R2550 Series Digital Communications System

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System Analyzer
OPERATOR'S MANUAL
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68P80309854
IYlOTOROLA
R-2550
Communications
System Analyzer
OPERATOR'S MANUAL
Motorola Test Equipment Products
1313 E. Algonquin Rd.
Schaumburg, lL 60196
@Motorola, lnc. 1993
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.
68P80309E54
Table of Contents
Page
Topic
iv
LIMITED WARRANTY
COMPUTER SOFTWARE COPYRIGHTS
SERVICE LOCATIONS . .
TEST EQUIPMENT SERVICE REQUEST FORM
Section
v
vi
vii
I
INTRODUCTION
1-1
l-2
1-3
r-4
t-5
MANUAL . .
WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS
1
SERVICE
REPLACEMENT PARTS ORDERS
1
INSTALLATION
1
1-5.1 Packing
1
SCOPE OF
l-5.2
1
1
Initial Set-up
1
1-5.3 Battery Pack Operation
)
l-5.4
4
Battery Pack Installation
Section
II
DESCRIPTION
2-r
2-2
2-3
DESCRIPTION . .
OPERATOR CONTROLS
2-2.1 Keys & Indicators
5
2-2.2 Knobs
2-2.3 CRT
2-2.4 Connectors...
BOTTOMCONTROLS...
8
5
5
8
9
10
Table of Contents (CONT)
Page
Tonic
Section
III
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
GENERAL
11
BASIC OPERATION.
11
.
3-2.1 Expanded Display
HELP
WARMNGS . ..
PRIMARY OPERATING MODES
3-5.1 MONITOR Mode
3-5.2 GENERATE Mode
3-5.3 DUPLEX Mode
13
13
15
16
16
18
20
3-5.4 TRACKING GENERATOR Mode (Option)
22
AUDIO/IUODULATION
24
3-6.1 FixedlkHz
3-6.2 Synth
3-6.3 DTMF
3-6.4 Extemal
SYNTHESZER
....!
24
24
26
26
METER AND DISPLAY
3-7.I Meter
3-7'.2 Display
OTHER FUNCTIONS . .
3-8.1 Audio Monitor
28
3-8.2 Remote Operation
3-8.3 Calibration
3-8.4 Special Functions Menu
3-8.5 Memory Screens
37
28
33
37
37
37
3'l
39
ii
Table of Contents (CONT)
Page
Topic
Section
IV
APPLICATIONS
4-r
4-2
BASIC FM TRANSMITTER TESTING
4-lJ Basic FM Transmitter Testing Setup
4-L.2 Transmit Power, Frequency, and Frequency Deviation Measurements
4-1,.3 Modulation Measurements
4-I.4 Off-The-Air Measurements .
BASIC FM RECEIVER TESTING
4-2.1 Basic FM Receiver Testing Setup
4-2.2 Receiver Distortion Measurement
4-2.3 SINAD Measurement . . .
4-2.4 Modulation Acceptance Bandwidth
4-2.5 Receiver Sensitivity Testing (20 dB Quieting)
4-2.6 Squelch Sensitivity Test .
4T
42
42
43
45
46
47
48
48
49
49
50
APPENDIXES
Appendix A
LIST OF
ABBREVIATIONS
53
Appendix B
TONE AND CODE
Appendix C
SAFE HANDLING OF CMOS INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DEVICES
Appendix D
EXTERNAL PORT PIN
SPECIFICATIONS
ASSIGNMENTS
111
55
59
61
MOTOROLA TEST EQUIPMENT PRODUCTS
LIMITED WARRANTY
(EXCLUDES EXPORT SHIPMENTS)
Motorola Test Equipment Products (herein the "product") tlat are manufactured or distributed by
Motorola Conrmunications Group Parts Depafiment are warranted by Motorola for a period of one
(1) year ftom date of shipment against defects in material and workmanship'
This express waffanty is extended to the original purchaser only. In the event of a defect,
malfunction, or failure during the period of warranty, Motorola, at its option, will either repair, or
replace the product providing Motorola receives written notice specifying the nature of the defect
during the period of warranty, and the defective product is returned to Motorola at 1313 East
Algonquin Road, Schaumburg, IL 60196 transportation prepaid. Proof of purchase and evidence
of date of shipment (packing list or invoice) must accompany the return of the defective product.
Transportation charges for the retum of the product to Purchaser shall be prepaid by Motorola.
This warranty is void, as determined in the reasonable judgement of Motorola' if:
(a)
The product has not been operated in accordance with the procedures described in the
operating instruction;
(b)
The seals on non-user serviceable components or modules are broken;
(c)
The product has been subject to misuse, abuse, damage, accident, negligence, repair or
altera&on.
In no event shall Motorola be liable for any special, incidental, or consequential
damages.
In the event Motorola elects to repair a defective product by replacing a module or subassembly'
Motorola, at its option, may replace such defective module or subassembly with a new or
reconditioned replacement module or subassembly. Only the unexpired warranty of the warranty
product will remain in force on the replacement module or subassembly. EXCEPT AS
SPECIFICALLY SET FORTII IIEREIN, ALL WARRANTmS EXPRESS OR IMPLmD'
INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PT]RPOSE
OR MERCTIANTABILITY, ARE EXCLUDED.
1V
COMPUTER SOFTWARE COPYRIGHTS
The Motorola products described in this instruction manual include copyrighted Motorola computer
programs stored in semiconductor memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other
countries preserve for Motorola certain exclusive rights for copyrighted computer programs,
including the exclusive right to copy or reproduce in any form the copyrighted computer program.
Accordingly, any copyrighted Motorola computer programs conlained in the Motorola products
described in this instruction manual may not be copied or reproduced in any manner without the
express written perrrission of Motorola. Furthennore, the purchase of Motorola products shall not
be deemed to grant either direcfly or by implication, estoppel, or otherwise, any license under the
copyrights, patents or patent applications of Motorola, except for the nornal non-exclusive, royalty
free license to use that arises by operation of law in the sale of a product.
This product contains silicon software designed by Ready Systems Corp. @1989 Ready Systems
Corp. All rights reserved. Unpublished-rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United
States.
RESTzuCTED RIGHTS LEGEND
Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
subparagraph (c)(lXii) of the Rights in Technical Data & Computer Software clause at DFARS
252.227-7413.
READY SYSTEMS,4TO POTRERO AVENUE, SUNI{YVALE, CA 94086
Specifications subject to change without notice.
Motorola, Private-Line, and Digital Private-Line are trademarks of Motorola' Inc.
Vertex, RSC, Ready Systems Corp. are trademarks of Ready Systems Corporation.
Printed in U.S.A. @1990 Motorola Inc.
SERVICE LOCATIONS
General
Offices:
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Motorola GmbH
Georg Ohm Sr. 2
D6208 Taunusstein 4 (Neuhof)
MOTOROLA
Dept.
Rd.
Illinois 60196
Communications Div Parts
1313 E. Algoquin
Phone: 49-6128-702178
Schaumburg,
FAX: 6128-73538
Ordering: (800) 422-4210
ISRAEL
Motorola
Test Equipment Sewice
Centers:
16, Kremenetski Str.
Tel-Aviv 67 889
I_JNITED
STATES
Motorola Inc., Test Equipment
Phone: 972-3-338 590
FAX:972-3-562 4925
Service.Depol
1308 Plum Grove Road
Schaumburg, lI- ffi173
Phone: (708)
FAX: (708)
576-7025
576-8813
ITALY
Motorola SPA
Via Galvani 1/2
AUSTRALIA
20090Trezzano Sul Naviglio (MI)
Phone: 39-V2-48401458
Motorola Pyt, Ltd.
666 Wellington Rd.
Mulgrave, 3170
JAPAN
Nippon Motorola Ltd.
2-1-3 Arakawa-Ku
Victoria
61.-Z-566-76t0
FAX: 6t-3_561_3809
phone:
Tokyo 106
Phone: 81-3-802-9188
FAX: 81-3-802-9170
Cable: MOTOROLA
CANADA
Motorola Canada Ltd.
System and Aftennarket Products
Telex:78124?A897
3tZ5E. Sreeles Ave.
REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE
Motorola Singapore Pte. Ltd.
Blk 1302, Lorong 1 Toa Payoh #01-03/04
MZH2H6
phone: 416499-tM1 Exr. 3051
North York, Ontario
Siong Hoe Indusrial Bldg.
Singapore 1231
Phone:3530311
FRANCE
Motorola Smrno
FAX: 3539152
69 Rue Andre Karman
93300 Auberrvilliers
Phone : 33-1-4843
UNITED KINGDOM
92M
Motorola Ltd.
Viables krdustrial Extate
Basingstoke, Hampshire RG224PD
Phone: 0256-58211
v1
MOTOROLA' INC.
COUMMUNICATIONS SECTOR
TEST EQUIPMENT SERVICE DEPOT
1308 Plum Grove Rd.
Schaumburg, IL 60173
TEST EQUIPMENT SERVICE REQIJEST FORM
for service'
This completed form must accompany equipment retum
CUSfOftfEn'S PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER
SERIAL NUMBER
DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM:
REOUESTED SERVTCE
SHIP TO ADDRESS
SHIP VIA:
Providi
theinformationbelowwillreducetheturnaroundtimeonyouTestEquipmentServica
MOTOROLA CUSTOMER NUMBER
BILL TAG
SHIP TAG
I
NTERNATTONAL MOTOROLA
ACCOUNT NO.
SIGNED:
v11
Section
1
INTRODUCTION
1-1
SCOPE OF MANUAL
manual
contains information for using the
This
R-2550 Communications System Analyzer. The
Analyzer incorporates many devices and functions, permitting a technician to completely
monitor and service radio communications
equipment in the shop and in the field.
1.3 SERVICE
Motorola Test Equipment Service Centers service all test equipment supplied by the Motorola
1.2
Communications Sector. The Center maintains a
stock of original equipment replacements parts
and a complete library of service information for
all Motorola test equipment. A service request
form along with a list of worldwide service
locations is found at the front of the manual.
handling this equipment.
I.4
WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS
You should observe several precautions when
WARNING
This unit is designed to be operated with a ground connection to
the chassis via a three-wire power
connection.
If the unit is not prop-
erly grounded while operating
from an AC power source, the
voltage potential between it and
ground may cause an electrical
REPLACEMENT PARTS ORDERS
Send orders for replacement parts to the nearest
Motorola Test Equipment Service Center. Be
sure to include the complete identification
number located on the equipment. Also direct
inquiries to the Test Equipment Service Center,
including requests for part number identification
and test equipment calibration or repair.
1-5
INSTALLATION
liul
;tffHl?r,"ct the R-2550 Anatyzer,which
packed
inside a carton. Save the packing
is
container and materials for future use.
shock.
CAUTION
This equipment contains parts that
are subject to damnge by static
electricity. While there is normally
no needfor operator access to anY
internal components, take proper
precautions in handling should th,e
need arise. See Appendix C for
s afe handling pro c edure s.
1-5.2 Initial Set-up
1.
Place the Analyzer on a workbench in
the shop or mobile repair unit.
2. Lower the bail underneath
to raise the
Analyzer for easier viewing.
3. Remove the front cover by pressing
in the spring loaded mechanism
which snaps into the right front handle of the unit.
4.
5.
CAUTION
When installing the Analyzer in a
vehicle, fuse the DC supply line
close to the vehicle's battery. The
Take the power cord that is stored in
the cover. Attach the cord's female
connector to the appropriate connector on the Analyzer's rear panel.
Connect the other end of the cord to
the power source. For AC, use a
grounded 3-wire 100-130 VAC or
200-260 VAC power source.
DC-L}A fitse (located on the Anal-
yzer's rear panel) protects
the
Analyzer against overload but does
not protect the vehicle
1-5.3 Battery Pack Operation
The optional battery pack (RPN-4000A) is
designed to conveniently mount to the back of
the R-2550. Containing an internal battery
charger, the battery pack is automatically
recharged whenever connected direct to an AC
receptacle. Battery charging is independent of
Set the two-position LINE switch
(bottom of unit) to either the 110 or
220 position, as applicable. The factory initially sets the LINE switch for
110 VAC. A 3A fuse for 110 VAC
operation and a 10A fuse for DC
operation are installed at the factory.
Change as indicated for 220 VAC
the main R-2550 equipment.
operation.
NOTE
The battery pack has an internal
switch allowing the user to switch
operation of the battery pack to
II5 VAC or 220 VAC. Before
attempting to plug the battery pack
OPERATION FUSE PART NUMBER
VAC
12 VDC
220 VAC
110
3A
10A
1.5A
65-20404
65-10266
65-890033
6. Remove accessories from the cover as
into the ac line for charging,
ensure this switch is set to the
correct position for your line
needed.
7. Insert the whip antenna into the ANT
voltage. This switch is accessable
by removing six stcrews attaching
the cover to battery pack chassis
as shown infigure 1-1.
port, located to the right of the tuning
knob on the front panel.
8.
Press the power switch ON. The Ana-
lyzer is now ready for use. Before
operating the Analyzer, review the
operating procedures described in this
manual.
2
Figure 1-1. 1lO VACt220 VAC Selection Switch
1-5.4 Battery Pack fnstallation
l. Se[ the R-2550 in an inverted vertical
position on a table with the back of
the unit facing upward.
2.
4.
Plug AC cord from batrery pack tc
AC power plug on back of R-2550
unit.
Lay battery pack on the back surface
of the R-2550 such that the cut out in
the battery, will match the locations
of the power plug on the R-2550. Do
not engage the attachment screw yet.
5.
Dress cabling into retaining area and
slide battery into position to align
with mounting screws
6.
Align and tighten the four
mounting screws.
3.
Plug four-pin connector from battery
pack to four-pin connector on back of
R-2550 labeled DC POWER.
Figure 1-2. Battery Pack Installation
4
slotted
Section 2
DESCRIPTION
2-I
DESCRIPTION
unit looks for a DC source. Switching is
automatic upon cycling of the POWER
is
The R-2550 Communication System Analyzer
a portable test instrument designed to monitor
and service radio communications equipment
over the frequency range of 400 Hz to 999'9999
MHz. Figures 2-l and 2-2 show the Analyzer's
controls, indicators, and connectors, and lists
switch.
ON LED
Illuminates when power switch is pressed
oN.
their functions. The Analyzer generates signals'
permeasures modulation and frequency, and
forms a variety of tests normally associated with
the following devices:
DC LED
Illuminates when equipment uses DC
power.
'RF Signal Generator
& DISP)
Determines the zone (third of CRT
screen) that the cursor will be active in'
Cursor Zone KeYs (RF, AUD,
.Sensitive Measurement Receiver
'spectrum AnalYzer
'Duplex Offset Generator
.Oscilloscope
.Period Counter
When changing zones, the cursor mQves
to the same cursor location occupied the
previous time it was in that zone'
.AC/DC Voltmeter
.RF Wattrneter
Cursor Position Keys (Up, Down, Left, Right,
'signaling EncoderlDecoder
'signal Strength Meter
.SINAD Meter
.Distortion Analyzer
2.2
TAB)
The five cursor movement keys are used
to move the cursor to the left, right, up'
down, or tab.
HELP KeY
Displays help instructions for the present
OPERATOR CONTROLS
screen.
2-2.1 Keys & Indicators
Power Switch
Press ON to energize all circuitry' The
unit automatically selects AC power if
line power is available. Otherwise, the
MEM Key
Accesses the Memory screen
volatile memory Presets.
5
for
non-
noT0noLA
f-;-@)
I
U
IUNING A
/:A.
I
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MAXINPUT
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OdBM
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;
\--l
CURSOR POSI]ION
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ac
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voLUME
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BRIGHT
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POWER
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Figure 2-1. Front Panel Controls, Indicators, and Connectors
UNUSED CONNECTOR
RS.232 PORT
rO
M}IZ REFERENCE
OSCILLATOR IN/OUT
DC INPUT POWER
CONNTECTOR
FUSES
AC PLUG
INTERNAL/EXTERNAL
REFERENCE OSCILLATOR
SWITCH
REFERENCE OSCILLATOR
CALIBRATION ADJUST
LINE VOLTAGE
SELECTOR SWITCH
Flgre 2-2.
Side, Rear, and Bottom Panels
Numeric Keys (0-9)
For entering numeric information into the
Analyzer. When a key is pressed, the
existing CRT numeral (where the cursor
is sitting) is replaced with the numeral
represented by the keypress. The Analyzer then reacts to the new information
just entered. When an invalid numeric
entry is attempted, the Analyzer ignores
the keypress and the numeral on the
screen remains unchanged.
+/- Key
Toggles the displayed sign from its present value to the negative of its present
value.
Fl
Key (Optional Function)
Permits access to additional functions.
Currently used to return to local mode
from remote mode.
Softkeys
Located below the display, the softkeys
provide a menu function to indicate all
possible values or entries for the current
cursor position. If the cursor moves, the
softkey functions change.
2-2.2 Knobs
SQUELCH
Squelch
control. Clockwise rotation
increases the receiver threshold signal
level above which the squelch opens.
ALT Key
Enables the alternate functions on the
keypad. Upon pressing the ALT key, the
VOLUME
Controls volume of the speaker audio.
message ALT appears on the message line.
Pressing any other key following the ALT
key will cause the ALT message to disappear.
SPF Key
Displays the special functions menu of
the display.
F2 Key (optional function)
Permits access to additional functions.
Currently, this key provide no functionality.
BRIGHT
Intensity adjustment of the CRT. Clockwise rotation results in higher intensity.
TUMNG
Incrementally changes the digit over
which the cursor is currently sitting.
Clockwise rotation of the tuning knob
increases the number; counter-clockwise
rotation decreases the number. This
provides the equivalent of an analog
control for numeric cursor entry locations.
CAL Key
Instructs the processor to perform a self
calibration on the system.
2-2.3 CRT
9 cm x 11 cm birmapped CRT. Provides data,
operating controls, and instructional information.
Displays in digital, analog, and bar graph forms.
CAUTION
The RF fitse leads must be
trimmed to a length of .48 +.02
NOTE
The CRT has a screen saver feature that reduces intensitY after
approximately 30 minutes of inacilviry. Press any key to restore the
inches and the tips cttt to a point
to
facilitate installation.
display.
2-2.4
VERT/SINAD DIST/DVM COUNTER IN
Combined input port for oscillosci ?e
vertical, SINAD meter, Distortion fiIetr:i,
DVM, and period counter inputs.
Connectors
2-2.4.1 tr'ront Panel Connectors
RF IN/OUT
Provides RF input signal to the Analyzer's internal monitor or output signal
from the Analyzer's internal generator.
Also provides combined input/output in
DUPLEX mode. Contains the RF wattmeter load. This is the only front panel
connector to which RF power may be
applied.
DEMOD OUT
Recovered (demodulated) audio output
(MONITOR or DUPLEX mode).
MOD OUT
Composite output of internally generated
modulation signals.
EXT MOD IN
External modulation input connector.
Requires a fixed input level of l\u for
accurate level displays.
GEN OUT
Provides a high level generator RF output port isolated from the Monitor input.
DO NOT APPLY RF POWER.
ANT
MIC
Input port for sensitive monitor receiver.
Useful for
off-the-air
Connector for external accessory microphone.
measurements.
DO NOT APPLY RF POWER.
NOTE
The GEN OUT and ANT connectors are protectedfrom overload by a 1/16 amp RF fuse installed in the front panel connector. This fuse may be accessed by unscrewing the front
portion of the BNC connector
from the panel using a 7/16 inch
deep socket wrench. Replncement fuse part number is GG-
2-2.4.2 Side Panel Connector
RS-232 PORT (25 pin)
Provides input/output for printer or control interface.
6530277C002.
9
2-2.4.3 Back Panel
10
MHZ
STD
2-3
Connectors
for
10 MHz reference frequency. Input
impedance is 50 ohms. Input level reBNC connector provides input/output
quirement is 70 mV to 1 Vrms. OutPut
level is approximately 250
uVrms.
AC POWER
Connector
Primary AC power input
CAUTION
The R-2550 will not function properly if this switch is set to external
without a I0 MHz reference signal
applied to the rear I0 MHz refer-
port.
DC POWER Connector
Primary DC power input Port.
FUSE
Line fuseholders for AC and DC
fuses:
BOTTOM CONTROLS
InternaUExternal Oscillator Micro-Switch
Used to switch between input and output
configurations for ttre rear panel 10 MHz
reference oscillator BNC connector.
ence BNC connector.
Internal Reference Oscillator Adjustment Access
Provides convenient external access to
recatbrate reference oscillator frequency
line
setting.
OPERATION FUSE PART NTJMBER
CAUTION
a reliable and accurate frequency snndard when making this
VAC 3A 55-20404
1.5A 65-890033
220 VAC
10A 65-10266
12 VDC
110
(Jse
adjustment.
II0l220 VAC Selector Switch
Used to switch the unit's internal power
supply for either I 10V or 220V operation.
Check the fuse for proper Size When
switching to a different line voltage.
10
Section 3
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
3.1 GENERAL
The Analyzer is
designed specifically for the
service and monitoring of radio communications
equipment. This product represents a breakthrough in simplicity of operation. In place of
numerous meters, keys and controls, the R-2550
employs a large CRT display which simultaneously presents control and data displays. A
simplified front panel, utilizing soft keys, cursor
movement keys, a numeric key pad, an analog
tuning control and other dedicated function keys
all combine to make the unit extremely easy to
leam and very efficient to use.
Primary operating modes
Control of the internal modulation synthesizcr
and level selection for externally applied modulation are provided through the Audio area at the
lower right of the screen.
Further explanation of the function of each of
these screen areas can be accessed through use
of the HELP key to the lower right of
the
scrgen.
3-2 BASIC OPERATION
Control of the unit and selection of data to be
displayed are done through the use of three main
windows which simultaneously appear on this
screen (figure 3-1).
of the unit are
MONITOR, GENERATE, and DUPLEX. They
are accessed through the RF Control display area
at the upper right of the screen. Within these
modes of operation, various measurement functions may be selected in order to measure and
diagnose many types of radio equipment under
These three main windows, or cursor zongs, are
accessed simply through a cluster of three
CURSOR ZONE keys at the top center of the
unit. The location where the cursor rests wittrin
each zone is known as a cursor field. To control the unit and enter data, all operator inputs
are made at highlighted cursor field locations
(brighter-face type).
test.
RF data display, voltmeters, distortion meter,
SINAD meter, frequency counter and modulation decoder functions are available through the
Meter display ,uea at the upper left of the
For further simplicity, softkeys, with customized
on-screen labels interact with the screen to
provide a unique menu of entry options for each
cursor field. This greatly reduces the number of
keys and having to search through unrelated
controls to find the one that's needed.
screen.
Spectrum analyzer, oscilloscope and bar graph
displays are available through the Display area
at the lower left of the screen.
11
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ilsn SF Ini
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AUDIO CONTROL ZONE
SOFTKEYS
Figure 3-1. Screen Zone Arrangement
t2
3-2.1.1
Encode Tables
Encode Tables are selected from the "Audio
Mod Sum:/lvlod Sum:" field). Selection of the
General Sequence or DTMF encode modes, and
pressing the display table softkey, causes the
system to overwrite the meter and display zones
with the display tables. Use the return softkey
to exit to previous screen.
Control the cursor location and input information by:
.
Using the CURSOR ZONE keys to move
the cursor among the three zones.
.
Using the CURSOR POSITION keys to
move the cursor from field to field within a
zone.
.
3-2.1.2 Dedicated Keys
Refer to the Other Functions portion of
Once at the desired field, use either the
TUNING knob or the numeric keys to enter
numeric information. Use the softkeys for
other menu selections.
this
(paragraph
for
explanation
of
an
3-8)
manual
expanded screens in the HELP, MEM, SPF, and
CAL modes.
3.3 HELP
The Analyzer provides on-screen
3-2.1
operating
instructions via the dedicated HELP key. Help
screens are organized such that each display area
has an associated help screen pertaining to that
area of the screen. System help (figure 3-2) is
available via a softkey within each help screen.
Use the return softkey to return to the function
in progress.
Expanded Display
Some functions have the ability to expand their
contents and overwrite other display areas.
These consist of the following:
.
Encode tables
.
Dedicated keys
13
done primcilc thrsugh the use of
sqftkegs located imdiatelg beltn the displeg srreen.
Thess kegs along nith the tU[St]B PIISITIIHi kegs lncaled
*u fhe risht of lhe screen prouide fsr ihe entrg of test
requir*nenls rnd the selerfion of data to be displaced.
2. tach highl ighted cursor lsraf ion has its orn unique-mnu of
selectisns displaged in boxes imediafelc rhoue th* softkegs.
$il+lu push the keg beloH ihe bax to mke the seleclion.
S.lhree ffiin Hindolg ot rursor zones ilre useJ for EF and
fiudio rsntrol on lhp righl and data displag sn the left,
The tlrB${H Z{S[ kegs provide fsr easg ilosemnl bet$een
fhese zonee. ihee in fhs zone of interesi th* cursar cen he
rsued Let*een the hiehlighied entrt localion Lg using
the fiue tU[$0R P0$IIIttl keus,
l.{heration of fhis unit is
Prse
Figure 3-2. System Help
L4
I of 3
If any of these conditions exist:
3-4 WARI\INGS
The system provides warnings for the following
operating conditions, which are considered
detrimental to the proper functioning of the
Analyzer:
.
.
.
. A continuous
RF Overload
(Input level to monitor too great for accurate measurement)
.
audible warning tone along
with an overwrite of the screen with a
warning message will be presented for RF
Over Temperature (figure 3-3). This condition may occur when the intermittent
Recalibrate
(Indicates that the unit's internal temperature has changed more than 10o C from
where was last self-calibrated. This
may affect the accuracy of the generator
output level, monitor input level below
+20 dBm, and modulation level. Refer to
paragraph 3-8.3 for further information)
power rating of the 125 watt internal load is
exceeded. Both the display and the warning tone remain on and all operator input is
ignored until the condition is corrected.
The Analyzer then resumes normal operation.
it
.
A warning will be displayed on the warning
line of the CRT for RF overload, recalibrate, and low battery voltage.
CAUTION
RF power immediately to
RF Over Temperature
(Excessive power to RF load)
Remove
Optional Battery Pack Voltage Low
unit may occur.
correct the RF Over Temperature
condition. Otherwise damage to the
WARNING
RF LOAD IS OVER TEMPEMTURE
REMOVE RF INPUT POWER
Figure 3-3. RF Over Temperature Warning Message
15
3-5 PRIMARY OPERATING MODES
3-5.1 MONITOR Mode
The Monitor mode (figure 3-4) provides
Select the operating mode by placing the cursor
in the "RF Control:" field in the RF zone. Use
the desired softkey to make selection. Primary
operating modes are: MOMTOR, GENERATE,
and DUPLEX.
DI$PLFY
lbter:BF
Displsg
:
unit's test receiver function which is used in the
testing of radio transmitters. It is capable of
monitoring RF input through it's antenna or a
direct connection to the transmitter to accurately
determine the frequency, power level, and
modulation characteristics. It monitors signals
from 400 kHz to 999.9999 MHz. Center frequency is set in 100 Hz increments. Specific
controls which further configure the MONITOR
lhde;STfilflHfiD
llon Freq: 78. 0ffSff ffik
Freq Erl+
?0 llz Inpul
Dev:
2. 62 kllz
Luli----,-
I
Eonfrol: Iifllm
Presel: -Sfll: tfi
freq: 9?t.t88t ilh
FF
d$e
Aiienualion:
llon Bf In:
IfiH,LRTIIF{ SI{FE
Trisser: f,lrT0 Iris Lvl:560trel l$ll
lloniz:5S8 usldiu Position: (tl}
Uerl i cal
!
ltudulalion
B
dB
Al{T
T
luJio Suri fl.tES U pk
F ixed lktlz: S. 808 U x
Ssnth: 8. ?95 U tt
Formt Sel I
Pt
FREQ: I3I.8 HZ
DIil:
[.8f8 U x
kHzr'
div
Isde:123456?S9$*$ttD
External:
ilH
GE}I
the
IRATK
IXIPLTX
fft{
Figure 3-4. Monitor Mode
16
0.89S
U
x
Mon RF In
mode are located within the RF zone when
MONITOR is first selected. The specific entry
fields are as follows.
Selects the RF input port via softkeys.
CAUTION
Do not apply inpttt power to the ANT input
port. In the event RF power is inadvertently
applied, the port is protected by an in-line
RF fuse. This fuse m.ay be accessed by unscrewing the front of the BNC connector out
of the front panel. Refer to Section 2-1,
Description for additional detail.
Preset
This field allows one of the twenty possible
preset monitor/generate frequency pairs to
be selected. Frequency memory presets are
programmed in the memory screen as discussed in paragraph 3-8.5. When a preset
number is entered in this field, the monitor
and generate frequencies stored under that
number are used by the analyzer for monitor and generate modes.
The RF UO port contains an RF load and
should be used for direct connection to the
radio under test. The ANT port accesses
the unit's sensitive receiver and should be
used with an antenna for "off-the-air" reception. Selection of the ANT port is indicated
by a red LED adjacent to the ANT connec-
B/W
Selects either wide or narrow IF and audio
bandwidths of the unit via softkey selection.
Freq
Enter the desired monitor frequency using
keypad or tuning knob.
tor.
Modulation Type
Attenuation
Select the amount of attenuation at the RF
input to the monitor receiver using softkeys.
Selectable input attenuation is useful in
adjusting displays for a wide range of input
levels, as well as for use in high RF field
environments where intermodulation may
cause desensitization of the receiver.
Selects the type of modulation via softkeys.
17
Mode
3-5.2 GENERATE
configures
mode (figure 3-5)
The GENERATE
an RF signal at a
generate
to
the Analyzer
controllableoutputr'".rtoprovide.forawide
Muttiple internal and
range of receivsr
"*"nt
tieter:BF
extemal mo dulation
ly impressed on the
Signals from
signul' for servicing'
qgg'qgig vltr' rn'ray be generated'
400 kHz to
100 Hz increments'
L."*]*o"ency is set in
i]r
cont"ot
FresPt:
Freql
Gen
Freq: irt6'5EEB llllz
-r-- tt,
tffiULRT
lllil
tui'itt
be simlrltaneousfrequency'to gensrate
c an
ffit**
t'lsde: STfillOfiED
DI$PLfiV
signals
Lul:?ST.
l.t
utl
:
--
ffi{IliEt!5lt
s/tl: tF
145'5809 ffilz
d[r
thrtput Lul:-t5E'9
tlut: Sf I/0
Fll
ltrodulation lgPei
kllz
thd $un: 5' t8
-
Gen SF
SCtrE
frUIfl Irig Lul:5[:it:i l::'
Lttl
no"i-r:-seg q/J1u rr*'itif:'
Iriqgeri
Fixed lkllz"
5'2t kllz
k[t*L*
$snthl -.-,. s'0s
r31.s hz
ll:f* *"t'
?lSirrror*t'11*ltio.
x
Externall S'S0 kHr
Mode
Figure 3-5. Generate
18
Gen RF Out
Selects the RF output port via softkeys. The
RF UO port is recommended for most applications where GEN and MON ports are combined for a single connection to the radio
under test. The GEN port is recommended
where higher levels are needed. Selection of
the GEN port is indicated by a red LED
adjacent to the GEN OUT connector.
Specific controls which further configure the
GENERATE mode are located within the RF
Control zone when GENERATE is first selected.
The specific entry fields are as follows:
Preset
The preset function is the same as
in
the
MOMTOR mode.
B/W
Selects either wide or naffow bandwidth
CAUTION
of
Do not apply input power to the GEN
output port. In the event RF power is
inadvertently applied, the port is protected by an in-line RF fuse. This fuse
may be accessed by unscrewing the
front of the BNC connector out of the
front panel. Refe, to Section 2-1,
Description for additional inform.ation.
the unit via softkey selection.
Freq
Enter the desired generate RF frequency
using keypad or tuning knob.
Output Lvl
Selects generator output level in 0.1 dBm
steps over the range of -130 dBm to 0
dBm. An altemate display of generate level
in microvolts is available in the "Meter:"
area of the display zone. Output level is
available in two ranges depending upon
which output port is selected:
.
The range of -80 dBm to 0 dBm is
available when the high level GEN
output port is selected.
.
The range of -130 dBm to -50 dBm is
available when the RF VO output port
is selected.
Modulation Type
Selects the type of modulation via softkeys.
NOTE
If AM modulation is selected, the maximum output at the GEN port is reduced to -6 dBm; the mnximum ouput
at the RF I/O port is reduced to -56
dBm.
19
3-5.3 DUPLEX Mode
The DUPLEX Mode (figure 3-6) provides
a
simultaneous RF generator output that is offset
in frequency from the monitor center frequency
and fully adjustable in output level. This capa-
bility provides for servicing full duplex radio
equipment as well as repeaters and radios operating with offset transmit and receive frequencies.
rosE
Hf tonlrol:
{ater:ftF 0ISPIA? l'iode:$TAlSfiB$
Bni: lfr
llun Fre{: 161.558F l#lz Daui 9,8? kHz Preseti -Freq tmi- l..88kllz Input Lul:- ?4.3 dBr llcn f req i 162. 5508 l$lz
Lul:?0?.18 uU 0ffset: +45.888 fflz
Een fr*qi 207.5508 l*lz
illfl
Ilisplrgi l{SULfiTI{il{ SttFt $elecil GEI{ fkn: I dB
Gen: -CI50,SdBn fiF I/0
TriggBr: fiU10 Trig Lul:S$ltrsl lul)
lhd Sur: l. i9 kHz
Horizi 180 us/diu Position: {tD
Fixed
lkHrl
2.80 kHz
-
$cnth: S.S$ kHz x
Pt
$el:
131.0 Hr
FR[A:
6,t8 kll: x
Dilf :
Fornal
tsde : l2$456?89rS*flBtD
fxternel: 9.00 kHz x
Figure 3-6. Duplex Mode
20
Mon
This field actually contains two separate fields,
one for monitor input attenuation and one for
Specific controls which further configure the
DUPLEX mode are located within the RF
Control zone when DUPLEX is first selected.
monitor port selection. Refer
the
MOMTOR description for further details.
The specific entry fields aro as follows:
Gen
This field actually contains two separate fields,
one for generate output level and one for
generate output port selection. Refer to the
GENERATE description for further details.
Preset
as in
to
The preset function is the same
monitor mode. However, when the Duplex
mode is activated and a preset number is
entered into this field, the duplex offset frequency will be automatically calculated to be
the
NOTE
OnIy FM modulation is provided for
the duplex generator. Either FM or
AM demodulation may be selected.
Selection must be done in MONITOR
Mode within the RF control zone. The
RF I/O port combines monitor and
generate signals for the d.uplex function. However, either the ANT or GEN
ports m.ay be independently selected.
the difference between the stored monitor and
generate frequencies. If the difference between
the stored monitor and generate frequencies is
greater than or equal to 55 MHz, the duplex
frequency offset will be set to its maximum
value of 55 MHz.
B/W
Selects either wide or narrow bandwidth of the
unit via softkey selection.
Mon tr'req
Entet the desired monitor frequency using
keypad or tuning knob.
Offset
Enter the generator frequency offset relative to
the monitor frequency entered. Offset frequencies of + 0 to 55 MHz are allowed. The
offset frequency is set in 5 kHz steps.
2t
3-5.4 TRACKING GENERATOR Mode
(Option)
The TRACK GENERATOR mode (figure 3-7)
sets up the unit's signal generator in a sweeping
mode for use with the optional Tracking Generator display. This provides a valuable capability
for measuring and servicing a wide variety of
RF filtering and combining networks.
Connect the output of the network under test to
the ANT port. Be sure to activate the ANT port
thru the "Mon:" field in the RF Control zone. If
input attenuation is needed as part of the measurement procedure, 20 or 40 dB attenuation
may similarly be selected thru the "Mon:" field
in the RF Control zone.
To operate the Tracking Generator, simply select
TRACK GEN via softkey in the "RF Control:"
field in the RF Control zone. Connect the GEN
OUT port to the input of the network under test.
The Tracker display is selected thru softkeys at
the "Display:" field of the DISP zone at the left
center of the screen. The display is a 10 dB/div
tontrol : rlillfliliFll]
fing:!lT0 kHz
lnput Lul:- 93.5 d8r [en Freqi225.T098 ttlz
[en Fceq: 225.t03t l$z Lul: 2I.36 uU tbtput Lul:-$88.1 d$r
tletsr:BF
DISPLAF
t{ode:$Tfi}lD*fiD
SF lhtt:
trtl
f,l{t
lftn: t dB
fiudio $ur: 0,880 U pk
f*n
Disphg: IBeff fff[ReTffi
-/ts
Fixed lkHzl 8.988
U
-60
Fomat Sel i
$cnth:
U
Input
(dBr)
[f
Lu
-8t
i.795
131.8
t,8gg
x
FL
Hz
U
x
tode : l23tl56?Sg'tltfiBtD
External: 8.09[ U
-lt0
Figure 3-7. Tracking Generator Mode
22
x
log scale. By adjusting the generator level and
selecting 20 or 40 dB of input attenuation, the
usable measurement range is approximately 100
dB at frequencies below 500 MHz and 80 dB
above 500 MHz.
All
adjustinents of center frequency, frequency
range and generator level are made thru the RF
zone at the upper right of the screen. The
TUMNG control is especially useful in tuning
center frequency and generator level. These may
adjusted as follows, thru softkeys or
numeric entry, for the desired display, depending
on the type of network being tested.
all be
Rng
Selects the RF frequency range over which the
generator will sweep. These are expressed in
r full screen deflection ranges that are selectable via softkeys. The sweep rate of the
tracking generator is fixed at approximately 50
ms/sweep.
Cen Freq
Selects the center frequency of the Tracking
Generator display. See the GENERATE mode
for more detail on frequency entry.
Output Lvl
Refer to GENERATE MOdE.
Gen RF Out
Refer to GENERATE mode.
23
3.6 AUDIO/MODULATION SYNTHESIZER
2. OFF switches off the modulation source.
Off is indicated by an "X" at the extreme
right, adjacent to the level.
The Audio zone located at the lower right of the
$creen is used to control the multi-purpose audio
synthesizer section of the unit. Signals generated by the audio synthesizer are coupled internally to the generator modulation input as
well as to the MOD OUT front panel connector.
3. BURST provides a single timed sequence of
modulation only for DTMF, TONE A,
TONE B, and GENERAL SEQUENCE. A
single burst sequence is shown by the 'x'
symbol.
In the GENERATE and DUPLEX modes,levels
entered in the Audio zone are shown as modulation (either deviation or Vo ANI). The composite sum of modulation, only for those
modulation sources enabled, is displayed at the
top of the zone at the "Mod Sum:" location.
In the MOMTOR mode, levels entered in
For DPL, select the START DISC TN (*)
softkey to produce a continuous disconnect tone.
(Select CONT then "*" softkeys to simulate a
complete DPL transmission with disconnect
tone.)
the
Audio zone are shown as peak voltage values.
The composite sum of the voltage value (only
for those modulation sources enabled) is displayed at the top of the zone at the "Audio
The composite sum at the top of the zone will
not indicate the burst condition. To set the
composite level to include bursts of signaling,
temporarily select CONT for those modulation
sources which will be "burst" enabled.
Sum:" location.
Each of the following modulation signals has a
cursor field for entering it's desired level. Use
the keypad or TUNING knob to enter the desired level.
3-6.1 Fixed l kHz
The Analyzer has a fixed 1 kHz modulation
source, which can be selected independently
from the other audio synthesizers. Level control
and on-off selection is described above.
An additional cursor field, adjacent to each level
entr], is used to enable or switch each selection
on and off using softkeys. This field is located
at the extreme right side of the zone. There are
three possible conditions for this softkey selection.
3-6.2 Synth
Level control and on-off selection are selectable
via softkey selection. The synthesizer function
encodes a broad selection of signaling formats,
which are softkey selected through the "Format
Sel:" field adjacent to "Syth:" level field. Use
1. CONT activates continuous ON condition,
or continuous cycling a sequence has
been selected. A symbol is indicated at
the extreme right, adjacent to the level to
indicate continuous ON.
if
-
24
of the more
sof-tkey accesses three different
levels
for
menu
the following signaling for-
produces two additional fields on the line below
field. The first allows for
softkey selection of either frequency or code
entry. The second is the value corresponding to
the frequency or code. Valid PL codes are
found in Appendix B. All frequency entries are
accepted, but only valid codes can be entered.
the "Format Sel:"
mats.
PL (figure 3-8)
This softkey selects Motorola Private-Line
tone coded squelch signaling. This selection
f,F f
llodr:STAI{thffD
I!I$PLAY
ontrol: GEffiEATE
: -- B/tl: tS
Presef
Freq
Een
Freq: l25.EEBS
l$lz
L'rl:?g?.IE
uU
Displagl lltffi,LfiTI$l S[0PE
Trig Lul:5[l{rel lul}
Trigger; filll{l
Horizi tB8 us/div Positioni {*}
:
225. 8f,98 l$lz
6en fiF
0ut!
llndulst ion
l{od
Tupe
$ur:
Fixed lkHzi
{|ert i cal i
t
dEr
RF
I/0
tbtput Lvl: -858.
I
Fll
i0
kHz
l.0t
kllz
2,
-
Scnthl 0.8E kHz x
Fsrmt Sel: ff!
FSEQ: 131. S llz
1.89 kHz x
0Tlf :
1 kHzr'
dis
tode : 123456?S9*8*AEtD
Externa!: 8,89 kllz x
PL
I}PL
npt
T0tf
fi
TISG
B
IISJERT
Figure 3-8. PL Format Selection
25
mnf
DPL/DPL INVERT
This softkey selects standard or inverted
Motorola Digital Private-Line coded squelch.
A single cursor field is located below the
"Format Sel:" field for entry of code. Only
valid DPL codes should be entered per Appendix B.
TONE A/TONE B
This softkey selects either of two
continuous
audio tones. Tone frequencies may be
from the "Freq:" field.
entered
3.6.3 DTMF
Provides a means for encoding DTMF
(Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency) signaling for
testing telephone interface systems. Enter level
as described above and enter "Cods:" in the field
immediately below the "DTMF:" field.
3-6.4 Bxternal
Used to set the level and enable externally
applied signals from both the MIC and the EXT
MOD IN front panel connectors.
NOTE
GENERAL SEQ (ngure 3-9)
This softkey selects a free-form l0-tone sequence encoding which has full flexibility to
enter unique frequency and time duradon for
each of the l0 tone slots. The single field
below the "Format Sel:" field is used to enter
the frequency code sequence. An expandable
display table is selectable by softkey to allow
entry of frequency and time duration datr.
Frequencies and durations are tabulated corresponding to a given code number (i.e. If,2),
31, etc.).
The frequency code sequence can be entered
in the expanded display table as well as in the
Audio Control zone. The clear lo end softkey
allows all code numbers entered in the "Code
.sequenc'e:"
field to the right of the cunent
cursor position to be cleared.
26
In the case of external signals applied
to the EXT MOD connector, the accuracy of this level displayed is dependent on applying a fixed signal level of
I
Voo
Q Vpkil to the EXT MOD IN
connector.
DISPLAY
ffF fonlrol: fflfRAIE
gfll: tS
Presel I --
itode: ST0IIDABD
Freq:
[*n Freq: 2t5.899S Hlz Lul:?$?.18 uU
I
d8n
SF
I/0
ttutrut Lul r -858.
Gerl fiF tl$tl
lhdulat ion I
Displag: lffIH,LRTItt{ StgPE
Trigger: f,[T0 Iris Lul:5S8trel lul]
llnrirl 2ET us/diu Positidni {t*
Sur!
2.lS kllz
f ixed lkHzl E.l0 kilz llod
ilertirrl:
t
125.S[8t illz
$unth:
fode:
DIIS:
kllz/
div
Fomai Sel:
98.8 kllz x
$UNg
01e3456?89
0,tB klh x
tsde : 12345S?S9*S*AB[S
fxternal: 9.08 kllz x
displar ilofg
iLfIHRL
falle
fFtr
$gnthesizen Encode Fornat S*l tltl
lode $equencei ltl3456?89
(Sare code es in Audio fontrol]
Freq
t
0I
It
t]
llr
)
t9g8s.
SE0
hlr
lser )
s
18080.8
l.900
0.90e
t?s89.0 9. sgl
3r r6tBg.0 8. ?g[
4t 15mN,0 1.6t9
14508.6 l.sg8
6t r3s08.0 t. {$l
7l 12t08.8 t.300
8I 11098.0 g.2Nl
9I l$t0f.o E. tgt
51
cler
to
reiurn
end
Figure 3-9. General Sequence Mode Select
27
3-7 METER AND DISPLAY
The display of metered data is presented
In the MONITOR Mode, the following data is
displayed in the RF Display area.
both
numerically and graphically within the Display
zone in the left portion of the screen (figure
Mon Freq
3-10). This zone is divided into two separate Center frequency of the radio under test
display areas: Meter area and Display area.
entered in the RF Control zone.
3-7.1
Meter
following, using softkeys from the "Meter:" cursor
field.
Select a measurement display from the
as
Freq Err
This area displays the plus or minus frequency
offset (error) of the received carrier relative to
the center frequency entered above.
DevlToAM
3-7.1.1 RF Display
This area displays the RF test data for the radio
Indicates the modulation level of the received
under test, subject to the mode selected carrisr, dependent upon the modulation type
(MONITOR, GENERATE, DUPLEX, or optionselected in the RF Control zone.
TRACK
GENERATE).
al
NoI€: THE R.2550 ONLY OPEBATES IN THE STANDABD MODE
ffi
smroon/
fiF
fontrol:
Pnesel:
--
rclfl@
Bru: m
freqi
f,en Freq: lt5.SS88
Di
splag
:
lf,h Lul:7t?.lt
uU
}frilllrtf,Tl{H SttPE
fiUI0 Irig
Lul:16*trel lull
lloriz! 290 us/diu Fosition: (ti)
Trisser:
Uertiral!
I
8?t.t[00 lllz
tdB
Attenuationi
AI{T
lhn BF In:
ltudulalion
llod
T
:FH
$ur: l.S[ kHz
Fixed lkHz: 2.8t kHz -
$cnih: t.Sl kHz x
Fomal Sel:
0PL
[ode:
0e3
DTltr: LS$ kllz x
kHz/
diu
tode:113456?9gtts*AS[D
External: 0,8l kllz x
ill
}ISPLfiY
PSE$ET
AT
stftt'l
u{il-I$
DT
u{LTS
IHT
DIST
E'IT
DISI
Figure 3-10. RF Display Zone
28
sIltftD
tol.e
3-7.1.2 Preset Scan
The R-2550 analyzer provides a preset scan
Input Lvl
Displays the signal level received at the selected front panel connector. This area displays
transmitter powsr for high levels of input as
well as lower levels of field strength. Data is
displayed only for "on channel" carrier frequencies. A single cursor field at this location
allows selection by softkey of either microvolts/watts or dBm units of display.
function in which the preset monitor frequencies
stored in the RF memory are continually
scanned (figure 3-11). The analyzer scans
through the preset frequencies, stopping and
dwelling on a channel whenever the receiver
squelch is broken. When the receiver becomes
squelched again, scanning resumes. All20 preset
monitor frequencies, or a subset consisting of a
continuous block offrequencies, can be scanned.
When no signals are detected, the analyzer scans
through all 20 preset frequencies in less than ll2
second. If the number of preset frequencies to be
scanned is reduced, the scanning process is even
faster. RF signals to be scanned can be input
from either the ANT or RF UO ports.
When the GENERATE mode is selected, the RF
Display area shows generator center frequency
as well as generate level per the RF Control
zone entry. A single cursor field at this location
allows selection by softkey of either millivolts/
microvolts (mViuV), dBu,
or dBm units
of
display.
While the analyzer is scanning, the "Freq:"
fields within the meter zone and RF Control
When DUPLEX mode is selected, the RF Display area reflects a combination of the monitor
and generator data, as described above.
tloton:SE5[trIlE[I
Lo
lfu:
Presetl
f,S
BF
thde:$TeffififiD
Freqi -scanninl- l*h
Preset
zone indicate scanning. When a carrier is
Dev:
-----
kHz
InPut Lul:----.- d8r
Hi Presei: tB
0isplag: t{SULfiTt{Fl St0Pt
Trisger: SllT{} Iris Lvl:5t[{rel 1u1}
Hurizi 59 us/diu Position: (tt)
i ral :
1 kHz/
diu
Uert
Eonlrol:
Preset:
lfiSllTOR
--
B/t"l: lS
Freq: sranning ffiz
f,ftenualion: fi dS
Rf I/t}
lhn RF In:
lhdulatisn Tupei
Fll
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29
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quencies (e.9. public service band) in the scan
list and the analyzer is set to FM mode, radio ^traffic on the AM frequency will cause the
scanner to lock, but the received audio will be
unintelligible and the modulation measurement
will be meaningless.
acquired, the "Freq:" field in the RF Control
zone indicates metering and its counterpart in
the meter zone displays the channel on which
the carrier was detected. Also displayed in the
meter zofle ars the preset number of the channel,
the received power level and the modulation
level of the received signal.
Because breaking the receiver squelch causes the
analyzer to stop scanning, it is important to
properly adjust the squelch control. If the
squelch is adjusted too loosely (counterclockwise rotation of the squelch knob), undesired
noise signals will break the receiver squelch and
the scanning function will not operate properly.
If the squelch is adjusted too tightly (clockwise
rotation of the squelch control knob), it is possible that desired signals will not be strong
enough to break the squelch and the analyzer
will not stop and dwell on the channel. To
adjust the squelch control for proper scanning
operation, turn the squelch control fully counterclockwise and activate the Preset Scan mode.
The analyzer will not scan because it will lock
on the first frequency due to the squelch being
open. Now slowly rotate the squelch control
clockwise, just until the squelch light goes out,
the noise in the speaker stops and the unit
begins to scan. If an actual signal is received
while the squelch is being adjusted, wait until it
To activate the Preset Scan function, depress the
Preset Scan softkey. This key not only begins
the preset scanning but also serves as a "continue key" to temporarily skip past a channel with
heavy radio traffic. When the analyzer is locked
on a preset frequency and you wish to continue
scanning, although the signal is still present,
press the Preset Scan softkey again. This continues the scanning with the next preset frequency
in the memory table. Pressing the Preset Scan
softkey only skips over a frequency once; if
radio traffic is still present on that frequency the
next time that it is scanned, the analyzer will
stop and dwell once again.
The number of preset frequencies to be scanned
can be limited by using the Low Preset and
High Preset fields in the meter zone. Entries in
these fields will cause the analyzer to only scan
from the low preset number to the high preset
number. By carefully ananging the preset frequencies in the RF memory into related groups,
you can make maximum use of the Low Preset
and High Preset scan limiters. For example, a
particularly busy preset frequency which is
catrsing the analyzer to stop scanning and dwell
for long periods of time can be removed from
the scan list by moving it within the RF memory
table to a location just above or below the preset
numbers being scanned.
ends before resuming the adjustment. For maxi-
mum sensitivity, the squelch level should
be
adjusted as loose as possible (cbunterclockwise)
without being broken by receiver noise.
To halt the scanning operation at any time, press
the RF Display softkey. This stops the scanning
and leaves the analyzer locked on the last
scanned frequency prior to the key press.
Note: When the unit is in the Preset Scan mode,
the response time to key presses will be
somewhat slower than normal. For best
results, it is recommended that you do not
leave Preset Scan active in the Display
zone when it is not being used.
that frequencies in the RF
memory table be grouped according to their
modulation type and bandwidth because these
parameters must be manually changed in the
analyzer's RF Control zone. If an AM frequency
(e.g. aircraft band) is intermixed with FM fre-
It is recommended
30
t
3-7.1.2 Preset Scan
The R-2550 analyzer provides
Input Lvl
Displays the signal level received at the selected front panel connector. This area displays
transmitter power for high levels of input as
well as lower levels of field strength. Data is
displayed only for "on channel" carrier frequencies. A single cursor field at this location
allows selection by softkey of either microvolts/watts or dBm units of display.
or dBm units of
display.
While the analyzer is scanning, the "Freq:"
fields within the meter zone and RF Control
When DUPLEX mode is selected, the RF Display area reflects a combination of the monitor
and generator data, as described above.
zone indicate scanning. When a carrier is
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preset scan
function in which the preset monitor frequencies
stored in the RF memory are continually
scanned (figure 3-11). The analyzer scans
through the preset frequencies, stopping and
dwelling on a channel whenever the receiver
squelch is broken. When the receiver becomes
squelched again, scanning resumes. All20 preset
monitor frequencies, or a subset consisting of a
continuous block offrequencies, can be scanned.
When no signals are detected, the analyzer scans
through all20 preset frequencies in less than ll2
second. If the number of preset frequencies to be
scanned is reduced, the scanning process is even
faster. RF signals to be scanned can be input
from either the ANT or RF VO ports.
When the GENERATE mode is selected, the RF
Display area shows generator center frequency
as well as generate level per the RF Control
zone entry. A single cursor field at this location
allows selection by softkey of either millivolts/
microvolts (mViuV), dBu,
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Figure 3-11. Preset Scan Mode
29
SIHAO
tofe
acquired, the "Freq:" field in the RF Control
zone indicates metering and its counterpart in
the meter zone displays the channel on which
the canier was detected. Also displayed in the
meter zone a"re the preset number of the channel,
the received power level and the modulation
level of the received signal.
quencies (e.g. public service band) in the scan
list and the analyzer is set to FM mode, radio
traffic on the AM frequency will cause the
scanner to lock, but the received audio will be
unintelligible and the modulation measurement
will be meaningless.
Because breaking the receiver squelch causes the
analyzer to stop scanning, it is important to
properly adjust the squelch control. If the
squelch is adjusted too loosely (counterclockwise rotation of the squelch knob), undesired
noise signals will break the receiver squelch and
the scanning function will not operate properly.
If the squelch is adjusted too tightly (clockwise
rotation of the squelch control knob), it is possible that desired signals will not be strong
enough to break the squelch and the analyzer
will not stop and dwell on the channel. To
adjust the squelch control for proper scanning
operation, turn the squelch control fully counter-
To activate the Preset Scan function, depress the
Preset Scan softkey. This key not only begins
the preset scanning but also seryes as a "continue key" to temporarily skip past a channel with
heavy radio traffic. When the analyzer is locked
on a preset frequency and you wish to continue
scanning, although the signal is still present,
press the Preset Scan softkey again. This continues the scanning with the next preset frequency
in the memory table. Pressing the Preset Scan
softkey only skips over a frequency once; if
radio traffic is still present on that frequency the
next time that it is scanned, the analyzer will
stop and dwell once again.
clockwise and activate the Preset Scan mode.
The analyzer will not scan bscause it will lock
on the first frequency due to the squelch being
open. Now slowly rotate the squelch control
clockwise, just until the squelch light goes out,
the noise in the speaker stops and the unit
begins to scan. If an actual signal is received
while the squelch is being adjusted, wait until it
ends before resuming the adjustment. For maximum sensitivity, the squelch level should be
The number of preset frequencies to be scanned
can be limited by using the Low Preset and
High Preset fields in the meter zone. Entries in
these fields will cause the analyzer to only scan
from the low preset number to the high preset
number. By carefully ananging the preset frequencies in the RF memory into related groups,
you can make maximum use of the Low Preset
and High Preset scan limiters. For example, a
particularly busy preset frequency which is
causing the analyzer to stop scanning and dwell
for long periods of time can be removed from
the scan list by moving it within the RF memory
table to a location just above or below the preset
numbers being scanned.
adjusted as loose as possible (cbunterclockwise)
without being broken by receiver noise.
To halt the scanning operation at any time, press
the RF Display softkey. This stops the scanning
and leaves the analyzer locked on the last
scanned frequency prior to the key press.
It is recommended
that frequencies in the RF
memory table be grouped according to their
modulation type and bandwidth because these
parameters must be manually changed in the
analyzer's RF Control zone. If an AM frequency
(e.g. aircraft band) is intermixed with FM fre-
Note: When the unit is in the Preset Scan mode,
the response time to key presses will be
somewhat slower than normal. For best
results, it is recommended that you do not
leave Preset Scan active in the Display
zone when it is not being used.
30
The distortion meter operates only at the fixed
frequency of I KHz.
3-7.I.3 AC/DC VOLTMETER
The Analyzer provides a general purpose
AC/DC digital voltmeter (figure 3-12). The
voltmeter input is the same front panel BNC
port that also serves as the input for the
SINAD/DIST meter, the VERT oscilloscope
3-7.1.5 SINAD Meter
is
selected within the
"Meter:" field in the Display zone. Display consists of a digital readout and bar graph. SINAD
is used in making receiver sensitivity measurements per EIA specifications using a fixed 1
kHz modulation frequency.
The SINAD meter
input, and the period COUNTER IN.
Move the cursor to the "Range:" field. Select
the voltage range (1V, 10V, or 100V DC) by
pressing the applicable softkey. Maximum AC
range is 70 VAC. If ttre optional battery pack is
installed, an additional selection is available to
read the battery voltage.
Internal coupling for SINAD is not provided;
input is always via the extemal BNC port on the
front panel.
3-7.1.6 Counter and Decoding Functions
CAUTION
The following are all accessed via softkey
through the "Meter:" field within the Display
zone. Their inputs are all normally internally
coupled to the monitor demodulated signal for
either direct or "off-the-air" testing. If use of
these functions is needed for an externally
applied signal, the Special Functions screen,
The mnximum analyzer input voltage is
100 volts peak.
The data portion of this screen will show a horizontally oriented bar graph for an analog indication along with a digital readout of the measured
voltage (up to 4 digits resolution).
under SYSTEM FUNCTIONS, provides ameans
of switching the input of the Counter/decoder
from Internal to External.
In the AC mode, the measured input is also
displayed in dBm, referenced to lmW into 600
ohms.
These screens contain a "Sensitivity:" field
where MIN or MAX may be selected via softkey. This provides a means to desensitize the
counter/decoder circuits, if needed to properly
measure very high level signals. Under normal
operation, this field should be set to MAX.
3-7.1.4 INT DIST/EXT DIST Meter
The internal and external distortion meter are
selectable via softkeys located within the 'rMeter:" field in the Display zone. The display
consists of a digital readout and bar graph.
Distortion is used to measure the audio quality
of the transmitter and receiver modulation. The
distortion meter is selectable via softkey between internal (coupled from the monitor demodulated signal) and external (through the
DIST input on the front panel).
The display exhibits a digital frequency and
equivalent PL code if applicable. Refer to
Appendix B for valid codes.
31
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DTMF DECODE
This softkey provides a means of decoding
DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Freq) signaling for
PLIPER Counter
This softkey provides a convenient means of
measuring the frequency of Motorola
Private-Line (PL) or any other low frequency
audio tones with 3 digit resolution. Period
measurement makes it possible to measurs low
frequencies down to high resolution without
the need for the long gate times associated
with frequency counting.
testing telephone interfaced systems.
set" softkey clears the display.
A
"re-
3-7.2 Display
Any of the following graphic data displays can
be selected for simultaneous display along with
the previously discussed meter displays. Select
using softkeys from the "Display:" field in the
Display zone.
CAUTION
Do not input frequencies above 400
kHz to the period counter. Slow down
of system operations will result.
3-7.2.1 Spectrum Analyzer
The Spectrum Analyzer (figure 3-13) is active in
the MONITOR or DUPLEX modes. Move the
cursor to the "Display:" field within the Display
zone.
DPL DECODE
This softkey provides decoding for valid
Motorola Digital Private-Line (DPL) codes.
Refer to Appendix B for applicable codes.
Selection of high and low pass filters may be
Select SPECTRUM ANALYZER by pressing
the softkey. The input frequency spectrum is
displayed in a frequency-versus-amplitude
made from this screen as described above.
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33
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level present at the input port so there is no
need to compensate for added attenuation.
(dBm) graph. Either the ANT or RF VO port
may be selected for input from the "RF Control:" zone. The amount of input attenuation
may also be selected within the zone to vary
the sensitivity of the Spectrum Analyzer.
Dispersion (freq/div)
Select the bandwidth (20 kHz, 50 kHz, 100
kHz, 200 kHz, 500 kHz, 1 MHz) bY first
moving the cursor to the dispersion field, then
pressing the desired softkey. Center frequency
is entered from the RF Control zone and may
be conveniently varied with the TUNING
NOTE
If SPECTRIIM ANALYZER is selectedwhile
the Preset Scan feature is active, the spectrum analyzer wiII be temporarily disabled
during scanning, but will become active
again when the analyzer loclcs onto a signal.
knob.
3-7.2.2 Modulation ScoPe
The Modulation Scope (figure 3-14) displays the
internal modulation waveforms. It automatically
switches between generator or monitor modulation depending on which mode is selected.
Sensitivity
The SA "Sensitivity: MIN/lrdAX" field shifts
the baseline reference of the display by 10 db.
This is valid only for 0 dB input attenuation.
Changing the input attenuation or changing
from ANT to RF VO port in the RF Control
zone will change the vertical scale of the
Spectrum Analyzer display. Calibration is
maintained between the display and the signal
In DUPLEX
mode, select either generate or
monitor modulation displays by first moving the
cursor to the "Select:" field within the Display
area, then pressing the desired softkey.
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Figure 3-14. Modulation ScoPe
34
to the trigger level setting (triggering always
occurs on the rising portion of the applied
waveform). Messages on the line just above
the softkeys indicate the status of the single
sweep. The single sweep is useful in measuring one-time events, such as a tone burst at
the beginning of a transmission' Such bursts
may be followed by other modulation which
would over-write the screen if measured in the
NORMAL trigger mode.
NOTE
Because the R-2550 Analyzer has a fiilly
digital oscilloscope (storage scope), -it inhertitty lrot some characteristics which are
dffirent from the "real-time" analog scopes
best overall
\i*ttto, to most users. For
-results,
it is recommended that the trigger
Ievel be set to 500 and the triggering be set
to AUTO.
The Display area of the screen will indicate
rr,roouin'iroN scoPE with the input signal
graph' To
displayed in a time-versus-frequency
change triggering, horizontal position' horizontal range, vertical position, or vertical range'
use the cursor control keys to highlight the
appropriate cursor fields as follows:
Trigger
Press the AUTO, NORMAL,
Level
Adjust the TUNING knob to select the desired
trigger level. The trigger level is a relative
level setting between the values of 0 and 999
(full scale) where 0 is the most negative and
999 is the most Positive voltage'
NOTE
To achieve the fastest update rate of
the display a trigger level setting of
500 is recommended for most applica'
or
SINGLE
SWEEP softkey to select the type of triggering
desired. The trigger level synchronizes the
horizontal time base to the vertical input
tions.
signal.
Horiz
In AUTO mode, the scope will trigger continuously. In this mode, the analyzer will always
re-sweep the display even if there is no signal
present. The rate will be about 1 per second
with no signal present and about 10 per sec-
Press the desired softkey to select the Horizon-
tal Sweep rate (20 us to 1 segond/div)' Since
all ranges cannot be shown on one screen'
press the more softkey for additional selections.
ond with signal Present.
NOTE
If horizontal sweep rates of Sreater
than l0 msec/div are selected' the
update rate will slow down' A good
overall setting for most applications is
mode, the scope will trigger
when the vertical signal exceeds the trigger
leve1set. In NORMAL mode the analyzer will
the
re-sweep at a rate of 10 per second, with
of
last screen display remaining after removal
In NORMAL
200 usec Per division'
the signal.
SWEEP mode, the scoPe will
trigger one time for each softkey press' subject
In SINGLE
35
Horizontal Position
Adjust the horizontal position through the
(< >) cursor field either by using the desired
softkey (MovE LEFT, MOVE RIGHT) or by
using the rotary TUNING knob.
rates. Use the scope to analyze waveforms,
detect asymmetric modulation or audio distortion, trace signals, and troubleshoot.
The vertical (VERT) input is the same BNC port
that also serves as the input for DVM,
Vertical Sensitivity
Press ttre desired softkey to select the Vertical
Sensitivity (AM: |Vo, lo
SINAD/DIST meter, and COUNTER IN.
50Vo p$ division,
The EXT'L SCOPE mode has an additional
cursor field to select "Coupling:" AC or DC via
softkey selection. Operation of triggering,
FM: 100 Hzto 50 kHz per division, dependent
on bandwidth selected). When all ranges
cannot be shown on one screen, press the
more softkey for additional selections.
ranges, trace positioning and optional markers
are the same as described in MODULATION
SCOPE above. Vertical ranges will always
display in voltage per division in the EXT'L
SCOPE mode.
NOTE
The vertical scales and softkeys
for FM
will change autom.atically
between wideband and narrowband.
deviation
3-7.2.4 Tracking Generator (Option)
This display must work in conjunction with the
TRACK GENERATE mode which is selected
thru the "RF Control:" field of the RF zone.
Refer to paragraph3-5.4 for a full description of
Vertical Position
Adjust the vertical position through the ( 0 )
cursor field either by using the desired softkey
(MOVE UP, MOVE DOWN) or by using the
rotary TUNING knob.
Tracking Generator operation.
3-7.2.5 Bar Graphs
The bar graphs provide a graphical display of
the RF Display data from the Meter area of the
NOTE
Scale and positioning adjustments are
not possible for stored waveforms that
are displayed through the use of single
single
triggering
sweep
non-periodic signals.
or
screen.
on
NOTE
Error
The Freq.
bar graph is not available
if PRESET SCAN, PWER COUNTER, or
DPL DECODE are selected in the "Meter:"
field area.
3-7.2.3 EXT',L SCOPE
The Analyzer provides a general purpose oscillo-
scope with calibrated vertical input sensitivities
and automatic or triggered horizontal sweep
36
3.8 OTHER FUNCTIONS
ating tgmperature unless critical measurements are needed immediately upon turn-
3-8.1 Audio Monitor
The Analyzer has a speaker for the purpose of
audibly monitoring the recovered baseband
signal in the MONITOR and DUPLEX modes
and the modulating signal in the GENERATE
mode. Switching between the two is automatic.
on.
CAUTION
Before starting self calibration be sure
that the 50 ohm load, attached bY
chain to the front panel, is connected
to the GEN OUT Port. This Provides
the termination which is essential to
proper calibration. AIso ensure all
connections to the RF I/O and ANT
conne ctors are removed.
Using the VOLUME control, the input signal to
the speaker is adjustable to a maximum level of
0.5 watts rms.
b. Press the START softkey to begin the calibration. While the calibration is active, the
The speaker is also used for audible warnings,
such as RF overtemperature.
message calibrating appears.
c. When the calibration has been performed,
the message complete appears- Press the
3-8.2 Remote OPeration
To use the remote function, refer to The Programmer Reference Manual, 68-80309855'
return softkey or a cursor control key to
return to the previous screen.
3-8.3 Calibration
Calibration of the Analyzer is performed by the
3-8.4 Special Functions Menu
The Special Function mode (figure 3-15)
acprovides
control
cessed by pressing the SPF key,
over various system conditions as follows:
following steps.
a. Press the CAL key to instruct the processor
to perform a self calibration on the system'
The CAL function provides a self calibration of the units RF generator output level,
the monitor input level and the modulation
level. All other parameters are not subject
VERSION
Accesses a display table which provides the
internal software version and checksum for the
system and any options Present.
to this self-calibration.
This assures the unit's specification
RS-232 SETUP
Accesses a display table which allows configuration of the RS-232.
ac-
curacy under conditions of ambient temperature extremes and aging. Re-calibration is
recommended at weekly intervals or when
the re-calibrate warning appears on the
SPF RESET
This softkey appears throughout the Special
Function screen as a convenience in resetting
screen. Calibration is only recommended
after the unit has fully warmed up to oper37
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Figure 3-15. Special Functions Menu
of all special functions to the factory standard
state. This will switch all decoding to internal.
SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS
Accesses softkeys to select the
.I{VM Clear
This softkey erases the entire RF Preset
memory area and front panel CAL memory.
The Analyzer must be recalibrated after this
key has been pressed.
following:
NOTE
When any of the following special
functions are selected, the normal
operating screens wiII flash a warning
SPF Enabled at the lower right of the
.NVM
screen. This serves as a reminder
.Save State
Sets the current condition and settings of
the unit as the power up state.
Reset
This softkey provides a less extensive
system reset than NVM Clear. CAL and
preset memory are not erased.
since
special functions inadvertently lefr
enabled can adversely ffict norm.al
operation of the unit.
ENABLE/DISABLE Generate Mode Speaker
Provides the means to disable the internal
speaker during generate mode.
38
-
2. Move the cursor to highlight the field of the
function desired. Applicable softkeys will
be presented.
ENABLE/DISABLE Auto Switch to MON if
0.1 W
Allows the unit to automatically switch to
the MOMTOR mode when Power levels
greater than 0.1 watt are applied to the RF
IN/OUT front Panel connector'
3. Use the softkeys to make selections' Levels
may be set using the TUNING knob or keypad.
INTERNAL/EXTERNAL INPUT Decoding
4. Press the return key to return to the previous screen.
Switches the decoder function between the
internal monitor demodulated signal and the
signal at the VERT/SINAD front panel con-
3-8.5 MemorY
The Memory screen provides for viewing and
entry of preset frequencies into non-volatile
memory. The actual selection of a preset number for operation of the system can only be done
from the RF Control zone.
nector.
3-8.4.1 Special Function Selection
To select a special function follow the following
procedure.
1. Press the SPF key to display the special
functions menu on the disPlaY'
iEl{lf,f
l'bn Freq
(lllz)
ft81 ri8. sE88
sll
lurrenl Freset l0]
lbn freq
6en Freq
(llHz)
tl$lz)
115,8[8S
10r 999,99C9
225.5108
t25.5886
821 125.S088
4e5.9908
424.5103
999.9999
999.9999
t3I
44$,5BlB
841 999.9999
05i 999.9999
s6r 999.9999
B7I 999.9999
8S1 999.9999
flgi 999.9999
Pressing the MEM key accesses the memory
display (figure 3-16) which shows the20 presets
1lI
999.9919
121 999.9999
131 991,9999
141 999, t999
tst 999.9999
161 999.9999
1?1 999.9999
999.9999
191 999.9999
999. 9999
999,9999
tsl
999.9999
999.9999
llse numric kegs in eddition to soflkegs
Figure 3-16. MemorY Screen
39
Gen Freq
{Flz}
999.9999
999.9999
999,9999
999,9999
T99.9999
999.9999
999.9999
999,9999
999,9999
999.9999
(00 - 19) and the monitor and generate frequencies associated with each.
To
change the preset memory frequencies,
perform the following steps:
a. Preds the MEM key to access the special
Memory scrsen.
b. Move the cursor to the appropriate digit of
the monitor or generate frequency value
displayed, and enter the desired frequency
information.
c. Press the "return" key to return to the previous screen.
40
Section 4
APPLICATIONS
4-I BASIC
F'M TRANSMITTER TESTING
Motorola takes no responsibility for application
accuracy, applicability, or safety. Always refer
to your own transceiver's service manual for
This section of the manual contains information
on typical tsst setups to perform some of the
more common radio tests using the R-2550.
recommended test methods and specifications.
Mtc
AUDIO
IN
TRANSMITTER UNDEB TEST
Figure 4-1. Basic FM Transmitter Testing Setup
4l
4-l.l
4-1.2 Transmit Power, Frequency, and
Basic FM Transmitter Testing Setup
Refer to Figure 4-1. Connect the R-2550 Analyzer RF VO port to the RF output of the transmitter under test. Connect the R-2550 Analyzer
MOD OUT jack to the mic audio input of the
transmitter under test.
Frequency Deviation Measurements
1. With the cursor located within the RF
Control zone (refer to paragruph 3-2),
press ttre MON softkey to Place the
R-2550 Analyzer into its Monitor mode
of operation.
CAUTION
Monitor Mode
Sofikey
For transtnit power output measurements, connect the transmit-
ter under test only to the R-2550
Analyzer RF I/O port. Do not
connect it to the R-2550 Analyzer
ANT port. The ANT port is used
with an antenna for "off-air"
2.
Within the RF Control zone, set as follows:
reception.
The built-in RF load dissipates
up to 50 W for three minutes and
up to 125 W for one minute. If a
high-power transmitter is keyed
into the R-2550 Analyzer for a
rtme long enough to threaten
overheating the power measuring
circuitry, the system's audible
alarm sounds and the display
changes to the RF LOAD OVER
TEMPERATURE w arning, si gnaling the operator to unkey (refer
to paragraph 3-4).
RF
Conlrol:
MONITOR
i:i;il'i: l,ll:j
816.5000 MHz
"
Freq:
Altenuatlon:
Mon RF ln:
Modulatlon Type:
I'ii!:*r::'i:"
J.
42
Transmitter
Frequensy
(
-20 dB
RF l/O
FM
Set the SQUELCH control to threshold.
For low-power transmitters, it may be
necessary to use a lower attenuation value
in order to unsquelch the monitor (refer
to paragraph 3-5.1). Too high of an attenuation setting or too tight a squelch setting inhibits the frequency error reading
(refer to paragraph 3-7.1.1). Accurate
measurements require sufficient signal
level from the radio to fully quiet the R2550 Analyzer's receiver. Use good quality cable of minimum length to prevent
cablelos's which can be a significant
factor in RF power measurements' especially at UHF and above'
4-t.3 Modulation
Measurements
1. Key up the transmitter with appropriate
PL (or DPL) enabled'
4.
With the cursor located within the RF
Control zone, press the RF DISPLAY softkey:
NOTE: Microphone pickup of
background
audio noise in the testing area mtry
result in deviation tneasurernent er'
rors. Consult your transceiver mnnual
the proper procedure to disable
for
the microPhone audio'
When monitoring the PL (or DPL) deviation as follows, refer to your radio's
service manual to determine if any adjustments are required.
5.
Key the transmitter and read the power
(Input Level) and frequency error (Freq
Err). Refer to your radio's service manual
to determine if power and frequency are
within specified limits and determine if
l1:1
1;1. i'ii: i::iiliri..\1
l*,.rir i:jl.:{::' fi
ir':i?{':
itt
:.iiir,;
i:t:. .: ..ll' i'i::i
i'i:'i:{
DeV: 75O Hz
ir:i.lili 1..'.i'
":'ii.i;
:.li:N::
any adjustments are required'
J.
f211
:ril ili: i:rii;i]i.ri'.'
ii,,t'i! !:t:x:i' fi ii.i :,:Jii.;
F1pqEn:
+ 47Hz
].:ii-l;
!-!*r': ij'i:ii'!:::
lnputlvl:'70'5 dBm
Introduce a ! kHz audio modulating
signal from the MOD OUT connector
toiateO on the front panel of the R-2550
raAnalyzer to your radio' Check your
dio's service manual to determine the
for
minimum audio signal level required
proper MIC sensitivity as well as the
proper
maximum level required to ensure
IDC (Instantaneous Deviation Control)
function.
43
in
The voltage levels d'isplayed'
iud.u Cintrol zone are Peak
'*i"i,
ie
distortion'
the Display Conlocate the cursor within
field' Press the
t ol ,onr, at the "fiieter:"
pefcentage
lr.rr orsr softkey to measure
7. To measuro the percen*gt:1
the
oPen,
,oltog"' Source imPedance
of
ohms'
MOD OUT Port is 100
of distordon'
and set for
lum the lkHz signal on'
in step 3'
level as detennined
il*"*
.(tt.!iii.-'
lilill:
(i'(d! t''. k
FixedlkHz: 040 V i.,:i:
i:i":ii:.}.
!.)'i'!!t?:
i:i,'friii,l
i':r"
i3i ri fii:
/v{(! V
I
r;od{tl I il.!iivii'iiId'{"';iAl'il:l'i
;rt,'::rnai:
{i'in V
ri
digital-readoot-1nd
8. Refer to the displayed
lt-gtuptt. Refer to your radio's :ervlce
determine
"Litirt
are required.
by reading
Verify proper MIC sensitivity
serRefer to Your radio's
maximum rated
irc, **our to determine
anY
deviation to dercrmine
;;;"i;,i.n.
if
;ffi
odio**tno
f.Jd.:!l$r'
are required'
l::ii i)iiiiri'.'rJi'
lfuii i:nr,:: ili{i.'.i':l:f
;r;1r1. iir'... 4) ii';'
Set ttre
:$ilil
i::i:ir': l
D€v:.3'5 kHz
li ":'(i'i; iii:tl:!
for
l kHz audio modulating signal 3'
step
level as dercrmined in
maximum
5'
Repeat stePs 4 and
44
if
any adjustments
4-1.4 Off-The'Air Measurements
4.
1. Connect the TEKA-24A Pick-Up Antenna
to the R-2550 ANT Port' OPerate the
own
transmitter under test either into its
anrcnna or into a dummY RF load'
NOTE: This method may be used to verify
of a reftequencY and modulation
motely located tansnxitter by reducing
the attenuation setting to fully realize
the sensitivity of the R-2550 Analyzer
" Off-The-Air" monitor function'
2. With ths cursor located wittrin the FtF
to
Control zone, press the MON softkey
Moniits
place the R-2550 Analyzer into
tor mode of oPeration
Monitor Mode
3. Set the SQUELCH control
to threshold'
Within the RF Control zone, set as follows:
FFcontrol: lM'olttlronl
Preset--
B/W: NB
FIeq: 816.500OMH2
Anenualion: -20 dB
ANT
lvlon RF ln:
Modulatlon TYPe: FM
Check transmitter frequency and modulation as detailed in paragraphs 4-1'2 and
4-r.3.
Transmitter Carliel
FrcquencY
-20 dB
Antenna Poil
FM Modulalion
45
IVER TESTING
ual connins information
some of the
,i p.rrot*
rts using the R-2550'
DVM input is unbalanced
Analyzer
R-2550
The
Gfi;;;';TY:l;ffi
balanc
to
fi?i":':3ff
'::':'#;
measure
or telephone lines'
receiver audio outputs
p.^gffio-"t
TEST
RECEIVEB UNDER
Setup
FM Receiver Testing
Figure 4-2' Basic
46
-^-2.1 Basic FM Receiver Testing Setup
Within the Audio Control zone' set as
3.
Anato Figure 4-2' Connect the R-2550
follows:
^tefer
connector'
lyzer RF VO port to the radio antenna
to VERT/SINAD
Connect the radio audio output
port of the R-2550 AnalYzer'
Setto6oP/o ol
System Deviallon
CAUTION
speaker
With some radios, grounding the
circuitry'
leads wiII damnge the audio
lJse isolation techniques on these radios'
{.1:::rl*l 1,;:;.1':iiiir' illjriii.tii:.ii.::i;
l. With the cursor located within the RF
4.
Control zone (refer to paragraph 3-2)'
press the GEN softkeY to Place the
mode
if-ZSSO Analyzer into its Generator
With *re cursor located within ttre Display Control zone, press the AC VOLTS
softkey to display the ac voltmeter:
of operation.
Generalor Mode
Soltkey
a
!
2. Witttin the RF Control
zons, set as fol-
5.
lows:
RF
Conlrol:
Radlo Under
Te6t FrequencY
GENERATE
"
Freq: 816.500o MHz
Output Level: -1 12 dB
RF l/O
Mon HF ln:
Modulation TYPe: FM
6,ii?*i.r:.
NOTE:
Lrl'id: itlli
required voltage-
14ri:+rr' ;':.{}'.:Tii..-ift':{if
f:'r.r.1.i
J't: i! i
setuP and distortion measurements, set outqut level to at
For
least
i0 dB above sensitivitY
threshold. ( -80 dBm
Adjust the radio for rated power output
by computing voltage needed for rated
pt*.t with load resistor/speaker in use'
to produce
anO setting the radio volume
re
commende d)'
n
':jii
manual to determine
are required.
6. With the cursor located within the Display Control zone (at Display:), press the
EXT SCOPE softkey.
if
any adjustments
4-2.3 SINAD Measurement
vertical and horizontal detlection to observe sine wave from receiver
7. Set scope
1. With the cursor located within the Dis-
audio.
play Control zone, press ttre SINAD softkey.
Dlsplay: EXTERML SCOPE
l..it]:ii..' i:i.ii:t ii$:.'dii. ll{r$i.ri..'jf}
ii{.iiit::;:rl:
i.:i.i
Irt
.,{i.;
l'{rt: i.ltf:i:
i:1'.,
2. Refer to the displayed
digital readout and
bar graph.
4-2.2 Receiver Distortion Measurement
{.:r
1. With the cursor located within the Display Control zone, press the EXT DlsT
softkey to measure percentage of distortion. enemat
Dlgorfon
3.
rr
i:ri
:i
i.-;.}:.; r.ri
:
.} f . i..i
fj
$:':'l
Within the RF Control zone, adjust the
selected RF level until the SINAD reading on the SINAD meter averages 12 dB
(instantaneous reading will vary several
dB).
riiiii'ii:.:ltll;'il:j
fit:'f(it:lr|i:
Fii?$xli:""
iil,lfri: lill
{jili.l.;{:iiii lrlil,r
fr*!:ii
digital readout and
your
radio's service
bar graph. Refer to
2. Refer to the displayed
Output
il"ir..ii
Level:
lr,:
iii:
-1 15 dB
fi:: iii::
l.,j:'-.iiri;*ii+ri'ttj.i{..
48
i;f.'i
4.
the deviation level required in step
3. A typical modulation acceptance bandwidth of a 5 kHz receiver is 7 to 8 kHz.
Refer to your radio's service manual to
determine if any adjustments are required.
4. Read
Note RF output level required for SINAD
reading of 12 dB (-115 dBm tYPical
dependent on manufacturers specifications).
NOTE: RF output level can be referenced to
mV, uV, dBu, or dBm. Selection of
i1,l{ialj:r.i!ii:
Fixed lkHz:
units is available within the Display
Control zone (OutPut Level:).
i'l'itJi:
4-2.4 Modulation Acceptance Bandwidth
i).i:1::1:{ri.;.
7 kHz x
ii.aiii ii.i:i:
)
i.:i{triil':":::.1:i.iiii';:li,'r.it'Aij[:i'.!
1. Set the volume control of the radio to
lTTo of its rated audio output level.
2.
4-2.5 Receiver Sensitivity Testing
(20 dB Quieting)
level 6 dB (doubles the
voltage, i.e. 0.35 uV increased 6dB = 0.7
uV) above the RF output level required in
paragraph 4-],) to achieve the SINAD
Set the RF output
reading
1. With the cursor located within the RF
Control zone, press the MON softkey to
of 12 dB.
remove input signal from the radio.
Monilor Mode
Soltkey
i!: i'ii!'ll,:ifilf i i:r
!:it#:i,i[:l
l:ii:rgi'r1:"'
li!{j.:i(ii!{iiiii'ii:
fr4r:i:
Fi::'ilr:t:h
Output
t
Level:
1.:
-109 dB
liir ln :
Iir,ii iii:
lrlt:rilr i liiiir:rl :
3.
'l 'ii
lncrease 6 dB
{:.
ii l"':
Increass the deviation level until the
SINAD meter display returns to 12 dB.
2.
lncrease as
required
EkHz'i:
.:]::r rl. :/'.
softkey to display the ac voltmeter:
1.
i-]tiftfri':;:.11lj4$Liit;.f..4i.ri:ii
$1:::.tt r:iili/|'iil
i::
l: i:r.
ri
i...;.1:.;
With the cursor located within the Display Control zone, press the AG VOLTS
;)!:
49
3.
Turn on the receiver (unsquelched). In-
6.
crease the receiver volume control to feed
audio noise to the R-2550 Analyzer (at
least 1/4 the rated audio power). Record
the noise reading in dBm.
Within the RF Control zone, adjust the
RF output level until the noise reading is
less than 20 dB from the value recorded
in step 3. Refer to your radio's service
manual to determine if any adjustments
are required.
i,Ji.rj:,.'.:::'
,ti:
Tr:l:- flrriil
NOTE:
i:::ii
With the cursor within the RF Control
To convert the RF output level to uV
or dBV, locate the cursor within the
Display Control zone and press the BF
DISPLAY softkey. Locate the cursor to
units used for LvI: and select the
required unit using the softkeys.
i r.l:ir'li:i:
"
Fttiti:
r.:ii:.i'll:;i.'lnTi:j
fi
i::ii?J.;i::i:.
zone, press the GEN softkeY.
Output
I:i;ir'i; i;f:l
{j
ii:.|;{'ilii
Level:
L'li.i.r
Adluslas
Required
-115 dB
lr.'!:..ii iii: l:,;
Fif j
lr'i'ir:ir:iiiii:.1ri|Ii.(r. ijtr.i
1.,1
Gensrator Mode
Soltkey
4-2.6 Squelch Sensitivity Test
5.
Within the Audio Control zone, set
the
1. With the cursor located within the t{F
modulation off.
Control zone, press the MON softkey.
Fixed
lkHz:
{.1*'jtti:
1
i.l
i:.ri+Fr;ti'
:i.i:'.r.]';
Monitor Mode
Softkey
7 kHz x
!i
iii:l li
iliiiii.iir ii{,:
rj l:rii
50
2. Disable the PL/DPL squelch
if
so
NOTE:
equipped. Set the radio's squelch control
to the point where the receiver barely
To convert the RF output level to uV
or dBV, locate the cursor within the
Display Contol zone and press the BF
DISPLAY softkeY.
quiets.
6. Repeat step 5 with the radio's
3. With the cursor located within the RF
squelch
level set to maximum tightness to determine the tight squelch sensitivity of the
Control zone, press the GEN softkey'
radio.
Generator Mods
Sofikey
sensitivity'
locate the cursor within the Audio Control zone and enter the proper PL fre-
7. To check PL/DPL squelch
quency or DPL code Per APPendix B'
4.
Within the Audio Control zone, set the
lirir.li::'i;itttr:
li<r:i rkl'!r:
modulation off.
$yxl?t:
Format Sel:
FFEQ:
i)'t'f,!l:i:
r.)<rier:
f
l.i.a:iii {.r'i:::
PL
13'1.8 Hz
'ii.{i{!
Vx
ti.{i(i
i/ r
I
i.lr:illti;'i i.l,tr.:r.tli-tiii:;./ri.ii:ii
i:v'n.?t\!.r,'
i{I:; !
:.i:j,;i
or
5.
Within the RF Control zone, increase the
RF output level until the receiver just
unSquelches. This is the threshold squelch
sensitivity of the radio.
,rru.jii lir.ii): (i.(.(! 'ixi
li.<i{i'rLl'ir; 0.+} Y K
{iyrrl?r: r).r1(r V t
DPL
Format Sel:
23
Code:
'iidi(! Y
rj:
rj<rkr: ! ;llt4i*it$!td,rrl'j(:t
i
t)i*fi:ai:
r:
il:'1,'li-:
i.ll {;lir'lltii:
pii:j$j#:"
ft'+r.i:
iLi:.!'!i:ifjiai'il:j
-
*i'*','i:
{.iii.i.1i[!ii
Level:
lr,r
Output
l...-lr,!i i::i:
lirt..irt;iiiii*:
:
'i'.ii+j,.
l.ill
liiiir
Adiust as
Required
'1 15 dB
l:i:: lr!:i
;: f'4
51
{i.{;(i V
i
:l
?3{iliiil!{,*.i/*:j0ti
'a/r.cfftii:
i.;'i;gi:,
{|.(f.l 'i lk
0'00 i/ K
o.fi(l V r
th the cursor located within the Audio
ntrol zone, turn on the modulation and
the R-2550 synthesizer to provide a
ninal 750 Hz (500 - I kHz) deviation
o the radio's manufacturer's specificats.
i.'!3;..1iii;:.;;;;; {!.i!tttrii.i
Fixed lkHz:
Synth:
5 kHz _
O.75 kHz
i-l.i:
i::+i1+
i.;'ifi;-:t
-
lili..
!:i::'t;ir,rl
{fil
(i.:.Jii kn;:l li
iliir:i$l .{{:;l:iii:.Vili}iirjri.j{j:i.i
ble the radio's PL"/DPL squelch cirFully open the carrier squelch con-
hin the RF Contol zone, increase the
output level until the receiver just
quelches. This is the coded squelch
iitivity.
li;: {.:{rtrlr'':i!: riii:.I,il:iflrf
frft?:till;"
"
$,'l.tl:
ili
l;}j
Fffi{i:
tjir:.ij{{:tiir,tiir
-l 12 dB
Output Level:
r'Jr.ii iii: lr,:
t1;: tii :
$ili:tii*iisr1'fyi..{r. ijiv:
Adlusl as
R€qulred
52
ApPendix A
LIST OF ABBREYIATIONS
A
Ampere
AC
Alternating Current
Amplitude Modulation
Attenuation
Automatic
Battery
Coaxial RF Connector
Bandwidth
AM
ATTEN
AUTO
BATT
BNC
BW
C
CAL
CCIR
C&E
Div
DPL
DTMF
Dur
DVM
EEA
Celsius
Calibrate
International Radio
Consultative Committee
Communications and
Electronics (Part of
EIA
Ext'l
FM
Motorola)
cm
CMOS
Centimeters
Complementary Metal
Oxide Semiconductor
Cntr
CRT
CW
Counter
Cathode RaY Tube
Continuous Wave
Decibel
Decibel (refened to
dB
dBc
dBm
DC
Demod
DEV
Disp
DIST
FREQ
GEN
GHz
Horiz
Hz
IC
IDC
carrier)
Decibel (referred to
1 mW into 50 ohms)
Direct Curent
Demodulation
Deviation
Dispersion
Distortion
IEEE
IF
VO
Kohm
kHz
LED
53
Division
Digital Private Line,
a Motorola registered
trademark
Dual-tone
multi-frequencY
Duration
Digital Voltmeter
Electronic
Engineering
Association
Electronics IndustrY
Association
External
Frequency Modulation
Frequency
Generate
Gigahertz
Horizontal
Hertz
Integrated Circuit
Instantaneous
Deviation
Control
Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
Interme diate FrequencY
Input/Output
Kilohm
Kilohertz
Light-Emitting Diode
OF ABBREVIATIONS-CONTINUED
SEQ
Sequence
SINAD
Ratio of (Signal + Noise
+ Distortion)/(Noise
+ Distortion):
Special Function
SPF
STD
SW
SWP
Synth
TN
Trig
TX
UHF
V
VAC
rble
rdwidth
) memory
VDC
Vert
VRMS
Standard
Switch
Sweep
Synthesizer
Tone
Trigger
Transmitter
Ultra High Frequency
Volts
Volts Alternating
Cunent
Volts Direct Current
Vertical
Volts
(root-mean-square)
)rd
gistered
w
Watts
Wide Bandwidth
us
WB
XCVR
XX
lency
Square
recification
54
Transceiver
(Select Any Valid
Number)
APPendix B
TONE AND CODE SPECIFICATIONS
Table
B-1.
Standard DTMF Tones
STANDARD DTMF (Hz)
697
LOW
770
Low
852
LOW
LOW
HIGH
HIGH
HIGH
HIGH
941
1209
1336
1477
1633
Table
B-2. DTMF
FrequencY Coding*
HIGH GROUP TONE
LOW GROUP TONE
1
2
3
A
4
5
6
B
7
I
9
c
o
#
D
;ffiisionsforencoding.anddecoding16differentkevs.Eachkeyis
SlTo
assisnedtworrequen:i:';.::"^rj:r*::xtfiilrlnil"i."i;J'f;[ft
asslgneo lw(J tlvgueil:'"'' -"with 16 ditterent coml
"lgiliffi
rirll
pft *":1q'r:'a[g:f,3fii,Yi",ih:;ili
55
s
oi
"
''i"
eac tr kev
Table
B-3. Privare-Line (pL)
Codes
FREAUENCY
(Hz)
xz
wz
67.0
69.3
71.9
74.4
77.0
79.7
82.5
85.4
88.5
91.5
94.8
97.0
100.0
103.5
107.2
XA
WA
XB
WB
YZ
YA
YB
zz
ZA
ZB
1Z
1A
1B
22
1
2A
10.9
114.8
118.8
123.0
127.3
131.8
136.5
141.3
28
32
3A
3B
42
4A
48
52
5A
5B
62
64
146.2
151.4
156.7
162.2
167.9
173.8
179.9
186.2
192.8
203.5
206.5
210.7
6B
7Z
7A
M1
82
M2
M3
M4
218.1
225.7
92
229.1
M5
M6
M7
233.6
241.8
250.3
56
Table
023
o25
026
031
032
043
o47
051
054
065
071
072
073
114
115
116
125
131
132
134
143
152
155
156
162
165
172
B-4. DPL
Standard Codes
445
174
205
223
226
243
244
245
464
465
466
503
506
516
532
546
251
261
565
263
265
606
612
624
271
306
627
311
631
315
632
654
662
331
343
351
664
703
712
364
365
371
723
411
731
732
412
413
423
734
743
431
432
5',7
Fc sF
APPendix
C
CIRCUIT DEVICES
NTEGRATBD
OF CMOS
used
rit devices
the
rnt afe of
NOTE
Y#,##ffi#fr
lltlJ,ilJ'are'*'
WARI'{IFIG
MOS lCs
r static charges'
rdling, shiPPrng'
rn
re assernblies
when
growno
good
!rr""ri" increase
"w'ist straV wtiiiffi
shock
ol
the danger
ching
such as are
ns system'
sYD-
,Oota*
circuit *:qt':-iffJt
e
NorrnallY,
5'
*'
l"-'i'u''1 ".ff,:il"Ii'l'i,""..r.
',lllllJllffiJslY#,T'l;Ts:ff i$yl*;:tfi#ili1'ii'*
to insure th{
'li,ill'"'
a cir-
rnov-
l.,^"l"rtttv after*o*tn-
;;litGt
u"u'
l"i*n-ttonos to
ent aItY tou
sources'
z gfrJ*1i$i;#tli.-*
,iffi;H"Jft'
even in a
while servicing
t*
'
iZi"- ";
ttiri'uouo7e
3:"'"iffi:i1"":
en-
:
'y'**1fffi!"ri,",
Y::;":{:f ^i,;,;.i^;.r;:;;,T;,
levices are Pro.v-ld-
i":,iill;,"lff
'I-3uF p
this Practice'
4
Hi1:H$33tr#:nrffi*
n]lc
a bare
l:::i';ilsurrace'
rhis
(silk'
builduP'
ute to static
ll;g*t*t*"
59
K-
jlt
5.
powered test
equip_
mentlte.ctrically
should be
7'
&ffi"ffi:,l:,1T"ri:rti,i.i''
connecdng rhe
8.
prru..
lirii.rrr,
disconnect the le:t
test probe prior
to
removing the ground
lead.
6.
If a circuit
module is removed
from
rhe sysrem, ir is
desirable ;o'r;;;;,,,
or a conductive surfa.,
sheer of aluminum
ir;;;;; .
foifl ,f,i"i l,
to ground ,r,ro"eijdOr
::l*:rrd
or
resistance-
r"""ru;;",".
;T?',.'r',::Jll jl;F;;;;T:..,,*,
::T,i, J,J"", ,T:'_:1fl"'i::flX':*
any sraric buildup
u, or*..iul;;"'
procedure l.
Sin ce voltage differences
can exist across
ji'"l,],iT,
I.,o.TT.n.,; ;
used if it is neces
cMdd"ffi: ffi
board wiring.
the aluminum
foil is con_
directty to
:::,:o of possiblesround, be
caufious
electri-_
from
contauing
1yl tho_ck
the foit at the
same time as
other electrical
circuits.
60
be sure the sordering
Prior to connecting
jumpers, replacing
componenr.,
rr
1i_r1uit
,rhe
WARNING
:!
rIlTlilff'#?
i"* ;:-
,lJ::,..l#ns
on
Appendix D
EXTERNAL PORT PIN ASSIGNMENTS
RS.232 PORT
This is a full bidirectional RS-232 port with the capability to respond to a serial input. The port serves a
dual purpose in that if an RS-232 is not desired, the port can be used as a printer outpu.t. Software
determines if the port functions as an RS-232 bidirectional port or as an output-only printer port. 25 pin
female "D" connector on Processor Module for RS-232 interface at the side panel. Drawing shows pins as
seen from a side view of the Analyzer.
DCD*
(Data Canier Detect) input is not used in
this application.
PIN
I
GND
2
TXD (ransmit data)
RXD (receive data)
3
7
RTS (request to send)
CTS (clear to send)
DSR (data set ready)
SIG GND (signal ground)
8
DCD* (data carrier detect)
9-r9
20
not used
DTR* (data temdnal ready)
2t-25
not used
4
5
6
DSR* (Data Set Ready) is a general purpose input
that is used for modem control. This line is not
used when a printer is connected.
DTR* (Data Terminal Ready) is a general purpose
output to indicate the Analyzer is ready to receive
more data on the RXD line.
RTS x and CTS
* (Request-To-Sen4
are handshaking signals used
tions.
Clear-To-Send)
in RS232 communica-
RXD (Receive Data) input signal is the data received.
If
this connector is used as a printer output,
the RXD pin is not used.
lEil'
TXD (Transmit Data) output signal is the data being
transmitted.
L
61
REAR PANEL DC INPUT PORT
Drawing shows pins as seen from a rear
view of the Analyzer.
Q*O
Positive DC voltage must be between +11
and +18VDC.
Either "+" pin may be: used for the positive
DC voltage since these two pins are tied
together at the 10 amP DC fuse.
\
62
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