a digital oscillator. This is used to make all of the devices in a digital system
work synchronously.
clock speed - the rate at which a computers main time clock works at. The CPU instruction speed
is usually some multiple or fraction of this number, but true program execution speeds are
loosely related at best.
closed loop - a system that measures system performance and trims the operation. This is also
known as feedback. If there is no feedback the system is called open loop.
CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor) - a low power microchip technology that
has high noise immunity.
CNC (Computer Numerical Control) - machine tools are equipped with a control computer, and
will perform a task. The most popular is milling.
coalescing - a process for filtering liquids suspended in air. The liquid condenses on glass fibers.
coaxial cable - a central wire contains a signal conductor, and an outer shield provides noise
immunity. This configuration is limited by its coaxial geometry, but it provides very high noise
immunity.
coax - see coaxial cable.
cogging - a machine steps through motions in a jerking manner. The result may be low frequency
vibration.
page 696
coil - wire wound into a coil (tightly packed helix) used to create electromagnetic attraction. Used
in relays, motors, solenoids, etc. These are also used alone as inductors.
collisions - when more than one network client tries to send a packet at any one time, they will
collide. Both of the packets will be corrupted, and as a result special algorithms and hardware
are used to abort the write, wait for a random time, and retry the transmission. Collisions are a
good measure of network overuse.
colorimetry - a method for identifying chemicals using their colors.
combustion - a burning process generating heat and light when certain chemicals are added.
command - a computer term for a function that has an immediate effect, such as listing the files in
a directory.
communication - the transfer of data between computing systems.
commutative laws - Booleans algebra laws A+B = B+A and AB=BA.
compare - a computer program element that examines one or more variables, determines equality/
inequality, and then performs some action, sometimes a branch.
compatibility - a measure of the similarity of a design to a standard. This is often expressed as a
percentage for software. Anything less than 100% is not desirable.
compiler - a tool to change a high level language such as C into assembler.
compliment - to take the logical negative. TRUE becomes false and vice versa.
component - an interchangeable part of a larger system. Components can be used to cut down
manufacturing and maintenance difficulties.
compressor - a device that will decrease the volume of a gas - and increase the pressure.
computer - a device constructed about a central instruction processor. In general the computer can
be reconfigured (software/firmware/hardware) to perform alternate tasks.
Computer Graphics - is the use of the computer to draw pictures using an input device to specify
geometry and other attributes and an output device to display a picture. It allows engineers to
communicate with the computer through geometry.
concentric - a shared center between two or more objects.
concurrent - two or more activities occur at the same time, but are not necessarily the same.
page 697
concurrent engineering - all phases of the products life are considered during design, and not later
during design review stages.
condenser - a system component that will convert steam to water. Typically used in power generators.
conduction - the transfer of energy through some medium.
configuration - a numbers of multifunction components can be connected in a variety of configurations.
connection - a network term for communication that involves first establishing a connection, second data transmission, and third closing the connection. Connectionless networking does not
require connection.
constant - a number with a value that should not vary.
constraints - are performance variables with limits. Constraints are used to specify when a design
is feasible. If constraints are not met, the design is not feasible.
contact - 1. metal pieces that when touched will allow current to pass, when separated will stop
the flow of current. 2. in PLCs contacts are two vertical lines that represent an input, or internal
memory location.
contactor - a high current relay.
continuous Noise - a noise that is ongoing, and present. This differentiates from instantaneous, or
intermittent noise sources.
continuous Spectrum - a noise has a set of components that are evenly distributed on a spectral
graph.
control relay - a relay that does not control any external devices directly. It is used like a variable
in a high level programming language.
control variable - a system parameter that we can set to change the system operation.
controls - a system that is attached to a process. Its purpose is to direct the process to some set
value.
convection - the transfer of heat energy to liquid or gas that is moving past the surface of an
object.
cook’s constant - another name for the fudge factor.
core memory - an outdated term describing memory made using small torii that could be polar-
page 698
ized magnetically to store data bits. The term lives on when describing some concepts, for
example a ‘core dump’ in UNIX. Believe it or not this has not been used for decades but still
appears in many new textbooks.
coriolis force - a force that tends to cause spinning in moving frames of reference. Consider the
direction of the water swirl down a drain pipe, it changes from the north to the south of the
earth.
correction factor - a formal version of the ‘fudge factor’. Typically a value used to multiply or add
another value to account for hard to quantify values. This is the friend of the factor of safety.
counter - a system to count events. This can be either software or hardware.
cps (characters per second) - This can be a good measure of printing or data transmission speed,
but it is not commonly used, instead the more confusing ‘baud’ is preferred.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - the main computer element that examines machine code instructions and executes results.
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) - used to check transmitted blocks of data for validity.
criteria - are performance variables used to measure the quality of a design. Criteria are usually
defined in terms of degree - for example, lowest cost or smallest volume or lowest stress. Criteria are used to optimize a design.
crosstalk - signals in one conductor induce signals in other conductors, possibly creating false signals.
CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes) - are the display device of choice today. A CRT consists of a phosphorcoated screen and one or more electron guns to draw the screen image.
crucible - 1. a vessel for holding high temperature materials 2.
CSA (Canadian Standards Association) - an association that develops standards and does some
product testing.
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) - a protocol that causes
computers to use the same communication line by waiting for turns. This is used in networks
such as Ethernet.
CSNET (Computer+Science NETwork) - a large network that was merged with BITNET.
CTS (Clear To Send) - used to prevent collisions in asynchronous serial communications.
current loop - communications that use a full electronic loop to reduce the effects of induced
noise. RS-422 uses this.
page 699
current rating - this is typically the maximum current that a designer should expect from a system,
or the maximum current that an input will draw. Although some devices will continue to work
outside rated values, not all will, and thus this limit should be observed in a robust system.
Note: exceeding these limits is unsafe, and should be done only under proper engineering conditions.
current sink - a device that allow current to flow through to ground when activated.
current source - a device that provides current from another source when activated.
cursors - are movable trackers on a computer screen which indicate the currently addressed screen
position, or the focus of user input. The cursor is usually represented by an arrow, a flashing
character or cross-hair.
customer requirements - the qualitative and quantitative minimums and maximums specified by a
customer. These drive the product design process.
cycle - one period of a periodic function.
cylinder - a piston will be driven in a cylinder for a variety of purposes. The cylinder guides the
piston, and provides a seal between the front and rear of the piston.
27.4 D
daisy chain - allows serial communication of devices to transfer data through each (and every)
device between two points.
darlington coupled - two transistors are ganged together by connecting collectors to bases to
increase the gain. These increase the input impedance, and reduce the back propagation of
noise from loads.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) - replaced ARPA. This is a branch of the
US department of defence that has participated in a large number of research projects.
data acquisition - refers to the automated collection of information collected from a process or
system.
data highway - a term for a communication bus between two separated computers, or peripherals.
This term is mainly used for PLC’s.
data link layer - an OSI model layer
data logger - a dedicated system for data acquisition.
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data register - stores data values temporarily in a CPU.
database - a software program that stores and recalls data in an organized way.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) DC (Direct Current) DCA (Defense Communications Agency) - developed DDN.
DCA (Document Content Architecture) DCD (Data Carrier Detect) - used as a handshake in asynchronous communication.
DCE (Data Communications Equipment) DCE (Distributed Computing Environment) - applications can be distributed over a number of
computers because of the use of standards interfaces, functions, and procedures.
DDCMP (Digital Data Communication Message Protocol) DDN (Defense Data Network) - a group of DoD networks, including MILNET.
dead band - a region for a device when it no longer operates.
dead time - a delay between an event occurring and the resulting action.
debounce - a switch may not make sudden and complete contact as it is closes, circuitry can be
added to remove a few on-off transitions as the switch mechanically bounces.
debug - after a program has been written it undergoes a testing stage called debugging that
involves trying to locate and eliminate logic and other errors. This is also a time when most
engineers deeply regret not spending more time on the initial design.
decibel (dB) - a logarithmic compression of values that makes them more suited to human perception (for both scaleability and reference)
decision support - the use of on-line data, and decision analysis tools are used when making decisions. One example is the selection of electronic components based on specifications, projected costs, etc.
DECnet (Digital Equipment Corporation net) - a proprietary network architecture developed by
DEC.
decrement - to decrease a numeric value.
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dedicated computer - a computer with only one task.
default - a standard condition.
demorgan’s laws - Boolean laws great for simplifying equations ~(AB) = ~A + ~B, or ~(A+B) =
~A~B.
density - a mass per unit volume.
depth first search - an artificial intelligence technique that follows a single line of reasoning first.
derivative control - a control technique that uses changes in the system of setpoint to drive the
system. This control approach gives fast response to change.
design - creation of a new part/product based on perceived needs. Design implies a few steps that
are ill defined, but generally include, rough conceptual design, detailed design, analysis, redesign, and testing.
design capture - the process of formally describing a design, either through drafted drawings,
schematic drawings, etc.
design cycle - the steps of the design. The use of the word cycle implies that it never ends,
although we must at some point decide to release a design.
design Variables - are the parameters in the design that describe the part. Design variables usually
include geometric dimensions, material type, tolerances, and engineering notes.
detector - a device to determine when a certain condition has been met.
device driver - controls a hardware device with a piece of modular software.
DFA (Design For Assembly) - a method that guides product design/redesign to ease assembly
times and difficulties.
DFT (Design for Testability) - a set of design axioms that generally calls for the reduction of test
steps, with the greatest coverage for failure modes in each test step.
DIA (Document Interchange Architecture) diagnostic - a system or set of procedures that may be followed to identify where systems may
have failed. These are most often done for mission critical systems, or industrial machines
where the user may not have the technical capability to evaluate the system.
diaphragm - used to separate two materials, while allowing pressure to be transmitted.
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differential differential amplifier - an amplifier that will subtract two or more input voltages.
diffuse field - multiple reflections result in a uniform and high sound pressure level.
digital - a system based on binary on-off values.
diode - a semiconductor device that will allow current to flow in one direction.
DIP switches - small banks of switches designed to have the same footprint as an integrated circuit.
DISOSS (DIStributed Office Support System) distributed - suggests that computer programs are split into parts or functions and run on different
computers
distributed system - a system can be split into parts. Typical components split are mechanical,
computer, sensors, software, etc.
DLE (Data Link Escape) - An RS-232 communications interface line.
DMA (Direct Memory Access) - used as a method of transferring memory in and out of a computer without slowing down the CPU.
DMD (Directory Management Domain) DNS (Domain Name System) - an internet method for name and address tracking.
documentation - (don’t buy equipment without it) - one or more documents that instruct in the
use, installation, setup, maintenance, troubleshooting, etc. for software or machinery. A poor
design supported by good documentation can often be more useful than a good design unsupported by poor documentation.
domain - the basic name for a small or large network. For example (unc.edu) is the general extension for the University on North Carolina.
doppler shift - as objects move relative to each other, a frequency generated by one will be perceived at another frequency by the other.
DOS (Disk Operating System) - the portion of an operating system that handles basic I/O operations. The most common example is Microsoft MS-DOS for IBM PCs.
dotted decimal notation - the method for addressing computers on the internet with IP numbers
such as ‘129.100.100.13’.
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double pole - a double pole switch will allow connection between two contacts. These are useful
when making motor reversers. see also single pole.
double precision - a real number is represented with 8 bytes (single precision is 4) to give more
precision for calculations.
double throw - a switch or relay that has two sets of contacts.
download - to retrieve a program from a server or higher level computer.
downtime - a system is removed from production for a given amount of downtime.
drag - a force that is the result of a motion of an object in a viscous fluid.
drop - a term describing a short connection to peripheral I/O.
drum sequencer - a drum has raised/lowered sections and as it rotates it opens/closes contacts and
will give sequential operation.
dry contact - an isolated output, often a relay switched output.
DSP (Digital Signal Processor) - a medium complexity microcontroller that has a build in floating
point unit. These are very common in devices such as modems.
DSR (Data Set Ready) - used as a data handshake in asynchronous communications.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) - a serial communication line used in RS-232
DTR (Data Terminal Ready) - used as a data handshake in asynchronous communications to indicate a listener is ready to receive data.
dump - a large block of memory is moved at once (as a sort of system snapshot).
duplex - serial communication that is in both directions between computers at the same time.
dynamic braking - a motor is used as a brake by connecting the windings to resistors. In effect the
motor becomes a generator, and the resistors dissipate the energy as heat.
dynamic variable - a variable with a value that is constantly changing.
dyne - a unit of force
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27.5 E
EAROM (Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory) EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Information Code) - a code for representing keyboard and control characters.
ECC (Error Correction Code) eccentric - two or more objects do not have a common center.
echo - a reflected sound wave.
ECMA (European Computer Manufacturer’s Associated) eddy currents - small currents that circulate in metals as currents flow in nearby conductors. Generally unwanted.
EDIF (Electronic Design Interchange Format) - a standard to allow the interchange of graphics
and data between computers so that it may be changed, and modifications tracked.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) effective sound pressure - the RMS pressure value gives the effective sound value for fluctuating
pressure values. This value is some fraction of the peak pressure value.
EIA (Electronic Industries Association) electro-optic isolator - uses optical emitter, and photo sensitive switches for electrical isolation.
electromagnetic - a broad range term reering to magnetic waves. This goes from low frequenc signals such as AM radio, up to very high frequency waves such as light and X-rays.
electrostatic - devices that used trapped charge to apply forces and caused distribution. An example is droplets of paint that have been electrically charged can be caused to disperse evenly
over a surface that is oppositely charged.
electrostatics discharge - a sudden release of static electric charge (in nongrounded systems). This
can lead to uncomfortable electrical shocks, or destruction of circuitry.
email (electronic mail) - refers to messages passed between computers on networks, that are sent
from one user to another. Almost any modern computer will support some for of email.
EMI (ElectroMagnetic Interference) - transient magnetic fields cause noise in other systems.
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emulsify - to mix two materials that would not normally mix. for example an emulsifier can cause
oil and water to mix.
enable - a digital signal that allows a device to work.
encoding - a conversion between different data forms.
energize - to apply power to a circuit or component.
energy - the result of work. This concept underlies all of engineering. Energy is shaped, directed
and focused to perform tasks.
engineering work stations - are self contained computer graphics systems with a local CPU which
can be networked to larger computers if necessary. The engineering work station is capable of
performing engineering synthesis, analysis, and optimization operations locally. Work stations
typically have more than 1 MByte of RAM, and a high resolution screen greater than 512 by
512 pixels.
EOH (End of Header) EOT (End Of Transmission) - an ASCII code to indicate the end of a communications.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) - a high quality graphics description language understood by high
end printers. Originally developed by Adobe Systems Limited. This standard is becoming very
popular.
error error signal - a control signal that is the difference between a desired and actual position.
ESD - see electrostatic discharge.
esters - a chemical that was formed by a reaction between alcohol and an acid.
ETX (End Of Text) even parity - a checksum bit used to verify data in other bits of a byte.
execution - when a computer is under the control of a program, the program is said to be executing.
expansion principle - when heat is applied a liquid will expand.
expert systems - is a branch of artificial intelligence designed to emulate human expertise with
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software. Expert systems are in use in many arenas and are beginning to be seen in CAD systems. These systems use rules derived from human experts.
27.6 F
fail safe - a design concept where system failure will bring the system to an idle or safe state.
false - a logical negative, or zero.
Faraday’s electromagnetic induction law - if a conductor moves through a magnetic field a current
will be induced. The angle between the motion and the magnetic field needs to be 90 deg for
maximum current.
Farenheit - a temperature system that has 180 degrees between the freezing and boiling point of
water.
fatal error - an error so significant that a software/hardware cannot continue to operate in a reliable manner.
fault - a small error that may be recoverable, or may result in a fatal error.
FAX (facsimile) - an image is scanned and transmitted over phone lines and reconstructed at the
other end.
FCS (Frame Check Sequence) - data check flag for communications.
FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) - a fibre optic token ring network scheme in which the
control tokens are counter rotating.
FDX (Full Duplex) - all characters that are transmitted are reflected back to the sender.
FEA (Finite Element Analysis) - is a numerical technique in which the analysis of a complex part
is subdivided into the analysis of small simple subdivisions.
feedback - a common engineering term for a system that examines the output of a system and uses
is to tune the system. Common forms are negative feedback to make systems stable, and positive feedback to make systems unstable (e.g. oscillators).
fetch - when the CPU gets a data value from memory.
fiberoptics - data can be transmitted by switching light on/off, and transmitting the signal through
an optical fiber. This is becoming the method of choice for most long distance data lines
because of the low losses and immunity to EMI.
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FIFO (First In First Out) - items are pushed on a stack. The items can then be pulled back off last
first.
file - a concept of a serial sequence of bytes that the computer can store information in, normally
on the disk. This is a ubiquitous concept, but file is also used by Allen Bradley to describe an
array of data.
filter - a device that will selectively pass matter or energy.
firmware - software stored on ROM (or equivalent).
flag - a single binary bit that indicates that an event has/has not happened.
flag - a single bit variable that is true or not. The concept is that if a flag is set, then some event
has happened, or completed, and the flag should trigger some other event.
flame - an email, or netnews item that is overtly critical of another user, or an opinion. These are
common because of the ad-hoc nature of the networks.
flange - a thick junction for joining two pipes.
floating point - uses integer math to represent real numbers.
flow chart - a schematic diagram for representing program flow. This can be used during design of
software, or afterwards to explain its operation.
flow meter - a device for measuring the flow rate of fluid.
flow rate - the volume of fluid moving through an area in a fixed unit of time.
fluorescence - incoming UV light or X-ray strike a material and cause the emission of a different
frequency light.
FM (Frequency Modulation) - transmits a signal using a carrier of constant magnitude but changing frequency. The frequency shift is proportional to the signal strength.
force - a PLC output or input value can be set on artificially to test programs or hardware. This
method is not suggested.
format - 1. a physical and/or data structure that makes data rereadable, 2. the process of putting a
structure on a disk or other media.
forward chaining - an expert system approach to examine a set of facts and reason about the probable outcome.
fragmentation - the splitting of an network data packet into smaller fragments to ease transmis-
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sion.
frame buffers - store the raster image in memory locations for each pixel. The number of colors or
shades of gray for each pixel is determined by the number of bits of information for each pixel
in the frame buffer.
free field - a sound field where none of the sound energy is reflected. Generally there aren’t any
nearby walls, or they are covered with sound absorbing materials.
frequency - the number of cycles per second for a sinusoidally oscillating vibration/sound.
friction - the force resulting from the mechanical contact between two masses.
FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) - uses two different frequencies, shifting back and forth to transmit
bits serially.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - a popular internet protocol for moving files between computers.
fudge factor - a number that is used to multiply or add to other values to make the experimental
and theoretical values agree.
full duplex - a two way serial communication channel can carry information both ways, and each
character that is sent is reflected back to the sender for verification.
fuse - a device that will destruct when excessive current flows. It is used to protect the electrical
device, humans, and other devices when abnormally high currents are drawn. Note: fuses are
essential devices and should never be bypassed, or replaced with fuses having higher current
rating.
27.7 G
galvonometer - a simple device used to measure currents. This device is similar to a simple DC
motor.
gamma rays - high energy electromagnetic waves resulting from atomic fission or fusion.
gate - 1. a circuit that performs on of the Boolean algebra function (i.e., and, or, not, etc.) 2. a connection between a runner and a part, this can be seen on most injection molded parts as a small
bump where the material entered the main mold cavity.
gateway - translates and routes packets between dissimilar networks.
Geiger-Mueller tube - a device that can detect ionizing particles (eg, atomic radiation) using a gas
filled tube.
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global optimum - the absolute best solution to a problem. When found mathematically, the maximum or minimum cost/utility has been obtained.
gpm (gallons per minute) - a flow rate.
grafcet - a method for programming PLCs that is based on Petri nets. This is now known as SFCs
and is part of the IEC 1131-3 standard.
gray code - a modified binary code used for noisy environments. It is devised to only have one bit
change at any time. Errors then become extremely obvious when counting up or down.
ground - a buried conductor that acts to pull system neutral voltage values to a safe and common
level. All electrical equipment should be connected to ground for safety purposes.
GUI (Graphical User Interface) - the user interacts with a program through a graphical display,
often using a mouse. This technology replaces the older systems that use menus to allow the
user to select actions.
27.8 H
half cell - a probe that will generate a voltage proportional to the hydrogen content in a solution.
half duplex - see HDX
handshake - electrical lines used to establish and control communications.
hard copy - a paper based printout.
hardware - a mechanical or electrical system. The ‘functionality’ is ‘frozen’ in hardware, and
often difficult to change.
HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) - an ISO standard for communications.
HDX (Half Duplex) - a two way serial connection between two computer. Unlike FDX, characters that are sent are not reflected back to the sender.
head - pressure in a liquid that is the result of gravity.
hermetic seal - an airtight seal.
hertz - a measure of frequency in cycles per second. The unit is Hz.
hex - see hexadecimal.
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hexadecimal - a base 16 number system where the digits are 0 to 9 then A to F, to give a total of 16
digits. This is commonly used when providing numbers to computers.
high - another term used to describe a Boolean true, logical positive, or one.
high level language - a language that uses very powerful commands to increase programming productivity. These days almost all applications use some form of high level language (i.e., basic,
fortran, pascal, C, C++, etc.).
horsepower - a unit for measuring power
host - a networked (fully functional) computer.
hot backup - a system on-line that can quickly replace a failed system.
hydraulic - 1. a study of water 2. systems that use fluids to transmit power.
hydrocarbon - a class of molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen. Examples are propane,
octane.
hysteresis - a sticking or lagging phenomenon that occurs in many systems. For example, in magnetic systems this is a small amount of magnetic repolarization in a reversing field, and in friction this is an effect based on coulomb friction that reverses sticking force.
Hz - see hertz
27.9 I
IAB (internet Activities Board) - the developer of internet standards.
IC (Integrated Circuit) - a microscopic circuit placed on a thin wafer of semiconductor.
IEC (International Electrical Commission) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) IEEE802 - a set of standards for LANs and MANs.
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) - a standard for moving data between various
CAD systems. In particular the format can handle basic geometric entities, such as NURBS,
but it is expected to be replaced by PDES/STEP in the near future.
page 711
impact instrument - measurements are made based by striking an object. This generally creates an
impulse function.
impedance - In electrical systems this is both reactive and real resistance combined. This also
applies to power transmission and flows in other types of systems.
impulse Noise - a short duration, high intensity noise. This type of noise is often associated with
explosions.
increment - increase a numeric value.
inductance - current flowing through a coil will store energy in a magnetic field.
inductive heating - a metal part is placed inside a coil. A high frequency AC signal is passed
through the coil and the resulting magnetic field melts the metal.
infrared - light that has a frequency below the visible spectrum.
inertia - a property where stored energy will keep something in motion unless there is energy
added or released.
inference - to make a decision using indirect logic. For example if you are wearing shoes, we can
infer that you had to put them on. Deduction is the complementary concept.
inference engine - the part of an expert system that processes rules and facts using forward or
backward chaining.
Insertion Loss - barriers, hoods, enclosures, etc. can be placed between a sound source, and listener, their presence increases reverberant sound levels and decreases direct sound energy. The
increase in the reverberant sound is the insertion loss.
instruction set - a list of all of the commands that available in a programmable system. This could
be a list of PLC programming mnemonics, or a list of all of the commands in BASIC.
instrument - a device that will read values from external sensors or probes, and might make control decision.
intake stroke - in a piston cylinder arrangement this is the cycle where gas or liquid is drawn into
the cylinder.
integral control - a control method that looks at the system error over a long period of time. These
controllers are relatively immune to noise and reduce the steady state error, but the do not
respond quickly.
integrate - to combine two components with clearly separable functions to obtain a new single
component capable of more complex functions.
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intelligence - systems will often be able to do simple reasoning or adapt. This can mimic some
aspects of human intelligence. These techiques are known as artificial intelligence.
intelligent device - a device that contains some ability to control itself. This reduces the number of
tasks that a main computer must perform. This is a form of distributed system.
interface - a connection between a computer and another electrical device, or the real world.
interlock - a device that will inhibit system operation until certain cnditions are met. These are
often required for safety on industrial equipment to protect workers.
intermittent noise - when sounds change level fluctuate significantly over a measurement time
period.
internet - an ad-hoc collection of networks that has evolved over a number of years to now include
millions of computers in every continent, and by now every country. This network will continue to be the defacto standard for personal users. (commentary: The information revolution
has begun already, and the internet has played a role previously unheard of by overcoming censorship and misinformation, such as that of Intel about the Pentium bug, a military coup in
Russia failed because they were not able to cut off the flow of information via the internet, the
Tianneman square massacre and related events were widely reported via internet, etc. The last
stage to a popular acceptance of the internet will be the World Wide Web accessed via Mosiac/
Netscape.)
internet address - the unique identifier assigned to each machine on the internet. The address is a
32 bit binary identifier commonly described with the dotted decimal notation.
interlacing - is a technique for saving memory and time in displaying a raster image. Each pass
alternately displays the odd and then the even raster lines. In order to save memory, the odd
and even lines may also contain the same information.
interlock - a flag that ensures that concurrent streams of execution do not conflict, or that they
cooperate.
interpreter - programs that are not converted to machine language, but slowly examined one
instruction at a time as they are executed.
interrupt - a computer mechanism for temporarily stopping a program, and running another.
inverter - a logic gate that will reverse logic levels from TRUE to/from FALSE.
I/O (Input/Output) - a term describing anything that goes into or out of a computer.
IOR (Inclusive OR) - a normal OR that will be true when any of the inputs are true in any combinations. also see Exclusive OR (EOR).
page 713
ion - an atom, molecule or subatomic particle that has a positive or negative charge.
IP (internet Protocol) - the network layer (OSI model) definitions that allow internet use.
IP datagram - a standard unit of information on the internet.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - a combined protocol to carry voice, data and video
over 56KB lines.
ISO (International Standards Organization) isolation - electrically isolated systems have no direct connection between two halves of the isolating device. Sound isolation uses barriers to physically separate rooms.
isolation transformer - a transformer for isolating AC systems to reduce electrical noise.
27.10 J
JEC (Japanese Electrotechnical Committee) JIC (Joint International Congress) - drafted relay logic standards.
JIT (Just in Time) - a philosophy when setting up and operating a manufacturing system such that
materials required arrive at the worksite just in time to be used. This cuts work in process, storage space, and a number of other logistical problems, but requires very dependable supplies
and methods.
jog - a mode where a motor will be advanced while a button is held, but not latched on. It is often
used for clearing jams, and loading new material.
jump - a forced branch in a program
jumper - a short wire, or connector to make a permanent setting of hardware parameters.
27.11 K
k, K - specifies magnitudes. 1K = 1024, 1k = 1000 for computers, otherwise 1K = 1k = 1000.
Note - this is not universal, so double check the meanings when presented.
Kelvin - temperature units that place 0 degrees at absolute zero. The magnitude of one degree is
page 714
the same as the Celsius scale.
KiloBaud, KBaud, KB, Baud - a transmission rate for serial communications (e.g. RS-232C, TTY,
RS-422). A baud = 1bit/second, 1 Kilobaud = 1KBaud = 1KB = 1000 bits/second. In serial
communication each byte typically requires 11 bits, so the transmission rate is about 1Kbaud/
11 = 91 Bytes per second when using a 1KB transmission.
Karnaugh maps - a method of graphically simplifying logic.
kermit - a popular tool for transmitting binary and text files over text oriented connections, such
as modems or telnet sessions.
keying - small tabs, prongs, or fillers are used to stop connectors from mating when they are
improperly oriented.
kinematics/kinetics - is the measure of motion and forces of an object. This analysis is used to
measure the performance of objects under load and/or in motion.
27.12 L
label - a name associated with some point in a program to be used by branch instructions.
ladder diagram - a form of circuit diagram normally used for electrical control systems.
ladder logic - a programming language for PLCs that has been developed to look like relay diagrams from the preceding technology of relay based controls.
laminar flow - all of the particles of a fluid or gas are travelling in parallel. The complement to
this is turbulent flow.
laptop - a small computer that can be used on your lap. It contains a monitor ad keyboard.
LAN (Local Area Network) - a network that is typically less than 1km in distance. Transmission
rates tend to be high, and costs tend to be low.
latch - an element that can have a certain input or output lock in. In PLCs these can hold an output
on after an initial pulse, such as a stop button.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) - a fluid between two sheets of light can be polarized to block light.
These are commonly used in low power displays, but they require backlighting.
leakage current - a small amount of current that will be present when a device is off.
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LED (Light Emitting Diode) - a semiconductor light that is based on a diode.
LIFO (Last In First Out) - similar to FIFO, but the last item pushed onto the stack is the first
pulled off.
limit switch - a mechanical switch actuated by motion in a process.
line printer - an old printer style that prints single lines of text. Most people will be familiar with
dot matrix style of line printers.
linear - describes a mathematical characteristic of a system where the differential equations are
simple linear equations with coefficients.
little-endian - transmission or storage of data when the least significant byte/bit comes first.
load - In electrical system a load is an output that draws current and consumes power. In mechanical systems it is a mass, or a device that consumes power, such as a turbine.
load cell - a device for measuring large forces.
logic - 1. the ability to make decisions based on given values. 2. digital circuitry.
loop - part of a program that is executed repeatedly, or a cable that connects back to itself.
low - a logic negative, or zero.
LRC (Longitudinal Redundancy Check) LRC (Linear Redundancy Check) - a block check character
LSB (Least Significant Bit) LSD (Least Significant Digit) LSI (Large Scale Integration) - an integrated circuit that contains thousands of elements.
LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) - a device that can detect linear displacement of
a central sliding core in the transformer.
27.13 M
machine language - CPU instructions in numerical form.
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macro - a set of commands grouped for convenience.
magnetic field - a field near flowing electrons that will induce other electrons nearby to flow in
the opposite direction.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) - a network designed for municipal scale connections.
manifold - 1. a connectors that splits the flow of fluid or gas. These are used commonly in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. 2. a description for a geometry that does not have any infinitely
small points or lines of contact or separation. Most solid modelers deal only with manifold
geometry.
MAP (Manufacturers Automation Protocol) mask - one binary word (or byte, etc) is used to block out, or add in digits to another binary number.
mass flow rate - instead of measuring flow in terms of volume per unit of time we use mass per
unit time.
mass spectrometer - an instrument that identifies materials and relative proportions at the atomic
level. This is done by observing their deflection as passed through a magnetic field.
master/slave - a control scheme where one computer will control one or more slaves. This scheme
is used in interfaces such as GPIB, but is increasingly being replaced with peer-to-peer and client/server networks.
mathematical models - of an object or system predict the performance variable values based upon
certain input conditions. Mathematical models are used during analysis and optimization procedures.
matrix - an array of numbers
MB MByte, KB, KByte - a unit of memory commonly used for computers. 1 KiloByte = 1 KByte
= 1 KB = 1024 bytes. 1 MegaByte = 1 MByte = 1MB = 1024*1024 bytes.
MCR (Master Control Reset) - a relay that will shut down all power to a system.
memory - binary numbers are often stored in memory for fast recall by computers. Inexpensive
memory can be purchased in a wide variety of configurations, and is often directly connected
to the CPU.
memory - memory stores binary (0,1) patterns that a computer can read or write as program or
data. Various types of memories can only be read, some memories lose their contents when
power is off.
RAM (Random Access Memory) - can be written to and read from quickly. It requires
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power to preserve the contents, and is often coupled with a battery or capacitor
when long term storage is required. Storage available is over 1MByte
ROM (Read Only Memory) - Programs and data are permanently written on this low cost
ship. Storage available is over 1 MByte.
• EPROM (ELECTRICALLY Programmable Read Only Memory) - A program can be
written to this memory using a special programmer, and erased with ultraviolet
light. Storage available over 1MByte. After a program is written, it does not
require power for storage. These chips have small windows for ultraviolet light.
-EEPROM/E2PROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) These chips can be erased and programmed while in use with a computer, and
store memory that is not sensitive to power. These can be slower, more expensive
and with lower capacity (measured in Kbytes) than other memories. But, their permanent storage allows system configurations/data to be stored indefinitely after a
computer is turned off.
memory map - a listing of the addresses of different locations in a computer memory. Very useful
when programming.
menu - a multiple choice method of selecting program options.
message - a short sequence of data passed between processes.
microbar - a pressure unit (1 dyne per sq. cm)
microphone - an audio transducer (sensor) used for sound measurements.
microprocessor - the central control chip in a computer. This chip will execute program instructions to direct the computer.
MILNET (MILitary NETwork) - began as part of ARPANET.
MMI (Man Machine Interface) - a user interface terminal.
mnemonic - a few characters that describe an operation. These allow a user to write programs in
an intuitive manner, and have them easily converted to CPU instructions.
MODEM (MOdulator/DEModulator) - a device for bidirectional serial communications over
phone lines, etc.
module - a part o a larger system that can be interchanged with others.
monitor - an operation mode where the compuer can be watched in detail from step to step. This
can also refer to a computer screen.
MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) -
page 718
motion detect flow meter - a fluid flow induces measurement.
MRP (Material Requirements Planning) - a method for matching material required by jobs, to the
equipment available in the factory.
MSD (Most Significant Digit) - the larget valued digit in a number (eg. 6 is the MSD in 63422).
This is often used for binary numbers.
MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) - the average time (hours usually) between the last repair of
a product, and the next expected failure.
MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) multicast - a broadcast to some, but not necessarily all, hosts on a network.
multiplexing - a way to efficiently use transmission media by having many signals run through
one conductor, or one signal split to run through multiple conductors and rejoined at the receiving end.
multiprocessor - a computer or system that uses more than one computer. Normally this term
means a single computer with more than one CPU. This scheme can be used to increase processing speed, or increase reliability.
multivibrator - a digital oscillator producing square or rectangular waveforms.
27.14 N
NAK (Negative AKnowledgement) - an ASCII control code.
NAMUR - A european standards organization.
NAND (Not AND) - a Boolean AND operation with the result inverted.
narrowband - uses a small data transmission rate to reduce spectral requirements.
NBS (National Bureau of Standards) NC - see normally opened/closed
NC (Numerical Control) - a method for controlling machine tools, such as mills, using simple
programs.
negative logic - a 0 is a high voltage, and 1 is a low voltage. In Boolean terms it is a duality.
page 719
NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) - this group publishes numerous standards for electrical equipment.
nephelometry - a technique for determining the amount of solids suspended in water using light.
nesting - a term that describes loops (such as FOR-NEXT loops) within loops in programs.
network - a connection of typically more than two computers so that data, email, messages,
resources and files may be shared. The term network implies, software, hardware, wires, etc.
NFS (Network File System) - a protocol developed by Sun Microsystems to allow dissimilar
computers to share files. The effect is that the various mounted remote disk drives act as a single local disk.
NIC (Network Interace Card) - a computer card that allows a computer to communicate on a network, such as ethernet.
NIH (Not Invented Here) - a short-lived and expensive corporate philosophy in which employees
believe that if idea or technology was not developed in-house, it is somehow inferior.
NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) - formerly NBS.
NO - see normally opened
node - one computer connected to a network.
noise - 1. electrical noise is generated mainly by magnetic fields (also electric fields) that induce
currents and voltages in other conductors, thereby decreasing the signals present. 2. a sound of
high intensity that can be perceived by the human ear.
non-fatal error - a minor error that might indicate a problem, but it does not seriously interfere
with the program execution.
nonpositive displacement pump - a pump that does not displace a fixed volume of fluid or gas.
nonretentive - when power is lost values will be set back to 0.
NOR (Not OR) - a Boolean function OR that has the results negated.
normally opened/closed - refers to switch types. when in their normal states (not actuated) the
normally open (NO) switch will not conduct current. When not actuated the normally closed
(NC) switch will conduct current.
NOT - a Boolean function that inverts values. A 1 will become a 0, and a 0 will become a 1.
NOVRAM (NOn Volatile Random Access Memory) - memory that does not lose its contents
page 720
when turned off.
NPN - a bipolar junction transistor type. When referring to switching, these can be used to sink
current to ground.
NPSM - American national standard straight pipe thread for mechanical parts.
NPT - American national standard taper pipe thread.
NSF (National Science Foundation) - a large funder of science projects in USA.
NSFNET (National Science Foundation NETwork) - funded a large network(s) in USA, including
a high speed backbone, and connection to a number of super computers.
NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) - a Red-Green-Blue based transmission standard for video, and audio signals. Very popular in North America, Competes with other standards internationally, such as PAL.
null modem - a cable that connects two RS-232C devices.
27.15 O
OCR (Optical Character Recognition) - Images of text are scanned in, and the computer will try to
interpret it, much as a human who is reading a page would. These systems are not perfect, and
often rely on spell checkers, and other tricks to achieve reliabilities up to 99%
octal - a base 8 numbering system that uses the digits 0 to 7.
Octave - a doubling of frequency
odd parity - a bit is set during communication to indicate when the data should have an odd number of bits.
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) off-line - two devices are connected, but not communicating.
offset - a value is shifted away or towards some target value.
one-shot - a switch that will turn on for one cycle.
on-line - two devices are put into communications, and will stay in constant contact to pass information as required.
page 721
opcode (operation code) - a single computer instruction. Typically followed by one or more operands.
open collector - this refers to using transistors for current sourcing or sicking.
open loop - a system that does monitor the result. open loop control systems are common when
the process is well behaved.
open-system - a computer architecture designed to encourage interconnection between various
vendors hardware and software.
operand - an operation has an argument (operand) with the mnemonic command.
operating system - software that existing on a computer to allow a user to load/execute/develop
their own programs, to interact with peripherals, etc. Good examples of this is UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2.
optimization - occurs after synthesis and after a satisfactory design is created. The design is optimized by iteratively proposing a design and using calculated design criteria to propose a better
design.
optoisolators - devices that use a light emitter to control a photoswitch. The effect is that inputs
and outputs are electrically separate, but connected. These are of particular interest when an
interface between very noisy environments are required.
OR - the Boolean OR function.
orifice - a small hole. Typically this is places in a fluid/gas flow to create a pressure difference and
slow the flow. It will increase the flow resistance in the system.
oscillator - a device that produces a sinusoidal output.
oscilloscope - a device that can read and display voltages as a function for time.
OSF (Open Software Foundation) - a consortium of large corporations (IBM, DEC, HP) that are
promoting DCE. They have put forth a number of popular standards, such as the Motif Widget
set for X-Windows programming.
OSHA (Occupational safety and Health Act) - these direct what is safe in industrial and commercial operations.
OSI (Open System Interconnect) - an international standards program to promote computer connectivity, regardless of computer type, or manufacturer.
overshoot - the inertia of a controlled system will cause it to pass a target value and then return.
page 722
overflow - the result of a mathematical operation passes by the numerical limitations of the hardware logic, or algorithm.
27.16 P
parallel communication - bits are passed in parallel conductors, thus increasing the transmission
rates dramatically.
parallel design process - evaluates all aspects of the design simultaneously in each iteration. The
design itself is sent to all analysis modules including manufacturability, inspectibility, and
engineering analysis modules; redesign decisions are based on all results at once.
parallel programs parity - a parity bit is often added to bytes for error detection purposes. The two typical parity
methods are even and odd. Even parity bits are set when an even number of bits are present in
the transmitted data (often 1 byte = 8 bits).
particle velocity - the instantaneous velocity of a single molecule.
Pascal - a basic unit of pressure
Pascal’s law - any force applied to a fluid will be transmitted through the fluid and act on all
enclosing surfaces.
PC (Programmable Controller) - also called PLC.
PCB (Printed Circuit Board) - alternate layers of insulating materials, with wire layout patterns
are built up (sometimes with several layers). Holes thought the layers are used to connect the
conductors to each other, and components inserted into the boards and soldered in place.
PDES (Product Data Exchange using Step) - a new product design method that has attempted to
include all needed information for all stages of a products life, including full solids modeling,
tolerances, etc.
peak level - the maximum pressure level for a cyclic variation
peak-to-peak - the distance between the top and bottom of a sinusoidal variation.
peer-to-peer - a communications form where connected devices to both read and write messages
at any time. This is opposed to a master slave arrangement.
performance variables - are parameters which define the operation of the part. Performance variables are used by the designer to measure whether the part will perform satisfactorily.
page 723
period - the time for a repeating pattern to go from beginning to end.
peripheral - devices added to computers for additional I/O.
permanent magnet - a magnet that retains a magnetic field when the original magnetizing force is
removed.
petri-net - an enhanced state space diagram that allows concurrent execution flows.
pH - a scale for determining is a solution is an acid or a base. 0-7 is acid, 7-4 is a base.
photocell - a device that will convert photons to electrical energy.
photoconductive cell - a device that has a resistance that will change as the number of incident
photons changes.
photoelectric cell - a device that will convert photons to electrical energy.
photon - a single unit of light. Light is electromagnetic energy emitted as an electron orbit decays.
physical layer - an OSI network model layer.
PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) - a linear feedback control scheme that has gained popularity because of it’s relative simplicity.
piezoelectric - a material (crystals/ceramics) that will generate a charge when a force is applied. A
common transducer material.
ping - an internet utility that makes a simple connection to a remote machine to see if it is reachable, and if it is operating.
pink noise - noise that has the same amount of energy for each octave.
piston - it will move inside a cylinder to convert a pressure to a mechanical motion or vice versa.
pitch - a perceptual term for describing frequency. Low pitch means low frequency, high pitch
means a higher frequency.
pitot tube - a tube that is placed in a flow stream to measure flow pressure.
pixels - are picture elements in a digitally generated and displayed picture. A pixel is the smallest
addressable dot on the display device.
PLA (Programmable Logic Array) - an integrated circuit that can be programmed to perform different logic functions.
page 724
plane sound wave - the sound wave lies on a plane, not on a sphere.
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) - A rugged computer designs for control on the factory
floor.
pneumatics - a technique for control and actuation that uses air or gases.
PNP - a bipolar junction transistor type. When referring to switching, these can be used to source
current from a voltage source.
poise - a unit of dynamic viscosity.
polling - various inputs are checked in sequence for waiting inputs.
port - 1. an undedicated connector that peripherals may be connected to. 2. a definable connection
number for a machine, or a predefined value.
positive displacement pump - a pump that displaces a fixed volume of fluid.
positive logic - the normal method for logic implementation where 1 is a high voltage, and 0 is a
low voltage.
potentiometer - displacement or rotation is measured by a change in resistance.
potting - a process where an area is filled with a material to seal it. An example is a sensor that is
filled with epoxy to protect it from humidity.
power level - the power of a sound, relative to a reference level
power rating - this is generally the maximum power that a device can supply, or that it will
require. Never exceed these values, as they may result in damaged equipment, fires, etc.
power supply - a device that converts power to a usable form. A typical type uses 115Vac and outputs a DC voltage to be used by circuitry.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) - allows router to router or host to network connections over other
synchronous and asynchronous connections. For example a modem connection can be used to
connect to the internet using PPP.
presentation layer - an OSI network model layer.
pressure - a force that is distributed over some area. This can be applied to solids and gases.
pressure based flow meter - uses difference in fluid pressures to measure speeds.
page 725
pressure switch - activated above/below a preset pressure level.
prioritized control - control operations are chosen on the basic of priorities.
procedural language - a computer language where instructions happen one after the other in a
clear sequence.
process - a purposeful set of steps for some purpose. In engineering a process is often a machine,
but not necessarily.
processor - a loose term for the CPU.
program - a sequential set of computer instructions designed to perform some task.
programmable controller - another name for a PLC, it can also refer to a dedicated controller that
uses a custom programming language.
PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) protocol - conventions for communication to ensure compatibility between separated computers.
proximity sensor - a sensor that will detect the presence of a mass nearby without contact. These
use a variety of physical techniques including capacitance and inductance.
pull-up resistor - this is used to normally pull a voltage on a line to a positive value. A switch/circuit can be used to pull it low. This is commonly needed in CMOS devices.
pulse - a brief change in a digital signal.
purge bubbling - a test to determine the pressure needed to force a gas into a liquid.
PVC - poly vinyl chloride - a tough plastic commonly used in electrical and other applications.
pyrometer - a device for measuring temperature
27.17 Q
QA (Quality Assurance) - a formal system that has been developed to improve the quality of a
product.
QFD (Quality Functional Deployment) - a matrix based method that focuses the designers on the
significant design problems.
quality - a measure of how well a product meets its specifications. Keep in mind that a product
page 726
that exceeds its specifications may not be higher quality.
quality circles - a team from all levels of a company that meets to discuss quality improvement.
Each members is expected to bring their own perspective to the meeting.
27.18 R
rack - a housing for holding electronics modules/cards.
rack fault - cards in racks often have error indicator lights that turn on when a fault has occurred.
This allows fast replacement.
radar () - radio waves are transmitted and reflected. The time between emission and detection
determines the distance to an object.
radiation - the transfer of energy or small particles (e.g., neutrons) directly through space.
radiation pyrometry - a technique for measuring temperature by detecting radiated heat.
radix - the base value of a numbering system. For example the radix of binary is 2.
RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) - a method for robust disk storage that would
allow removal of any disk drive without the interruption of service, or loss of data.
RAM (Random Access Memory) random noise - there are no periodic waveforms, frequency and magnitude vary randomly.
random-scan devices - draw an image by refreshing one line or vector at a time; hence they are
also called vector-scan or calligraphic devices. The image is subjected to flicker if there are
more lines in the scene that can be refreshed at the refresh rate.
Rankine - A temperature system that uses absolute 0 as the base, and the scale is the same as the
Fahrenheit scale.
raster devices - process pictures in parallel line scans. The picture is created by determining parts
of the scene on each scan line and painting the picture in scan-line order, usually from top to
bottom. Raster devices are not subject to flicker because they always scan the complete display
on each refresh, independent of the number of lines in the scene.
rated - this will be used with other terms to indicate suggested target/maximum/minimum values
for successful and safe operation.
RBOC (Regional Bell Operating Company) -
page 727
Read/Write (R/W) - a digital device that can store and retrieve data, such as RAM.
reagent - an chemical used in one or more chemical reactions. these are often used for identifying
other chemicals.
real-time - suggests a system must be able to respond to events that are occurring outside the computer in a reasonable amount of time.
reciprocating - an oscillating linear motion.
redundancy - 1. added data for checking accuracy. 2. extra system components or mechanisms
added to decrease the chance of total system failure.
refreshing - is required of a computer screen to maintain the screen image. Phosphors, which glow
to show the image, decay at a fast rate, requiring the screen to be redrawn or refreshed several
times a second to prevent the image from fading.
regenerative braking - the motor windings are reverse, and in effect return power to the power
source. This is highly efficient when done properly.
register - a high speed storage area that can typically store a binary word for fast calculation. Registers are often part of the CPU.
regulator - a device to maintain power output conditions (such as voltage) regardless of the load.
relay - an electrical switch that comes in may different forms. The switch is activated by a magnetic coil that causes the switch to open or close.
relay - a magnetic coil driven switch. The input goes to a coil. When power is applied, the coil
generates a magnetic field, and pulls a metal contact, overcoming a spring, and making contact
with a terminal. The contact and terminal are separately wired to provide an output that is isolated from the input.
reliability - the probability of failure of a device.
relief valve - designed to open when a pressure is exceeded. In a hydraulic system this will dump
fluid back in the reservoir and keep the system pressure constant.
repeatability - the ability of a system to return to the same value time after time. This can be measured with a standard deviation.
repeater - added into networks to boost signals, or reduce noise problems. In effect one can be
added to the end of one wire, and by repeating the signals into another network, the second network wire has a full strength signal.
page 728
reset - a signal to computers that restarts the processor.
resistance - this is a measurable resistance to energy or mass transfer.
resistance heating - heat is generated by passing a current through a resistive material.
resolution - the smallest division or feature size in a system.
resonant frequency - the frequency at which the material will have the greatest response to an
applied vibration or signal. This will often be the most likely frequency of self destruction.
response time - the time required for a system to respond to a directed change.
return - at the end of a subroutine, or interrupt, the program execution will return to where it
branched.
reverberation - when a sound wave hits a surface, part is reflected, and part is absorbed. The
reflected part will add to the general (reverberant) sound levels in the room.
Reynolds number - a dimensionless flow value based on fluid density and viscosity, flow rate and
pipe diameter.
RF (Radio Frequency) RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) RFS (Remote File System) - allows shared file systems (similar to NFS), and has been developed
for System V UNIX.
RGB (Red Green Blue) - three additive colors that can be used to simulate the other colors of the
spectrum. This is the most popular scheme for specifying colors on computers. The alternate is
to use Cyan-Magenta-Yellow for the subtractive color scheme.
ripple voltage - when an AC voltage is converted to DC it is passed through diodes that rectify it,
and then through capacitors that smooth it out. A small ripple still remains.
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) - the more standard computer chips were CISC (Complete Instruction Set Computers) but these had architecture problems that limited speed. To
overcome this the total number of instructions were reduced, allowing RISC computers to execute faster, but at the cost of larger programs.
rlogin - allows a text based connection to a remote computer system in UNIX.
robustness - the ability of a system to deal with and recover from unexpected input conditions.
ROM (Read Only Memory) -
page 729
rotameter - for measuring flow rate with a plug inside a tapered tube.
router - as network packets travel through a network, a router will direct them towards their destinations using algorithms.
RPC (Remote Procedure Call) - a connection to a specific port on a remote computer will request
that a specific program be run. Typical examples are ping, mail, etc.
RS-232C - a serial communication standard for low speed voltage based signals, this is very common on most computers. But, it has a low noise immunity that suggests other standards in
harsh environments.
RS-422 - a current loop based serial communication protocol that tends to perform well in noisy
environments.
RS-485 - uses two current loops for serial communications.
RTC (Real-Time Clock) RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) - as temperature is changed the resistance of many materials will also change. We can measure the resistance to determine the temperature.
RTS (Request To Send) rung - one level of logic in a ladder logic program or ladder diagram.
R/W (Read/Write) -
27.19 S
safety margin - a factor of safety between calculated maximums and rated maximums.
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) - computer remote monitoring and control
of processes.
scan-time - the time required for a PLC to perform one pass of the ladder logic.
schematic - an abstract drawing showing components in a design as simple figures. The figures
drawn are often the essential functional elements that must be considered in engineering calculations.
scintillation - when some materials are high by high energy particles visible light or electromagnetic radiation is produced
page 730
SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - a semiconductor that can switch AC loads.
SDLC (Synchronous Data-Link Control) - IBM oriented data flow protocol with error checking.
self-diagnosis - a self check sequence performed by many operation critical devices.
sensitivity - the ability of a system to detect a change.
sensor - a device that is externally connected to survey electrical or mechanical phenomena, and
convert them to electrical or digital values for control or monitoring of systems.
serial communication - elements are sent one after another. This method reduces cabling costs,
but typically also reduces speed, etc.
serial design - is the traditional design method. The steps in the design are performed in serial
sequence. For example, first the geometry is specified, then the analysis is performed, and
finally the manufacturability is evaluated.
servo - a device that will take a desired operation input and amplify the power.
session layer - an OSI network model layer.
setpoint - a desired value for a controlled system.
shield - a grounded conducting barrier that steps the propagation of electromagnetic waves.
Siemens - a measure of electrical conductivity.
signal conditioning - to prepare an input signal for use in a device through filtering, amplification,
integration, differentiation, etc.
simplex - single direction communication at any one time.
simulation - a model of the product/process/etc is used to estimate the performance. This step
comes before the more costly implementation steps that must follow.
single-discipline team - a team assembled for a single purpose.
single pole - a switch or relay that can only be opened or closed. See also single pole.
single throw - a switch that will only switch one line. This is the simplest configuration.
sinking - using a device that when active will allow current to flow through it to ground. This is
complimented by sourcing.
page 731
SLIP (Serial Line internet Protocol) - a method to run the internet Protocol (IP) over serial lines,
such as modem connections.
slip-ring - a connector that allows indefinite rotations, but maintains electrical contacts for passing
power and electrical signals.
slurry - a liquid with suspended particles.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - the basic connection protocol for passing mail on the
internet.
snubber - a circuit that suppresses a sudden spike in voltage or current so that it will not damage
other devices.
software - a program, often stored on non-permanent media.
solenoid - an actuator that uses a magnetic coil, and a lump of ferrous material. When the coil is
energized a linear motion will occur.
solid state - circuitry constructed entirely of semiconductors, and passive devices. (i.e., no gas as
in tubes)
sonar - sound waves are emitted and travel through gas/liquid. they are reflected by solid objects,
and then detects back at the source. The travel time determines the distance to the object.
sound - vibrations in the air travel as waves. As these waves strike the human ear, or other surfaces, the compression, and rarefaction of the air induces vibrations. In humans these vibrations induce perceived sound, in mechanical devices they manifest as distributed forces.
sound absorption - as sound energy travels through, or reflects off a surface it must induce motion
of the propagating medium. This induced motion will result in losses, largely heat, that will
reduce the amplitude of the sound.
sound analyzer - measurements can be made by setting the instrument for a certain bandwidth,
and centre frequency. The measurement then encompasses the values over that range.
sound level - a legally useful measure of sound, weighted for the human ear. Use dBA, dBB, dBC
values.
sound level meter - an instrument for measuring sound exposure values.
source - an element in a system that supplies energy.
sourcing - an output that when active will allow current to flow from a voltage source out to a
device. It is complimented by sinking.
page 732
specific gravity - the ratio between the density of a liquid/solid and water or a gas and air.
spectrometer - determines the index of refraction of materials.
spectrophotometer - measures the intensities of light at different points in the spectrum.
spectrum - any periodic (and random) signal can be described as a collection of frequencies using
a spectrum. The spectrum uses signal power, or intensity, plotted against frequency.
spherical wave - a wave travels outward as if on the surface of an expanding sphere, starting from
a point source.
SQL (Structured Query Language) - a standard language for interrogating relational databases.
standing wave - if a wave travels from a source, and is reflected back such that it arrives back at
the source in phase, it can undergo superposition, and effectively amplify the sound from the
source.
static head - the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom of a water tank.
steady state - describes a system response after a long period of time. In other words the transient
effects have had time to dissipate.
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data) - a standard that will allow transfer of
solid model data (as well as others) between dissimilar CAD systems.
step response - a typical test of system behavior that uses a sudden step input change with a measured response.
stoichiometry - the general field that deals with balancing chemical equations.
strain gauge - a wire mounted on a surface that will be stretched as the surface is strained. As the
wire is stretched, the cross section is reduced, and the proportional change in resistance can be
measured to estimate strain.
strut - a two force structural member.
subroutine - a reusable segment of a program that is called repeatedly.
substrate - the base piece of a semiconductor that the layers are added to.
switching - refers to devices that are purely on or off. Clearly this calls for discrete state devices.
synchronous - two or more events happen at predictable times.
synchronous motor - an AC motor. These motors tend to keep a near constant speed regardless of
page 733
load.
syntax error - an error that is fundamentally wrong in a language.
synthesis - is the specification of values for the design variables. The engineer synthesizes a
design and then evaluates its performance using analysis.
system - a complex collection of components that performs a set of functions.
27.20 T
T1 - a 1.54 Mbps network data link.
T3 - a 45 Mbps network data link. This can be done with parallel T1 lines and packet switching.
tap - a connection to a power line.
tare - the ratio between unloaded and loaded weights.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - a transport layer protocol that ensures reliable data communication when using IP communications. The protocol is connection oriented, with full
duplex streams.
tee - a tap into a larger line that does not add any special compensation, or conditioning. These
connectors ofen have a T-shape.
telnet - a standard method for logging into remote computers and having access if connect by a
dumb terminal.
temperature - the heat stored in an object. The relationship between temperature and energy content is specific to a material and is called the specific heat.
temperature dependence - as temperature varies, so do physical properties of materials. This
makes many devices sensitive to temperatures.
thermal conductivity - the ability of a material to transfer heat energy.
thermal gradient - the change in temperature as we move through a material.
thermal lag - a delay between the time heat energy is applied and the time it arrives at the load.
thermistor - a resistance based temperature measurement device.
page 734
thermocouple - a device using joined metals that will generate a junction potential at different
temperatures, used for temperature measurement.
thermopiles - a series of thermocouples in series.
thermoresistors - a category including RTDs and thermistors.
throughput - the speed that actual data is transmitted/processed, etc.
through beam - a beam is projected over an opening. If the beam is broken the sensor is activated.
thumbwheel - a mechanical switch with multiple positions that allow digits to be entered directly.
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) - an image format best suited to scanned pictures, such as Fax
transmissions.
time-division multiplex - a circuit is switched between different devices for communication.
time-proportional control - the amount of power delivered to an AC device is varied by changing
the number of cycles delivered in a fixed period of time.
timer - a device that can be set to have events happen at predetermined times.
titration - a procedure for determining the strength of a solution using a reagent for detection. A
chemical is added at a slow rate until the reagent detects a change.
toggle switch - a switch with a large lever used for easy reviews of switch settings, and easy
grasping.
token - an indicator of control. Often when a process receives a token it can operate, when it is
done it gives it up.
TOP (Technical Office Protocol) top-down design - a design is done by first laying out the most abstract functions, and then filling
in more of the details as they are required.
topology - 1. The layout of a network. 2. a mathematical topic describing the connection of geometric entities. This is used for B-Rep models.
torque - a moment or twisting action about an axis.
torus - a donut shape
toroidal core - a torus shaped magnetic core to increase magnetic conductivity.
page 735
TPDDI (Twisted Pair Distributed Data Interface) - counter rotating token ring network connected
with twisted pair medium.
TQC (Total Quality Control) transceiver (transmitter receiver) - a device to electrically interface between the computer network
card, and the physical network medium. Packet collision hardware is present in these devices.
transducer - a device that will convert energy from one form to another at proportional levels.
transformations - include translation, rotation, and scaling of objects mathematically using matrix
algebra. Transformations are used to move objects around in a scene.
transformer - two separate coils wound about a common magnetic coil. Used for changing voltage, current and resistance levels.
transient - a system response that occurs because of a change. These effects dissipate quickly and
we are left with a steady state response.
transmission path - a system component that is used for transmitting energy.
transport layer - an OSI network model layer.
TRIAC (TRIode Alternating Current) - a semiconductor switch suited to AC power.
true - a logic positive, high, or 1.
truth table - an exhaustive list of all possible logical input states, and the logical results.
TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) - a high speed for of transistor logic.
TTY - a teletype terminal.
turbine - a device that generates a rotational motion using gas or fluid pressure on fan blades or
vanes.
turbulent flow - fluids moving past an object, or changing direction will start to flow unevenly.
This will occur when the Reynold’s number exceeds 4000.
twisted pair - a sheme where wires are twisted to reduce the effects of EMI so that they may be
used at higher frequencies. This is cassualy used to refer to 10b2 ethernet.
TXD (Transmitted Data) -
page 736
27.21 U
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - a connectionless method for transmitting packets to other hosts
on the network. It is seen as a counterpart to TCP.
ultrasonic - sound or vibration at a frequency above that of the ear (> 16KHz typ.)
ultraviolet - light with a frequency above the visible spectrum.
UNIX - a very powerful operating system used on most high end and mid-range computers. The
predecessor was Multics. This operating system was developed atAT & T, and grew up in the
academic environment. As a result a wealth of public domain software has been developed,
and the operating system is very well debugged.
UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) user friendly - a design scheme that similifies interaction so that no knowledge is needed to
operae a device and errors are easy to recover from. It is also a marketing term that is badly
misused.
user interfaces - are the means of communicating with the computer. For CAD applications, a
graphical interface is usually preferred. User friendliness is a measure of the ease of use of a
program and implies a good user interface.
UUCP (Unix to Unix Copy Program) - a common communication method between UNIX systems.
27.22 V
Vac - a voltage that is AC.
vacuum - a pressure that is below another pressure.
vane - a blade that can be extended to provide a good mechanical contact and/or seal.
variable - a changeable location in memory.
varistor - voltage applied changes resistance.
valve - a system component for opening and closing mass/energy flow paths. An example is a
water faucet or transistor.
page 737
vapor - a gas.
variable - it is typically a value that will change or can be changed. see also constant.
VDT (Video Display Terminal) - also known as a dumb terminal
velocity - a rate of change or speed.
Venturi - an effect that uses an orifice in a flow to generate a differential pressure. These devices
can generate small vacuums.
viscosity - when moved a fluid will have some resistance proportional to internal friction. This
determines how fast a liquid will flow.
viscosity index - when heated fluid viscosity will decrease, this number is the relative rate of
change with respect to temperature.
VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) volt - a unit of electrical potential.
voltage rating - the range or a maximum/minimum limit that is required to prevent damage, and
ensure normal operation. Some devices will work outside these ranges, but not all will, so the
limits should be observed for good designs.
volume - the size of a region of space or quantity of fluid.
volatile memory - most memory will lose its contents when power is removed, making it volatile.
vortex - a swirling pattern in fluid flow.
vortex shedding - a solid object in a flow stream might cause vortices. These vortices will travel
with the flow and appear to be shed.
VRV (Vertical Redundancy Check) -
27.23 W
watchdog timer - a timer that expects to receive a pulse every fraction of a second. If a pulse is not
received, it assumes the system is not operating normally, and a shutdown procedure is activated.
watt - a unit of power that is commonly used for electrical systems, but applies to all.
page 738
wavelength - the physical distance occupied by one cycle of a wave in a propagating medium.
word - 1. a unit of 16 bits or two bytes. 2. a term used to describe a binary number in a computer
(not limited to 16 bits).
work - the transfer of energy.
write - a digital value is stored in a memory location.
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) - newer software allows users to review things on
the screen before printing. In WYSIWYG mode, the layout on the screen matches the paper
version exactly.
27.24 X
X.25- a packet switching standard by the CCITT.
X.400 - a message handling system standard by the CCITT.
X.500 - a directory services standard by the CCITT.
X rays - very high frequency electromagnetic waves.
X Windows - a window driven interface system that works over networks. The system was developed at MIT, and is quickly becoming the standard windowed interface. Personal computer
manufacturers are slowly evolving their windowed operating systems towards X-Windows
like standards. This standard only specifies low level details, higher level standards have been
developed: Motif, and Openlook.
XFER - transfer.
XMIT - transmit.
xmodem - a popular protocol for transmitting files over text based connections. compression and
error checking are included.
27.25 Y
ymodem - a popular protocol for transmitting files over text based connections. compression and
error checking are included.
page 739
27.26 Z
page 740
28. PLC REFERENCES
28.1 SUPPLIERS
Asea Industrial Systems, 16250 West Glendale Dr., New Berlin, WI 53151, USA.
Adaptek Inc., 1223 Michigan, Sandpoint, ID 83864, USA.
Allen Bradley, 747 Alpha Drive, Highland Heights, OH 44143, USA.
Automation Systems, 208 No. 12th Ave., Eldridge, IA 52748, USA.
Bailey Controls Co., 29801 Euclid Ave., Wickliffe, OH 44092, USA.
Cincinatti Milacron, Mason Rd. & Rte. 48, Lebanon, OH 45036, USA.
Devilbiss Corp., 9776 Mt. Gilead Rd., Fredricktown, OH 43019, USA.
Eagle Signal Controls, 8004 Cameron Rd., Austin, TX 78753, USA.
Eaton Corp., 4201 North 27th St., Milwaukee, WI 53216, USA.
Eaton Leonard Corp., 6305 ElCamino Real, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA.
Foxboro Co., Foxboro, MA 02035, USA.
Furnas Electric, 1000 McKee St., Batavia, IL 60510, USA.
GEC Automation Projects, 2870 Avondale Mill Rd., Macon, GA 31206, USA.
General Electric, Automation Controls Dept., Box 8106, Charlottesville,VA 22906, USA.
General Numeric, 390 Kent Ave., Elk Grove Village, IL 60007, USA.
Giddings & Lewis, Electrical Division, 666 South Military Rd., Fond du Lac, WI 549357258, USA.
Gould Inc., Programmable Control Division, PO Box 3083, Andover, MA 01810, USA.
Guardian/Hitachi, 1550 W. Carroll Ave., Chicago, IL 60607, USA.
Honeywell, IPC Division, 435 West Philadelphia St., York, PA 17404, USA.
International Cybernetics Corp., 105 Delta Dr., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15238, USA,
(412) 963-1444.
Keyence Corp. of America, 3858 Carson St., Suite 203, Torrance, CA 90503, USA, (310)
540-2254.
McGill Mfg. Co., Electrical Division, 1002 N. Campbell St., Valparaiso, IN 46383, USA.
Mitsubishi Electric, 799 N. Bierman CircleMt. Prospect, IL 60056-2186, USA.
Modicon (AEG), 6630 Campobello Rd., Mississauga, Ont., Canada L5N 2L8, (905) 8218200.
Modular Computer Systems Inc., 1650 W. McNabb Rd., Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310,
USA.
Omron Electric, Control Division, One East Commerce Drive, Schaumburg, IL 60195,
USA.
Reliance Electric, Centrl. Systems Division, 4900 Lewis Rd., Stone Mountain, GA 30083,
USA.
Siemens, 10 Technology Drive, Peabody, MA 01960, USA.
Square D Co., 4041 N. Richards St., Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA.
Struthers-Dunn Systems Division, 4140 Utica Ridge Rd., Bettendorf, IA 52722, USA.
Telemechanique, 901 Baltimore Blvd., Westminster, MD 21157, USA.
Texas Instruments, Industrial Control Dept., PO Drawer 1255, Johnson City, IN 37605-
page 741
1255, USA.
Toshiba, 13131 West Little York Rd., Houston, TX 77041, USA.
Transduction Ltd., Airport Corporate Centre, 5155 Spectrum Way Bldg., No. 23, Mississauga, Ont., Canada, L4W 5A1, (905) 625-1907.
Triconex, 16800 Aston St., Irvine, CA 92714, USA.
Westinghouse Electric, 1512 Avis Drive, Madison Heights, MI 48071.
28.2 PROFESSIONAL INTEREST GROUPS
American National Standards Committee (ANSI), 1420 Broadway, Ney York, NY 10018,
USA.
Electronic Industries Association (EIA), 2001 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), 345 East 47th St., New York, NY
10017, USA.
Instrument Society of America (ISA), 67 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC
27709, USA.
International Standards Organization (ISO), 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, USA.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), 2101 L. Street NW, Washington,
DC 20037, USA.
Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), PO Box 930, One SME Drive, Dearborn, MI
48121, USA.
28.3 PLC/DISCRETE CONTROL REFERENCES
- The table below gives a topic-by-topic comparison of some PLC books. (H=Good coverage,
M=Medium coverage, L=Low coverage, Blank=little/no coverage).
page 742
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
M
Clements
H
M L
L
L
L
Asfahl
L
H
L
L
Bollinger..
L
M M M M M
Boucher
M L
M L
L
M M
M
M
H
L
H
M M M
L
L
L
L
L
M M H
L
L
L
L
pages on PLC topics
M H
Function Block Programming
H
Implementation/Selection
L
Data Interfacing/Networking
L
Fuzzy Control
L
Continuous Control
Swainston
M H
Continuous Sensors/Actuators
H
M H
Analog I/O
Petruzela
H
Author
Structured Text Programming
M L
Advanced Functions
Chang...
Sequential Logic Design
M L
Timers/Counters/Latches
H
Numbering
Wiring
Filer...
Conditional Logic
Introduction/Overview
Discrete Sensors/Actuators
Table 4:
303
L
80
L
464
M M
294
H
197
M
86
H
H
H
L
M M
52
H
59
Asfahl, C.R., “Robots and Manufacturing Automation”, second edition, Wiley, 1992.
Batten, G.L., Programmable Controllers: Hardware, Software, and Applications, Second
Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Batten, G.L., Batten, G.J., Programmable Controllers: Hardware, Software, and Applications,
page 743
*Bertrand, R.M., “Programmable Controller Circuits”, Delmar, 1996.
Bollinger, J.G., Duffie, N.A., “Computer Control of Machines and Processes”, AddisonWesley, 1989.
Bolton, w., Programmable Logic Controllers: An Introduction, Butterworth-Heinemann,
1997.
Bryan, L.A., Bryan, E.A., Programmable Controllers, Industrial Text and VideoCompany,
1997.
Boucher, T.O., “Computer Automation in Manufacturing; An Introduction”, Chapman and
Hall, 1996.
*Bryan, L.A., Bryan, E.A., Programmable Controllers, Industrial Text Company, 19??.
*Carrow, R.A., “Soft Logic: A Guide to Using a PC As a Programmable Logic Controller”, McGraw Hill, 1997.
Chang, T-C, Wysk, R.A., Wang, H-P, “Computer-Aided Manufacturing”, second edition,
Prentice Hall, 1998.
Clements-Jewery, K., Jeffcoat, W., “The PLC Workbook; Programmable Logic Controllers made easy”, Prentice Hall, 1996.
*Cox, R., Technician’s Guide to Programmable Controllers, Delmar Publishing, 19??.
?Crispin, A.J., “Programmable Logic Controllers and Their Engineering Applications”,
Books Britain, 1996.
*Dropka, E., Dropka, E., “Toshiba Medium PLC Primer”, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995.
*Dunning, G., “Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers”, Delmar, 1998.
Filer, R., Leinonen, G., “Programmable Controllers and Designing Sequential Logic“,
Saunders College Publishing, 1992.
**Hughes, T.A., “Programmable Controllers (Resources for Measuremwnt and Control
Series)”, Instrument Society of America, 1997.
?Johnson, D.G., “Programmable Controllers for Factory Automation”, Marcel Dekker,
1987.
*Lewis, R.W., “Programming Industrial Control Systems using IES1131-3”,
*Lewis, R.W., Antsaklis, P.J., “Programming Industrial Control Systems Using IEC 11313 (Iee Control Engineering, No. 59)”, Inspec/IEE, 1995.
*Michel, G., Duncan, F., “Programmable Logic Controllers: Architecture and Application”, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
?Morriss, S.B., “Programmable Logic Controllers”, pub??, 2000.
?Otter, J.D., “Programmable Logic Controllers: Operation, Interfacing and Programming”, ???
Parr, E.A., Parr, A., Programmable Controllers: An Engineer’s Guide, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
*Parr, E.A., “Programmable Controllers”, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
Petruzella, F., Programmable Logic Controllers, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing
Co., 1998.
*Ridley, J.E., “Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers: The Mitsubishi Fx”, John
Wiley & Sons, 1997.
Rohner, P., PLC: Automation With Programmable Logic Controllers, International Specialized Book Service, 1996.
*Rosandich, R.G., “Fundamentals of Programmable Logic Controllers”, EC&M Books,
1997.
page 744
*Simpson, C.D., “Programmable Logic Controllers”, Regents/Prentice Hall, 1994.
Sobh, M., Owen, J.C., Valvanis, K.P., Gracanin, S., “A Subject-Indexed Bibliography of
Discrete Event Dynamic Systems”, IEEE Robotics and Applications Magazine,
June 1994, pp. 14-20.
**Stenerson, J., “Fundamentals of Programmable Logic Controllers, Sensors and Communications”, Prentice Hall, 1998.
Sugiyama, H., Umehara, Y., Smith, E., “A Sequential Function Chart (SFC) Language for
Batch Control”, ISA Transactions, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1990, pp. 63-69.
Swainston, F., “A Systems Approach to Programmable Controllers”, Delmar, 1992.
Teng, S.H., Black, J. T., “Cellular Manufacturing Systems Modelling: The Petri Net
Approach”, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1988, pp. 45-54.
Warnock, I., Programmable Controllers: Operation and Application, Prentice Hall, 19??.
**Webb, J.W., Reis, R.A., “Programmable Logic Controllers, Principles and Applications”, Prentice Hall, 1995.
Wright, C.P., Applied Measurement Engineering, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1995.
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