Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide

Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Nios II Flash Programmer
User Guide
Preliminary Information
101 Innovation Drive
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Copyright © 2005 Altera Corporation. All rights reserved. Altera, The Programmable Solutions Company, the stylized Altera logo, specific device designations, and all other words and logos that are identified as trademarks and/or service marks are, unless noted otherwise, the trademarks and
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performance of its semiconductor products to current specifications in accordance with Altera's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make
changes to any products and services at any time without notice. Altera assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Altera
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Printed on recycled paper
ii
Preliminary
UG-NIOSIIFLSHPROG-1.2
Altera Corporation
Contents
About this User Guide ............................................................................. v
Chapter 1. Overview of the Nios II Flash Programmer
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................
Prerequisites ......................................................................................................................................
Changes from Earlier Versions .......................................................................................................
How the Flash Programmer Works ....................................................................................................
IDE and Command-Line Modes .........................................................................................................
Flash Programmer Target Design .......................................................................................................
Minimum Component Set ...............................................................................................................
Board Description File .....................................................................................................................
1–1
1–2
1–2
1–3
1–3
1–3
1–4
1–5
Chapter 2. Using the Flash Programmer in IDE Mode
The Flash Programmer Dialog ............................................................................................................. 2–1
Chapter 3. Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode
nios2-flash-programmer .................................................................................................................. 3–2
nios2-flash-programmer Command-Line Examples ............................................................. 3–4
sof2flash ............................................................................................................................................. 3–5
sof2flash Command-Line Examples ........................................................................................ 3–6
elf2flash .............................................................................................................................................. 3–6
Programming Both Hardware and Software into an EPCS Device .................................... 3–8
elf2flash Command-Line Examples ......................................................................................... 3–8
bin2flash ............................................................................................................................................. 3–8
bin2flash Command-Line Example .......................................................................................... 3–9
Appendix A. Non-Standard Flash Memories
Built-in Recognition and Override ..................................................................................................... A–1
Flash Override Files .............................................................................................................................. A–1
Flash Override File Format ............................................................................................................ A–2
How to Use the Flash Override File ............................................................................................. A–2
Width Mode Override Parameter ...................................................................................................... A–2
Appendix B. Supported Flash Memory Devices
Appendix C. Stand-Alone Mode
How to Install Nios II Stand-Alone Flash Programmer .................................................................. C–1
Appendix D. Troubleshooting
................................................................................................................................................................. D–1
Altera Corporation
iii
Contents
Program Flash Button Grayed Out in the IDE ............................................................................ D–1
Probable Cause ........................................................................................................................... D–1
Suggested Actions ...................................................................................................................... D–1
"No Nios II processors available" Error ....................................................................................... D–1
Probable Cause ........................................................................................................................... D–1
Suggested Actions ...................................................................................................................... D–1
"No CFI table found" Error ............................................................................................................ D–2
Probable Cause ........................................................................................................................... D–2
Suggested Actions ...................................................................................................................... D–2
"No EPCS registers found" Error .................................................................................................. D–2
Probable Cause ........................................................................................................................... D–3
Suggested Actions ...................................................................................................................... D–3
"System does not have any flash memory" Error ....................................................................... D–3
Probable Cause ........................................................................................................................... D–3
Suggested Actions ...................................................................................................................... D–3
"Reading System ID at address 0x<address>: FAIL" Error ....................................................... D–4
Probable Cause ........................................................................................................................... D–4
Suggested Actions ...................................................................................................................... D–4
iv
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
About this User Guide
This document provides comprehensive information about the Altera®
Nios® II flash programmer.
The table shows this document’s revision history.
f
Refer to the Nios II release notes and errata at www.altera.com for latebreaking information that is not available in this document.
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide Revision History
Date
How to Contact
Altera
Information Type
Technical support
Description
October 2005
Updates for the Nios II version 5.1 release. Includes major
chages to the flash programmer target design.
December 2004
Updates for the Nios II version 1.1 release.
May 2004
First release of the flash programmer user guide for the
Nios II development boards.
For the most up-to-date information about Altera products, go to the
Altera world-wide web site at www.altera.com. For technical support on
this product, go to www.altera.com/mysupport. For additional
information about Altera products, consult the sources shown below.
USA & Canada
All Other Locations
www.altera.com/mysupport/
www.altera.com/mysupport/
(800) 800-EPLD (3753)
(7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Pacific Time)
+1 408-544-8767
7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (GMT -8:00)
Pacific Time
Product literature
www.altera.com
www.altera.com
Altera literature services
literature@altera.com
literature@altera.com
Non-technical customer
service
(800) 767-3753
+ 1 408-544-7000
7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (GMT -8:00)
Pacific Time
FTP site
ftp.altera.com
ftp.altera.com
Altera Corporation
v
Typographic Conventions
Typographic
Conventions
Visual Cue
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
This document uses the typographic conventions shown below.
Meaning
Bold Type with Initial
Capital Letters
Command names, dialog box titles, checkbox options, and dialog box options are
shown in bold, initial capital letters. Example: Save As dialog box.
bold type
External timing parameters, directory names, project names, disk drive names,
filenames, filename extensions, and software utility names are shown in bold
type. Examples: fMAX, \qdesigns directory, d: drive, chiptrip.gdf file.
Italic Type with Initial Capital
Letters
Document titles are shown in italic type with initial capital letters. Example: AN
75: High-Speed Board Design.
Italic type
Internal timing parameters and variables are shown in italic type.
Examples: tPIA, n + 1.
Variable names are enclosed in angle brackets (< >) and shown in italic type.
Example: <file name>, <project name>.pof file.
Initial Capital Letters
Keyboard keys and menu names are shown with initial capital letters. Examples:
Delete key, the Options menu.
“Subheading Title”
References to sections within a document and titles of on-line help topics are
shown in quotation marks. Example: “Typographic Conventions.”
Courier type
Signal and port names are shown in lowercase Courier type. Examples: data1,
tdi, input. Active-low signals are denoted by suffix n, e.g., resetn.
Anything that must be typed exactly as it appears is shown in Courier type. For
example: c:\qdesigns\tutorial\chiptrip.gdf. Also, sections of an
actual file, such as a Report File, references to parts of files (e.g., the AHDL
keyword SUBDESIGN), as well as logic function names (e.g., TRI) are shown in
Courier.
1., 2., 3., and
a., b., c., etc.
Numbered steps are used in a list of items when the sequence of the items is
important, such as the steps listed in a procedure.
■
Bullets are used in a list of items when the sequence of the items is not important.
●
v
•
The checkmark indicates a procedure that consists of one step only.
1
The hand points to information that requires special attention.
c
The caution indicates required information that needs special consideration and
understanding and should be read prior to starting or continuing with the
procedure or process.
w
The warning indicates information that should be read prior to starting or
continuing the procedure or processes
r
The angled arrow indicates you should press the Enter key.
f
The feet direct you to more information on a particular topic.
vi
Altera Corporation
1. Overview of the Nios II
Flash Programmer
Introduction
The purpose of the Nios® II flash programmer is to program data into a
flash memory device connected to an Altera® FPGA. The flash
programmer sends file contents over an Altera download cable, such as
the USB Blaster®, to a Nios II system running on the FPGA. Many
hardware designs that include the Nios® II processor also incorporate
flash memory on the board to store FPGA configuration data or Nios II
program data. The Nios II flash programmer is part of the Nios II
development tools, and is a convenient method of programming this
memory.
The Nios II flash programmer can program three types of content into
flash memory:
■
■
■
Nios II software executable files - Many systems use flash memory to
store nonvolatile program code, or firmware. Nios II systems can
boot out of flash memory.
FPGA configuration data - At system power-up, the FPGA
configuration controller on the board can read FPGA configuration
data from the flash memory. Depending on the design of the
configuration controller, it might be able to choose between multiple
FPGA configuration files stored in flash memory.
Other arbitrary data files - The Nios II flash programmer can
program a binary file to an arbitrary offset in a flash memory for any
purpose. For example, a Nios II program might use this data as a
coefficient table or a sine lookup table.
You can use the flash programmer to program the following types of
memory:
■
■
Altera Corporation
October 2005
CFI-compliant flash memory - Common flash interface, or CFI, is an
industry standard that provides a common, vendor-independent
interface to flash memory devices.
Altera EPCS serial configuration device - Altera EPCS serial
configuration devices can store FPGA configuration data and Nios II
executable software.
1–1
Introduction
f
For further information on the CFI specification, see
www.intel.com/design/flash/swb/cfi.htm. For further information on
EPCS devices, see the Serial Configuration Devices (EPCS1, EPCS4,
EPCS16 & EPCS64) Data Sheet and the EPCS Device Controller Core with
Avalon Interface chapter of the Quartus II Handbook, Volume 5: Embedded
Peripherals.
In this document, the term "flash memory" refers to both CFI and EPCS
memory devices, unless otherwise noted.
Prerequisites
This user guide assumes that you are familiar with the Nios II hardware
and software development flow. You should be familiar with the contents
of the following tutorials:
■
■
Nios II Hardware Development Tutorial
Nios II Software Development Tutorial, which is available in the
Nios II integrated development environment (IDE) help system
If you use the Nios II flash programmer to program FPGA configuration
data to flash memory, you also must understand the configuration
method used on the board.
f
Refer to AN346: Using the Nios Development Board Configuration Controller
Reference Design or the reference manual for a specific Nios development
board.
Changes from Earlier Versions
The Nios II development tools version 5.1 include a completely
redesigned flash programmer back end. If you used the flash
programmer in prior versions of the Nios II development tools, read this
user guide carefully to familiarize yourself with the changes. The main
points you need to be aware of are the following:
■
■
■
f
You must rebuild Nios II software projects created prior to version
5.1, because the formats of some output files have changed.
The Nios II flash programmer no longer requires a special hardware
design to program flash memory. You can run any suitable hardware
design on the FPGA.
The syntax of the command-line utilities has changed. If you have
scripts that call the flash programmer command-line utilities, you
probably need to update your scripts for the new syntax.
For more information on command-line syntax, see Chapter 3, Using the
Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode for details.
1–2
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Overview of the Nios II Flash Programmer
How the Flash
Programmer
Works
The flash programmer has two parts, the host and the target, as shown in
Figure 1–1. The host portion runs on your computer. It sends flash
programming files over a download cable to the target. The target portion
is your hardware design, running in the FPGA. It accepts the
programming data sent by the host, and writes data to the flash memory
device. In order to work with the Nios II flash programmer, your FPGA
design must meet certain requirements. See “Flash Programmer Target
Design” on page 1–3.
Figure 1–1. How the Nios II Flash Programmer Works
Host Computer
Flash
Content
Target Board
Altera FPGA
Download Cable
(e.g. USB Blaster)
Target
Design
IDE and
Command-Line
Modes
Flash
Content
Flash
Memory
Device
You can run the Nios II flash programmer in either of two modes:
■
■
IDE Mode – The Nios II IDE provides an easy-to-use interface to the
flash programmer features. The IDE mode is suitable for most flash
programming needs.
Command-Line Mode - For advanced users, command-line mode
provides complete control over the flash programmer features. You
can run the command-line flash programmer utilities from a
command shell such as the Nios II SDK shell. You might have to
calculate some parameters manually.
In this document, the terms "Nios II flash programmer" and "flash
programmer" refer to both IDE mode and command-line mode, unless
explicitly noted.
Flash
Programmer
Target Design
Altera Corporation
October 2005
To use the Nios II flash programmer, you must have a valid flash
programmer target design. The target design contains an SOPC Builder
system with the following characteristics:
■
■
Contains at least the SOPC Builder components shown in Table 1–1.
Specifies a target board.
1–3
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Flash Programmer Target Design
The target design must be running on the FPGA before you can run the
Nios II flash programmer on the host.
Minimum Component Set
The minimum component set provides facilities for the target design to
communicate with the host, and to write to flash memory. The minimum
component set depends on the type of flash memory you intend to
program. Table 1–1 lists the minimum component set.
Table 1–1. Minimum Component Set for the Flash Programmer Target Design
Flash memory to be programmed
Component
CFI Only
EPCS Only
CFI and EPCS
Nios II Processor, with
JTAG debug module
level 1 or greater
Required
Required
Required
System ID Peripheral
Recommended (1)
Recommended (1)
Recommended (1)
Avalon Tristate Bridge
Required
Required
Required (2)
Required (2)
Flash Memory (Common
Flash Interface)
EPCS Serial Flash
Controller
Required
Required
Notes to Table 1–1:
(1) If present, a System ID Peripheral component allows the flash programmer to validate the
target design before programming the flash memory.
(2) The system can contain more than one CFI flash memory. The system must contain one Flash
Memory (Common Flash Interface) component for each flash memory on the board.
Figure 1–2 shows an example of an SOPC Builder system containing the
minimum component set for a system with one CFI flash memory and an
EPCS serial configuration device. The system also includes other
components which relate to the purpose of the system, not the flash
programmer.
1–4
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Overview of the Nios II Flash Programmer
Figure 1–2. Example Target Design Containing the Minimum Component Set
1
The full_featured or standard hardware example designs
included with Nios II development tools are ready-made target
designs that work with Altera development boards. If you are
developing for a custom board, consider using one of these
example designs as a starting point in creating your first target
design.
Board Description File
The SOPC Builder system in the target design must specify a target board
in SOPC Builder. To specify a target board, you must have an SOPC
Builder board description for the board. The board description provides
necessary information to the flash programmer, such as the addresses and
names of flash memories in the system.
Altera provides board descriptions for Altera Nios development boards.
If you are using a custom board, you need to create a board description
with the SOPC Builder board description editor.
f
Altera Corporation
October 2005
For more information, see the Board Description Editor chapter of the
Quartus II Handbook, Volume 4: SOPC Builder.
1–5
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Flash Programmer Target Design
1–6
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
2. Using the Flash
Programmer in IDE Mode
The Nios II integrated development environment (IDE) automates the
process of programming flash memory, and allows you to control the
programming parameters with an easy-to-use graphical interface. The
IDE lets you program any combination of software, hardware, and binary
data into flash memory in one operation. The IDE mode is the
recommended method to use the Nios II flash programmer.
f
For details on using the flash programmer in command-line mode, see
Chapter 3, Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode.
The Flash
Programmer
Dialog
To open the Nios II flash programmer in the Nios II IDE, on the Tools
menu, click Flash Programmer. Figure 2–1 shows an example of the Flash
Programmer dialog.
Altera Corporation
October 2005
2–1
The Flash Programmer Dialog
Figure 2–1. Flash Programmer Dialog in the Nios II IDE
Using the Flash Programmer dialog in the IDE is a two-step process:
f
1.
Specify the data contents to program, and select which flash
memory and where in the memory to program.
2.
Click Program Flash. The IDE performs the sequence of operations
required to program all the specified files into flash memory.
Refer to the Nios II IDE help system for an explanation of controls in the
Flash Programmer dialog. Click Help in the upper-right-hand corner of
the Flash Programmer dialog to open the help system.
2–2
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Using the Flash Programmer in IDE Mode
If your target design has a System ID component, the IDE verifies that the
system is running on the FPGA before attempting to program flash
memory. If it is not, the flash programmer does not continue to program
the flash memory. The IDE skips this check if there is no System ID
component in the target system.
1
Regardless of the system ID, you cannot program flash memory
if the hardware design configured in the FPGA is not a valid
flash programmer target design. Therefore, the Nios II hardware
system for your C/C++ application project must be a valid flash
programmer target system, containing at least the minimum
component set specified in Table 1–1 on page 1–4.
The IDE also provides the Read-Only Zip File System software
component, which is another easy-to-use tool for storing data to flash
memory. Depending on your application, you might find it more
convenient to use the Read-Only Zip Filing System.
f
Altera Corporation
October 2005
For details, see the Zip Read-Only File System topic in the Nios II IDE
help system.
2–3
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
The Flash Programmer Dialog
2–4
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
3. Using the Flash
Programmer in
Command-Line Mode
The Nios II development tools provide four command-line utilities which
give you complete control of the Nios II flash programmer features. You
can create a custom script file to automate a flash programming task.
Using the flash programmer in command-line mode gives you more
control than IDE mode, but it is also more complex. When possible, Altera
recommends using IDE mode to program flash.
w
The Nios II development tools version 5.1 include a completely
redesigned flash programmer. If you have used the
command-line utilities in prior versions of the Nios II
development tools, read the argument descriptions carefully to
familiarize yourself with the changes. In particular, note that:
•
•
The Nios II flash programmer no longer requires a special
hardware design to program flash memory. The flash
programmer now uses your application hardware design as
the target hardware. For details, see “Flash Programmer
Target Design” on page 1–3.
The syntax of the command-line utilities has changed.
Table 3–1 lists the command-line utilities.
Table 3–1. Flash Programmer Command-Line Utilities
nios2-flash-programmer
Programs an S-record file into flash memory. Can
also read back data, verify data, provide debug
information about the flash chip, and more.
sof2flash
Converts an FPGA configuration (.sof) file to Srecord format.
elf2flash
Converts a Nios II software executable (.elf) file to
S-record format.
bin2flash
Converts an arbitrary data file to S-record format.
Altera Corporation
October 2005
3–1
1
The Nios II IDE programs flash by creating a script based on the
command-line utilities. The script is well-formed, customized to
your project, and human-readable. You can use it as a reference
for flash programmer command-line syntax. After you
successfully program flash memory using the IDE, you can find
the script in the C/C++ Projects view in your project's Debug or
Release folder. The flash programmer script is a file with
extension .sh named <Project Name>_programmer.sh.
The main utility for programming flash memory from the command line
is nios2-flash-programmer. It requires industry-standard S-record input
files. The file conversion utilities sof2flash, elf2flash and bin2flash create
the S-record files for nios2-flash-programmer. These utilities ensure that
the input is compatible with the flash programmer. Input file names for
all utilities must include an explicit extension, such as .elf or .flash.
On Windows computers, when you launch the Nios II SDK shell, the
flash programmer utilities are available in your default search path. For
more detail about the Nios II SDK Shell, see the Altera-Provided
Development Tools chapter of the Nios II Software Developer's Handbook.
The following sections list the utilities and their functions.
nios2-flash-programmer
The nios2-flash-programmer utility programs a preformatted file into a
specified flash memory. The input is an industry-standard S-record file,
normally created by one of the conversion utilities, sof2flash, elf2flash,
or bin2flash. nios2-flash-programmer can use any S-record file as an
input, provided that the addresses specified in the S-record file represent
offsets from the beginning of flash memory. The Nios II IDE creates flash
programmer files with a .flash extension.
The nios2-flash-programmer utility is capable of programming, erasing,
or reading from any CFI-compatible flash memory or EPCS serial
configuration device in the hardware target design.
The nios2-flash-programmer command-line syntax is:
nios2-flash-programmer [--help] [--cable=<cable name>]
[--device=<device index>] [--instance=<instance>]
--base=<address> [--epcs] { <file> } [--go]
3–2
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode
Table 3–2 lists the parameters commonly used with nios2-flashprogrammer.
Table 3–2. nios2-flash-programmer Parameters (Part 1 of 2)
Name
Required?
Description
General Parameters
--cable=<cable name>
Required if there are multiple Specifies which download cable to use.
download cables connected
to the host computer.
--device=<device index>
Required if there are multiple Specifies the FPGA's device number in
devices in the JTAG chain.
the JTAG chain. This is the device
where the flash programmer looks for
the Nios II JTAG debug module. JTAG
devices are numbered relative to the
JTAG chain, starting at 1. (1)
--instance=<instance>
Required if there are multiple
Nios II CPUs with JTAG
debug modules in the target
design on the FPGA.
Specifies which Nios II JTAG debug
module to look at in the FPGA. This is
the JTAG debug module that is used
for programming flash memory.
--erase=<start>,<size>
Optional; defaults off.
Erases a range of bytes in the flash
memory.
--erase-all
Optional; defaults off.
Erases the entire flash memory. The
erase operation occurs before
programming, if an input file is provided
for programming.
--program
Optional; defaults on if an
input file is specified.
Programs flash memory from the input
files.
--no-keep-nearby
Optional; defaults off.
Throws away partial sector data. If the
data to program does not completely fill
the first or last sector, the flash
programmer normally preserves and
reprograms the original data in those
sectors. The --no-keep-nearby
parameter disables this feature. This
option speeds up the programming
process, but is only appropriate if the
existing flash memory contents are
unimportant.
--verify
Optional; defaults off.
Verifies that contents of flash memory
match input files.
{ <file> }
Optional.
Specifies the name(s) of the input
file(s) to program or verify. Separate
multiple file names with spaces.
--read=<file>
Optional; defaults off.
Reads flash memory contents into the
specified file.
Altera Corporation
October 2005
3–3
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Table 3–2. nios2-flash-programmer Parameters (Part 2 of 2)
Name
Required?
Description
--read-bytes=<start>,<size>
Optional if --read is
specified; defaults off.
Specifies which address range to read
(byte addresses).
--go
Optional; defaults off.
Runs the CPU from its reset vector
after flash memory programming is
complete.
CFI Parameters
--debug
Optional; defaults off.
Prints debug information, including the
flash memory's query table.
--base=<address>
Required.
Specifies the base address of the CFI
flash memory. This is the absolute
address in the target design's address
space. nios2-flash-programmer
treats addresses in the S-record files
as offsets to the base address.
EPCS Parameters
--epcs
Required when programming Specifies that the target flash memory
an EPCS serial configuration is an EPCS serial configuration device.
device; defaults off.
--debug
Optional; defaults off.
Prints debug information about the
physical memory inside the EPCS
device.
--base=<address>
Required.
Specifies the base address of the
EPCS device.
Notes to Table 3–2:
(1) The --device parameter is only needed if there are two processors in different devices
with the same instance ID. If necessary, you can find the instance value in your system
library project's generated.sh file. In the Nios II IDE's C/C++ Projects view, expand your
system library project, and find the Debug or Release folder. generated.sh is in the
system_description subfolder. Open generated.sh, and find the instance number next to
the keyword nios2_instance=. The instance number is unrelated to the CPU number.
f
For additional parameters, type nios2-flash-programmer --help
at a command line.
nios2-flash-programmer Command-Line Examples
nios2-flash-programmer --cable="Usb-blaster [USB-0]"
--base=0x200000 --program ext_flash.flash
Programs CFI flash memory based at address 0x200000 with input
file ext_flash.flash using a cable named "Usb-blaster [USB-0]"
3–4
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode
nios2-flash-programmer --epcs --base=0x02100000
epcs_controller.flash
Programs an EPCS device based at address 0x02100000 with input
file epcs_controller.flash.
nios2-flash-programmer --base=0x200000 --read=current.srec
--read-bytes=0,0x10000
Reads 0x10000 bytes from CFI flash memory based at address
0x200000 and writes the contents to a file named current.srec
nios2-flash-programmer --base=0x200000 --erase=0x8000,0x10000
Erases address range 0x8000 to 0x10000 in CFI flash memory based
at address 0x200000
nios2-flash-programmer --base=0x200000 --debug
Queries CFI flash memory based at address 0x200000 and reports the
result. This dumps the flash memory's query table.
sof2flash
The sof2flash utility takes an FPGA configuration file in .sof format and
translates it to an S-record file, suitable for programming into flash
memory.
Table 3–3 lists the typical parameters used with sof2flash.
Table 3–3. sof2flash Parameters
Name
Required?
Description
General Parameters
--compress
Optional; defaults off.
Turns on Stratix II compression. Not available on nonStratix II FPGAs.
--input=<file>
Required.
Name of the input .sof file.
--output=<file>
Required.
Name of the output file.
CFI Parameters
--offset=<addr>
Required.
Offset within the flash memory device where the FPGA
configuration is to be programmed.
EPCS Parameters
--epcs
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Required for EPCS
devices; defaults off.
Specifies that the output is intended for an EPCS
device.
3–5
Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
f
For additional parameters, type sof2flash --help at a command
line.
sof2flash Command-Line Examples
sof2flash --offset=0x0 --input=standard.sof
--output=standard_cfi.flash
Converts standard.sof to an S-record file named standard_cfi.flash
intended for a CFI flash memory. The S-record offset begins at 0x0.
sof2flash --epcs --input=standard.sof
--output=standard_epcs.flash
Converts standard.sof to an S-record file named
standard_epcs.flash intended for an EPCS device.
elf2flash
The elf2flash utility takes a software executable file in .elf format, and
translates it to an S-record file suitable for programming into flash
memory.
elf2flash also inserts a boot copier into the flash file, if needed. elf2flash
inserts the boot copier code before the application code under the
following conditions:
■
■
The CPU's reset address falls within the address range of the flash
memory being programmed.
The executable code is linked to a memory location outside of the
flash memory being programmed.
If elf2flash inserts a boot copier, it also translates the application code .elf
file to a boot record for use by the boot copier. This boot record contains
all of the application code, but is not executable. After reset, the boot
copier reads the boot record from flash memory and copies the
application code to the correct linked address, and then branches to the
newly-copied application code.
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Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode
Table 3–4 lists the typical parameters used with elf2flash.
Table 3–4. elf2flash Parameters
Name
Required?
Description
General Parameters
--input=<file>
Required.
The name of the input .elf file.
--output=<file>
Required.
The name of the output file.
CFI Parameters
--base=<addr>
Required.
The base address of the flash memory component.
elf2flash uses this parameter with --end and --reset
to determine whether the system requires a boot copier.
--end=<addr>
Required.
The end address of the flash memory component.
elf2flash uses this parameter with --base and
--reset to determine whether the system requires a
boot copier.
--reset=<addr>
Required.
The CPU reset address, which is specified in SOPC
Builder. elf2flash uses this parameter with --base and
--end to determine whether the system requires a boot
copier.
--boot=<file>
Required under the
following conditions:
● The CPU's reset
address falls within
the address range
of the flash memory
being programmed.
● The executable
code is linked to a
memory location
outside of the flash
memory being
programmed.
Specifies the boot copier object code file. Ignored if the
boot copier is not required. If elf2flash determines that a
boot copier is required, but the --boot parameter is
absent, elf2flash displays an error message. The Alteraprovided boot copier is located at <Nios II Kit
Path>/components/altera_nios2/boot_loader_cfi.srec.
EPCS Parameters
--epcs
--after=<file>
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Required when
creating files for an
EPCS device; defaults
off.
Specifies that the output is intended for an EPCS device.
elf2flash uses this parameter to position a Nios II
executable in an EPCS device along with an FPGA
configuration. For further details, see “Programming Both
Hardware and Software into an EPCS Device”.
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f
For additional parameters, type elf2flash --help at a command
line.
Programming Both Hardware and Software into an EPCS Device
The --base parameter is not available for EPCS devices, because in
EPCS devices, FPGA configuration data must start at address 0x0.
However, if you are programming both an FPGA configuration and a
Nios II software executable in the EPCS device, the --after parameter
lets you position the software executable directly after the FPGA
configuration data.
Convert the FPGA configuration file first using sof2flash. When
converting the Nios II software executable, use the --after parameter,
and specify the FPGA configuration S-record file. The S-record output for
the software executable starts at the first address unused by the FPGA
configuration. See the second example under “elf2flash Command-Line
Examples” on page 3–8.
1
elf2flash does not insert the FPGA configuration into the output
file. It simply leaves space, starting at offset 0x0, that is large
enough for the configuration data.
elf2flash Command-Line Examples
elf2flash --base=0x0 --reset=0x0 --boot=boot_loader_cfi.srec
--input=myapp.elf --output=myapp.flash
Converts myapp.elf to an S-record file named myapp.flash,
intended for a CFI flash memory based at 0x0. If required, includes a
boot copier named boot_loader_cfi.srec.
elf2flash --epcs --after=standard.flash --input=myapp.elf
--output=myapp.flash --boot=boot_loader_epcs.srec
Converts myapp.elf to an S-record file named myapp.flash,
intended for an EPCS device. The S-record output starts at the first
address unused by standard.flash.
bin2flash
The bin2flash utility converts an arbitrary file to an S-record file suitable
for use by the flash programmer. You can use bin2flash to convert readonly binary data needed by a Nios II program, such as software
configuration tables.
Depending on your application, you might find it more convenient to use
the Read-Only Zip Filing System, which serves the same purpose.
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October 2005
Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode
f
For details, see the Zip Read-Only File System topic in the Nios II IDE
help system.
Do not use bin2flash to convert executable software files or FPGA
configuration files. To convert Nios II software executable files, use
elf2flash. To convert FPGA configuration files, use sof2flash.
Table 3–5 lists the typical parameters used with bin2flash.
Table 3–5. bin2flash Parameters
Name
Required?
Default
Description
--location=<addr>
Required
N/A
Offset within the flash memory where
the data is to be programmed
--input=<file>
Required
N/A
Name of the input binary file being
converted
--output=<file>
Required
N/A
Name of the output file
f
For additional parameters, type elf2flash --help at a command
line.
bin2flash Command-Line Example
bin2flash --location=0x40000 --input=data.bin
--output=data.flash
Converts data.bin to an S-record file named data.flash. Addresses in
the S-record place the data starting at offset 0x40000 from the
beginning of flash memory.
Altera Corporation
October 2005
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October 2005
Appendix A. Non-Standard
Flash Memories
This section covers advanced topics to support non-standard CFI flash
memory. To use the procedures in this section, you need the datasheet for
the flash memory device you are using. Make sure you fully understand
the CFI aspects of the device.
Some CFI flash memory devices contain missing or incorrect CFI table
information. In this case, the Nios II flash programmer might fail based
on the erroneous information in the CFI table. For these devices, the
Nios II flash programmer provides the following methods to override the
CFI table and successfully program flash memory:
■
■
■
Built-in
Recognition and
Override
f
Flash Override
Files
Built-in recognition and override
Flash override files
Width mode override
The Nios II flash programmer contains code to recognize some devices
with known CFI table problems. On these devices, it automatically
overrides the incorrect table entries. Always try using built-in recognition
and override before trying to create an override file. To determine
whether the flash programmer recognizes the device, run the flash
programmer from the command line with the --debug option. If the
flash programmer automatically overrides the CFI table, the flash
programmer displays a message "Override data for this device is built in".
For details on using the flash programmer in command-line mode, see
the Chapter 3, Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode.
To support newly released flash memory devices which might have
problems in the CFI table, the Nios II flash programmer provides the
ability to override CFI table entries with flash override files. A flash
override file lets you manually override erroneous information in the CFI
table, which enables the Nios II flash programmer to function correctly.
Before creating an override file, run nios2-flash-programmer in
command-line mode with the --debug parameter, which lists the CFI
table found in the device. Compare the debug output with the device's
data sheet.
Altera Corporation
October 2005
A–1
Width Mode Override Parameter
Flash Override File Format
Flash override files contain two sections for each flash memory they
override. The first section declares the flash memory type. The second
section is the CFI table override data. The flash override file can contain
comments preceded by a '#' character.
For example, the SST 39VF800 flash memory contains three incorrect
entries in its CFI table at location 0x13, 0x14, and 0x2C. The following
example demonstrates how to override the values at those addresses.
[FLASH-00BF-2781] #
#
#
#
#
CFI[0x13] = 0x02 #
CFI[0x14] = 0x00 #
CFI[0x2C] = 0x01 #
#
Keyword FLASH, followed by the Mfgr ID and Device ID
These ID values can be found in three ways:
- by consulting the flash memory device's data sheet.
- by using the "autoselect" command
- by running nios2-flash-programmer --debug
The primary command set, found at CFI table addresses 0x13 and 0x14 is overridden to 0x02, 0x00.
The number of CFI Erase block regions, found at
CFI table –address 0x2C is overridden to 0x1.
1
This example is for illustration only. nios2-flash-programmer
recognizes the SST 39VF800 as a nonstandard CFI device and
overrides its CFI table automatically. You do not need to create
an override file for this particular part.
How to Use the Flash Override File
There are two ways to deploy flash override files:
1.
Place the override file in <Nios II Kit Path>/bin. The flash
programmer searches this directory for all filenames matching the
pattern nios2-flash-override*. The flash programmer loads
all these files as override files.
2.
Pass the override file to the flash programmer with the
--override parameter. An example is shown below:
nios2-flash-programmer --base 0x0 -–override=my_override.txt
sw.flash
Width Mode
Override
Parameter
The override procedure described in “Flash Override Files” on page A–1
assumes the flash programmer detects the correct data-width mode from
the CFI query table. In some cases, a 16-bit CFI flash memory device
wired in 8-bit mode might return a query table indicating 16-bit mode.
This condition prevents the flash programmer from correctly interpreting
the remainder of the query table. The flash programmer cannot detect this
situation, because the device type is unreadable. If your flash memory
device has this problem, you must program it from the command line.
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In this case, override the data width on the command line with the hidden
parameter --width=8.
This parameter is known to be necessary for only two flash memory
devices: The ST Micro ST29W800 and ST29W640. Unless you are using
these devices, you are unlikely to require this parameter.
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October 2005
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Width Mode Override Parameter
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October 2005
Appendix B. Supported Flash
Memory Devices
The Nios II flash programmer works with all CFI-compatible parallel
flash memories that support programming algorithm 1, 2, or 3, and with
all Altera EPCS serial configuration devices. Not all flash memory devices
have been tested with the Nios II flash programmer. All the flash memory
devices that Altera has verified in hardware with the Nios II development
tools version 5.1 are listed below.
1
If you find a CFI-compliant device that does not work with the
Nios II flash programmer, please report it to Altera Technical
Support.
The following Altera EPCS devices have been verified to work with the
Nios II flash programmer:
■
■
■
Altera EPCS4
Altera EPCS16
Altera EPCS64
The following CFI-compliant devices have been verified to work with the
Nios II flash programmer:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Altera Corporation
October 2005
AMD AM29LV128
AMD AM29LV641
AMD AM29LV065
Sharp LH28F160S3T
Intel TE28F320C3
Intel TE28F320J3
SST SST39VF800
SST SST39VF400
SST SST39VF200
Atmel AT49BV332AT
Atmel AT49BV162AT
ST Micro ST29W800
ST Micro ST29W640
B–1
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October 2005
Appendix C. Stand-Alone
Mode
When developing your hardware and/or software, you use the Nios II
flash programmer on a computer with the Quartus II software and the
Nios II development tools installed. However, in a production or service
environment you might want to set up a computer to program flash
memory without installing the full set of Altera development tools.
In stand-alone mode, the flash programmer has limited functionality. You
can program any type of CFI or EPCS flash memory. However, the
elf2flash, sof2flash, and bin2flash utilities are not available. You must
create input files for the flash programmer on a computer which has the
Nios II development tools fully installed.
How to Install
Nios II StandAlone Flash
Programmer
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Perform the following steps:
1.
Install the Quartus II Stand-alone Programmer from the Quartus II
CD. The nios2-flash-programmer utility requires the Quartus II
Stand Alone Programmer to access the JTAG chain on the board.
2.
On a computer which has the Nios II development tools fully
installed, find the executable file <Nios II Kit Path>/bin/nios2-flashprogrammer.exe.
3.
On the stand-alone computer, copy nios2-flash-programmer.exe
into the directory <Quartus II Stand-alone Programmer Path>/bin.
4.
Open a command prompt on the stand-alone computer. Change
directories to the location of the files you wish to program into flash
memory.
5.
Run the nios2-flash-programmer utility as described in Chapter 3,
Using the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode.
C–1
How to Install Nios II Stand-Alone Flash Programmer
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October 2005
Appendix D. Troubleshooting
This chapter lists troubleshooting tips for the Nios II flash programmer.
Each section below describes a common issue you might run into when
using the Nios II flash programmer.
Program Flash Button Grayed Out in the IDE
In the Flash Programmer dialog in the Nios II IDE, the Program Flash
button is grayed out.
Probable Cause
You have not fully specified the required parameters in the Flash
Programmer dialog.
Suggested Actions
■
■
Make sure that your JTAG cable settings are correct. Specify the JTAG
settings on the Target Connection tab.
Make sure that you have selected a file to program to the flash
memory.
"No Nios II processors available" Error
When you run the flash programmer, you get the error: "There are no
Nios II processors available which match the values specified. Please
check that your PLD is correctly configured, downloading a new .sof file
if necessary."
Probable Cause
The flash programmer is unable to connect with a Nios II JTAG debug
module inside the FPGA.
Suggested Actions
■
Altera Corporation
October 2005
Make sure that the FPGA is running a valid flash programmer target
design. If not, you need to configure the FPGA using the Quartus II
programmer. See “Flash Programmer Target Design” on page 1–3.
D–1
■
■
If you are developing on a custom board, make sure that your SOPC
Builder board description contains the correct device index for the
flash programmer. See the Board Description Editor chapter of the
Quartus II Handbook, Volume 4: SOPC Builder.
If using the flash programmer in command-line mode, ensure you
have specified the proper --device, --cable, and --instance
parameter values. See Chapter 3, Using the Flash Programmer in
Command-Line Mode for details.
"No CFI table found" Error
When you run the flash programmer to program CFI flash memory, you
get the error: "No CFI table found at address <base address of flash
memory device>"
Probable Cause
The flash programmer was able to connect with a Nios II JTAG debug
module in the FPGA, but it could not successfully execute a query to a
flash memory at the base address specified.
Suggested Actions
■
■
■
■
If you are using nios2-flash-programmer in command-line mode,
make sure you specified the correct base address for the CFI device.
You can find the flash memory's base address in SOPC Builder.
Run nios2-flash-programmer in command-line mode with the
--debug parameter. This dumps the flash memory's query table.
Compare the output with the flash memory device's data sheet. For
further details, see Chapter 3, Using the Flash Programmer in
Command-Line Mode.
Ensure your flash memory hardware is correctly connected to place
it at the base address specified in SOPC Builder. Verify this is by
running the "Test Flash" routine in the "Memory Test" software
template provided in the Nios II IDE. If the test fails, there is a
problem with your memory connection. There are two places to look
for the problem:
●
The physical connection on your target board
●
The pin assignments on the top-level FPGA design
If all else fails, make sure the flash memory device you are using does
not require an override file. See Appendix A, Non-Standard Flash
Memories for details.
"No EPCS registers found" Error
When you run the flash programmer to program an EPCS device, you get
the error: "No EPCS registers found: tried looking at addresses...."
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October 2005
Probable Cause
The flash programmer was able to connect with a Nios II JTAG debug
module in the FPGA, but it could not successfully find an EPCS device
located at the specified base address.
Suggested Actions
■
■
■
■
■
Reconfigure the FPGA with a valid target design via JTAG using the
Quartus II programmer. If the FPGA is configured by another
method, such as by a configuration controller, the pins that connect
to the EPCS device might be disabled.
If you are using nios2-flash-programmer in command-line mode,
make sure you specified the correct base address for your EPCS
device. You can find the flash memory's base address in SOPC
Builder.
Ensure that the EPCS device is correctly connected to the FPGA on
the board. Verify this by running the "Test EPCS" routine in the
"Memory Test" software template in Nios II IDE. If the test fails, there
is a problem with your memory connection. There are two places to
look for the problem:
●
The physical connection on your target board
●
The pin assignments on the top-level FPGA design
Use the Quartus II Programmer to program the EPCS device directly
via a JTAG download cable, and verify that the EPCS device
successfully configures the FPGA.
Run nios2-flash-programmer in command-line mode with the
--epcs parameter. This displays information about the flash
memory in the EPCS device. For further details, see Chapter 3, Using
the Flash Programmer in Command-Line Mode.
"System does not have any flash memory" Error
When you run the flash programmer, you get the error: "The SOPC
Builder system does not have any flash memory."
Probable Cause
The FPGA is not currently configured with a valid flash programmer
target design.
Suggested Actions
If practical, upgrade your FPGA design to meet the criteria for a flash
programmer target design. See “Flash Programmer Target Design” on
page 1–3 for details.
Altera Corporation
October 2005
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Nios II Flash Programmer User Guide
"Reading System ID at address 0x<address>: FAIL" Error
When you run the flash programmer in IDE mode, you get the error:
"Reading System ID at address 0x<address>: FAIL"
Probable Cause
The FPGA is not currently configured with the target design that
corresponds to the system library project for the C/C++ application in the
IDE.
Suggested Actions
Use the Quartus II Programmer to download the correct FPGA
configuration file to the FPGA, then try using the Nios II flash
programmer again.
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October 2005
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