paladin - Logic RC

paladin - Logic RC
PALADIN
L120 Pro
opErAting instructions
Please keep for future reference
Thank you for purchasing this Paladin L120 Pro charger. We are sure you will be
pleased with its performance and features. In order to ensure that you obtain the
maximum benefit from its operation, please read these instructions carefully.
SpEciFicAtions
Input Voltage
10~15V DC
Battery Type & Cells
1~12 Lithium-Ion or Lithium-Polymer cells (3.6V or
3.7V respectively)
1~12 LiFePO4 cells (3.3V)
1~30 Nickel-Cadmium cells
1~30 Nickel-Metal Hydride cells
1~6 Lead-Acid cells (2V per cell)
Battery Capacity
100mAh ~ 20,000mAh adjustable ONLY for
Lithium-Ion, Lithium-Polymer and LiFePO4
Charge Rate
0.1A ~ 10A Adjustable in 100mA steps
(2C charge rate available for Li-Po Batteies)
Discharge Rate
0.1A ~ 10A in 100mA steps (auto limited to 80W max)
Trickle Charge Rate
0 ~ 500mA & Automatic
Balancing
Charge Termination
Interface compatible with Fusion 6 & 12 cell balancers
Delta Peak Sensitivity
5mV ~ 20mV (per cell)
“Zero Delta V” peak detection for NiCd/NiMH
“Constant current / constant voltage” for Li-Ion/Po
LiFe and Pb
SpECIAL FEATUrES
• Automatic settings for charging and discharging NiCd/NiMH packs.
• 10 user definable intelligent battery memories that enable individual pack
parameters to be stored, i.e. battery type, number of cells, battery capacity,
charge current and discharge current. As a result of this, up to 10 different battery
packs can have their individual charge/discharge requirements set.
• Pack Cycling (Charge to Discharge / Discharge to Charge) (NiCd/MiMH)
• Cycling repeat 1~5 times with 1~30min delay between cycles (NiCd/MiMH)
• 2 -line, 16 character, blue backlit, LCD makes the screen extremely clear and
legible.
• Various warning messages for incorrect input voltage, wrong connections,
unsuitable battery condition and reverse polarity on output.
• Automatic initial charge stage checks the condition of the battery being charged. If
the battery is not in a condition suitable for charging, the display shows a warning
message “Output Battery Connector Error” along with an audible warning.
1
SAFEty prEcAutions
•DO NOT attempt to charge incompatible types of rechargeable batteries.
This charger is designed to only charge and discharge Nickel-Cadmium,
Nickel-Metal Hydride, Lithium-Ion, Lithium-Polymer, LiFePO4 and LeadAcid batteries.
•Make sure you place the charger on a firm level surface for charging.
•DO NOT attempt to charge batteries at excessive fast charge currents.
Check with your battery manufacturer for the maximum charge rate
applicable to your battery.
•DO NOT use automotive type battery chargers to power the charger.
•DO NOT leave the charger unattended while charging. Disconnect
the battery and remove input power from charger immediately if the
charger becomes hot. Allow the charger or battery to cool down before
reconnecting.
•DO NOT allow water, moisture or foreign objects into the charger.
•DO NOT place the battery or charger on or near a flammable object
while in use. Keep away from carpets, cluttered workbenches, etc.
•DO NOT cover the air intake holes on the charger as this could cause
the charger to overheat.
•Connect the input leads to a 12V power supply first, then connect the
battery.
•DO NOT disassemble the charger.
•This unit is not intended for use by young children or infirm persons
unless they have been adequately supervised by a responsible person to
ensure that they can use it safely.
•Young children should be supervised to ensure that they do not play
with the Paladin L120 Pro.
•DO NOT attempt to charge non-rechargeable batteries.
•The battery must be placed in a well ventilated area (for charging leadacid batteries)
•After charging, disconnect the battery charger from the power supply
first, then disconnect the battery.
2
Lithium Ion/polymEr BAttEry
SAFEty WArnings
Ensure that the charger and battery are placed on a non-flammable
surface whilst charging and ideally charge outdoors wherever possible.
NEVER charge a Lithium ION/Polymer/Fe battery inside a vehicle whatever
the circumstances.
ALWAYS ensure that the charger is correctly set for the battery being
charged, checking both voltage and capacity. Be particularly careful if using
a series/parallel battery pack, or if using packs of different specifications
with the same charger.
NEVER charge at a rate higher than that recommended by the cell
manufacturer, this can be very dangerous.
DO NOT leave Lithium ION/Polymer/Fe batteries unattended whilst they
are charging. Monitoring the batteries during charging is very important.
ALWAYS monitor the temperature of the battery being charged every few
minutes. If the battery becomes hot to the touch, disconnect it from the
charger immediately and allow to cool. DO NOT recommence charging
until the battery and charger have been checked for compatibility and the
charger settings have been confirmed as being correct.
In the unlikely event of the Lithium ION/Polymer/Fe battery catching fire
DO NOT use water to attempt to put the fire out, instead use sand or a
fire extinguisher designed for electrical fires.
When used correctly, Lithium ION/Polymer/Fe battery packs are as safe
as any other type of rechargeable battery pack.However they do require
different charge regimes to the longer established Nickel Cadmium and
Nickel Metal Hydride technologies and have the potential of catching
fire if severely mistreated.
If Lithium Polymer battery packs are short-circuited or severely
over-charged elemental Lithium may be deposited internally, and if the
battery pouch is damaged this can escape from inside the battery. If this
occurs a fire may be caused, as elemental Lithium is highly reactive
when exposed to water or moisture, producing flammable hydrogen
gas and corrosive fumes. Elemental Lithium is not produced unless the
battery pack is severely mistreated, so in normal usage there is no
likelihood of explosion or fire.
3
Lithium Ion/polymEr/FE BAttEriEs
Lithium battery packs must NEVER be discharged below 3 volts per cell
as this will result in damage to the cells. If the voltage is allowed to drop
below 3 volts per cell the battery voltage may seem to recover following a
charge, but the battery may not then give its full nominal capacity and a
reduction in performance is likely – allowing the voltage to drop below 3
volts per cell will invalidate all warranty claims.
NEVER charge Lithium Polymer battery packs at greater than 4.2V per
cell, Lithium Ion at 4.1V volts per cell or LiFe at greater than 3.7V per cell
as this will cause irreversible damage to the cells and will invalidate all
warranty claims.
DO NOT use discharge rates in excess of those specified with the battery
pack as this will result in a significant drop in voltage under load and will
dramatically reduce the number of charge/discharge cycles the battery
pack will give.
DO NOT attempt to charge Lithium battery packs whilst the input
12 volt battery is being charged, as the voltage supplied to the Lithium
Polymer charger may be too high.
If disposing of Lithium battery packs ensure that the pack is fully
discharged by using a light bulb, electric motor or similar to completely
discharge the pack.
DO NOT allow any Lithium battery pack to short-circuit as this is likely to
result in a minor explosion and consequent fire.
BEFORE charging any Lithium battery packs they should be closely
inspected for any damage, such as punctures in the sleeving or if the
battery has swollen or expanded in size. If any such damage is detected
DO NOT charge, even if the battery otherwise appears to be brand new.
Before commencing charging ALWAYS double check the settings on the
charger to ensure it is set correctly for the battery pack to be charged.
Using the wrong settings is likely to result in damage to the battery pack
being charged and could result in the battery catching fire.
4
Input powEr
12V DC
Connect the charger’s red alligator clip to the positive (+) terminal on the
power source and the black alligator clip to the negative (-) terminal. The
charger will display “Input voltage” error message if the input is below 10V
or above 15V. If this happens, please recheck the input power supply to
make sure correct power is present.
Output BAttEry ConnEctions
Two 4mm banana sockets are located on the right side of the charger.
Connect the battery main power leads to these sockets with the positive
(+) lead connected to the red socket and the negative (-) lead to the black
socket. You may need to purchase an adaptor lead to suit the specific
connector on you battery and make this more convenient. The “Connect
Error” error message will be displayed if trying to start charging without
connecting a battery to these sockets. The “Open Circuit” error message
will be displayed if a battery becomes disconnected from the charger
while a function is in progress. A “Reverse Polarity” error message will be
displayed if a battery is connected to the charger in reverse.
Note: In order to balance Lithium batteries during charge or discharge,
please use the appropriate Fusion balancer.
5
1. mAin mEnu
When the charger is turned on, it will enter the main menu, then use the buttons on
the charger (as shown below) to navigate through the menus.
All the functions have been detailed in the following sections to to help you
familiarise you with the programming and features included in this Paladin L120 Pro.
UP
SETUP
SETUP
ENTER
DOWN
FUSION
www.LogicRC.com
C: 5.)A D: 3.0A
M0] MEMORY SELECT ENTER
NiCd 10C 3000mAh SETUP
DOWN
NiCd 10C 3000mAh
UP
CHARGE MODE
C:5.0A d15V/C
DOWN
NiCd 10C 3000mAh
UP
DICHARGE MODE
D:2.0A 0.8V/CELL
DOWN
NiCd 10C 3000mAh
UP
ENTER
CYCLE MODE
CHG > DCH TIME 1 SETUP
DOWN
UP
USER CONDITION
SETUP
DOWN
ENTER
SETUP
2. Battery data setup menu
[NiCd] BATTERY
CHARGE START
3. Charge data setup menu
ENTER
SETUP
[NiCd] BATTERY
DISCHARGE START
4. Discharge data setup menu
SETUP
[NiCd] BATTERY
CYCLE START
UP
A2] MEMORY SELECT
NiMH AUTOMATIC
DOWN
UP
A1] MEMORY SELECT
NiCd AUTOMATIC
DOWN
UP
M9] MEMORY SELECT
UP/DOWN
NiCd 10C 3000mAh
5. Cycle data setup menu
6. User data setup menu
UP
ENTER
DATA VIEW
BATTERY & CHARGER
M0] MEMORY SELECT
UP/DOWN
NiCd 10C 3000mAh
DOWN
7. Data View display
6
Select memory locations M0~M9,A1,
and A2 with UP/DOWN button
2. BAttEry DAtA SEtup mEnu
In this mode, you can set each battery type / cell number / battery capacity in a
memory. Adjust the desired parameters with UP/DOWN buttons.
Battery Type Change
1] MEMORY SELECT SETUP
NiCd 6C 3000mAh
Cell Number Change
Battery Capacity Change
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
NiCd 6C 3000mAh
DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
NiCd 6C 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
NiCd 6C 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
UP
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
NiMH 6C 3000mAh
DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
NiMH 6C 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP
NiMH 6C 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
UP
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
LiIo 7.2V 3000mAh
DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
LiIo 7.2V 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP
LiIo 7.2V 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
UP
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
LiPo 7.4V 3000mAh
DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
LiPo 7.4V 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP
LiPo 7.4V 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
Pb 12V 15.00Ah
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP
Pb 12V 15.00Ah
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
LiFe 6.6V 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
M1] BATTERY SETUP
LiFe 6.6V 3000mAh
UP/DOWN
UP
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
Pb 12V 15.00Ah
UP
M1] BATTERY SETUP SETUP
LiFe 6.6V 3000mAh
NOTE: The Paladin L120 Pro is supplied with the 10 memories already programmed.
Unless these programs exactly match your requirements, it will be necessary to
modify them to suit the battery packs being charged.
Factory Default Parameters
CELL
CAPACITY
CHAGE
DISCHARGE
DELTA
DCH VOLT
CYCLE DIR
CYCLE TIME
NiCd
6CELL
3000mAh
3.0A
3.0A
5mV
0.8V/CELL
CHG>DCH
1TIME
NiMH
6CELL
3000mAh
3.0A
3.0A
5mV
0.8V/CELL
CHG>DCH
1TIME
LiPo
7.4V
3000mAh
3.0A
3.0A
X
3.0V/CELL
X
X
Li-Ion
7.2V
3000mAh
3.0A
3.0A
X
3.0V/CELL
X
X
Pb
12V
15.00Ah
3.0A
3.0A
X
X
X
X
LiFe
6.6V
3000mAh
3.0A
3.0A
X
3.0V/CELL
X
X
7
3. ChArgE DAtA SEtup mEnu
NiCd & NiMH battery
CHARGE MODE
C5.0A d15mV
SETUP
Set charge capacity and Delta peak sensitivity.
CHARGE MODE
C:5.0A d:15mV
UP/DOWN
SETUP
CHARGE MODE
C5.0A d15mV
UP/DOWN
SETUP
Li-lon/Po & Pb battery
Set the charge capacity. Note: In case of charging Lithium
batteries, it is NOT possible to set charge rates over 2C of the selected battery
capacity.
CHARGE MODE
C5.0A
SETUP
CHARGE MODE
C5.0A
UP/DOWN
SETUP
4. DischArgE DAtA SEtup mEnU
NiCd & NiMH battery
DISCHARGE MODE
D2.0A 0.8V/CELL
SETUP
Li-lon/Pro battery
DISCHARGE MODE
D2.0A 3.0V/CELL
Set discharge rates and discharge cut-off voltages.
DISCHARGE MODE
D2.0A 0.8V/CELL
UP/DOWN
SETUP
DISCHARGE MODE
D2.0A 0.8V/CELL
UP/DOWN
SETUP
Set discharge rates and discharge cut-off voltages.
SETUP
DISCHARGE MODE
D2.0A 3.0V/CELL
UP/DOWN
SETUP
DISCHARGE MODE
D2.0A 3.0V/CELL
UP/DOWN
SETUP
Pb battery Set discharge rates (The Discharge cut-off voltage is fixed at 1.8V per cell)
DISCHARGE MODE
D:2.0A
SETUP
DISCHARGE MODE
D:2.0A
UP/DOWN
SETUP
5. CyclE DAtA SEtup mEnu
NiCd & NiMH battery only
CYCLE MODE
CHG DCH 1 TIME
SETUP
Set cycle direction and cycle times.
SETUP
CYCLE MODE
CHG DCH 1 TIME
UP/DOWN
8
SETUP
CYCLE MODE
CHG DCH 1 TIME
UP/DOWN
6. UsEr DAtA SEtup mEnu
Each user setup data is separately stored in each memory.
USER
CONDITION SETUP
ENTER
SETUP
TEMPERATURE
CUT-OFF: 00’C
UP/DOWN
ENTER
SETUP
TRICKLE CHARGE
CURRENT: 000mA
UP/DOWN
ENTER
SETUP
ENTER
ENTER
DELAY BETWEEN
BUZZER VOLUME
CHG/DCHG: 00min
SETUP OFF
UP/DOWN
UP/DOWN UP/DOWN
7. DAtA ViEw DisplAy
All data of the cycle 1 to 5 times can be referred to with UP & DOWN buttons.
Note: LCB means Lithium Cell Balancer.
7=0.00 0.00 0.00
A=0.00 0.00 0.00
SETUP
INPUT = 00.000V
SETUP OUTPUT = 00.000V
ENTER
DATA VIEW
BATTERY & CHARGER
ENTER
1=0.00 0.00 0.00 ENTER 4=0.00 0.00 0.00
UP/DOWN
UP/DOWN
LCB = VOLTAGE [00] SETUP
CYCLE DATA [1]
ENTER 0.000Vavg 0.000V
ENTER C=0000 / D=0000mAh
SETUP
SETUP
ENTER
SET = 00 / PEAK=00.0 ENTER
CHG PEAK = 00.000V ENTER
DCH AVG = 00.000V
SETUP TEMP= 00.0°C
SETUP 000m00s 00000mAh
SETUP 000m00s 00000mAh
1. Input voltage
2. Output voltage
1. Setting temperature
2. Peak temperature
3. Temperature now 1. Charge peak voltage
2. Charge time 3. Charge capacity 1. Discharge average voltage
2. Dischrge time
3. Discharge capacity
8. Operating Display
If the ENTER (Start/Stop) button is pressed at Charge, Discharge, or Cycle menus, the selected
mode is activated.
It is possible to change charge rates with the UP/DOWN buttons during operation, however, the
charge rates can not be adjusted in Auto mode, or during CV (Constant Voltage) charge.
If the ENTER button is pressed again during operation, the operation will stop and revert to the
main display.
While the charger is being operated, the DATA VIEW screens can be shown by pressing the
SETUP button.
NiCd, NiMH, Pb CHARGE OPERATING
CHG
Batt Type
Flashing alternately
CHARGE MODE
C: 5.0A d: 15mV/C
ENTER
[NiCd] BATTERY
CHARGE START...
TIME
STOP
CAPACITY
NiCd 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V UP/DOWN
SETUP
DATA VIEW
BATTERY&CHARGER
9
CHG 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V
“N/A” should be displayed, if a
temp sensor is not connected to
the charger
ENTER
2SEC
CHARGE MODE
C: 5.0A d: 15mV/C
The Charge current can be
changed with UP/DOWN
buttons during charging
Li-Po, Li-lon, CHARGE OPERATING
CHG
Batt Type
Flashing Alternately
TIME
Charged amount by Percentage
Batt Type Flashing (LiPo, Li-lon Only)
STOP
CHARGE MODE
C: 5.0A
ENTER
[LiPo] BATTERY
CHARGE START...
** BALANCER **
** ADVISED **
LiPo 000:00 00%
00° 0.00A 00.00V UP/DOWN
SETUP
DATA VEIW BATTERY
& CHARGER
CHG 000:00 00000
ENTER
00° 0.00A 00.00V (2SEC)
“N/A” should be displayed,
if a temp sensor is not connected to the charger
CHARGE MODE
C: 5.0A
The Charge current can be
changed with UP/DOWN
buttons during charging
This message will appear if a Lithium
cell balancer is NOT connected to the
charger in LiPo and Li-lon mode.
Note : In this Lithium mode, the charged amount can be shown as a percentage. So, you can
stop charging and disconnect the Lithium battery pack if this percentage is indicated 80% ~ 90%
as you should be able to use this 80%~90% charged battery pack already if you want.
NiCd, NiMH, Pb DISCHARGE OPERATING
DCH
Batt Type
Flashing alternately
DISCHARGE MODE
C:2.0A
ENTER
[NiCd] BATTERY
DISCHARGE START
TIME
STOP
CAPACITY
NiCd 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V UP/DOWN
BATT
DATA VIEW
BATTERY & CHARGER
DCH 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V
“N/A” should be displayed, if a
temp sensor is not connected
to the charger
ENTER
2SEC
DISCHARGE MODE
C: 2.0A
The Disharge current can be
changed with UP/DOWN
buttons during discharging
Li-Po, Li-lon, DISCHARGE OPERATING
DCH Batt Type
Flashing alternately
TIME
CAPACITY
STOP
DISCHARGE MODE
C: 2.0A
ENTER
[LiPo] BATTERY
DISCHARGE START
** BALANCER **
** ADVISED **
LiPo 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V UP/DOWN
BATT
DATA VIEW
BATTERY & CHARGER
This message will appear if a Lithium cell balancer is NOT
connected to the charger in LiPo and Li-lon mode.
10
DCH 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V
“N/A” should be displayed,
if a temp sensor is not
connected to the charger
ENTER
2SEC
DISHARGE MODE
C: 2.0A
The Discharge current can
be changed with UP/DOWN
buttons during discharging
CYCLE OPERATING
CYCLE OPERATING MODE
C1D CHARGE, CYCLE TIME, DISCHARGE
D1C DISCHARGE, CYCLE TIME, CHARGE
ENTER
CYCLE MODE
CHG DCH TIME:
[NiCd] BATTERY
CYCLE START...
CYCLE OPERATING MODE
CHARGE “C” FLASH
DELAY “1” FLASH
DISCHARGE “D” FLASH
C1D 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V UP/DOWN
CYCLE CHARGE
CYCLE DELAY
CYCLE DISCHARGE
C1D 048:23 01520
26° 3.00A 12.37V
C1D 019:59 01520
26° DELAY 12.37V
C1D 000:01 00001
26° 6.00A 12.37V
C1D 000:00 00000
00° 0.00A 00.00V
The Charge current can be
changed with UP/DOWN
buttons during charging
AUTOMATIC OPERATING
While Auto mode is being activated, “auto” “current” is alternately displayed.
AUTO cycle operation is fixed as discharge charge once.
Delay time is fixed as 10 minutes in Auto mode.
CHARGE MODE
NiCd AUTOMATIC
ENTER
[NiCd] BATTERY
CHARGE START...
NC 000:01 00000
24° 0.00A 00.00V
CHG 000:01 00000
24° auto 00.00V
DISCHARGE MODE
NiCd AUTOMATIC
ENTER
[NiCd] BATTERY
DISCHARGE START...
NC 000:01 00000
24° 0.00A 00.00V
DCH 000:01 00000
24° auto 00.00V
CYCLE MODE
NiCd AUTOMATIC
ENTER
[NiCd] BATTERY
CYCLE START...
D1C 000:01 00000
24° 0.00A 00.00V
D1C 000:01 00000
24° auto 00.00V
END OPERATION
If the ENTER button is pressed for 2 seconds in the END display, it reverts to the main display.
ENTER
(If the button
is briefly pressed or the battery pack is disconnected, it won’t revert to the
main display.)
Operating data can be referred to the above “7. Data View Display “
During trickle charging, the parameters of “ CHG, TRK, FINISH, trickle current “ are blinking.
CHG 120:35 03215
38° 5.00A 9.12V
CHG 120:35 03215
38° 0.10A 9.12V
TRK 120:35 03215
38° FINISH 9.12V
DCH 38:24 02400
36° 2.00A 4.80V
DCH 38.24 02400
36° FINISH 4.80V
2 SEC
ENTER
DISCHARGE MODE
C: 2.0A: 0.8V/CELL
C1D 042:34 02860
37° 2.00A 4.82V
C1D 142:34 02860
37° FINISH 4.82V
2 SEC
ENTER
CYCLE MODE
CHC DCH TIME:1
2 SEC
ENTER
CHARGE MODE
C: 5.0Ad: 15mV/C
Trickle charge
•
If trickle currents are set to 100~500mAh at “USER CONDITION SETUP”, the trickle charge
proceeds with the selected trickle currents.
•
The trickle charge proceeds with 1/20 currents of the selected capacity in Auto mode,
however, there is NO trickle charge in cases of lower than 100mAh.
•
Even if the trickle currents are set, if a charge process is stopped due to the optional
temperature, or safety-timer function, the trickle charge won’t work at all.
11
10. mEssAgE DisplAy
INPUT VOLTAGE
ERROR 0.00Vi
When the input voltages exceed the range of 9.5~15.5V.
OUTPUT BATTERY
CONNECT ERROR
When the charger starts without connecting to the battery pack.
OUTPUT BATTERY
REVERSE POLARITY
When the charger starts without connecting the battery pack in reverse.
OUTPUT BATTERY
OPEN CIRCUIT
When the battery pack is disconnected during operation.
OUTPUT CIRCUIT
PROBLEM
When the battery terminals short-circuit for a while.
PAUSE...
CHARGER TOO HOT
When the temperature of the charger rises over 115°C, the charger stops
temporarily until the temperature drops lower than 70°C.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
TOO HIGH 0.00V
When the output voltges are too high.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
TOO LOW 0.00V
When the output voltages are too low.
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR ERROR
When the thermal probe is incorrectly connected, or the probe is defective.
BATT. TEMPERATURE
TOO HIGH 00.0°C
When the temperature of the battery pack is higher than the selected temperature, this message is shown. The previous operation should resume when the
temperature of the battery pack becomes 2°C lower than the selected temp.
INTERNAL TEMP
SENSOR ERROR
When the temperature of the charger rises over 125°C.
DATA COMMUNICATION ERROR
When the internal interface of the charger is defective.
12
13
www.LogicrC.com
Logic RC Limited
14 Hartham Lane
Herford
SG14 1QN
United Kingdom
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