Developing Biological Board Games

Developing Biological Board Games
Volume 22: Mini Workshops
Developing Biological Board Games:
Why not make a game of it?
William M. Beachly
Department of Biology
Hastings College
700 Turner Avenue
Hastings, NE 68901
wbeachly@hastings.edu
William Beachly is an Assistant Professor in Biology at Hastings College
with previous teaching experience in a (rival) small liberal arts college, a large
university, a dental school, and even a minimum security prison (where
attendance was nearly perfect every day)! At Hastings College he teaches a twosemester freshman major’s course, an advanced physiology course, bioethics,
ecology, animal behavior, invertebrates, and some other field-oriented courses
that include travel. He enjoys small classes that provide an ideal testing grounds
for new teaching approaches. He also enjoys activities that surprise students and
involve them as groups to solve problems.
Reprinted From: Beachly, W. M. 2000. Developing biological board games: Why not make a game of it?
Pages 446-469, in Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Volume 22 (S. J. Karcher, Editor). Proceedings
of the 22nd Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE), 489 pages.
- Copyright policy: http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/able/volumes/copyright.htm
Although the laboratory exercises in ABLE proceedings volumes have been tested and due consideration
has been given to safety, individuals performing these exercises must assume all responsibility for risk. The
Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) disclaims any liability with regards to safety in
connection with the use of the exercises in its proceedings volumes.
©2001 William M. Beachly
Students need to be challenged to think outside the familiar formats, and motivated to
apply what they’ve learned in a non-threatening environment. This is why I make games for
many of my biology courses. Most often these are played in the laboratory because the seating is
more adaptable, set-up is easier, and time is more flexible. In this mini-workshop paper I hope to
encourage others to design games for their curricula, as I have found students most receptive to
the novelty.
The first step, as you think about the nature of the material being covered, is to decide if
the material reminds you of any games you know. It is usually easier to design a game around a
format that may already be familiar to students. Relatively obvious, and simple, formats are
games such as Trivial Pursuit, or the popular TV game shows Jeopardy and Who Wants to be a
Millionaire. (I’m indebted to Dr. Tom Fogle at Saint Mary's College for this suggestion.) But
446 Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) ~ http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/able
Volume 22: Mini Workshops
with computer graphics programs and photocopiers it is possible to mimic (as the sincerest form
of flattery, of course) popular board games.
Take Monopoly for example. Using a computer drawing program it was easy to make a
one page outline of 1/4 of the game board layout (you know, the avenues and corners). Then I
pasted on my own text and drawings to create Immunopoly. With a little photocopying and
pasting you can generate a bunch of game boards and buy whatever dice and tokens you need.
You can buy genuine Monopoly money, but Life has larger denominations (more suited to
modern medicine). Just as the point in Monopoly is to get around to GO again without going
broke; in Immunopoly you try to get around without getting sick, or killed. Rather than landing
on properties and paying rent, you land on pathogens and must fight them off with white blood
cells. Where in Monopoly you may come to own a property and needn’t worry about landing
there again; in Immunopoly you can overcome an infection and gain lasting immunity to that
particular pathogen. Of course the familiar jail and “go to jail” corners are now the hospital and
“go to hospital” corners. The “chance” and “community chest” cards have been replaced by
“humoral immunity” and “cellular immunity” cards that ask questions about the immune system.
The railroads are now biotechnology companies with which players may patent their own
gamma globulins or develop their own vaccines to sell to other players. In Monopoly the rents
get higher as you go around, until the dreaded Park Place and Boardwalk are finally passed with
relief. In Immunopoly the pathogens are increasingly dire and it is not at all uncommon for
students to die (several times are permitted, based on how you want to play the game). In short,
much of the Monopoly rubric is adapted to your course’s material. This same method of
adaptation can be applied to other games and courses.
Another example that we played in the miniworkshop is Where in the Brain is the
Nucleus Accumbens based on the popular TV geography show Where in the World is Carmen
Sandiego? This game involves the whole class, working in teams to follow clues on a series of
large posters (representing different regions of the brain) that may ultimately lead them to the
Nucleus accumbens. The clues are riddles that test their understanding of CNS anatomy and
function. This is a game that can be played in a lecture room or laboratory-- anywhere with an
open wall or chalkboard. Designing this game involved charting a clue pathway through a series
of brain structures. Students following a clue may suspect which structure it refers to and look at
the clue card for that structure in one of five –encephalon regions. In the correct region, the clue
card will advance them toward their goal more directly than the clue card in an incorrect region.
Hence their group benefits by an understanding of the brain regions as well as the structures.
The point is to show that you can use your imagination to produce a challenging activity.
With the tools now at our disposal your game can look quite like the “real thing”. Students will
appreciate the effort and creativity you put into it, and they often teach each other quite a bit in
the process of playing. This is a wonderful thing to watch! It is also a refreshing surprise to
students when they come to lab and find a game board set up for them. You can be quite
flexible in the time you allow for this; sometimes it can fill those time gaps that occur in
traditional labs, such as waiting for the gel to run. And there’s no limit to your subject material.
Dr. Kari Benson at Lynchburg University shared an exercise with me in which her students had
to design their own “life history” game for an ecology class. She received many creative and fun
game ideas and I’m sure the students thought more deeply about life history theory than they
would have otherwise. Like games, biology has rules, and role-playing provides a perspective
on biological processes that students are more likely to remember.
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PLAYING IMMUNOPOLY
1. Getting Started:
Each player selects a colored token and begins in the GO square.
Each player begins with $2000, 20 B units (red), and 20 T units (clear).
Roll 2 dice for sequence of play, then roll 2 dice to move.
2. Landing on a pathogen square:
Roll one die, the outcomes are listed along each side above the squares:
• Get Lucky: If you roll an illness or death outcome, roll again and if you match your
first roll nothing happens. (e.g. You rolled 1, then you roll 1 again.)
• Death: One strike against you, three strikes and you’re out of the game.
• Go To Hospital: Advance to the Hospital square, on your next turn follow the
instructions below (under Hospital).
• Get over it: Your immune system has saved you, but at a cost. Return the number of
units shown in the square to the common pools. You now have lasting immunity
against that particular pathogen. Get an Immunoglobulin card. If you land there
again you will neither die, go to the hospital, or need to pay B-cell or T-cell units.
• If you don’t have enough B-cell or T-cell units to get over it, go to Hospital.
1. Rolling doubles:
Advance that number of spaces. You may stay there or you may advance to the next
Humoral Immunity or Cellular Immunity square and draw a card. If you continued on,
you did not get exposed to the pathogen (if any).
4. Biotechnology Companies:
When you land on one of the Biotechnology companies (BTC) you have an opportunity
to buy stock in that company at $500/share. With stock you can:
•
•
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Develop and sell IMMUNOGLOBULINS (IG)s to any pathogen you have landed on
and gotten over it naturally (you will obtain an IG card matching that pathogen).
You can sell shots of IG to any other player(s) landing on that pathogen square for
$500. Since IG’s only confer passive immunity, players may need to buy another
shot of IG from you if they land again on that pathogen later. Note: They may choose
to buy the IG from you when they land on that pathogen, or take their chances on the
dice.
Develop and sell VACCINES (if you own stock in any two BTC’s) to any pathogen
you have landed on, provided it didn’t kill you the first time. It costs you $500 to
develop the vaccine, you will have lasting immunity against that pathogen even if it
sent you to the Hospital. You can sell your vaccine to other players for $1000,
imparting lasting immunity, but they must purchase it before landing on that
pathogen square. Only you can sell that vaccine.
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5. In the Hospital:
To get out of the hospital, on your next turn you can either pay a fee of $500, use a Get
out of Hospital Free card (but you will not have active immunity), or roll one die.
Outcomes depend on the next lower pathogen level than you caught (e.g. If it was a level
2 pathogen, outcomes of the roll are based on level 1, if it was a level 1 pathogen, you get
out on your next turn but must pay the units shown).
•
•
•
Get over it (pay units and develop active immunity). You get out free (insurance
pays).
Get out of the Hospital (same roll as Go to Hospital) but without immunity to the
pathogen.
Or die (one strike against you).
If you were sent to the Hospital by landing on the Go to Hospital Square you can only get
out by paying $500 or using a Get out of Hospital Free card, and you must do one of
these on your next turn.
6. CELLULAR IMMUNITY cards and HUMORAL IMMUNITY cards:
When you land on one of these squares, draw the top card. It will either tell you to do
something or ask a question. If so, you must read it aloud to the group and you have 3
minutes to come up with the missing word. If your guess is correct you win $500. The
rest of the group decides if you are correct or not (they may need to consult the book).
Unless the card is a Get out of Hospital Free card, return it to the bottom of the deck.
7. FREE IMMUNITY BOOST and AGEING squares:
Add to or subtract from your B-cell and T-cell units as directed (you may round down on
%’s). BUYING IMMUNITY BOOSTERS: for $500 you can get 25 units, any
combination.
8. WINNING THE GAME
The winner is either the lone survivor, or the survivor with the most money at the end of
the time allowed for play. Biotech company shares are worth $1000 each. IG patents
are worth $500 and Vaccines are worth $1500.
Making your IMMUNOPOLY game:
1. Photocopy the four quarters of the game board. Cut edges to match-up. Enlarge and color as
desired. These can be made more durable by covering with clear Contact shelf paper.
2. Photocopy the Cellular and Humoral immunity card sheets on card stock paper. Line them
up so the symbols appear on one side and the text on the other. Make sure the outlines match
so that you can cut them out. Shuffle and stack each deck on the places provided on the
board.
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3. Photocopy and cut out the Vaccine and Immunoglobulin certificates. You should have extras
of the IG certificates because multiple players may develop immunity to the same pathogen.
4. Obtain dice and play money from a toy store. Monopoly money and tokens may be obtained
cheaply from your neighborhood thrift store. At a hobby store buy beads for T-cell and Bcell units. I use tri-angled beads (clear and red) because they don’t roll around and resemble
antibodies and T-cell receptors!
5. Feel free to modify the rules to suit your time constraints. An easy way is to adjust the
number of times you’re “allowed” to die.
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Where in the Brain is the Nucleus Accumbens?
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Your Mission: To find the Nucleus accumbens, the “center of hedonistic reinforcement” in the
brain1. Your team is assigned to begin in one of the five brain regions and you select a structure
you believe can be found in that region. If you are correct, the clue you reveal by lifting the card
will bring you one step closer to the nucleus accumbens2. Only one emissary from each team is
allowed at the board at one time. Don’t reveal to other teams what you have learned! You are in
a race to find the nucleus accumbens first.
For example, if you looked in the Mesencephalon under the Red Nucleus card, you get a
clue saying “Red Nucleus, Yes! Twixt left and right my tracts do bind, In girls I’m larger you
may find”. The riddle confirms you were on the right track and suggests which brain structure to
look for next. Your group must decide in which brain region to look for that structure. You can
consult your textbook3 to solve the riddles. If you choose a card in an incorrect brain region, the
clue beneath may say “sorry” or “not here” but lead you back towards the right path. It is
mandatory that you follow the clue given rather than pursue the last structure chosen in some
other region.
Note: you do not need to “take turns” with other teams. Your team may revisit the
boards as often and quickly as you like; the only restraints are that only one member of your
team is allowed at the board at a time and you must rotate this duty within your team. Other
team members may offer guidance from their seats.
When you are ‘red hot’ on the trail, you will get a riddle that refers (but not blatantly, of
course) to the nucleus accumbens and contains other clues to the brain structure of which it is a
part. When you identify this brain structure and its region, write these on a slip of paper and
submit them to your instructor for confirmation. If correct, you have won!
Instructors notes for
Where in the Brain is the Nucleus Accumbens?
Setting up:
1. Select 10 sheets of colored poster board (22” x 28” is standard sized)--2 of each color. Tape
the same colored boards together on the long side to make a single poster 44” high x 28”
wide. An alternative is to buy 30” x 40” white foam board. It’s sturdier but this costs more
and requires more storage space. If using a white board you can color-code the five brain
regions by the color of pockets (see below).
2. The five boards can be set up on the chalk tray of a standard black or white erase board.
Each board has one of the brain regions: Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon,
Metencephalon, or Myelencephalon printed boldly across the top.
2.
Make 20 pockets from construction paper to paste or tape onto each board. Each pocket
will fit around one of the clue cards you enlarge and photocopy from the sheets provided
onto card stock paper. If you enlarge the sheets 200% each card will be 3” x 4.5” but you
may want them even larger if the size of your board permits.
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3.
The top of each card, naming a brain structure, sticks out of the pocket and is visible, but
the clue below must be concealed in the pocket. A group member may then take a card
clue back to their group to solve the riddle before replacing the card in the pocket.
Footnotes on instruction sheet:
1.
The nucleus accumbens was identified in rat experiments as the pleasure center of the
brain. When offered a lever that delivered an electrical stimulus to this region, rats forgo
feeding and even mating in order to press that lever endlessly. Other brain areas have
also been proposed as being involved in addictive behaviors in humans.
2.
The path taken by each group will vary. With several groups I have each assigned to
begin at one of the brain regions and choose a structure they think may be found there to
get onto the clue path. Another way that works for two or three groups is to assign the
Red Nucleus as a starting point and they must choose the region to begin with. The most
direct route will be followed by correctly identifying the structure alluded to in the clue
and its region. For example the path could be:
Red Nucleus -Æ Corpus Callosum -Æ Caudate Tail -Æ Insula -Æ Three Peduncles -Æ
Trigeminal Nucleus -Æ Olive -Æ Infundibulum -Æ Homunculus - which holds the final riddle
to find the Nucleus accumbens:
Your goal lies in a cluster of nuclei,
It leans (accumbent) upon the paraventriculi
The students need to recognize paraventricular nucleus as being one of the hypothalamic
nucleii. This tells them the Nucleus accumbens is too. Then they need to correctly identify these
as being in the Diencephalon.
3.
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We used Saladin’s Anatomy and Physiology: The unity of form and function, pp. 469-70,
477-498. It works well because it has no direct reference to the nucleus accumbens, but
can be used for the other structures along with your student’s lecture notes. Most A & P
textbooks will work as well.
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TELENCEPHALON
Intermediate
Mass
Looking for the
Intermediate
Mass? No trace
here but explore
the pyramids and
have no fear.
Vasomotor Center
Vasomotor
centers? Someone
else has ’em, but
do take a look
for CN-II’s
chiasm.
Three Peduncles
Optic Chiasma
Cerebral Aqueduct
A blind alley!
What once was an
‘eye’ in a lofty
place, I still
have a role in
your daily pace
The optic
chiasma doesn’t
cross here, but
the vermis may
worm its way
near.
Cerebral
Aqueduct? You
missed the boat.
Try the pyramids
of ancient note.
Red Nucleus
Vermis
Homunculus
Red’s not here so
take a walk! But
just try getting
Dr. Broca to
talk.
No vermis creeps
here, but for
better luck,
take a plunge in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
Your goal lies
in a cluster of
nuclei, It leans
(accumbent) upon
the
paraventriculi.
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Insula
Is the insula in?
You’re on the
right track Sr.
Detective. Make
haste to
peduncles three.
Olive
Monro’s foramen
Monoro’s not
tellin’ but ask
the three peduncles of Sara
Bellum
Infundibulum
Broca’s area
Caudate tail
Broca’s here!
Twixt left and
right my tracts
do bind, In
girls I’m larger
you may find.
My folds lie deep
and out of sight
my role a mystery
but if you think
that’s bitter or
sweet, it’s
mostly up to me.
Trigeminal roots
Corpus callosum
Trigeminal’s
root is not
bound to this
spot, but some
say the hippocampus is hot!
Callosum? You’re
getting closeum.
‘Round about the
ventricle’ I go,
where I stop
Amygdala knows.
Sorry, Olive’s
pit is A.W.O.L.
but the massa
intermedia could
be fruitful.
Investigating the
infundibulum?
Sorry.
Check Pineal’s
body for clues.
Pineal body
Corpora
quadrigemina
Hippocampus
Pyramids
For Pineal’s body
you’re on the
wrong trail,
But for thrills
try pulling the
caudate’s tail.
This four-part
body isn’t the
right one, you
must dig up the
corpus callosum.
The Hippocampus?
Ya done well
kid! Find the
bulge between
the vagus and
hypoglossal.
Pursuing
pyramids? Not
here gumshoe,
take a dive in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
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DIENCEPHALON
Intermediate
Mass
Massa intermedia
found! What
through me flows
the 3rd only
knows, but to the
4th it goes.
Pineal body
You’ve found the
PB, now find me!
I’m ‘across’ the
underside where
half decuss and
half abide.
Optic Chiasma
Your insight
shows! What
through me flows
the 3rd only
knows, but to the
4th it goes.
Vermis
Caudate tail
No vermis creeps
here, but for
better luck,
take a plunge in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
No point chasing
your tail here,
better luck
making for the
vasomotor center
Insula
Olive
Vasomotor
centers? Someone
else has ’em,
but do take a
look for CN-II’s
chiasm.
The insula has
slipped your
memory, jog it
with a seahorsey ride!
Sorry, Olive’s
pit is A.W.O.L.
but the massa
intermedia could
be fruitful.
Hippocampus
Broca’s area
Trigeminal roots
The Hippocampus’
hangout you
missed, but
Monro’s hole is
next on your
list.
Ain’t seen Broca
hereabouts gumshoe, but ask
Corporal Quadrigemina what to
do.
Cerebral Aqueduct
Cerebral
Aqueduct? You
missed the boat.
Try the pyramids
of ancient note.
Vasomotor Center
Trigeminal’s
root is not
bound to this
spot, but some
say the hippocampus is hot!
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Red Nucleus
Corpora
quadrigemina
Homunculus
Pyramids
Red’s not here so
take a walk! But
just try getting
Dr. Broca to
talk.
This four-part
body isn’t the
right one, you
must dig up the
corpus callosum.
No one home!
What once was an
‘eye’ in a lofty
place, I still
have a role in
your daily pace
Pursuing
pyramids? Not
here gumshoe,
take a dive in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
Monro’s foramen
You’ve found the
foramen, you’re
warmer now too,
ask Popeye’s gal
to get your next
clue.
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Infundibulum
Indeed! You’re
gaining speed.
Two ‘little men’
to feel and move
are laid beside
a central groove
Three Peduncles
Corpus callosum
Nyuk, no luck!
Twixt left and
right my tracts
do bind, In
girls I’m larger
you may find.
Your corpse
isn’t here but
keep looking for
Pineal’s body.
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MESENCEPHALON
Olive
Red Nucleus
Homunculus
Infundibulum
Sorry, Olive’s
pit is A.W.O.L.
but the massa
intermedia could
be fruitful.
Doing fine!
Twixt left and
right my tracts
do bind, In
girls I’m larger
you may find
No one home!
What once was an
‘eye’ in a lofty
place, I still
have a role in
your daily pace
Investigating
the infundibulum? Sorry.
Check Pineal’s
body for clues.
Pineal body
Vermis
Hippocampus
For Pineal’s body
you’re on the
wrong trail,
But for thrills
try pulling the
caudate’s tail.
No vermis creeps
here, but for
better luck,
take a plunge in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
The Hippocampus’
hangout you
missed, but
Monro’s hole is
next on your
list.
Pyramids
Pursuing
pyramids? Not
here gumshoe,
take a dive in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
Broca’s area
Ain’t seen Broca
hereabouts gumshoe, but ask
Corporal Quadrigemina what to
do.
Vasomotor Center
Vasomotor
centers? Someone
else has ’em,
but do take a
look for CN-II’s
chiasm.
Insula
Intermediate
Mass
Nyuk nyuk, no
luck! What
through me flows
the 3rd only
knows, but to
the 4th it goes.
The insula has
slipped your
memory, jog it
with a seahorsey ride!
Looking for the
Intermediate
Mass? No trace
here but explore
the pyramids and
have no fear.
Monro’s foramen
Caudate tail
Corpus callosum
Three Peduncles
Monoro’s not
tellin’ but ask
the three peduncles of Sara
Bellum
No point chasing
your tail here,
better luck
making for the
vasomotor center
Your corpse
isn’t here but
keep looking for
Pineal’s body.
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METENCEPHALON
Hippocampus
The Hippocampus’
hangout you
missed, but
Monro’s hole is
next on your
list.
Red Nucleus
Red’s not here so
take a walk! But
just try getting
Dr. Broca to
talk.
Optic Chiasma
The optic chiasma
doesn’t cross
here, but the
vermis may worm
its way near.
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Three Peduncles
The home of the
three you know.
Now go where a
nerve with three
branches grows.
Corpus callosum
Your corpse isn’t
here but keep
looking for
Pineal’s body.
Caudate tail
No point chasing
your tail here,
better luck
making for the
vasomotor center
Insula
Broca’s area
The insula has
slipped your
memory, jog it
with a seahorsey ride!
Ain’t seen Broca
hereabouts gumshoe, but ask
Corporal Quadrigemina what to
do.
Homunculus
Homunculus? No!
‘round about the
ventricle I go,
where I stop the
amygdala knows.
Trigeminal roots
You’ve your
roots, you’re
warmer now too,
ask Popeye’s gal
to get your next
clue.
Vasomotor Center
Vasomotor
centers? Someone
else has ’em, but
do take a look
for CN-II’s
chiasm.
Pyramids
Pursuing
pyramids? Not
here gumshoe,
take a dive in
the cerebral
aqueduct.
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Olive
Sorry, Olive’s
pit is A.W.O.L.
but the massa
intermedia could
be fruitful.
Monro’s foramen
Monoro’s not
tellin’ but ask
the three peduncles of Sara
Bellum
Corpora
quadrigemina
This four-part
body isn’t the
right one, you
must dig up the
corpus callosum.
Cerebral Aqueduct
Cerebral
Aqueduct? You
missed the boat.
Try the pyramids
of ancient note.
Intermediate
Mass
Infundibulum
Pineal body
Vermis
Looking for the
Intermediate
Mass? No trace
here but explore
the pyramids and
have no fear.
Investigating the
infundibulum?
Sorry.
Check Pineal’s
body for clues.
For Pineal’s
body you’re on
the wrong trail,
But for thrills
try pulling the
caudate’s tail.
My folds lie deep
and out of sight
my role a mystery
but if you think
that’s bitter or
sweet, it’s
mostly up to me.
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MYELENCEPHALON
Homunculus
No one Hom! What
once was an ‘eye’
in a lofty place,
I still have a
role in your
daily pace
Caudate tail
No point chasing
your tail here,
better luck
making for the
vasomotor center
Vasomotor Center
Right on target!
What through me
flows the 3rd
only knows, but
to the 4th it
goes.
468
Vermis
No vermis creeps
here, but for
better luck, take
a plunge in the
cerebral
aqueduct.
Trigeminal roots
Trigeminal’s root
is not bound to
this spot, but
some say the
hippo- campus is
hot!
Monro’s foramen
Monoro’s not
tellin’ but ask
the three peduncles of Sara
Bellum
Infundibulum
Investigating
the infundibulum? Sorry.
Check Pineal’s
body for clues.
Corpus callosum
Your corpse
isn’t here but
keep looking for
Pineal’s body.
Hippocampus
Broca’s area
The Hippocampus’
hangout you
missed, but
Monro’s hole is
next on your
list.
Ain’t seen Broca
hereabouts gumshoe, but ask
Corporal Quadrigemina what to
do.
Olive
Holy pimento!
You found
Olives’ center,
time to
interrogate the
infundibulum!
Optic Chiasma
The optic
chiasma doesn’t
cross here, but
the vermis may
worm its way
near.
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Red Nucleus
Pyramids
Pineal body
Insula
Red’s not here so
take a walk! But
just try getting
Dr. Broca to
talk.
My folds lie deep
and out of sight
my role a mystery
but if you think
that’s bitter or
sweet It’s mostly
up to me
For Pineal’s
body you’re on
the wrong trail,
But for thrills
try pulling the
caudate’s tail.
The insula has
slipped your
memory, jog it
with a seahorsey ride!
Cerebral Aqueduct
Intermediate
Mass
Three Peduncles
They’re out to
lunch, but look
in the place
where the thalami
touch.
Corpora
quadrigemina
This four-part
body isn’t the
right one, you
must dig up the
corpus callosum.
Cerebral
Aqueduct? You
missed the boat.
Try the pyramids
of ancient note.
Looking for the
Intermediate
Mass? No trace
here but explore
the pyramids and
have no fear.
469
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