Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links

Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
IBM
z Systems
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
(FICON/FCP, Coupling Links, and Open Systems
Adapters)
SY27-7694-01
IBM
z Systems
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
(FICON/FCP, Coupling Links, and Open Systems
Adapters)
SY27-7694-01
Note
Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Safety” on
page v, Appendix G, “Notices,” on page 117, and IBM Systems Environmental Notices and User
Guide, Z125–5823.
This edition, SY27-7694-01, applies to the IBM z Systems and IBM LinuxONE servers. This edition replaces
SY27-7694-00.
There might be a newer version of this document in a PDF file available on Resource Link. Go to
http://www.ibm.com/servers/resourcelink and click Library on the navigation bar. A newer version is indicated by a
lowercase alphabetic letter following the form number suffix. For example: 00a, 00b, 01a, 01b.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2015, 2016.
US Government Users Restricted Rights – Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract
with IBM Corp.
Contents
Safety
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Safety notices . . . . . . .
World trade safety information
Laser safety information . . .
Laser compliance . . . . .
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About this publication . . . . . . . . vii
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Who should use this publication . .
What is included in this publication .
Where to find more information . .
Revisions . . . . . . . . . .
How to send your comments . . .
Accessibility . . . . . . . . .
Accessibility features . . . . .
Keyboard navigation . . . . .
IBM and accessibility . . . . .
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Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic
links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Unidirectional fiber optic information transfer .
Bidirectional fiber optic information transfer . .
Optical fiber elements and optical cable . . .
Optical cable connectors . . . . . . . .
Physical-contact connectors . . . . . .
Nonphysical-contact connectors . . . . .
Connector color coding . . . . . . . .
IBM jumper cables . . . . . . . . . .
Trunk cable . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution panels . . . . . . . . . .
Couplers and adapters . . . . . . . . .
Mode conditioning patch cables . . . . .
Splitter tool . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fiber optic channel link configuration . . .
FDDI service limitations . . . . . . . .
Jumper cable . . . . . . . . . . .
Link bandwidth . . . . . . . . . .
Link error conditions . . . . . . . . .
Link error analysis . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of link error analysis . . . . .
Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 2. Service Strategy and
Maintenance Activities . . . . . . . . 19
Link problem determination summary . . .
Link service activities . . . . . . . . .
Installation activities . . . . . . . .
Repair activities . . . . . . . . . .
Test activities . . . . . . . . . . .
Link training topics. . . . . . . . . .
Keying and installing an IBM FDDI connector .
IBM FDDI connector keys . . . . . .
Cleaning the connector . . . . . . .
Installing and removing the connector . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
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Typical link configurations . . . . . . .
Common link failures . . . . . . . . .
FICON Express8 fiber optic cable requirements
Determining the direction of light propagation
Link verification summary . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. Problem Determination
Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Start link problem determination . . . . . .
0300: Start . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Link problem determination using MAPs . . .
0310: Testing a link . . . . . . . . . . .
0320: Testing fiber 1 . . . . . . . . . .
0330: Fiber 1 loss unacceptable . . . . . . .
0340: Testing fiber 2 . . . . . . . . . .
0350: Fiber 2 loss unacceptable . . . . . . .
0360: Jumper cable verification . . . . . . .
Link problem determination using the fast-path
method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Obtaining reference levels and attaching test
equipment to a link. . . . . . . . . . .
Obtaining ▌PO▐ for a multi-mode link. . . .
Obtaining ▌P1▐ and attaching test equipment to
multi-mode link . . . . . . . . . . .
Obtaining ▌P2▐ for a multi-mode link. . . .
Obtaining ▌P3▐ for a multi-mode link. . . .
Obtaining ▌P0▐ for a single-mode link . . .
Obtaining P1 and attaching test equipment to a
single–mode link . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4. Jumper Cable Handling and
Installation Summary . . . . . . . . 55
Jumper cable handling precautions
Pre-installation checklist . . . .
Cable inventory . . . . . .
Jumper cable installation summary
Jumper cable labeling . . . .
Safety equipment . . . . .
Test equipment . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . .
Cable routing . . . . . . .
Cable layout, slack management,
Connector protection . . . .
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and strain relief
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Chapter 5. Documentation . . . . . . 59
Cable administration information . . . . . . .
Link installation documentation . . . . . . .
Documentation for new installations . . . . .
Documentation for all installations . . . . .
Link connections and IOCDS and cable information
Logical link connection . . . . . . . . .
Physical point-to-point link connection . . . .
Complex physical link connection . . . . . .
Completing the cable administration work sheet . .
Product information . . . . . . . . . .
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Jumper cable information.
Trunk information . . .
Loss measurements . . .
Service comments . . .
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Appendix A. Specifications . . . . . . 65
Link specifications . . . . . . .
Typical optical component loss values
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Appendix B. Tools, Test Equipment,
and Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Appendix C. Measuring Device
Transmit and Receive Levels . . . . . 71
Measuring receive-in power . . . . . . . . .
Measuring transmit-out power . . . . . . . .
Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs)
multi-mode power level measurement procedures .
Measuring device transmitter and receiver levels
Measuring receive-in power for a multi-mode
coupling link . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring transmit-out power for a multi-mode
coupling link . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs)
single-mode power level measurement procedures .
Measuring device transmitter and receiver levels
Measuring receive-in power for a single-mode
coupling link . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring transmit-out power for a single-mode
coupling link . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolating link segments using the splitter tool . . .
ETR link multi-mode power level measurement
procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring transmit-out power for an ETR link
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Appendix D. Measurement Conversion
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
English-to-metric conversion table .
Metric-to-english conversion table .
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Appendix E. Work Sheets. . . . . . . 91
MAP work sheet: link configuration 1 . .
MAP work sheet: link configuration 2 . .
MAP work sheet: link configuration 3 . .
Fast path work sheet: all link configurations
Multi-mode calculated link loss work sheet .
Single-mode calculated link loss work sheet
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Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
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Calculating the loss in a multi-mode link . . . 99
Completing a loss work sheet for a multi-mode
link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Link limitations . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Loss calculation . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Section A: Calculating the multi-mode
component mean loss . . . . . . . . . 100
Section B: Calculating the multi-mode
component variance loss . . . . . . . . 101
Section C: Calculating the total multi-mode link
loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Loss calculation example for a multi-mode ESCON
link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Loss calculation for an FDDI multi-mode link
103
Calculating the loss in a single-mode link . . . . 105
Completing a loss work sheet for a single-mode
link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Section A: Calculating the single-mode
component mean loss . . . . . . . . . 105
Section B: Calculating the single-mode
component variance loss . . . . . . . . 106
Section C: Calculating the total single-mode link
loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Loss calculation example for a single-mode link 107
Appendix F. Fiber optic cleaning
procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .
Terms associated with Fiber Optic cabling
include: . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials required . . . . . . . . . .
General cleaning procedures . . . . . .
Couplers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wrap plug . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective plug . . . . . . . . . . .
Fiber optic cable connector cleaning procedure
Small form pluggable (SFP) transceiver . . .
MPO Transceiver . . . . . . . . . .
Common connectors . . . . . . . . .
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Appendix G. Notices . . . . . . . . 117
Trademarks . .
Class A Notices.
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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Safety
Safety notices
Safety notices may be printed throughout this guide. DANGER notices warn you of conditions or
procedures that can result in death or severe personal injury. CAUTION notices warn you of conditions
or procedures that can cause personal injury that is neither lethal nor extremely hazardous. Attention
notices warn you of conditions or procedures that can cause damage to machines, equipment, or
programs.
World trade safety information
Several countries require the safety information contained in product publications to be presented in their
translation. If this requirement applies to your country, a safety information booklet is included in the
publications package shipped with the product. The booklet contains the translated safety information
with references to the US English source. Before using a US English publication to install, operate, or
service this IBM® product, you must first become familiar with the related safety information in the
Systems Safety Notices, G229-9054. You should also refer to the booklet any time you do not clearly
understand any safety information in the US English publications.
Laser safety information
All IBM z Systems™ (z SystemsTM) and IBM LinuxONETM (LinuxONE) models can use I/O cards such as,
ESCON, FICON®, Open Systems Adapter (OSA), InterSystem Channel-3 (ISC-3), or other I/O features
which are fiber optic based and utilize lasers (short wavelength or long wavelength lasers).
Laser compliance
All lasers are certified in the US to conform to the requirements of DHHS 21 CFR Subchapter J for Class
1 or Class 1M laser products. Outside the US, they are certified to be in compliance with IEC 60825 as a
Class 1 or Class 1M laser product. Consult the label on each part for laser certification numbers and
approval information.
CAUTION: Data processing environments can contain equipment transmitting on system links with
laser modules that operate at greater than Class 1 power levels. For this reason, never look into the
end of an optical fiber cable or open receptacle. (C027)
CAUTION: This product contains a Class 1M laser. Do not view directly with optical instruments.
(C028)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
v
vi
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
About this publication
This publication provides problem determination, verification, and repair procedures for IBM fiber optic
channel links. This designation includes:
v IBM coupling facility channels (ISC, 1x IFB, 12x IFB, x24 ICA)
v Fibre Channel Connection (FICON) including: 2G, 4G, 8G, 16G Ficon SX and 2G, 4G, 8G, 16G Ficon LX
links
v Fiber optic interfaces for Open Systems Adapters (OSA), including: 1G and 10G Enet
|
Although this publication covers fiber optic cable types and environments in general. The specific
information includes only what is supported for IBM fiber optic channel links. Although the ANSI Fibre
Channel Standard does not include the use of long wavelength (1300 nm) lasers on multi-mode fiber, z
Systems™ and LinuxONE will support this combination.
A technical change to the text or illustration is indicated by a vertical line to the left of the change.
Note: This publication, with the publication Planning for Fiber Optic Links, GA23-1407, replaces the
publication IBM 3044 Fiber-Optic Channel Extender Link Models C02 and D02: Fiber-Optic Cable Planning,
Installation, and Maintenance Guide, GC22-7130, and makes it obsolete.
Who should use this publication
This publication should be used by service representatives who need to perform problem determination
on a fiber optic link.
What is included in this publication
This publication contains five chapters and five appendixes:
v Chapter 1, “Introduction to fiber optic links,” on page 1 provides a brief introduction to fiber optic
information transfer and optical link components, and shows a typical fiber optic channel link
configuration.
v Chapter 2, “Service Strategy and Maintenance Activities,” on page 19 contains a summary of the
service tasks, strategy, and activities associated with fiber optic channel links. It also shows typical link
configurations, describes some common link failures, and shows how to determine the direction of
light propagation in an IBM jumper cable and in a fiber optic channel link. This chapter also provides a
summary for the link verification procedures performed using the MAPs in Chapter 3.
v Chapter 3, “Problem Determination Procedures,” on page 27 provides information that can be used to
isolate link failures between two devices. It is divided into two sections: the first section provides the
maintenance analysis procedures (MAPs) used to perform step-by-step problem determination; the
second section provides information for using the “fast-path” method.
v Chapter 4, “Jumper Cable Handling and Installation Summary,” on page 55 provides guidance for
handling fiber optic jumper cables and summarizes the tasks associated with their installation.
v Chapter 5, “Documentation,” on page 59 summarizes the information used to document link
installations. It provides instructions and a sample work sheet for recording link specifications and
physical characteristics.
v Appendix A, “Specifications,” on page 65 lists the specifications and optical properties required for
components used in a fiber optic channel link.
v Appendix B, “Tools, Test Equipment, and Parts,” on page 69 lists the tools, test equipment, and parts
used to perform problem determination and testing for fiber optic channel links.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
vii
v Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71 contains procedures on how
to determine if the transmit and receive signals are within specification. Although these procedures are
also contained in the maintenance information for each device, they are included here for convenience.
v Appendix D, “Measurement Conversion Tables,” on page 89 contains conversion tables from English
measurements to metric and from metric measurements to English.
v Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 provides work sheets that may be reproduced and used for
problem determination or to provide a permanent account record.
v Appendix F, “Fiber optic cleaning procedures,” on page 109, provides general cleaning procedures for
various couplers, plugs and connectors.
Where to find more information
The following publications contain information related to the information in this publication:
v Planning for Fiber Optic Links, GA23-1407, provides information that can be used when planning for
FICON, Coupling links, and Open Systems Adapters.
v Technical Service Letter No. 147 Fiber Optic Tools and Test Equipment (Revised 2/19/96 or later), contains a
complete list of fiber optic support tools and test equipment.
v Maintenance Information for the 9037 Model 002 Sysplex Timer, SY27-2641.
Coupling links are designed to be optically compatible with the F0 or physical layer industry standard
ANSI Fiber Channel Physical Interfaces (FC-PI-2), published by the American National Standards Institute,
New York, NY.
The open fiber control (OFC) timing for 531 megabits per second links follows this ANSI standard. The
OFC timing for 1.0625 gigabits per second links uses the same timing as specified in the ANSI standard
for 266 megabits per second links, which allows longer distances for gigabit links.
|
Revisions
| A technical change from the previous edition of this document is indicated by a vertical line (|) to the left
| of the change.
How to send your comments
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Accessibility
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Accessible publications for this product are offered in HTML format and can be downloaded from
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If you experience any difficulty with the accessibility of any z Systems and IBM LinuxONE information,
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viii
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a nonexclusive right to use or distribute the
information in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
Accessibility features
The following list includes the major accessibility features in z Systems and IBM LinuxONE
documentation:
v Keyboard-only operation
v Interfaces that are commonly used by screen readers
v Customizable display attributes such as color, contrast, and font size
v Communication of information independent of color
v Interfaces commonly used by screen magnifiers
v Interfaces that are free of flashing lights that could induce seizures due to photo-sensitivity.
Keyboard navigation
This product uses standard Microsoft Windows navigation keys.
IBM and accessibility
See http://www.ibm.com/able for more information about the commitment that IBM has to accessibility.
About this publication
ix
x
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
This chapter provides a brief introduction to fiber optic information transfer, lists the components that
can be included in an IBM fiber optic channel link, and shows an example of a fiber optic channel link.
Unidirectional fiber optic information transfer
Information transfer through an optical fiber usually occurs in only one direction by using a transmitter
and a receiver (Figure 1). The transmitter accepts encoded digital information, converts it into an optical
(light) signal, and sends it through the fiber. The receiver detects the optical signal, converts it into an
electrical signal, and amplifies it. The decoded digital information (output) is then the same as the
encoded digital information (input).
Figure 1. Unidirectional fiber optic Information transfer
Bidirectional fiber optic information transfer
Fiber optic information transfer can also occur in two directions simultaneously (Figure 2). This method
uses 2 optical fibers contained in 1 duplex fiber optic cable and combines the transmitter, receiver, and
duplex receptacle functions into 1 transmitter-receiver subassembly (TRS) in each device.
Figure 2. Bidirectional fiber optic Information transfer
Optical fiber elements and optical cable
Note that the term Fibre is used in the ANSI Fibre Channel Standard documents to denote both copper
and optical fiber media.
The fiber element within an optical cable usually consists of a core and a cladding (Figure 3 on page 2).
The core provides the light path, the cladding surrounds the core, and the optical properties of the core
and cladding junction cause the light to remain within the core.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
1
Although the core and the cladding diameters, expressed in micrometers (µm), are often used to describe
an optical cable, they actually indicate the physical size of the fiber element. For example, a fiber element
having a core diameter of 62.5 µm and a cladding diameter of 125 µm is called 62.5/125 µm fiber.
In an optical cable, the core and cladding are typically surrounded by other layers (such as a primary and
secondary buffer), a strength member, and an outer jacket (Figure 3) that provide strength and
environmental protection.
Figure 3. Typical optical cable elements
Because information transfer usually occurs in only one direction through an optical fiber, various fiber
types have been developed for different applications. The properties and specifications of an optical fiber
determine many characteristics. For example, single-mode fiber (nominally about 9.0 µm) provides a
single high-bandwidth information “path”. Single-mode fiber is normally used to transfer information
over greater distances compared to multi-mode fiber (62.5 µm, for example), which provides multiple
paths and has a lower bandwidth. The terms single-mode and multi-mode are often used interchangeably
to describe both the optical fiber and the cable types.
Generally, laser diodes use single-mode fiber to transmit information while light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
use multi-mode fiber. An exception is the multi-mode coupling link, which uses a laser source and 50
micron multi-mode fiber. In a data processing environment using optical fiber, product, distance, and
right-of-way considerations usually determine if single-mode or multi-mode fiber is used.
Optical cable connectors
Optical cable connectors allow manual coupling and uncoupling of the fibers but contribute to link
attenuation (loss). Although several connector types have been developed to minimize this loss, all
connectors can be classified as either physical-contact or nonphysical-contact connectors.
Physical-contact connectors
Physical-contact connectors, sometimes referred to as butt-coupled connectors, have a polished end-face
surface with a slight outward (convex) curvature. When inserted into the receptacle, the fibers are
precisely aligned and touch each other, thereby allowing maximum light transfer and minimum return
loss. The IBM duplex connector (Figure 4 on page 3), the ST connector (Figure 6 on page 4), the Fiber
Channel Connection (FICON) SC-duplex connector (Figure 7 on page 4), the FC connector (Figure 8 on
page 4), the IBM FDDI connector, also known as a Media Interface Connector (MIC) (Figure 11 on page
5), the MT–RJ connector (Figure 12 on page 5) and the LC connector (Figure 13 on page 6) are types of
physical-contact connectors.
IBM duplex connectors, which combine the transmit and receive signals in one housing, provide high
reliability and have low loss characteristics. They are keyed to provide correct orientation and use release
tabs to prevent accidental removal.
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Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Some IBM duplex connectors and receptacles used for single-mode fiber have additional keying. This
prevents the plugging of multi-mode IBM duplex connectors into IBM products having single-mode
receptacles.
The Fiber Channel Connection (FICON) SC-duplex connector is another type of connector which may be
keyed to prevent accidental plugging of a multi-mode fiber into a single-mode receptacle, and to provide
correct orientation to the TRS. The FDDI MIC connector uses special keys to provide correct orientation
(Figure 11 on page 5).
The MT–RJ connector has distinct male ends (with metal guide pins) and female ends (with guide holes).
Only male to female connections will transmit optical signals. Since all MT–RJ transceivers have a male
interface, only female jumper cables are required for most installations.
For single-mode ESCON links, the SC-duplex connector may be used on both the transceiver receptacle
and the fiber optic cable as an alternative to the single-mode ESCON connector and receptacle. The
SC-duplex connector and receptacle are defined as part of the ANSI Fiber Channel Standard Physical and
Signaling Interface (FC-PH) ref. X3T9.3/755D. The connector is shown in Figure 7 on page 4; it is the
same connector which has been adopted for other industry standard data links including FICON, ATM,
and low cost (LC) FDDI. For single-mode ESCON links, the transceiver receptacle and connector is gray
and the optical fiber cable is yellow, conforming to the established color coding for single-mode ESCON
channels. The SC-duplex receptacle and connector are keyed to prevent accidental plugging of a
multi-mode fiber into a single-mode receptacle. All of the physical layer characteristics for the
single-mode ESCON interface must still be maintained by transceivers and cables using this alternative
interface.
Nonphysical-contact connectors
Nonphysical-contact connectors do not allow the fiber end-faces to touch. Because an air gap exists, these
connectors typically have a higher interface loss compared to physical-contact connectors. The biconic
connector used by IBM (Figure 9 on page 4), which is equivalent to AT&T part number 1006A, is an
example of a nonphysical-contact connector.
Figure 4. ESCON Duplex multi-mode Connector
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
3
Figure 5. ESCON Duplex Single-mode Connector
Figure 6. ST Physical-Contact Connector
Figure 7. SC-Duplex Connector
Figure 8. FC Physical-Contact Connector
Figure 9. Biconic Nonphysical-Contact Connector
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Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
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Figure 10. Multifiber Terminated Push-on Connector (MTP). Twelve fiber connector available on IBM Global Services
trunk cables and harnesses. This connector is also used for 12x InfiniBand optical (IFB-O) cable but is referred to as
an MPO connector.
Figure 11. MIC (FDDI) Connector
Figure 12. MT–RJ Connector
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
5
Figure 13. LC Duplex Connector
Connector color coding
IBM simplex connectors use color-coding to show the direction that light travels through a link (see
“Determining the direction of light propagation” on page 24). These connectors are black (or use a black
marking) and white (or use a white marking).
IBM duplex cable connectors use color-coding to differentiate between multi-mode and single-mode.
multi-mode cables have black connectors and single-mode cables have gray connectors. They do not
require color coding to determine the direction that light travels, or propagates, through the cable because
the connectors are physically keyed. This provides proper orientation and allows the fibers to be labeled
“A” and “B”, which is shown on the connector. See“Determining the direction of light propagation” on
page 24.
The FICON SC-duplex connector is an industry standard optical connector (as defined in ANSI Fiber
Channel Standard Physical and Signaling Interface (FC-PH), published by the American National Standards
Institute. Since it may be purchased from a variety of vendors, there is no consistent scheme of color
coding or labeling the ends of a simplex cable with FICON SC connectors. These connectors can be
identified by their shape (see Figure 7 on page 4) and the direction of light propagation must be verified
from the vendor specifications. For IBM supplied cables, the single-mode FICON jumper has a yellow
connector with grey clip and a yellow cable jacket, while the multi-mode has a blue connector with black
clip and an orange jacket.
IBM jumper cables
Cabling is a customer responsibility. Single-mode fiber optic cabling (9/125 micrometer) has a yellow
outer coating. multi-mode standard bandwidth fiber optic cabling (50/125 and 62.5/125 micrometer) has
an orange outer coating. The OM3 50/125 micrometer multi-mode fiber optic cabling (2000 MHz-km) has
and aqua outer coating.
Note: A fiber optic link (device-to-device connection) must consist entirely of one type of fiber. It must be
entirely single-mode, entirely standard multi-mode, or entirely OM multi-mode.
The elements in an IBM duplex jumper cable (Figure 14 on page 7) consist of 2 tight-buffered optical
fibers (core and cladding) surrounded by a strength member, all of which are encased in a common
flexible jacket. Duplex cables for coupling links (or ESCON XDF™) (Figure 15 on page 7) are similar,
except that they are not encased in a single jacket. Both single-mode and multi-mode jumper cables have
a cladding diameter of 125 µm. Single-mode cable has a mode field diameter (MFD) of about 9 µm;
multi-mode cable has a core diameter of either 62.5 µm or 50.0 µm.
6
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 14. IBM duplex jumper cable elements
Figure 15. Coupling Facility or ESCON XDF jumper cable elements. (Jumper cables which use FICON SC duplex
connectors.)
All IBM jumper cables have a duplex connector on one end, which attaches to a fiber optic channel link
device. Attaching a jumper cable to a distribution panel, however, could require jumper cables with other
connector types (see “Optical cable connectors” on page 2). IBM offers these jumper cables:
v Single-mode and multi-mode applications:
– Duplex-to-duplex jumper cables have an IBM duplex connector on both ends.
– Duplex-to-duplex jumper cables have an FICON SC duplex connector on both ends.
– Duplex-to-duplex jumper cables have an LC duplex connector on both ends.
– Duplex-to-duplex jumper cable conversion kits:
- IBM duplex receptacle on one end and an FICON SC duplex connector on the other end.
- An LC connector on one end and a duplex receptacle on the other end.
v Multi-mode applications only:
– Duplex-to-biconic jumper cables have a pair of color-coded biconic connectors on one end and are
available to support the 3044 Models C02 and D02.
– Duplex-to-ST jumper cables have a pair of color-coded, physical-contact ST connectors on one end.
– Duplex-to-FC jumper cables have a pair of color-coded, physical-contact FC connectors on one end.
– Duplex-to-unterminated jumper cables have an unterminated end (no connector) that allows the
attachment of any connector type.
– Duplex-to-duplex jumper cables with female MT–RJ on both ends.
– Duplex-to-duplex jumper cables with male MT–RJ on both ends.
– Adapter kits:
- ESCON receptacle to female MT–RJ connector
- ESCON connector to female MT–RJ connector
Note: If a single-mode ESCON XDF link using the SC-duplex connector interface must be connected to a
single-mode ESCON XDF connector interface, use the ESCON XDF Adapter Kit (46H9223). The kit
consists of a 2-meter single-mode jumper cable with SC-duplex-to-ST connectors (46H9222) assembled to
the single-mode ESCON-to-ST adapter. Instructions are provided with each kit.
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
7
Trunk cable
Fiber optic trunk cable is generally used for longer links, such as between floors or buildings. It should
also be used in single-floor fiber optic channel link environments when many jumper cables and
connections are required. If trunk cable is used, distribution panels must provide the hardware used to
attach the IBM jumper cables.
A trunk cable typically contains from 12 to 144 fibers and has a strength member and an outer jacket.
Each fiber optic channel link requires trunk fibers. The physical trunk cable configuration varies and
depends on user requirements, environmental conditions, and the type of installation required (for
example, above ground or underground).
Splices
Fiber optic trunk cables can be joined by two splicing methods. Either method, when performed by a
trained technician using high-quality materials, can produce a splice having a very low optical power
loss.
v Fusion splices are joined by an electric arc.
v Mechanical splices are joined within a holder and sometimes use epoxy to bond the fibers.
Distribution panels
Many types of distribution panels exist. They are available in various sizes and styles and are called
different names, depending primarily on their application or use. For example, they can be called central
distribution panels, main distribution panels, zone panels, patch panels, building interface panels,
enclosures, or cabinets. In a fiber optic channel link, they provide the hardware attachment capability
between trunk cables and IBM jumper cables. They can also be used for floor-to-floor cable connections
within a building or for connections between buildings. For more information about distribution panel
requirements, contact your IBM marketing representative.
Couplers and adapters
Distribution panels must provide couplers or adapters to allow attachment of IBM jumper cables.
Couplers join the same connector types, while adapters join different connector types. The following
couplers and adapters, available from IBM, are shown in Figures Figure 16 on page 9 through Figure 23
on page 10. Other types of adapters for patch panels may be available as RPQs, including the FICON
SC-duplex-to-ST adapter. A conversion kit is available to adapt an FICON duplex interface to an ESCON
duplex interface.
v IBM duplex coupler
v ST coupler
v FC/PC coupler
v MT–RJ duplex coupler (joins male to female MT–RJ)
v LC duplex coupler
v IBM duplex-to-ST adapter
v IBM duplex-to-FC/PC adapter
v FICON SC-duplex-to-ST adapter
v FICON SC-duplex-to-FC adapter
v FICON SC-duplex-to-duplex coupler
v MTP-to-MTP coupler
v MIC coupler
v MIC-to-ST adapter
v MIC-to-FC adapter
8
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Note: IBM recommends using IBM duplex-to-duplex jumper cables between ESCON-capable devices and
distribution panels, FICON SC-duplex-to-duplex jumper cables between coupling link devices and
distribution panels, and IBM duplex-to-ST or IBM duplex-to-FC/PC adapters in distribution panels.
Other adapters for patch panels may be available as RPQs.
Figure 16. IBM Duplex Coupler
Figure 17. ST Coupler
Figure 18. FC/PC Coupler
Figure 19. IBM Duplex-to-ST Adapter
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
9
Figure 20. IBM Duplex-to-FC/PC Adapter
Figure 21. FICON SC-Duplex-to-ST Adapter
Figure 22. FICON SC-Duplex-to-FC Adapter
Figure 23. FICON SC-Duplex-to-Duplex Coupler
Figure 24. MTP-to-MTP Coupler
10
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 25. MT-RJ Coupler
Figure 26. LC Coupler
Figure 27. FICON-ESCON Kit
ST
MT-RJ
Figure 28. MT-RJ-to-ESCON Kit
SC
LC
Figure 29. LC-to-FICON Kit
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
11
Mode conditioning patch cables
In some fiber optic applications, it is possible to use a long wavelength (1300 nm) single-mode transceiver
with multi-mode fiber by placing a special device known as a mode conditioning patch (MCP) cable at
both ends of the link. The MCO cable resembles a standard 2 meter jumper cable. As shown in Figure 30,
the MCP is unique. It contains both single-mode and multi-mode fibers in a single jumper cable assembly.
Without the MCP, it is not possible to use a single-mode transceiver with multi-mode fiber because the
laser source does not launch an equal amount of optical power into all modes of the fiber. Using a
single-mode transceiver with multi-mode fiber without an MCP cable leads to excessive dispersion of the
data pulses, and the link will not function.
IBM supports reuse of existing multi-mode fiber optic cabling with Long Wavelength (LX) transceivers, as
a migration aid, if the link data rate does not exceed 1 Gbps. MCP cables are supported for use with
ISC-3 links, Gigabit Ethernet LX, and FICON LX, provided the link data rate is 1 Gbps. The unrepeated
distance is limited to 550 meters (1,804 feet).
Clip, gray
MCP Unit
Strain Relief, blue
Label Detail
Bulk Cable, orange, PN 54G3405
(or low halogen equivalent)
P3
P2
P1
Shrink Tubing (2x), Black
Bulk Cable, yellow, PN 54G3420
Strain Relief, beige
Figure 30. Mode Conditioner Patch Cable (MPC). Connections P2 and P3 may be terminated with either an SC duplex
or an ESCON duplex coupler. Connector P1 is available in either an SC duplex or LC duplex connector.
Splitter tool
An optical splitter is used to measure optical power levels in a coupling facility. The optical splitter tool is
shown in Figure 31 on page 13 for multi-mode links and Figure 32 on page 13 for single-mode links.
Refer to “Isolating link segments using the splitter tool” on page 85 for more information.
12
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 31. Optical splitter tool for multi-mode links
Figure 32. Optical splitter tool for single-mode links
Fiber optic channel link configuration
Note: IBM offers help in the planning, design, and installation of fiber optic channel links through its
Connectivity Services offering (Fiber Transport System) of IBM Global Services. For more details, contact
your IBM marketing representative. Also, the IBM Fiber Transport Services (FTS) offering provides
planning assistance, commodities, and installation for multi-mode and single-mode fiber trunk systems.
Fiber optic channel links, which require separate optical fibers for sending and receiving information, use
IBM duplex or FICON duplex connectors, duplex jumper cables, and 2 trunk fibers. A fiber optic channel
linkcould consist of only 1 jumper cable that connects devices, or it could have many cables, distribution
panels, adapters, couplers, and connectors.
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
13
Parallel Sysplex® using InfiniBand (PSIFB) 12x links use InfiniBand optical (IFB-O) 12x cables which
package 12 fibers for transmit and 12 fibers for receive. The IFB-O 12x cables utilize the Multi-fiber
Push-On (MPO) connector.
Regardless of the number of cables and components, a fiber optic channel link attaches 2 devices and
must consist entirely of either single-mode or multi-mode cables.
Figure 33 shows an example of a fiber optic channel link having:
v Two IBM duplex-to-duplex jumper cables
v Two distribution panels, each containing an IBM duplex-to-ST adapter
v Four ST connectors
v Two trunk cable fibers
v Four trunk cable splices
Important
IBM duplex-to-duplex jumper cables should be used between ESCON devices and distribution panels,
FICON SC duplex-to-duplex jumper cables should be used between coupling link devices and
distribution panels, and IBM duplex-to-ST, or IBM duplex-to-FC adapters should be used in distribution
panels.
Figure 33. Example of components in a fiber optic channel link.
In an OSA link (FDDI, ATM, GbE, or 10GbE) environment, a link consists of the physical connection
between the TRS of one device and the TRS of another device.
An FDDI link can consist of one access station connected to a concentrator, or a concentrator connected to
a concentrator on a dual access counter-rotating ring (other point-to-point configurations are also
possible). Individual FDDI access stations are electronically made into logical rings at the concentrator.
Concentrators with counter-rotating rings also have the connections managed electronically. The physical
FDDI connection, however, is handled by placing primary out and secondary in into one MIC housing and
primary in and secondary out in the other MIC housing. Figure 34 on page 15 shows a possible FDDI link
employing a device-to-concentrator connection.
Links other than FDDI may not use concentrators or hubs, but will usually run to switches or distribution
panels.
14
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 34. Components in a typical link
FDDI service limitations
The following paragraphs describe limitations that could exist while servicing FDDI links; they do not
apply to other types of fiber optic links.
Jumper cable
The FDDI specifications for connector design are not specific enough to guarantee that every FDDI
connector will work with every product under all conditions. IBM recommends the use of IBM jumper
cables with IBM products to meet FDDI specifications and to ensure performance expectations. Some
jumper cables used with IBM products might not yield the correct amount of launched power. An
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) product might use a jumper cable other than IBM’s for the
same reason.
Note: The amount of power launched from the device into the fiber is affected by the connector-to-device
interface and the fiber size. IBM jumper cables can be directly connected to an OEM device and
measurements will be accurate if the device manufacturer has specified IBM jumper cables as acceptable.
Other measurements at any connection in the link or the end-to-end link loss measurement are not subject
to this condition.
Link bandwidth
An FDDI multi-mode link can be limited by dispersion instead of attenuation. Link length, fiber type,
fiber specifications, transmitter spectral width, and transmitter center wavelength are factors that have the
potential to produce FDDI link errors. This potential can exist even if all factors are within the FDDI
specifications. However, if the link is 2 km or less and consists of optical fiber that is 500 MHzvkm at
1300 nm or better, excessive attenuation, not dispersion, is the most probable cause of the problem.
Note: Optical bypass switches, although permitted in the FDDI standard, make the link longer. This can
cause a link to become inoperative due to dispersion, even if attenuation is within specification.
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
15
Link error conditions
There are 2 basic types of link error conditions:
v A link failure occurs when the receiver does not detect a signal, which is usually caused by a:
– Weak or defective transmitter or receiver
– Defective jumper cable
– Dirty or misplugged connector
– Defective or misplugged segment of the optical fiber cabling.
v A link error occurs when the status of one or more bits has changed, which is usually caused by:
– A weak transmitter or receiver
– A dirty or misplugged connector
– A dirty transmitter-receiver subassembly
– An incorrect transmitter-to-receiver relationship
– Excessive link attenuation
– Dispersion of the link signal.
Link error analysis
Because dispersion is not usually measured in the field, it is important to determine if attenuation is the
most likely cause of a link failure. Therefore, analyze the failing link environment before proceeding with
fault isolation.
The following questions can help isolate the error when performing link failure analysis.
v What is the status of similar links and devices?
v Are there any substitute devices?
v Are there any spare optical fiber pairs?
v Is this the first time that the failing link or links have been used?
v Has this cabling combination been used before?
v If it is an FDDI link, has an optical bypass switch been installed in the link?
v Has this cabling combination been used for another application that had a different wavelength?
v Is the cabling plant a new installation?
v Was the cabling plant installed to support an ATM, FICON, or FDDI environment?
v Was the cabling plant installed over a period of time?
v Was the cabling plant previously used to support other applications?
v Is there a mixture of fiber types within the cabling plant?
v Is there a mixture of fiber types within the same distribution panel?
v Is there a mixture of applications using the same distribution panel?
v Is this the first time that part of the cabling plant was configured in the link?
v Are the cabling plant lengths and specifications available?
Examples of link error analysis
The following examples show how experience and good diagnostic judgment can aid in error analysis for
a link environment.
v The failing link uses the same cabling components, has approximately the same length, and attaches
the same device types as another link that is currently operational. It is most likely that attenuation,
not dispersion, caused the link error.
v The failing link operates correctly when a substitute device is attached. Again, attenuation is probably
the cause of the error.
v The failing link operates correctly when substitute link components (spare or backup cables) are used.
Attenuation is usually the cause of the error.
16
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
v All links with this configuration are failing. If attenuation measurements are within specifications, the
length of the link and optical fiber specifications should be checked.
v The failing link has never been used before. The length of the link and optical fiber specifications
should be checked if attenuation measurements are within specifications.
v The failing link is the only link in this location. If attenuation measurements are within specifications,
the length of link and fiber plant specifications should be checked.
v The failing link was previously used for an entirely different type of system. If a customer determines
that the link was optimized for an application employing a wavelength other than 1300 nm, then
excessive dispersion could be the cause of the error.
Dispersion
Under some conditions (in an FDDI link only), it is difficult to determine if the most probable cause of an
error is attenuation or dispersion (for example, a link of 2.1 km with an attenuation of 11.3 dB). Because
dispersion testing is an expensive procedure, it might be more cost-effective for the customer to
reconfigure the link or replace the fiber rather than determine the exact cause of the failure. The
following items can aid in this analysis:
v Customer records of the measurements done by cabling installation personnel can be checked. These
records often include attenuation measurements from a power meter, as well as a copy of Optical Time
Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) data.
v It is possible that a given pair of attached devices meets FDDI specifications because of a “hot”
transmitter and a sensitive receiver. This combination could allow satisfactory operation for a specific
link, but the individual link components are still not within specifications. This combination is not
possible under the ATM or FICON specification.
v Similarly, a weak transmitter and receiver pair could meet FDDI specifications but still not operate
correctly on the link.
Chapter 1. Introduction to fiber optic links
17
18
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Chapter 2. Service Strategy and Maintenance Activities
This chapter summarizes the service strategy and activities associated with Fiber Optic Channel link
installation, maintenance, problem determination, verification, repair, and testing. See Chapter 3 for
specific maintenance procedures.
Additional services, including design, installation connectivity, and link restoration are available through
the IBM Global Services offering.
Link problem determination summary
Service representatives can use either the maintenance analysis procedures (MAPs) or a “fast-path”
method to perform problem determination, and return a link to operational status for ESCON links. For
coupling links, only the Fast-Path method may be used because these links use a different type of laser
safety control that does not permit use of the MAPs. This problem determination also includes IBM
jumper cables.
Both procedures consist of measuring the end-to-end link loss (attenuation) using an optical source and a
power meter. Since the safety controls for the coupling links do not permit the laser to remain operational
when the link is open, the device transmitter must be used along with an optical splitter to measure the
end-to-end link loss. See Appendix B, “Tools, Test Equipment, and Parts,” on page 69 for the part
numbers of all service tools, materials, and test equipment.
Link service activities
The following paragraphs summarize the link activities performed by service representatives.
Installation activities
Service representatives install and connect IBM jumper cables to devices and distribution panels. For
installations that use connectors or cables other than those supported by IBM, IBM Marketing and
Services must provide recommendations to the customer and to IBM planning and service personnel.
Repair activities
Service representatives perform either major or minor repair actions:
v A major repair action consists of replacing an IBM jumper cable.
v A minor repair action consists of replacing the spring and connector shroud on the IBM duplex
connector.
Test activities
Service representatives also perform test activities on IBM fiber optic cables and components.
For non-IBM components, the customer must provide test cables and adapters. IBM will perform
activities relating to these components, but this service could be billable.
Link training topics
The base level of link training for IBM CEs includes:
v Basic fiber optic theory
v Light budget concepts
v General link commodities information
v Link loss calculations
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
19
v
v
v
v
v
v
Link operational characteristics
Fiber optic cable handling and cleaning procedures
Power meter and light source usage procedures
Basic fiber optic test procedures
Problem determination for a major link component
Minor repair of the IBM duplex connector.
Keying and installing an IBM FDDI connector
This section describes how to install FDDI keys and labels. It also lists some potentially serious cabling
errors and explains the keying techniques that could prevent these errors. (LC FDDI, FICON and ATM do
not use these keying methods.)
Note: Retain all protective covers and unused keys. When connectors and receptacles are not being used,
all protective covers should be installed because dirt can cause excessive loss and prevent correct
operation of the link.
Using FDDI cable keying can also prevent system cabling defects that are difficult to detect and diagnose.
Three serious defects are:
v The reversal of a dual-attachment station within the ring trunk such that what was intended to be the
A connection is the B, and what was intended to be the B connection is the A. This causes the station
media access controls (MACs) to be inserted in the opposite position of the intended trunk ring.
v The connection of a single attachment station directly to the trunk ring by connecting it to either an A
or B receptacle. This results in a break in the trunk ring.
v The connection of the M receptacle of a concentrator directly into the trunk ring by connecting it to
either an A or B receptacle. This also results in a break in the trunk ring.
IBM FDDI connector keys
The FDDI standard specifies four types of keyed connectors and receptacles: A, B, M, and S. Three
field-installable key inserts and four color-coded labels are provided with each connector:
v Port A — Red key and red label
v Port B — Blue key and blue label
v Master — Green key and green label
v Slave — No key and white label.
Each connector assembly comes with a set of color-coded labels to identify a keyed connector after it has
been inserted in a receptacle. To position the label on the connector, select the label that matches the key
type being used. White labels identify the Slave (S) connector, which does not have a separate key.
Position the label on the back of the connector. See Table 1.
Note: Without a key installed, the connector can be inserted in any type of FDDI receptacle. Correct
keying is recommended to avoid installation errors and to provide efficient cable management.
Table 1. IBM recommendations for keying FDDI networks
Connection
Key type
Workstation to wall
S/S
Distribution panel to Concentrator M port
M/M
Distribution panel to Concentrator A port
A/A
Distribution panel to Concentrator B port
B/B
Concentrator A to Concentrator M port
A/M
Concentrator B to Concentrator M port
B/M
Concentrator 1A to Concentrator 2B port
A/B
20
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Table 1. IBM recommendations for keying FDDI networks (continued)
Connection
Key type
Concentrator 1B to Concentrator 2A port
B/A
Workstation to Concentrator M port
S/M
Installing the key
To install a key:
1. Remove the selected color-coded key from the protective cover of the connector.
2. Insert the tab on the key in the slot on the top of the connector.
3. Push firmly on the key until it snaps into place.
Removing the key
To remove a key:
1. Insert the tip of a paper clip or narrow mechanical pen into the small hole in the bottom of the
connector.
2. Push firmly until the key pops out of its locked position.
3. Put the key in the protective cover attached to the connector.
Cleaning the connector
The connector should be cleaned before inserting it in the receptacle to avoid possible contamination from
dirt and dust particles. Refer to Appendix F, “Fiber optic cleaning procedures,” on page 109.
Installing and removing the connector
Insert the connector by pushing it into the receptacle until it clicks into place. Do not force the connector.
If it binds, make sure that the receptacle and connector keys are aligned and that they are of the same
type.
To remove the connector from the receptacle, simply pull back on the connector housing. Replace all
protective covers on the connector and the receptacle to avoid contamination or damage.
Typical link configurations
To perform problem determination, a fiber optic channel link should be considered as one of the
following configurations:
v One jumper cable between 2 devices (Figure 35)
v Two jumper cables connected through 1 distribution panel (Figure 36 on page 22)
v Two jumper cables, each connected to a distribution panel, and a trunk cable (Figure 37 on page 22).
Note: The trunk cable in this configuration could be a short length of fiber optic cable (within a single
distribution panel) that joins the 2 jumper cables.
Figure 35. Link configuration 1 consisting of 1 jumper cable between 2 devices
Chapter 2. Service Strategy and Maintenance Activities
21
Figure 36. Link configuration 2 consisting of 2 jumper cables and 1 distribution panel
Figure 37. Link configuration 3 consisting of 2 jumper cables, a trunk cable, and 1 or 2 distribution panels
FDDI links connect devices in logical rings, but are physically connected in a star configuration. Devices
could contain only a single pair of fibers, such as a device to a concentrator. Critical devices, such as
concentrators, contain 2 pairs of fibers formed into counter-rotating rings. From this description, a
concentrator would contain multiple single-station interfaces to multiple devices and a pair of interfaces
to possibly another concentrator. It is likely, therefore, that several devices within a rack would be
connected by jumpers only within an equipment closet, whereas 2 ports would exit the closet on
counter-rotational links to other concentrators.
Other fiber optic links may be configured in a wide variety of ways, including star and ring
configurations. Figure 38 shows a closet-connected concentrator.
Figure 38. Link configuration–—2 jumper cables in a counter-rotating ring
22
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Common link failures
Before performing problem determination, you should consider the following failure possibilities, which
are typical during and after installation. If the problem, symptom, or condition exists, perform the action
suggested.
v For a “no-light” condition during an installation or after a reconfiguration, the link could have 2 device
transmitters connected rather than having each transmitter connected to a receiver. Make sure an odd
number of link crossovers exists. See “Determining the direction of light propagation” on page 24 for
more detailed information.
If jumper cables with FICON SC-duplex connectors are provided by a vendor other than IBM, consult
the vendor’s specifications to determine the correct direction of light propagation.
After determining that a “no-light” condition exists and with the optical source and power meter
attached, swap the biconic test cable connectors on the power meter. If the “no-light” condition
disappears, the link is not properly connected.
v The quality and cleanliness of connections can be a large source of loss. Check for dirty or broken
connectors at the devices and distribution panel(s). These problems can be found by isolating each link
segment. See Appendix F, “Fiber optic cleaning procedures,” on page 109, and use the supplies
contained in the fiber optic cleaning kit (IBM part number 5453521).
v Patch cords (used to attach 1 distribution panel position to another) can cause additional link loss in a
configuration using multiple distribution panels. Isolating each link segment can determine if the IBM
jumper cables are within specifications.
v Device distance limitations exist. If I/O overruns or timeouts occur, check the distance specifications of
the I/O device.
v Link distance limitations also exist. See Table 4 on page 65 for maximum link lengths.
FICON Express8 fiber optic cable requirements
The FICON Express8 10KM LX and SX features utilize the latest high bandwidth Fibre Channel
technology and auto-negotiate to 8 Gbps, 4 Gbps, or 2 Gbps based on the link data rate capability of the
attached transceiver. Negotiation to 1 Gbps is not supported.
The FICON Express8 features utilize the existing single mode and multi-mode cable plants. However, the
8 Gbps channel is more sensitive to the condition of the cable plant. The cable plant must satisfy the
industry standard specification to minimize connector reflections and maintain link loss budget
specification...
It is highly recommended that the fiber optic link be thoroughly analyzed to ensure the cable plant
specifications (total cable plant optical loss as well as connectors/splices return loss) are being met for
that link length. For example, the Fibre Channel standard requires all connectors and splices to have a
return loss greater than 26 dB as measured by the methods of IEC 61300-2-6.
The most common source of cable plant optical link problems is associated with the various connections
and splices in the optical link. Dust, dirt, oil or defective connections may cause a problem with high
speed channels, such as 8 Gbps, whereas, lower link data rates, such as 1, 2, or 4 Gbps may be
unaffected.
If you are experiencing excessive bit errors, it is recommended that you first clean and reassemble the
connections, using Appendix F, “Fiber optic cleaning procedures,” on page 109. The document includes
the procedure and materials required. The cleaning is best performed by skilled personnel. The cleaning
procedure may need to be performed more than once to ensure all dust, dirt, or oil is removed.
Chapter 2. Service Strategy and Maintenance Activities
23
Determining the direction of light propagation
Before performing problem determination, an understanding of light travel (propagation) is necessary to
allow measurement of:
v Transmit levels
v Receive levels
v End-to-end link loss
The transmitter (output) of each Fiber Optic Channel link device propagates light to the receiver (input)
of the next device. For this to occur, an odd number of physical crossovers must exist for each fiber.
Figure 39 on page 25 shows the direction of light propagation through an IBM jumper cable, which is
keyed to maintain this crossover requirement.
Figure 39 on page 25 also shows that an IBM duplex connector has A and B embossed on the plastic
housing and that IBM’s biconic, ST, and FC connectors are color-coded.
v For IBM duplex-to-duplex jumper cables, the transmit signal enters 1 connector at B and exits the other
connector at A.
v For IBM duplex-to-biconic, duplex-to-ST, and duplex-to-FC jumper cables, the transmit signal enters
the duplex connector at B and exits the other end at the black connector.
Figure 40 on page 25 shows three examples of physical fiber connections that satisfy the crossover
requirement for device-to-device attachment.
Notes:
1. In a Fiber Optic Channel environment containing duplex-to-duplex jumper cables and a trunk cable,
the trunk must incorporate a crossover.
2. Fiber Optic Cables using FICON SC-duplex connectors obtained from vendors other than IBM may
not have a built-in crossover or be labeled according to the conventions above. Consult the
manufacturer’s specifications.
3. The coupling facility link is serviced using either the multi-mode splitter tool (IBM part number
54G3426) or the single-mode splitter tool (54G3427). These splitters may be inserted anywhere in an
operating link without affecting link functions.
4. IBM’s biconic, ST, and FC connectors are color-coded (white and black). The MIC duplex connector
has the letters R and T embossed on the plastic housing.
5. Industry standard color coding for single-mode links is a yellow cable jacket with a blue duplex
connector; multi-mode links use an orange cable jacket with a beige duplex connector. Not all
connectors will conform to these color coding standards.
24
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 39. Determining the direction of light propagation in IBM jumper cables
(ESCON connectors are shown in this figure).
Figure 40. Determining the direction of light propagation in fiber optic channel links
Link verification summary
Link verification ensures that a link meets IBM specifications, thereby allowing attachment of Fiber Optic
Channel devices. Verifying a link requires using an optical source to transmit a signal through the link
and a power meter to measure this signal at the other end. For multi-mode links, an optical mode
conditioner (OMC) tool provides consistent power loss measurements.
Before you begin link verification, you need the following information:
Chapter 2. Service Strategy and Maintenance Activities
25
v Link distance.
v Link bandwidth (multi-mode only).
v Link documentation, such as a link diagram, schematic, or blueprint, and link performance data, such
as trunk cable data sheets or operational test results. Also, the customer must provide the necessary
documentation and specifications for the premises and external trunk cables if installed.
You can also use the Cable Administration Work Sheet, SX23-0415, to record the required link information.
Figure 66 on page 63 shows an example of a completed worksheet.
Link verification consists of (1) calibrating the test equipment, (2) obtaining reference levels, and (3)
substituting a link cable for a test cable to obtain the loss measurements. This measured loss should be
less than the maximum allowable link loss.
The amount of loss introduced by the link depends on the jumper cable length(s), the trunk cable length
and specifications, and the number and type of link splices and connectors.
To perform link verification, follow the step-by-step procedures described in “Link problem
determination using MAPs” on page 28.
26
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
This chapter contains link problem determination that can be performed by using either the maintenance
analysis procedures (MAPs) or the “fast-path” method. The procedure you use depends on the amount of
guidance you require and the type of link you are servicing.
v Use the MAPs and follow the step-by-step instructions to perform link problem determination, link
verification, and jumper cable verification.
v Use the fast-path method (see “Link problem determination using the fast-path method” on page 39) if
you know how to perform Fiber Optic Channel link problem determination and do not want to use the
MAPs, or if you are working on a coupling link.
Notes:
1. The MAPs use the optical mode conditioner (OMC) tool for multi-mode ESCON link measurements;
the fast-path method does not.
2. The MAPs use the term simplex when referring to non-duplex connectors or connections such as ST,
FC, or biconic. Most figures, however, show only biconic or duplex components.
3. Before beginning this section, network problem determination should have isolated the problem to a
specific link and device maintenance procedures should have been completed.
4. An optical power meter reading LO indicates that no light has been detected by the meter. There are
several possible causes for this condition:
v A jumper cable is either unplugged or plugged in the wrong direction.
v A jumper cable terminated with simplex connectors could be plugged as transmit-to-transmit and
receive-to-receive instead of transmit-to-receive.
v The entire link does not have an odd number of crossovers.
v A link component is damaged and a connector or coupler has failed.
Start link problem determination
During fiber optic channel link problem determination, the devices at each end of the link are identified
as device 1 and device 2. Always refer to the device where you start these procedures as device 1.
Problem determination consists of measuring the link at specific points. These measured values are then
compared to acceptable or maximum values to determine if the link loss is within specifications. Table 2
on page 28 and Table 3 on page 30 contain these values for the MAP procedures; Table 7 on page 92
contains the fast-path values. If it is determined that a device transmitter or receiver is not within
specifications and the device is maintained by IBM, replace the transceiver card according to the device
maintenance procedure and verify correct link operation. If the device is not maintained by IBM, inform
the customer that the transceiver is out of specification and that this is the probable source of the error,
then return to the IBM device that generated the call and follow its maintenance procedures for end of
call. If the problem still exists after replacing the transceiver card, go to “0300: Start” to perform link
problem determination or verification.
Go to “0300: Start” to perform link problem determination or verification.
0300: Start
Procedure
1.
a. Do you want to use the maintenance analysis procedures (MAPs) to perform link problem
determination or verification?
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
27
Note: You must use the fast path procedures if you are working on coupling links.
If yes go to step 3. If no, continue with the next step.
2.
a. Go to “Link problem determination using the fast-path method” on page 39
3.
a. Go to “Link problem determination using MAPs”
Link problem determination using MAPs
Begin at “0310: Testing a link” on page 31 to perform step-by-step problem determination or verification
of a link segment or component. Before you begin, see “Common link failures” on page 23 for additional
information.
Table 2. Maximum link loss with optical source tool as a transmitter (at 1300 nm)
Link/Fiber type
Maximum loss
Maximum length
Trunk size
Multi-mode
7.0 dB (Note 1)
2.0 km (1.24 miles)
62.5 µm (500
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode
6.5 dB (Note 1)
2.0 km (1.24 miles)
50.0 µm
Multi-mode
7.0 dB (Note 1)
3.0 km (1.86 miles)
62.5 µm (800
MHzvkm)
Single-mode (discontinued)
14.0 dB
20 km (12.4 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode 1.06 Gbps or 2.1 Gbps
7.0 dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode card with 50 micron optical
mode conditioner over multi-mode fiber
5.0 dB
550 meters (0.34 miles)
50.0 µm
9.0 dB
2.0 km (1.24 miles)
62.5 µm
Multi-mode (discontinued)
11.0 dB
2.0 km (1.24 miles)
62.5 µm
Single-model (discontinued)
15.0 dB
20.0 km (12.4 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Multi-mode with 50 micron optical mode
conditioner on an LX link
5.0 dB
550 meters (0.34 miles)
50.0 µm (Note 3)
Multi-mode with 62.5 micron optical mode
conditioner on an LX link
5.0 dB
550 meters (0.34 miles)
62.5 µm (Note 3)
Single-mode LX 1gbps (100-SM-LC-L)
7.8 dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode LX 2gbps (200-SM-LC-L)
7.8 dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode LX 4gbps 10km
(400-SM-LC-L)
7.8 dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode LX 4gbps 4km (400-SM-LC-M) 4.8 dB
4 km (2.5 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode LX 8gbps 10km
(800-SM-LC-L)
6.4 dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Multi-mode SX 1gbps (100-M6-SN-I)
2.76 dB
250 meters (0.155miles)
62.5 µm (160
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 2gbps (200-M6-SN-I)
1.98 dB
120 meters (0.075 miles)
62.5 µm (160
MHzvkm)
ESCON
Coupling Links
FDDI
Multi-mode (discontinued)
ATM
FICON
28
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Table 2. Maximum link loss with optical source tool as a transmitter (at 1300 nm) (continued)
Link/Fiber type
Maximum loss
Maximum length
Trunk size
Multi-mode SX 4gbps (400-M6-SN-I)
1.72 dB
55 meters (0.034 miles)
62.5 µm (160
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 1gbps (100-M6-SN-I)
3.00 dB
300 meters (0.186 miles)
62.5 µm (200
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 2gbps (200-M6-SN-I)
2.10 dB
150 meters (0.093 miles)
62.5 µm (200
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 4gbps (400-M6-SN-I)
1.78 dB
70 meters (0.043 miles)
62.5 µm (200
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 8gbps (800-M6-SN-I)
1.58 dB
21 meters (0.013 miles)
62.5 µm (200
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 16gbps (1600-M6-SN-S)
1.56 dB
15 meters (0.009 miles)
62.5 µm (200
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 1gbps (100-M5-SN-I)
3.85 dB
500 meters (0.311 miles)
50 µm (500
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 2gbps (200-M5-SN-I)
2.62 dB
300 meters (0.186 miles)
50 µm (500
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 4gbps (400-M5-SN-I)
2.06 dB
150 meters (0.093 miles)
50 µm (500
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 8gbps (800-M5-SN-I)
1.68 dB
50 meters (0.031 miles)
50 µm (500
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 16gbps (1600-M5-SN-S)
1.63 dB
35 meters (0.021 miles)
50 µm (500
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 1gbps (100-M5-SN-I)
4.62 dB
860 meters (0.534 miles)
50 µm (2000
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 2gbps (200-M5-SN-I)
3.31 dB
500 meters (0.311 miles)
50 µm (2000
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 4gbps (400-M5-SN-I)
2.88 dB
380 meters (0.236 miles)
50 µm (2000
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 8gbps (800-M5-SN-I)
2.04 dB
150 meters (0.093 miles)
50 µm (2000
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 16gbps (1600-M5E-SN-S)
1.86 dB
100 meters (0.062 miles)
50 µm (2000
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 4gbps (1600-M5F-SN-S)
2.95 dB
400 meters (0.248 miles)
50 µm (4700
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 8gbps (1600-M5F-SN-S)
2.19 dB
190 meters (0.118 miles)
50 µm (4700
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode SX 16gbps (1600-M5F-SN-S)
1.95 dB
125 meters (0.077 miles)
50 µm (4700
MHzvkm)
Multi-mode with 50 micron optical mode
conditioner
2.4 dB
550 meters (0.340 miles)
50 µm
Multi-mode with 62.5 micron optical mode
conditioner
2.4 dB
550 meters (0.340 miles)
62.5 µm
Single-mode
4.6 dB
5 km (3.1 miles)
9 to 10 µm
3.6 dB
550 meters (0.34 miles)
50 µm
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) LX
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) SX
Multi-mode 50 micron
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
29
Table 2. Maximum link loss with optical source tool as a transmitter (at 1300 nm) (continued)
Link/Fiber type
Maximum loss
Maximum length
Trunk size
Multi-mode 62.5 micron
2.6 dB
275 meters (0.17 miles)
62.5 µm
6.2dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Multi-mode 50 micron (OM3)
2.6 dB
300 meters (0.19 miles)
50 µm
Multi-mode 50 micron (OM2)
1.8 dB
82 meters (0.05 miles)
50 µm
Multi-mode 62.5 micron (OM1)
1.6 dB
33 meters (0.02 miles)
62.5 µm
1x IFB
5.66 dB
10 km (6.2 miles)
9 to 10 µm
12x IFB
2.06 dB
150 meters (0.93 miles)
50 µm
24x PCIe (OM3)
2.06 dB
100 meters (0.062 miles)
50 µm (2000
MHzvkm)
24x PCIe (OM4)
2.00 dB
150 meters (0.093 miles)
50 µm (4700
MHzvkm)
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) LR
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) Single-mode
RoCE (10GbE) SR
Parallel Sysplex using InfiniBand
Integrated Coupling Adapter (ICA)
Notes:
1. This value does not include the higher-order-mode loss because the MAPs use the OMC tool for
multi-mode link measurements.
2. Multi-mode coupling links operate at wavelengths of 770 - 850 nm; their maximum distance is 1 km
(0.62 miles) using 50 micron fiber, with a maximum allowable loss of 3 dB/km measured at 850 nm.
3. The use of MCP cables is not supported over 1 gb.
Table 3. Maximum IBM jumper cable attenuation (including connectors).
Fiber type
Cable length in meters (ft.)
Maximum loss
ESCON, ATM, FICON LX, FDDI, GbE LX
Multi-mode
4 to 85 (12 to 279)
1.0 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
86 to 143 (280 to 469)
1.1 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
144 to 200 (470 to 656)
1.2 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
201 to 257 (657 to 843)
1.3 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
258 to 314 (844 to 1030)
1.4 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
315 to 371 (1031 to 1217)
1.5 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
372 to 428 (1218 to 1404)
1.6 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
429 to 485 (1405 to 1591)
1.7 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
486 to 500 (1592 to 1640)
1.75 dB at 1300 nm
Multi-mode
4 to 50 (12 to 164)
1.0 dB at 850 nm
Multi-mode
51 to 117 (165 to 384)
1.2 dB at 850 nm
Multi-mode
118 to 183 (385 to 600)
1.4 dB at 850 nm
Multi-mode
184 to 250 (601 to 820)
1.6 dB at 850 nm
Multi-mode
251 to 317 (821 to 1040)
1.8 dB at 850 nm
Multi-mode
318 to 383 (1041 to 1257)
2.0 dB at 850 nm
Coupling link, FICON SX, GbE SX
30
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Table 3. Maximum IBM jumper cable attenuation (including connectors) (continued).
Fiber type
Cable length in meters (ft.)
Maximum loss
Multi-mode
384 to 450 (1258 to 1476)
2.2 dB at 850 nm
Multi-mode
451 to 500 (1476 to 1640)
2.35 dB at 850 nm
ESCON, coupling link, ATM, FICON, GbE
Single-mode
4 to 300 (12 to 984)
1.0 dB at 1300 nm
Single-mode
301 to 500 (985 to 1640)
1.1 dB at 1300 nm
Note: Use supplier attenuation values if jumpers are not supplied by IBM.
0310: Testing a link
Procedure
1.
a.
1) Compare the configuration of the link you want to test to those shown on page “Typical link
configurations” on page 21; then select a work sheet from Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page
91 that most resembles this configuration.
2) Go to 2.
2.
a.
1) Record the device 1 and device 2 identification information on the work sheet. Remember that
you are at device 1.
2) Test both fibers in the link, starting with “0320: Testing fiber 1.”
0320: Testing fiber 1
Procedure
1.
a. Go to “Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44 to obtain
▌P1▐ and to attach the test equipment; then return here. The optical source and attached test
equipment should now be connected to the device 1 end, and the power meter and attached test
equipment to the device 2 end. Go to step 2.
2.
a.
1) Record the values for ▌P1▐ and ▌L▐ in the Fiber 1 column on the work sheet:
▌P1▐ = the reference level from the applicable procedure in “Obtaining reference levels and
attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44
▌L▐ = the maximum link loss value from Table 2 on page 28.
2) Calculate the minimum acceptable receive level ▌F1▐, and record the value in the Fiber 1
column on the work sheet. See the example below, and go to step 3 on page 32.
Example:
▌P1▐
Reference level
▌L▐
Maximum link loss
(-)
Multi-mode
-21.0 dBm
Single-mode
-10.0 dBm
7.0 dB
__________
14.0 dB
__________
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
31
▌F1▐
Minimum acceptable receive
level at ▌A1▐
Multi-mode
-28.0 dBm
Single-mode
-24.0 dBm
3.
a. Observe the power meter display, and go to step 4.
4.
a. Is the meter reading at ▌A1▐ less than the minimum acceptable receive level ▌F1▐? (Example:
-32.0 dBm is less than -29.0 dBm.)
If yes go to step 6. If no continue with next step.
5.
a. Fiber 1 loss is within specifications. Fiber 2 must now be tested. Go to “0340: Testing fiber 2” on
page 34.
6.
a. Fiber 1 loss is not within specifications. Go to step 7.
7.
a. Does this link configuration consist of only 1 jumper cable?
If yes go to step 11. If no continue with next step.
8.
a. Take the power meter and attached test equipment to ▌C1▐.
b. Is jumper 1 duplex-to-duplex?
If yes, go to step 10. If no, continue with next step.
9.
a. Go to “Obtaining ▌P2▐ for a multi-mode link” on page 48. Record the ▌P2▐ value in the area
labeled ▌Px▐ in the Fiber 1 column on the work sheet; then go to “0330: Fiber 1 loss
unacceptable.”
10.
a. Record the value ▌P1▐ in the area labeled ▌Px▐ in the Fiber 1 column on the work sheet; then go
to “0330: Fiber 1 loss unacceptable.”
11.
a. Replace the jumper cable, and verify the repair using the maintenance procedures that directed
you here if the devices are available. If the problem still exists, contact your next level of support.
0330: Fiber 1 loss unacceptable
Procedure
1.
a.
1) The value ▌P1▐ or ▌P2▐ obtained in the reference level procedure should have been recorded
in the area labeled ▌Px▐ in the Fiber 1 column on the work sheet.
2) Obtain the maximum jumper cable dB loss values for both jumper 1 and jumper 2 from
Table 3 on page 30. Record these values in the areas labeled ▌J1▐ and ▌J2▐ in the Fiber 1
column on the work sheet as required for your configuration.
3) Calculate the minimum acceptable receive level ▌G1▐, and record this value in the Fiber 1
column on the work sheet. See the example below, and go to step 2.
Example:
▌Px▐
32
Reference level
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Multi-mode
-20.2 dBm
Single-mode
-10.0 dBm
▌J1▐
Maximum jumper loss
(-)
▌G1▐
Minimum acceptable receive
level at ▌C1▐
Multi-mode
Single-mode
1.2 dB
__________
1.1 dB
__________
-21.4 dBm
-11.1 dBm
2.
a.
1) If disconnected in a previous step, connect the optical source and attached test equipment to
jumper 1 at ▌B1▐.
2) Disconnect jumper 1 from the distribution panel at ▌C1▐. If jumper 1 has simplex connectors,
remove only the black-coded connector from the distribution panel.
3) Connect the power meter and attached test equipment to jumper 1 at ▌C1▐. If jumper 1 has
simplex connectors, attach the black-coded connector to the test equipment.
4) Observe the power meter display, and go to 3.
3.
a. Is the meter reading at ▌C1▐ less than the minimum acceptable receive level ▌G1▐? (Example:
-22.5 dBm is less than -21.4 dBm.)
If yes, go to 7. If no, go to 4.
4.
a. Does this configuration consist of 2 jumper cables and 1 distribution panel (no trunk)?
If yes, go to 6 on page 32. If no, go to 5 on page 32.
5.
a.
1) Disconnect the power meter and attached test equipment from jumper 1 at ▌C1▐.
2) Reconnect jumper 1 to the distribution panel at ▌C1▐.
3) Disconnect the optical source and attached test equipment from ▌B1▐.
4) Take the optical source, power meter, and all attached test equipment to ▌D1▐; then go to 8.
6.
a. Jumper 2 loss is not within specifications. Replace jumper 2, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
7.
a. Jumper 1 loss is not within specifications. Replace jumper 1, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
8.
a. Is jumper 2 duplex-to-duplex?
If yes go to 10. If no go to 9
9.
a. Go to “Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44, and obtain
▌P3▐. Record this value in the area labeled ▌Py▐ in the Fiber 1 column on the work sheet; then go
to 11 on page 34.
10.
a. Record the value ▌P1▐ in the area labeled ▌Py▐ in the Fiber 1 column on the work sheet; then go
to 11 on page 34.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
33
11.
a. Calculate the minimum acceptable receive level ▌H1▐, and record the value in the Fiber 1 column
on the work sheet. See the example below, and go to 12.
Example:
▌Py▐
Reference level
▌J2▐
Maximum jumper loss
(-)
▌H1▐
Minimum acceptable receive
level at ▌A1▐
Multi-mode
-20.0 dBm
Single-mode
-10.0 dBm
1.2 dB
__________
1.1 dB
__________
-21.2 dBm
-11.1 dBm
12.
a.
1) Disconnect jumper 2 from the distribution panel at ▌D1▐. If jumper 2 has simplex connectors,
remove only the white-coded connector.
2) Connect the optical source and attached test equipment to jumper 2 at ▌D1▐. If jumper 2 has
simplex connectors, attach the white-coded connector to the test equipment.
3) Take the power meter and attached test equipment to ▌A1▐; then connect it to jumper 2.
4) Observe the power meter display, and go to 13.
13.
a. Is the meter reading at ▌A1▐ less than the minimum acceptable receive level ▌H1▐? (Example:
-25.0 dBm is less than -21.2 dBm.)
If yes, go to 15. If no, go to 14.
14.
a. The problem is in the trunk or distribution panel(s). If this link segment includes:
v Fiber Transport Services (FTS) components, contact your local Availability Services Marketing
Specialist.
v Components covered by another service agreement or maintenance offering, contact the IBM
marketing representative
v Components not covered by any service agreement or maintenance offering, inform the
customer
15.
a. Jumper 2 loss is not within specifications. Replace jumper 2, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
0340: Testing fiber 2
Procedure
1.
a.
Note: When using this MAP, the optical source and attached test equipment should be connected
to the device 2 end, and the power meter and attached test equipment should be connected to
the device 1 end.
Have you obtained ▌P1▐ and not switched off power to the optical source?
If yes, go to 3 on page 35. If no, go to 2.
2.
34
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
a. Go to “Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44 to obtain
▌P1▐, and attach the test equipment; then go to step 4.
3.
a. Go to step 4.
4.
a. Make sure the optical source and attached test equipment are connected at the device 2 end, and
the power meter and attached test equipment are connected at the device 1 end.
1) Record the values for ▌P1▐ and ▌L▐ in the Fiber 2 column on the work sheet:
▌P1▐ = the reference level from the applicable procedure in “Obtaining reference levels and
attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44
▌L▐ = the maximum link loss value from Table 2 on page 28.
2) Calculate the minimum acceptable receive level ▌F2▐, and record the value in the Fiber 2
column on the work sheet. See the example below, and go to step 5.
Example:
▌P1▐
Reference level
▌L▐
Maximum link loss
(-)
▌F2▐
Minimum acceptable receive
level at ▌A2▐
Multi-mode
-21.0 dBm
Single-mode
-10.0 dBm
7.0 dB
__________
14.0 dB
__________
-28.0 dBm
-24.0 dBm
5.
a. Observe the power meter display, and go to 6.
6.
a. Is the meter reading at ▌A2▐ less than the minimum acceptable receive level ▌F2▐? (Example:
-32.0 dBm is less than -29.0 dBm.)
If yes, go to 8. If no, go to 7.
7.
a. Fiber 2 loss is within specifications. If you have already tested fiber 1, the test procedure is
complete. Return to the procedure that directed you here. If the problem still exists, contact your
next level of support.
8.
a. Fiber 2 loss is not within specifications. Go to step 9.
9.
a. Does this link configuration consist of only 1 jumper cable?
If yes, go to 13 on page 36. If no, go to 10.
10.
a. Take the power meter and attached test equipment to ▌D2▐.
Is jumper 2 duplex-to-duplex?
If yes, go to 12. If no, go to 11.
11.
a. Go to “Obtaining ▌P2▐ for a multi-mode link” on page 48. Record the ▌P2▐ value in the area
labeled ▌Px▐ in the Fiber 2 column on the work sheet; then go to “0350: Fiber 2 loss
unacceptable” on page 36.
12.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
35
a. Record the value ▌P1▐ in the area labeled ▌Px▐ in the Fiber 2 column on the work sheet; then go
to “0350: Fiber 2 loss unacceptable.”
13.
a. Replace the jumper cable, and verify the repair using the maintenance procedures that directed
you here if the devices are available. If the problem still exists, contact your next level of support.
0350: Fiber 2 loss unacceptable
Procedure
1.
a.
1) The value ▌P1▐ or ▌P2▐ obtained in the reference level procedure should have been recorded
in the area labeled ▌Px▐ in the Fiber 2 column on the work sheet.
2) Obtain the maximum jumper cable dB loss values for both jumper 2 and jumper 1 from
Table 3 on page 30. Record these values in the areas labeled ▌J2▐ and ▌J1▐ in the Fiber 2
column on the work sheet as required for your configuration.
3) Calculate the minimum acceptable receive level ▌G2▐, and record this value in the Fiber 2
column on the work sheet. See the example below, and go to step 2.
Example:
▌Px▐
Reference level
▌J2▐
Maximum jumper loss
(-)
▌G2▐
Minimum acceptable receive
level at ▌D2▐
Multi-mode
-21.5 dBm
Single-mode
-10.0 dBm
1.4 dB
__________
1.1 dB
__________
-22.9 dBm
-11.1 dBm
2.
a.
1) If disconnected in a previous step, connect the optical source and attached test equipment to
jumper 2 at ▌B2▐.
2) Disconnect jumper 2 from the distribution panel at ▌D2▐. If jumper 2 has simplex connectors,
remove only the black-coded connector from the distribution panel.
3) Connect the power meter and attached test equipment to jumper 2 at ▌D2▐. If jumper 2 has
simplex connectors, attach the black-coded connector to the test equipment.
4) Observe the power meter display, and go to step 3.
3.
a. Is the meter reading at ▌D2▐ less than the minimum acceptable receive level ▌G2▐? (Example:
-30.5 dBm is less than -22.9 dBm.)
If yes, go to 7 on page 37. If no, go to 4.
4.
a. Does this configuration consist of 2 jumper cables and 1 distribution panel (no trunk)?
If yes, go to 6 on page 37. If no, go to 5.
5.
a.
1) Disconnect the power meter and attached test equipment from jumper 2 at ▌D2▐.
2) Reconnect jumper 2 to the distribution panel at ▌D2▐.
3) Disconnect the optical source and attached test equipment from ▌B2▐.
36
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
4) Take the optical source, power meter, and all attached test equipment to ▌C2▐; then go to step
8.
6.
a. Jumper 1 loss is not within specifications. Replace jumper 1, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
7.
a. Jumper 2 loss is not within specifications. Replace jumper 2, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
8.
a. Is jumper 1 duplex-to-duplex?
If yes, go to 10. If no, go to 9.
9.
a. Go to “Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44, and obtain
▌P3▐. Record this value in the area labeled ▌Py▐ in the Fiber 2 column on the work sheet; then go
to step 11.
10.
a. Record the value ▌P1▐ in the area labeled ▌Py▐ in the Fiber 2 column on the work sheet; then go
to step 11.
11.
a. Calculate the minimum acceptable receive level ▌H2▐, and record the value in the Fiber 2 column
on the work sheet. See the example below, and go to step 12.
Example:
▌Py▐
Reference level
▌J1▐
Maximum jumper loss
(-)
▌H2▐
Minimum acceptable receive
level at ▌A2▐
Multi-mode
-20.0 dBm
Single-mode
-10.0 dBm
1.2 dB
__________
1.1 dB
__________
-21.2 dBm
-11.1 dBm
12.
a.
1) Disconnect jumper 1 from the distribution panel at ▌C2▐. If jumper 1 has simplex connectors,
remove only the white-coded connector.
2) Connect the optical source and attached test equipment to jumper 1 at ▌C2▐. If jumper 1 has
simplex connectors, attach the white-coded connector to the test equipment.
3) Take the power meter and attached test equipment to ▌A2▐; then connect it to jumper 1.
4) Observe the power meter display, and go to step 13.
13.
a. Is the meter reading at ▌A2▐ less than the minimum acceptable receive level ▌H2▐? (Example:
-25.0 dBm is less than -21.2 dBm.)
If yes, go to 15 on page 38. If no, go to 14.
14.
a. The problem is in the trunk or distribution panel(s). If this link segment includes:
v Fiber Transport Services (FTS) components, contact your local Availability Services Marketing
Specialist.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
37
v Components covered by another service agreement or maintenance offering, contact the IBM
marketing representative
v Components not covered by any service agreement or maintenance offering, inform the
customer
15.
a. Jumper 1 loss is not within specifications. Replace jumper 1, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
0360: Jumper cable verification
Procedure
1.
a. Obtaining the reference level:
1) Go to “Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44, and
obtain the level (▌P1▐, ▌P2▐, or ▌P3▐) that matches the cable configuration and direction of light
propagation for the fiber being tested. If obtaining ▌P1▐, do not attach the test equipment to
the link.
2) Go to step 2.
2.
a. Measuring the jumper loss:
1) Connect the jumper cable that you want to verify to the couplers; then observe the power
meter display.
2) The difference between the meter reading and the reference level must not exceed the
maximum jumper loss found in Table 3 on page 30. See the example below, and go to 3.
Example:
Reference level
Meter reading
(-)
Jumper loss
Multi-mode
-21.0 dBm
Single-mode
-12.0 dBm
-25.0 dBm
__________
-15.0 dBm
__________
4.0 dB
3.0 dB
3.
a. Is the jumper loss greater than the maximum jumper loss value?
If yes, go to 5. If no, go to 4.
4.
a. The fiber is within specifications.
v If you need to verify the second fiber in the jumper cable, go to 6.
v If not, return to the fast-path procedure, and continue with the next step.
5.
a. The jumper is not within specifications. Replace the jumper, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
6.
a. Verifying the second fiber in the jumper cable:
38
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
1) Go to “Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link” on page 44, and
obtain the level (▌P1▐, ▌P2▐, or ▌P3▐) that matches the cable configuration and direction of light
propagation for the fiber being tested. If obtaining ▌P1▐, do not attach the test equipment to
the link.
2) Move the optical source and the power meter to the jumper cable ends opposite their previous
attachment in step 2 on page 38.
3) Reconnect both ends of the jumper cable to the couplers; then observe the power meter
display.
4) The difference between the meter reading and the reference level must not be greater than the
maximum jumper loss found in Table 3 on page 30. See the example below, and go to 7.
Example:
Reference level
Meter reading
(-)
Jumper loss
Multi-mode
-21.0 dBm
Single-mode
-12.0 dBm
-25.0 dBm
__________
-15.0 dBm
__________
4.0 dB
3.0 dB
7.
a. Is the jumper loss greater than the maximum jumper loss value?
If yes, go to 9. If no, go to 8.
8.
a. The jumper is within specifications. Jumper cable verification is complete. Return to the fast-path
procedure, and continue with the next step.
9.
a. The jumper is not within specifications. Replace the jumper cable, and verify the repair using the
maintenance procedures that directed you here if the devices are available. If the problem still
exists, contact your next level of support.
Link problem determination using the fast-path method
Use this method to isolate a failing link by either excluding (swapping) each link segment or by
measuring optical power through each of the 2 fibers. See also “Common link failures” on page 23 for
additional information. If you cannot determine the problem using this method, contact your next level of
support.
Note: Before you begin, make a copy of the “Fast path work sheet: all link configurations” on page 97.
You will use this work sheet to record the optical power levels at specific points in the link, and then
determine where the failure exists.
Note: Although the procedures refer only to IBM duplex and biconic connectors and components, they
can also be performed using ST, FC, MT–RJ, LC, and FICON connector types. The optical source tool can
only be used on links with a wavelength of 1300 µm; links operating at other wavelengths (such as SX
links at 850 nm or wavelength multiplexed links near 1550 nm) must use the attached device as a light
source. As a rule of thumb, typical optical fiber loss at 1300 µm is 0.5dB/km; at 850 nm is 3dB/km; and
at 1550 nm is 0.3dB/km.
1. Have you already obtained the transmit and receive levels for both devices (device 1 and device 2)?
v If Yes, record the values on the fast-path work sheet as ▌B1▐ (device 1 transmit), ▌A2▐ (device 1
receive), ▌B2▐ (device 2 transmit), and ▌A1▐ (device 2 receive).
v If No, go to Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71 to obtain
them. Record these values on your fast-path work sheet; then return here when done.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
39
2. Use the work sheet to calculate if the loss of either of the 2 link fibers exceeds the maximum link loss
shown in Table 8 on page 97.
a. If both fibers are within specifications, either return to the maintenance procedures that directed
you here or contact your next level of support.
b. If 1 or both fibers are not within specifications, and the link consists of only 1 jumper cable,
replace the jumper cable.
c. If the link has more than 1 jumper cable or has both jumper and trunk cables, you must isolate
one segment of the link at a time until you locate the failure. See also any previous link loss data
for comparison, including the installer’s records if available.
1) If you want to exclude each link segment, go to step 3.
2) If you want to measure each link segment, go to step 4.
3. To exclude a link segment, use:
v A spare link
v A spare pair of trunk fibers
v A spare jumper cable
v A spare coupler or adapter
4. To measure a link segment, first refer to the work sheet. You should have already determined if fiber
1 or fiber 2 is not within specifications. This determines the points within the link that you should
measure. You also need to know the length of the jumper cable(s) to determine if the power level at
these points is within specifications. See also “Determining the direction of light propagation” on page
24 if necessary.
If you are measuring a link in a coupling facility with open fiber control, you can only isolate link
segments using the splitter tool; see “Isolating link segments using the splitter tool” on page 85.
a. If fiber 1 is not within specifications (▌B1▐ to ▌A1▐):
1) Take measurements at ▌C1▐ and ▌D1▐. Measure ▌C1▐ at the jumper 1 connector (removed from
the distribution panel), and measure ▌D1▐ at the distribution panel.
v For ESCON links:
– Multi-mode links–See Figure 41 on page 41 and Figure 42 on page 41.
– Single-mode links–See Figure 43 on page 42 and Figure 44 on page 42.
v For coupling facility links use a splitter tool to isolate a link segment:
– Multi-mode links–See Figure 47 on page 44.
– Single-mode links–See Figure 48 on page 44.
– FDDI links, see Figure 45 on page 43.
– ATM, FICON, or GbE links, see Figure 46 on page 43.
v For more information on the splitter tools, see “Isolating link segments using the splitter
tool” on page 85.
2) Is the power level at ▌C1▐ less than the value shown in Table 7 on page 92 (use the jumper 1
cable length)?
v If Yes, jumper 1 could be defective. Verify the jumper cable loss before replacing the cable.
Go to “0360: Jumper cable verification” on page 38.
v If No, go to the next step.
3) Is the power level at ▌D1▐ greater than the value shown in Table 7 on page 92 (use the jumper
2 cable length)?
v If Yes, jumper 2 could be defective. Verify the jumper cable loss before replacing the cable.
Go to “0360: Jumper cable verification” on page 38.
v If No, go to step 5.
b. If fiber 2 is not within specifications (▌B2▐ to ▌A2▐):
1) Take measurements at ▌C2▐ and ▌D2▐. Measure ▌C2▐ at the distribution panel, and measure
▌D2▐ at the jumper 2 connector (removed from the distribution panel). See Figure 41 on page 41
and Figure 42 on page 41 for multi-mode links; see Figure 43 on page 42 and Figure 44 on page
42 for single-mode links.
40
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
2) Is the power level at ▌D2▐ less than the value shown in Table 7 on page 92 (use the jumper 2
cable length)?
v If Yes, jumper 2 could be defective. Verify the jumper cable loss before replacing the cable.
Go to “0360: Jumper cable verification” on page 38.
v If No, go to the next step.
3) Is the power level at ▌C2▐ greater than the value shown in Table 7 on page 92 (use the jumper
1 cable length)?
v If Yes, jumper 1 could be defective. Verify the jumper cable loss before replacing the cable.
Go to “0360: Jumper cable verification” on page 38.
v If No, go to step 5.
5. The trunk cable is the most probable cause of the failure. Switch to an alternate pair of trunk fibers (if
available), and inform the customer. If the problem still exists, contact your next level of support
Figure 41. Measuring ▌C2▐ or ▌D1▐ for a multi-mode link
Figure 42. Measuring ▌C1▐ or ▌D2▐ for a multi-mode link
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
41
Figure 43. Measuring ▌C2▐ or ▌D1▐ for a single-mode link
Figure 44. Measuring ▌C1▐ or ▌D2▐ for a single-mode link
42
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 45. Obtaining the FDDI end-to-end link loss using the fast-path method
Figure 46. Obtaining the ATM end-to-end link loss using the fast-path method
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
43
Multimode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3421
Multimode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3421
A
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
B
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Multimode FICON Dup/Dup Cable
Multimode FICON Dup/Dup Cable
FICON Cable Part Numbers
FICON Cable Part Numbers
Part Number Length (Meters/Feet)
54G3373
54G3374
54G3375
54G3376
54G3377
54G3378
54G3379
Device
B
Device
Multimode Splitter
PN 54G3426
Part Number Length (Meters/Feet)
Power
Meter
7 / 20
13 / 40
22 / 70
31 / 100
46 / 150
61 / 200
Custom
54G3373
54G3374
54G3375
54G3376
54G3377
54G3378
54G3379
7 / 20
13 / 40
22 / 70
31 / 100
46 / 150
61 / 200
Custom
Figure 47. Isolating a multi-mode link segment with a splitter tool
Single-mode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3430
Single-mode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3430
A
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
Device
B
B
Device
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
Single-mode FICON Dup/Dup Cable
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Single-mode FICON Dup/Dup Cable
FICON Cable Part Numbers
FICON Cable Part Numbers
Part Number Length (Meters/Feet)
Part Number Length (Meters/Feet)
54G3409
54G3410
54G3411
54G3412
54G3413
54G3414
54G3415
7 / 20
13 / 40
22 / 70
31 / 100
46 / 150
61 / 200
Custom
Power
Meter
54G3409
54G3410
54G3411
54G3412
54G3413
54G3414
54G3415
7 / 20
13 / 40
22 / 70
31 / 100
46 / 150
61 / 200
Custom
Figure 48. Isolating a single-mode link segment with a splitter tool
Obtaining reference levels and attaching test equipment to a link
These procedures:
v Make sure the test equipment is calibrated.
v Provide instructions to obtain optical power reference levels for the problem determination procedures.
v Describe how to attach the calibrated test equipment to a link.
The figures used as examples in these procedures show the IBM part numbers of the test equipment. See
Appendix B, “Tools, Test Equipment, and Parts,” on page 69 for the part numbers of all test equipment.
Notes:
1. There are separate procedures for multi-mode and single-mode links and for links at different
operating wavelengths. Make sure you are using the correct procedure.
2. The configuration chosen for a reference measurement should match the configuration of the link or
jumper cable under test.
3. Only the multi-mode procedures for long wave (1300 µm) links use the OMC tool; multi-mode links
for short wave (850 µm) links may use the same procedures as single-mode links.
44
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
4. Although the multi-mode procedures refer only to duplex and biconic connectors and components,
they can also be performed using ST, FC, or FICON SC connector types.
▌P0▐ is the base measurement used to calibrate the power meter. It is also used as a reference for the
other test configurations to make sure the test cables are operating within specifications. See “Obtaining
▌PO▐ for a multi-mode link” or “Obtaining ▌P0▐ for a single-mode link” on page 51.
Note: If unusual or unexpected readings occur while measuring power levels, verify that the ▌P0▐ value
has not changed by more than 0.3 dB. If it has, clean the cable connectors and test equipment
connections; then retry the test. If the problem still exists, replace the cable, the optical source, then the
OMC tool (if applicable), and finally the power meter with known operational components.
▌P1▐ is the reference measurement used for end-to-end link problem determination. It is also used as a
reference for jumper cable measurements when both ends of the jumper cable have duplex connectors.
See “Obtaining ▌P1▐ and attaching test equipment to a multi-mode link” on page 46 or “Obtaining P1
and attaching test equipment to a single–mode link” on page 51.
▌P2▐ and ▌P3▐, used for long wavelength multi-mode only, are the reference measurements that apply
when testing a duplex-to-biconic jumper cable. See “Obtaining ▌P2▐ for a multi-mode link” on page 48
and “Obtaining ▌P3▐ for a multi-mode link” on page 49.
After completing a reference measurement, leave the test cables and couplers plugged into the optical
source and power meter. Then move the optical source, power meter, test cables, and couplers to the
appropriate location, and plug them into the link cables. If power to the optical source has been
switched off, or if the test cables or couplers have been disconnected from the optical source or the
power meter, repeat the reference measurement.
Obtaining ▌PO▐ for a multi-mode link
This procedure applies only to ESCON or ATM long wavelengths links; other multi-mode laser links such
as FICON SX or Gigabit Ethernet SX may use the same procedures as for single-mode fiber attachment.
This procedure ensures proper operation of the optical source and the power meter, and establishes the
power output of the optical source. If you require detailed operating instructions for the test equipment,
refer to the manufacturer’s operating manuals. The IBM Fiber Optic Field Test Support Kits (see
Appendix B, “Tools, Test Equipment, and Parts,” on page 69) provide space for these manuals.
1. Make sure 1) the connectors are clean, 2) the LED module “plug-in” is inserted into the optical source,
and 3) the biconic adapter is inserted into the power meter.
2. Switch on both instruments, and allow approximately 5 minutes for warm-up.
Note: Some instruments have a power-on hold (POH) pushbutton to prevent automatic power-off.
3. Set the power meter to 1300 nm.
4. Zero the power meter with darkened sensor.
5. Attach one end of a biconic-to-biconic test cable to the optical source; then attach the other end to the
receptacle on the OMC tool (see Figure 49 on page 46).
6. Attach the biconic cable from the OMC tool to the power meter.
7. Adjust the optical source output to obtain a reading of -25.0 dBm (±1.0 dB) on the power meter
display.
v If the reading is within specifications, record this value as ▌P0▐ on the work sheet selected from
Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 for the fiber being tested; then go to “Obtaining ▌P1▐ and
attaching test equipment to a multi-mode link” on page 46. Do not disconnect the OMC tool, and
do not switch off power to the optical source.
v If the reading is not within specifications, remove the OMC tool, and connect the biconic-to-biconic
test cable directly to the power meter. Adjust the optical source output to obtain -15.0 dBm (±1.0
dB) on the power meter.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
45
– If the reading is within specifications, reconnect the biconic-to-biconic test cable to the OMC tool,
and reconnect the OMC tool to the power meter. If the power meter reads -25.0 dBm (±5.0 dB),
adjust the optical source to obtain -25.0 dBm (±1.0 dB). If the optical source cannot be adjusted,
replace the OMC tool.
– If the reading is not within specifications, clean the cable connectors and test equipment
connections; then retry the test. If the test still fails, replace the cable, then the optical source, and
finally the power meter with known operational components.
Figure 49. Obtaining ▌P0▐ for a multi-mode Link
Obtaining ▌P1▐ and attaching test equipment to a multi-mode link
This procedure applies only to ESCON or ATM long wavelengths links; other multi-mode laser links such
as FICON SX or Gigabit Ethernet SX may use the same procedures as for single-mode fiber attachment.
This procedure checks the multi-mode test cables and establishes the power output of the optical source
using these cables. It then shows how to attach this test equipment to a multi-mode link terminated by
duplex connectors on both ends.
1. Obtain ▌P0▐ if you have not already done so, or if power to the optical source has been switched off,
or if the OMC tool has been disconnected from the optical source.
2. Make sure the LED module “plug-in” is inserted into the optical source, and the biconic adapter is
inserted into the power meter.
3. Make sure all connectors are clean; then assemble the test equipment (see Figure 50 on page 47,
Figure 52 on page 48, or Figure 53 on page 48).
a. Remove the cable from the OMC tool to the power meter, and attach it to a biconic coupler.
b. Attach the white-coded biconic connector of duplex-to-biconic test cable 1 to the other end of the
biconic coupler; then attach the duplex connector to duplex coupler 1.
c. Attach one end of a duplex-to-duplex test cable to duplex coupler 1; then attach the other end to
duplex coupler 2.
d. Attach the duplex connector of duplex-to-biconic test cable 2 to duplex coupler 2; then attach the
black-coded biconic connector to the power meter.
4. Observe the power meter display. The maximum difference allowed between ▌P1▐ and ▌P0▐ is 2.5 dB.
v If the difference is less than 2.5 dB, record the value as ▌P1▐ on the work sheet selected from
Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 for the fiber being tested; then go to the next step.
v If the difference is greater than 2.5 dB, clean the cable connectors and test equipment connections;
then retry the test. If the test still fails, replace each cable and then each coupler with known
operational components until the test does not fail. If the test continues to fail, replace the OMC
tool, then the optical source, and finally the power meter.
5. Remove the duplex-to-duplex test cable between the 2 duplex couplers. Do not switch off power to
the optical source, and do not disconnect the test cables or couplers from the optical source or the
power meter.
6. Attach the test equipment to the link as follows (see Figure 51 on page 47):
a. Connect one end of the link to duplex coupler 1.
46
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
b. Take the power meter and attached test equipment to the next point in the link you want to check;
then connect that end to duplex coupler 2.
7. Return to the MAP that directed you here.
Figure 50. Obtaining ▌P1▐ for a multi-mode link
Figure 51. Connecting the test equipment to a multi-mode link
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
47
Figure 52. Obtaining the link loss reference level (P1) - FDDI
Figure 53. Obtaining the link loss reference level (P1) - ATM or FICON
Obtaining ▌P2▐ for a multi-mode link
Notes:
v Although this procedure refers only to duplex-to-biconic jumper cables, it also can be performed using
IBM duplex-to-ST or duplex-to-FC cables and their associated adapters and couplers.
v If a step directs you to connect a test component that is already attached, continue with the next step.
This procedure applies only to ESCON or ATM long wavelengths links; other multi-mode laser links such
as FICON SX or Gigabit Ethernet SX may use the same procedures as for single-mode fiber attachment.
▌P2▐ is used as a reference level for a duplex-to-biconic jumper cable when the direction of light
propagation is from the optical source into the duplex connector and out of the biconic connector into the
power meter.
1. Obtain ▌P0▐ if you have not already done so, or if power to the optical source has been switched off.
2. Make sure all connectors are clean; then assemble the components (see Figure 54 on page 49).
48
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
a. Attach one end of a biconic-to-biconic test cable to the optical source; then attach the other end to
the OMC tool.
b. Attach the cable from the OMC tool to one end of biconic coupler 1.
c. Attach the white-coded biconic connector of a duplex-to-biconic test cable to the other end of
biconic coupler 1; then attach the duplex connector to the duplex coupler.
d. Attach the duplex connector of a duplex-to-biconic test cable to the other end of the duplex
coupler; then attach the black-coded biconic connector to biconic coupler 2.
e. Attach one end of biconic-to-biconic test cable 2 to biconic coupler 2; then attach the other end to
the power meter.
3. Observe the power meter display. The maximum difference allowed between ▌P2▐ and ▌P0▐ is 2.5 dB.
v If the difference is less than 2.5 dB, record the value ▌P2▐ on the work sheet selected from
Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 in the area labeled ▌Px▐ for the fiber being tested; then go
to the next step.
v If the difference is greater than 2.5 dB, clean the cable connectors and test equipment connections;
then retry the test. If the test still fails, replace each cable and then each coupler with known
operational components until the test does not fail. If the test continues to fail, replace the OMC
tool, then the optical source, and finally the power meter.
4. Remove duplex-to-biconic test cable 2 (between the duplex coupler and biconic coupler 2) from the
test equipment setup. Do not switch off power to the optical source, and do not disconnect the test
cables or couplers from the optical source or the power meter.
5. Return to the MAP that directed you here.
Figure 54. Obtaining ▌P2▐ for a multi-mode link
Obtaining ▌P3▐ for a multi-mode link
Notes:
v Although this procedure refers only to duplex-to-biconic jumper cables, it also can be performed using
IBM duplex-to-ST or duplex-to-FC cables and their associated adapters and couplers.
v If a step directs you to connect a test component that is already attached, continue with the next step.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
49
This procedure applies only to ESCON or ATM long wavelengths links; other multi-mode laser links such
as FICON SX or Gigabit Ethernet SX may use the same procedures as for single-mode fiber attachment.
▌P3▐ is used as a reference level for a duplex-to-biconic jumper cable when the direction of light
propagation is from the optical source into the biconic connector and out of the duplex connector into the
power meter.
1. Obtain ▌P0▐ if you have not already done so, or if power to the optical source has been switched off.
2. Make sure all connectors are clean; then assemble the components (see Figure 55).
a. Attach one end of biconic-to-biconic test cable 1 to the optical source; then attach the other end to
the OMC tool.
b. Attach the cable from the OMC tool to one end of biconic coupler 1.
c. Attach one end of biconic-to-biconic test cable 2 to biconic coupler 1; then attach the other end to
biconic coupler 2.
d. Attach the white-coded biconic connector of duplex-to-biconic test cable 1 to the other end of
biconic coupler 2; then attach the duplex connector to the duplex coupler.
e. Attach the duplex connector of duplex-to-biconic test cable 2 to the duplex coupler; then attach the
black-coded biconic connector to the power meter.
3. Observe the power meter display. The maximum difference allowed between ▌P3▐ and ▌P0▐ is 2.5 dB.
v If the difference is less than 2.5 dB, record the value ▌P3▐ on the work sheet selected from
Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 in the area labeled ▌Py▐ for the fiber being tested; then go
to the next step.
v If the difference is greater than 2.5 dB, clean the cable connectors and test equipment connections;
then retry the test. If the test still fails, replace each cable and then each coupler with known
operational components until the test does not fail. If the test continues to fail, replace the OMC
tool, then the optical source, and finally the power meter.
4. Remove duplex-to-biconic test cable 1 (between biconic coupler 2 and the duplex coupler) from the
test equipment setup. Do not switch off power to the optical source, and do not disconnect the test
cables or couplers from the optical source or the power meter.
5. Return to the MAP that directed you here.
Figure 55. Obtaining ▌P3▐for a multi-mode link
50
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Obtaining ▌P0▐ for a single-mode link
This procedure may also be used for short wavelength (SX) links if an 850 µm light source is available.
This procedure ensures proper operation of the optical source and the power meter, and establishes the
power output of the optical source. If you require detailed operating instructions for the test equipment,
see the manufacturer’s operating manuals. The IBM Fiber Optic Field Test Support Kits (see Appendix B,
“Tools, Test Equipment, and Parts,” on page 69) provide space for these manuals.
1. Make sure 1) the connectors are clean, 2) the laser module “plug-in” and key are inserted into the
optical source, and 3) the ST adapter is inserted into the power meter.
2. Switch on both instruments, and allow approximately 5 minutes for warm-up.
Note: Some instruments have a power-on hold (POH) pushbutton to prevent automatic power-off.
3. Set the power meter to 1300 nm.
4. Zero the power meter with darkened sensor.
5. Attach the yellow-coded connector of an ST-to-ST test cable to the optical source; then attach the
red-coded connector to the power meter (see Figure 56).
6. Set the optical source to the maximum output position. The reading on the power meter display
should be between -2.7 and -10.0 dBm.
v If the reading is within specifications, record this value as ▌P0▐ on the work sheet selected from
Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 for the fiber being tested; then go to “Obtaining ▌P1▐ and
attaching test equipment to a multi-mode link” on page 46. Do not switch off power to the optical
source.
v If the reading is not within specifications, clean the cable connectors and test equipment
connections; then retry the test. If the test still fails, replace the cable, then the optical source, and
finally the power meter with known operational components.
Figure 56. Obtaining ▌P0▐ for a single-mode link
Obtaining P1 and attaching test equipment to a single–mode link
This procedure checks the single-mode test cables and establishes the power output of the optical source
using these cables. It then shows how to attach this test equipment to a single-mode link terminated by
duplex connectors on both ends.
1. Obtain ▌P0▐ if you have not already done so, or if power to the optical source has been switched off.
2. Make sure the laser module “plug-in” is inserted into the optical source, and the ST adapter is
inserted into the power meter.
3. Make sure all connectors are clean; then assemble the test equipment (see Figure 57 on page 52).
a. Remove the red-coded connector of ST-to-ST test cable 1 from the power meter; then attach it to
an ST coupler.
b. Attach the red-coded connector of ST test cable 2 to the other end of the ST coupler.
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
51
c. Attach the yellow-coded end of ST test cable 2 to the power meter.
4. Observe the power meter display. The maximum difference allowed between ▌P1▐ and ▌P0▐ is 0.4 dB.
v If the difference is less than 0.4 dB, record the value as ▌P1▐ on the work sheet selected from
Appendix E, “Work Sheets,” on page 91 for the fiber being tested; then go to the next step.
v If the difference is greater than 0.4 dB, clean the cable connectors and test equipment connections;
then retry the test. If the test still fails, replace each cable and then each coupler with known
operational components until the test does not fail. If the test continues to fail, replace the optical
source and then the power meter.
5. Remove the ST coupler between the 2 ST-to-ST test cables. Do not switch off power to the optical
source, and do not disconnect the test cables from the optical source or the power meter.
6. Attach the test equipment to the link as follows (see Figure 58 on page 53):
a. Attach a duplex-to-ST adapter to each red-coded connector of the two ST-to-ST test cables.
1) Attach ST-to-ST test cable 1 to the A side of duplex-to-ST adapter 1.
2) Attach ST-to-ST test cable 2 to the B side of duplex-to-ST adapter 2.
b. Connect one end of the link to duplex-to-ST adapter 1.
c. Take the power meter and attached test equipment to the next point in the link you want to check;
then connect that end to duplex-to-ST adapter 2.
7. Return to the MAP that directed you here.
Figure 57. Obtaining ▌P1▐ for a single-mode link
52
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Figure 58. Connecting the test equipment to a single-mode link
Chapter 3. Problem Determination Procedures
53
54
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Chapter 4. Jumper Cable Handling and Installation Summary
This chapter provides guidance for handling fiber optic jumper cables and provides a summary of the
tasks necessary to install them.
Jumper cable handling precautions
The following precautions should be taken when handling fiber optic jumper cables:
v Make sure the cable cutouts in the floor tiles have the appropriate protective edging.
v Route the cables away from any sharp edges or projections that could cut the outer jacket.
v Do not route the cables near unprotected steam or refrigeration lines.
v Do not coil the cable to less than a 96.0-mm (3.78 in.) diameter.
v Do not bend the cable to less than a 12-mm (0.5 in.) radius.
v Do not pull cables into position; place them.
v Do not grasp the cable with pliers.
v Do not attach a pull rope or wire to the connectors.
v Always clean the connectors before attaching them.
v Do not remove the protective plugs or protective covers until you are ready to clean the connectors
and attach the cables to a device.
v Always leave the protective plugs and protective covers on unused ports and cable connectors.
v Connect the cable carefully to prevent damage to the connector housing or the fiber optic ferrules.
v Before inserting the connector, make sure the connector and receptacle keying are aligned.
v Ensure that each FDDI connector has the correct keys installed for the intended application.
Pre-installation checklist
Cable inventory
v Quantity: Ensure that you have enough jumper cables.
v Length: Ensure that the jumper cables are long enough to reach each device or distribution panel, and
that they have an additional length to allow for correct bend radius, slack, and minor equipment
relocation.
v Connectors: Ensure that each end of the jumper cable has a compatible connector for attachment to the
intended device or distribution panel, and that the connectors have protective covers.
Jumper cable installation summary
This section summarizes the installation process; it does not provide detailed installation instructions.
Fiber optic cables, cable planning, labeling, and installation are all customer responsibilities for new
installations and upgrades.
|
IBM Networking Integration and Deployment Services for zSeries fiber cabling and for enterprise fiber
cabling allow IBM to offer a comprehensive set of services for all customers, from product level to
enterprise level. These services take into consideration the requirements for all of the protocols and media
types supported on z Systems and LinuxONE (for example, FICON, Coupling Links, OSA), whether the
focus is the data center, the Storage Area Network (SAN), the Local Area Network (LAN), or the
end-to-end enterprise.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
55
Jumper cable labeling
Each IBM jumper cable has a jacket marking that contains the part number, EC number, length in meters
and feet, and manufacturing/warranty data. Additional jacket markings may be added by the suppliers.
Example:
PN VVVVVVV/FFFFFFF EC1234567 31 m 100.0 ft 11210005 BAR CODE DATE ODE SNUM
Where V = variable length part number, F = fixed length part number. Manufacturing and warranty data
includes: BAR CODE INFO
1
Vendor code
1
Last digit of year manufactured
210
Day-of-year manufactured (Julian date)
005
Sequence number
The above is bar code information for reference.
Cable labeling tags (IBM part number 84X7035) are available through your IBM branch office. These tags
should also be “to” locations.
Note: The ST and FC connectors on the end of an IBM jumper cable are color-coded and should be
labeled as follows:
Black = Transmit (light into the link)
White = Receive (light from the link)
Note: Fiber optic jumper cables and connectors using the FICON SC-duplex connector may be obtained
from vendors other than IBM, and may not have the bar code label or conform to the color coded
labeling. Consult the manufacturer’s specifications for labeling conventions.
Safety equipment
The following items should be available to warn of obstructions and hazardous conditions:
v Warning signs and tags
v Barricades for open floor tiles
Test equipment
See Technical Service Letter TSL #147 Fiber Optic Tools and Test Equipment (revised 2/19/96 or later) for a list
of fiber optic tools and materials.
Documentation
The following documents should be available to ensure correct device connection:
v Floor plans
v Cable routing diagrams (as required)
v Physical configuration
v Logical configuration
Cable routing
v Raised floor: Fiber cables can be installed under a raised floor. The following precautions must be
taken besides those for IBM bus and tag cables:
– Do not place the cables on top of moisture sensors or smoke detectors.
– Cables should not be secured if an unloaded bend radius of less than 12 mm (0.5 in.) can exist.
Note: This precaution applies to cables installed both above and below a raised floor.
56
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
v Raceway or cable tray: Cables should be placed, not pulled, in a tray or raceway.
v Ceiling or partition: Cables must be protected from sharp corners, ceiling hangers, pipes, dropped
ceiling grids, metal partition studs, and construction activity. Conduit can be used when additional
protection is required.
v Vertical shaft (between floors): Cable should be left on the shipping spool, or in a loose coil, and
lowered from above.
For installation in a vertical shaft, the cable must be protected against extreme temperature and
possible damage from moving equipment. Cable ties must be used to secure the cable at intervals of 3
meters (10 ft.), and strain relief must be provided at intervals of 100 meters (328 ft.).
v Plenum: IBM jumper cables for FICON, FDDI, ATM, and GEN are plenum rated.
Cable layout, slack management, and strain relief
There should be at least 2 meters (6.5 ft.) of cable at each end for any future equipment relocation.
Slack management should be used when storing excess jumper cable.
Strain relief, provided by devices and distribution panels, should be used to prevent connector damage.
Connector protection
Attach connectors carefully to prevent damage to the housing or the fiber optic ferrules.
If possible, leave connectors in their protective shells until you are ready to attach them to the receptacles.
Also, use the shells when temporarily unplugging the connectors.
Unused fiber optic duplex receptacles on an IBM device must have a protective plug (IBM part number
18F4017, 17G5609, or 78G9610) installed to prevent contamination (seeFigure 59 or Figure 60 on page 58).
For non-IBM connectors, use the protection method recommended by the vendor for that connector.
Figure 59. ESCON protective plug (part number 18F4017)
Chapter 4. Jumper Cable Handling and Installation Summary
57
Figure 60. Optical wrap/protective plug for FICON links. IBM part numbers 16G5609 for multi-mode and 78G9610 or
86F1180 for single-mode. For 4G or 8G Ficon, IBM part number 15R7536 should be used for both short wave (SX)
and long wave (LX) applications.
Figure 61. MT-RJ wrap plug
Figure 62. LC wrap plug
58
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Chapter 5. Documentation
This chapter summarizes the information used to document link installations and provides instructions
and a sample work sheet for recording link specifications and physical characteristics.
Cable administration information
As the customer’s fiber optic channel link environment grows, accurate records must be maintained to
list the changes, modifications, and reconfigurations within the environment. This chapter describes the
documentation required, explains the various types of ESCON link connections, and shows an example of
the entries used to complete a Cable Administration Work Sheet, SX23-0415.
Link installation documentation
The following documentation and information should be available to ensure link compatibility exists for
IBM devices:
v Floor plans of existing facilities
v Switching and multiplexing requirements
v Equipment locations
v Logical connectivity diagrams
v Cable routing diagrams
v Installer’s records
Documentation for new installations
The following documentation and information should be available for new installations to ensure link
compatibility exists for IBM devices:
v Link loss measurements.
v Contractor’s warranty or verification statement.
v Compliance with national, state, and local building codes. New requirements have been added that
specifically relate to installation of fiber optic cabling.
Documentation for all installations
The following documentation and information should be available for all installations to ensure link
compatibility exists for IBM devices:
v Device and link distances
v Product specifications
v Cable routing diagrams:
– Location and length of each link
– Type, location, and identification of connectors, adapters, and couplers
– Locations of splices and distribution panels
v Manufacturer’s data sheets:
– Cable (see Appendix A, “Specifications,” on page 65 for specification requirements)
– Bend radius control
– Connectors
– Strain relief
– Splices
– Distribution panels
– Attached devices
– Installer’s warranty or verification statements
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
59
Link connections and IOCDS and cable information
A link environment can consist of all fiber optic cables, or it can consist of copper bus and tag cables and
fiber optic jumper and trunk cables. The following figures show these three link types:
v Logical link connection (Figure 63)
v Physical point-to-point link connection (Figure 64)
v Complex physical link connection (Figure 65 on page 61)
The complex physical link connection is used to complete the Cable Administration Work Sheet example
shown on page Figure 66 on page 63.
Logical link connection
Figure 63. Example of a logical link connection
IOCDS and cable information:
PATHID
309001
M/T
3090
Serial
xxxx
CHPID
01
Length
100 ft.
M/T
3803
Serial
yyyy
Conn ID
02
M/T
3803
Serial
yyyy
Conn ID
02
Physical point-to-point link connection
Figure 64. Example of a physical point-to-point link connection
IOCDS and cable information:
PATHID
309001
60
M/T
3090™
Serial
xxxx
CHPID
01
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Length
100 ft.
Complex physical link connection
Figure 65. Example of a complex physical link connection
Completing the cable administration work sheet
The following paragraphs list and explain the entries used in the completed Cable Administration Work
Sheet example shown in Figure 66 on page 63. The work sheet uses the complex physical link connection
shown in Figure 65 as a basis and includes typical information available for that link.
When comparing Figure 65 to the completed work sheet, notice where the information for one link
segment ends and the other begins. For example, the column under 3090-12345 ends at the To Label entry
of 3044-12345, which is the end of link segment 01. Link segment 02 then begins at the top of the next
column (3044-98765) and ends at Distribution Panel 1 (labeled DP01C01 DP01C02). Continue down this
column and up from the bottom of the next column to determine the trunk information (link segment 03).
In the same manner, continue up the same column and down the next column for link segment 04 and 05
information.
Product information
The Product Information column (▌1▐) consists of:
v Machine Type: The numeric (or alphanumeric) machine type.
Note: Always start with the device closest to the processor or at the processor.
v Ser#: The 5-digit serial number.
v Port#: The port or channel path identifier (CHPID) of the device.
v Strain Relief Used? (Y/N): Is the device strain relief used?
Jumper cable information
The Jumper Cable Information column (▌2▐) consists of:
v Vendor: The provider of the jumper cable assembly.
v Length (meter or ft): The length of the jumper cable in meters or feet. Either unit of measure is
acceptable. It is specified in the cable label information. If not known, estimate the actual length.
v Loss (dB or dB/km) and Bandwidth (MHzvkm) Specifications: Complete this column for non-IBM
multi-mode jumper cables only.
v Modified? If yes, Loss Measurement Fiber 1/Fiber 2:
Note: Cable modification is not recommended. For example, modification voids the cable warranty,
and modified components are not supported by the IBM fiber optic tool kits.
If the jumper cable was modified, record the loss measurement for fiber 1 and fiber 2.
Chapter 5. Documentation
61
v Connector Types: The device end is a duplex connector unless the cable is attached to an original
equipment manufacturer (OEM) device that uses other than a duplex receptacle. The other end
depends on the type of distribution panel adapter or coupler used.
v Slack Storage? (Y/N): Is cable slack managed by using a slack-storage device?
v From Label Fiber 1/Fiber 2 M/T Serial: Unique label information at the “from” end of the cable (the
distribution panel or device).
v Path ID/Segment ID: Path and segment identification.
v To Label Fiber 1/Fiber 2: Unique label information at the “to” end of the cable (the distribution panel
or next device).
Trunk information
The Trunk Information column (▌3▐) consists of:
v Cable Manufacturer and Fiber Core Size (µm): The cable manufacturer and the fiber core size in µm.
v Installer: Name of the company or contractor.
v Length (km or ft): Length of the trunk cable in kilometers or feet. Either unit of measure is acceptable.
v Attenuation Specification (dB/km) or Loss Measurement (dB): Trunk loss in dB/km (from the cable
manufacturer) or dB (from the installer).
v Bandwidth Specification (MHzvkm): multi-mode only. Specified by the cable manufacturer (for
example, 500 MHzvkm).
v # of Splices and Type: Should be part of the link schematic. Note if the splice is mechanical or fusion.
v Connector Type(s) at Panel(s): Type of connector used at the distribution panel (for example, IBM
duplex, ST).
v OTDR Print? If yes, ID: Contractors and installers could have used an optical time domain
reflectometer (OTDR) to record link trace information. Either hardcopy or softcopy records are
acceptable and should provide link identification information.
v From Panel ID Fiber 1/Fiber 2: Distribution panel “from” locations for fiber 1 and fiber 2.
v Path ID and Segment ID: Path and segment identification.
v To Panel ID Fiber 1/Fiber 2: Distribution panel “to” locations for fiber 1 and fiber 2.
Loss measurements
The Loss Measurements column (▌4▐) consists of:
v Date Tested: Date when link verification was performed.
v End-End Link Verification Loss (dB): Link loss from device connector to device connector.
Service comments
The Service Comments column (▌5▐) can be used for information such as:
v IBM contract number
v Service comments
v OEM device information (machine type and serial)
v Hazardous area identification
62
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Cable Administration Work Sheet
Product
Information
Machine Type
Ser #
Port #
Strain Relief
Used? (Y/N)
Length (meter or ft)
Loss (dB or dB/km) and
Bandwidth (Mhz km)
Specifications
Modified? If yes,
Loss Measurement
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
Connector Types
Jumper Cable Information
Vendor
1
Stack Storage?
(Y/N)
From Label
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
M/T Serial
Path ID/Segment ID
To Label
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
2
Installer
Length (km or ft)
Attenuation Specification
(dB/km) or Loss
Measurement (dB)
Trunk Information
Cable Manufacturer
and Fiber Core Size
( lm)
Bandwidth
Specifications
(Mhz km)
# of Splices
and Type
Connector
Type(s) and Panel(s)
OTDR Print?
If Yes, ID
From Panel ID
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
Path ID and
Segment ID
To Panel ID
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
3
End-End Link
Verification Loss (dB)
Loss
Measurement
Date Tested
4
Service
Comments
5
Figure 66. Example of a Cable Administration Work Sheet
Chapter 5. Documentation
63
64
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Appendix A. Specifications
This chapter lists the specifications and optical properties for a fiber optic channel link, IBM jumper
cables, and trunk cable. To allow for growth, a trunk cable with higher modal bandwidth than the
minimum specification should be considered.
Link specifications
Table 4 lists the specifications for links using single-mode (9/125-µm), or multi-mode (62.5/125-µm, or
50/125-µm) fiber optic cable. The trunk to which the IBM jumper cables are connected must have optical
properties that conform to the specifications in the table.
Table 4. Link Specifications
Maximum length
Maximum Trunk size/
loss
wavelength
Minimum
trunk modal
bandwidth
Notes
Multi-mode
2.0 km (1.24 mi.)
8.0 dB
62.5 µm/LX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3, 8
Multi-mode
2.0 km (1.24 mi.)
8.0 dB
50.0 µm/LX
800 MHzvkm
1, 3, 4, 8
Multi-mode
3.0 km (1.86 mi.)
8.0 dB
62.5 µm/LX
800 MHzvkm
1, 3, 4, 8
Single-mode
(Discontinued)
20 km (12.4 mi.)
14.0 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10
Link/fiber type
ESCON
Sysplex Timer (ETR/CLO) Same as multi-mode ESCON
Coupling links (ISC, HiPerLinks/ISC-2, ISC-3, HCA-2, HCA-3, ICA)
Multi-mode (discontinued
May, 1998)
1.0 km (.62 mi.)
8.0 dB
50.0 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3, 9
Single-mode 1.06 and 2.1
Gbit/s
10 km (6.21 mi.)
7.0 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Single-mode card with 50
micron optical mode
conditioner over
multi-mode fiber
550 meters (0.34 mi.)
5.0 dB
50.0 µm/LX
Multi-mode 12x IFB
150 m (.093 mi.)
2.06 dB
50.0 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3, 9
Single-mode 1x IFB
10.0 km (6.21 mi.)
5.66 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
ICA SR 24x (MTP 24 OM3)
100 m (.062 mi.)
2.06 dB
50.0 µm/SX
2000 MHzvkm
ICA SR 24x (MTP 24 OM4)
150 m (.093 mi.)
2.00 dB
50.0 µm/SX
4700 MHzvkm
Multi-mode with 50
micron optical mode
conditioner
550 meters (0.34 mi.)
5.0 dB
50.0 µm/LX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3, 12, 13
Single-mode LX1gb
(100-SM-LC-L)
10.0 km (6.2 mi.)
7.8 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Single-mode LX 2gb
(200-SM-LC-L)
10.0 km (6.2 mi.)
7.8 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
FICON LX
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
65
Table 4. Link Specifications (continued)
Minimum
trunk modal
bandwidth
Notes
Link/fiber type
Maximum length
Maximum Trunk size/
loss
wavelength
Single-mode LX 4gb 10km
(400-SM-LC-L)
10.0 km (6.2 mi.)
7.8 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Single-mode LX 4gb 4km
(400-SM-LC-M)
4 km (2.5 mi.)
4.8 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Single-mode LX 8gb 10km
(800-SM-LC-L)
10.0 km (6.2 mi.)
6.4 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Single-mode LX 16gb
10km (1600-SM-LC-L)
10.0 km (6.2 mi.)
6.4 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Multi-mode SX 1gb
(100-M6-SN-I) (OM1)
300 meters (0.186 mi.)
3.00 dB
62.5 µm/SX
200 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 2gb
(200-M6-SN-I) (OM1)
150 meters (0.093 mi.)
2.10 dB
62.5 µm/SX
200 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 4gb
(400-M6-SN-I) (OM1)
70 meters (0.043 mi.)
1.78 dB
62.5 µm/SX
200 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 8gb
(800-M6-SN-I) (OM1)
21 meters (0.013 mi.)
1.58 dB
62.5 µm/SX
200 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 1gb
(100-M5-SN-I) (OM2)
500 meters (0.311 mi.)
3.85 dB
50 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 2gb
(200-M5-SN-I) (OM2)
300 meters (0.186 mi.)
2.62 dB
50 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 4gb
(400-M5-SN-I) (OM2)
150 meters (0.093 mi.)
2.06 dB
50 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 8gb
(800-M5-SN-I) (OM2)
50 meters (0.031 mi.)
1.68 dB
50 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 16gb
(1600-M5)SN-I) (OM2)
35 meters (0.022 mi.)
1.63 dB
50 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 1gb
(100-M5-SN-I) (OM3)
860 meters (0.534 mi.)
4.62 dB
50 µm/SX
2000 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 2gb
(200-M5-SN-I) (OM3)
500 meters (0.311 mi.)
3.31 dB
50 µm/SX
2000 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 4gb
(400-M5-SN-I) (OM3)
380 meters (0.237 mi.)
2.88 dB
50 µm/SX
2000 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 8gb
(800-M5-SN-I) (OM3)
150 meters (0.094 mi.)
2.04 dB
50 µm/SX
2000 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 16 gb
(1600-M5E-SN-I) (OM3)
100 meters (0.062 mi.)
1.86 dB
50 µm/SX
2000 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode SX 16 gb
(1600-M5F-SN-I) (OM4)
125 meters (0.077 mi.)
1.95 dB
50 µm/SX
4700 MHzvkm
1, 3
5 km (3.1 mi.)
4.6 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Multi-mode 50 micron
550 meters (0.34 mi.)
3.6 dB
50.0 µm/SX
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode 62.5 micron
275 meters (0.17 mi.)
2.6 dB
62.5 µm/SX
200 MHzvkm
1, 3
FICON SX
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) LX
Single-mode
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) SX
66
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Table 4. Link Specifications (continued)
Link/fiber type
Maximum length
Maximum Trunk size/
loss
wavelength
Minimum
trunk modal
bandwidth
Notes
6.0 dB
9.0 µm/LX
NA
1, 3, 5, 6, 7
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE LR)
Single-mode
10 km (6.2 miles)
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE SR) including RoCE
Multi-mode 50 micron
300 meters (0.19 miles) 2.6 dB
OM3
2000 MHzvkm 1, 3
Multi-mode 50 micron
82 meters (0.05 miles)
1.8 dB
OM2
500 MHzvkm
1, 3
Multi-mode 62.5 micron
33 meters (0.02 miles)
1.6 dB
OM1
200 MHzvkm
1, 3
Notes:
1. The maximum link length includes both jumper and trunk cables.
2. The ESCON Extended Distance feature (ESCON XDF) must be installed in both the channel and the
ESCON Director to obtain a maximum link length of 20 kilometers (12.4 miles).
3. If the customer uses IBM’s Fiber Transport Services (FTS), contact the marketing representative for
distance considerations.
4. The maximum total jumper cable length cannot exceed 244 meters (800 ft.) when using either
50/125-µm trunk fiber or when a 62.5/125-µm link exceeds 2 kilometers (1.24 miles).
5. Single-mode connectors and splices must meet a minimum return loss specification of 28 dB.
6. In a single-mode jumper cable, the minimum distance between connectors or splices is 2 meters (6.5
ft).
7. In a single-mode trunk cable, the distance between connectors or splices must be enough to ensure
that only the lowest-order bound mode propagates.
8. The maximum link loss for multi-mode fiber includes the higher-order-mode loss, which is 1.5 dB
for 50 µm and 1.0 dB for 62.5 µm on ESCON links only.
9. Short wavelength (SX) versions of Gigagit Ethernet and FICON multi-mode links use a short
wavelength laser (780 to 850 nm) over multi-mode fiber. Fiber loss at these wavelengths (3 to 4
dB/km) is higher than for other links using 1300 nm lasers (0.5 dB/km).
10. Some single-mode ESCON transceivers use the FICON duplex connector rather than the IBM
ESCON duplex connector. The maximum length and loss values are the same for both connector
types and the maximum loss/distance is not reduced by using the ESCON adapter kit (part number
46H9223).
11. The maximum FDDI link loss includes a system loss of 2.0 dB, which includes higher order mode
losses, extinction ratio, and retiming penalties.
12. Although the ANSI Fibre Channel Connection does not support the use of long wavelength (1300
nm) lasers on multi-mode fiber, IBM will support this combination. Special mode conditioning patch
cables or couplers may be required; Refer to the Planning for Fiber Optic Links, GA23-1407.
13. The use of MCP cables is not supported over 1 gb.
Typical optical component loss values
The following loss values are typical for optical components used in the data communication industry.
Use the manufacturer’s loss values if available.
Table 5. Typical optical component loss
Component
Description
Size (µm)
Mean loss
Variance
(dB2)
Connector
Physical contact
62.5 to 62.5
0.40 dB
0.02
Appendix A. Specifications
67
Table 5. Typical optical component loss (continued)
Component
Description
(See note 1)
Size (µm)
Mean loss
Variance
(dB2)
50.0 to 50.0
0.40 dB
0.02
9.0 to 9.0 (See note 2)
0.35 dB
0.06
62.5 to 50.0
2.10 dB
0.12
50.0 to 62.5
0.00 dB
0.01
100 to 100
0.40 dB
0.02
100 to 62.5
4.72 dB
0.12
Connector
Nonphysical contact
62.5 to 62.5
0.70 dB
0.04
(See note 1)
(Multi-mode only)
50.0 to 50.0
0.70 dB
0.04
62.5 to 50.0
2.40 dB
0.12
50.0 to 62.5
0.30 dB
0.01
100 to 100
0.70 dB
0.04
100 to 62.5
4.90 dB
0.12
62.5 to 62.5
0.15 dB
0.01
50.0 to 50.0
0.15 dB
0.01
9.0 to 9.0 (See note 2)
0.15 dB
0.01
100 to 100
0.15 dB
0.01
62.5 to 62.5
0.40 dB
0.01
50.0 to 50.0
0.40 dB
0.01
9.0 to 9.0 (See note 2)
0.40 dB
0.01
100 to 100
0.40 dB
0.01
IBM Multi-mode jumper
62.5
1.75 dB/km
NA
IBM Multi-mode jumper
50.0
3.00 dB/km at 850 nm
NA
IBM Single-mode jumper
9.0
0.8 dB/km
NA
Trunk
62.5
1.00 dB/km
NA
Trunk
50.0
0.90 dB/km
NA
Trunk
9.0
0.50 dB/km
NA
Splice
Splice
Cable
Mechanical
Fusion
Notes:
1. The connector loss value is typical when attaching identical connectors. The loss can vary significantly if
attaching different connector types.
2. Single-mode connectors and splices must meet a minimum return loss specification of 28 dB.
68
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Appendix B. Tools, Test Equipment, and Parts
A complete list of fiber optic tools and test equipment is available in Technical Service Letter TSL #147 Fiber
Optic Tools and Test Equipment, revised 2/19/96 or later. This TSL contains a current list and description of
all part numbers in the fiber optic tool kit, ordering information, and calibration of test equipment. Tool
kits and field bills of material (BOMs) are available to service both single-mode and multi-mode optical
fiber links using ESCON, Fiber Channel Connection (FICON or coupling facility links) and GbE;
attachment to ST, FC, and biconic connector types is also supported.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
69
70
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
This section contains procedures on how to measure the dB power levels of the device transmit and
receive signals. This section also contains information to isolate sections of a coupling link using the
splitter tool.
An optical power meter is required for troubleshooting fiber optic problems. An optical power meter
(12G8814) and adapter cables are available at branch offices as part of the IBM fiber optic field tool kits
(46G6836, 46G6837, or 46G6839).
An alternate is the miniature optical power meter (MOP), IBM P/N 25F9767, that plugs into a digital
voltmeter. RETAIN tip H164015 contains information on part numbers, optical connection adapters, and
ordering. Information is also available at the following IBM Intranet Web site at http://rtpgsa.ibm.com/home/
i/t/itstesc/web/public (You will need your IBM Intranet ID and password for access.) To navigate, click on
Tools Catalog --> Test Equipment --> Fiber Optic.
v Set up the MOP meter and multimeter as follows:
1. Plug the MOP meter into the multimeter
a. COM of the MOP meter to COM on the multimeter
b. Other pin to DC Volts
2. Select the desired wavelength on the MOP meter
3. Select mVdc on the multimeter.
All of the procedures in this appendix describe methods of measuring optical power using the attached
device as a source; this is the only way to measure SX links at 850 nm or wavelength multiplexed links
around 1550 nm.
This chapter contains:
“Measuring receive-in power”
“Measuring transmit-out power” on page 74
“Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs) multi-mode power level measurement procedures” on
page 76
“Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs) single-mode power level measurement procedures” on
page 80
“Isolating link segments using the splitter tool” on page 85
“ETR link multi-mode power level measurement procedures” on page 86
Measuring receive-in power
See Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels” for information about using the
Miniature Optical Power meter, P/N 25F9767.
1. Switch on the power meter, and allow approximately 5 minutes for warm-up.
Note: Some instruments have a power-on hold (POH) push-button to prevent automatic power-off.
2. For long wavelength (LX = 1300nm) links, set the power meter to 1300nm.
For short wavelength (SX = 850nm) links, set the power meter to 850nm.
Note: Refer to Table 4 on page 65 for links which use LX or SX transmitters.
3. Zero the power meter with darkened sensor.
4. Make sure the connectors are clean; then assemble the test equipment using the appropriate figure:
Figure 67 on page 72; ESCON multi-mode link
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
71
Figure 68; ATM, multi-mode FICON, or single-mode FICON link, or 10 GbE LR single-mode link
Figure 69 on page 73; FDDI multi-mode link
Figure 70 on page 73; ESCON or ETR multi-mode link with MT–RJ connector
Figure 71 on page 73; FICON or ISC-3 peer mode link with LC connector
Note: Some FDDI devices can send test signals; ask the customer to have “halt” signals sent from
these devices.
5. Observe the power meter display, and record the value on the work sheet. The receive level should
read within the specifications for the channel type. See Table 6 on page 73.
Note: If the level is within this range and the receiver is not operating properly, the device receiver
optical port could be dirty, or the receiver could be defective.
6. Go to “Measuring transmit-out power” on page 74.
Duplex-to-Biconic
Test Cable
(18F6948)
Remove
from
Device
Biconic
Adapter
(02G6156)
Power
Meter
(12G8814
or
25F9767)
Duplex Coupler
(34F2151
or
42F8604)
Figure 67. Measuring receive-in power for an ESCON multi-mode link
SC-to-SC
Cable
SC-to-ST
Adapter
(54G3424
or
54G3381)
Device
ST-to-ST
Test Cable
(02G6159)
Power
Meter
(12G8814
or
25F9767)
Figure 68. Measuring receive-in from the link - ATM, multi-mode FICON, single-mode FICON, or 10 GbE LR
72
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
ST-to-ST
Test Cable
(02G6159)
MIC-to-ST
Adapter
(92F9009)
MIC-to-MIC Cable
or FDDI Link Ending
in MIC Connectors
Device
Power
Meter
(12G8814
or
25F9767)
T
R
T
Figure 69. Measuring receive-in from the multi-mode link - FDDI
MT-RJ Cable
Remove
from
Device
MT-RJ
Duplex
Coupler
MT-RJ to ST RX Test Cable (with pins)
(11P0298)
ST Adapter
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 70. Measuring receive-in power for a multi-mode ESCON or ETR link with MT-RJ connector
LC Cable
Remove LC Duplex
From
Coupler
Device (05N6766)
LC to ST Test Cable
(21L3656)
ST Adapter
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 71. Measuring receive-in power for a FICON or ISC-3 peer mode link with LC connector
Table 6. Minimum and maximum acceptable power specifications
Link Type
TX Min
TX Max
RX Min
RX Max
Multi-mode FICON LX with MCP
-8.5 dBm
-4 dBm
-22 dBm
-3 dBm
Single-mode FICON LX 1gb (100-SM-LC-L)
-9.5 dBm
-3 dBm
-20 dBm
-3 dBm
Single-mode FICON LX 2gb (200-SM-LC-L)
-11.7 dBm
-3 dBm
-20 dBm
-3 dBm
Single-mode FICON LX 4gb 10km (400-SM-LC-L)
-8.4 dBm
-1 dBm
-16 dBm
-1 dBm
Single-mode FICON LX 4gb 4km (400-SM-LC-M)
-11.2 dBm
-1 dBm
-16 dBm
-1 dBm
Single-mode FICON LX 8gb 10km (800-SM-LC-L)
-8.4 dBm
-1 dBm
-13.5 dBm
-1 dBm
Single-mode FICON LX 16gb 10km (1600-SM-LC-L)
-5.0 dBm
2 dBm
-11.4 dBm
2 dBm
Multi-mode FICON SX 1gb (100-M5-SN-I, 100-M6-SN-I)
-10 dBm
-1 dBm
-16 dBm
0 dBm
Multi-mode FICON SX 2gb (200-M5-SN-I, 200-M6-SN-I)
-10 dBm
-1 dBm
-14 dBm
0 dBm
Multi-mode FICON SX 4gb (400-M5-SN-I, 400-M6-SN-I)
-9 dBm
-1 dBm
-13 dBm
0 dBm
Multi-mode FICON SX 8gb (800-M5-SN-I, 800-M6-SN-I)
-8.2 dBm
-1 dBm
-9.5 dBm
0 dBm
Multi-mode FICON SX 16gb (1600-M5-SN-I)
-7.8 dBm
0 dBm
-9.5 dBm
0 dBm
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
73
Table 6. Minimum and maximum acceptable power specifications (continued)
Link Type
TX Min
TX Max
RX Min
RX Max
Multi-mode ESCON
-20.5 dBm
-15 dBm
-29 dBm
-14 dBm
Single-mode ESCON (Discontinued)
-8 dBm
-3 dBm
-28 dBm
-3 dBm
Single-mode GbE
-11 dBm
-3 dBm
-19 dBm
-3 dBm
Single-mode 10GbE LR
-8.2 dBm
0.5 dBm
-14.4 dBm
0.5 dBm
Multi-mode GbE
-9.5 dBm
-3 dBm
-17 dBm
-3 dBm
Multimode 10Gbe SR (includingRoCE)
-7.3 dBm
-1.0 dBm
-9.9 dBm
-1.0 dBm
Single-mode Coupling Links (ISC, HiPerLinks/ISC-2, ISC-3)
Operating at 1 Gbit/s (compatibility mode)
-11 dBm
-3 dBm
-20 dBm
-3 dBm
Single-mode Coupling Links (ISC, HiPerLinks/ISC-2, ISC-3)
Operating at 2 Gbit/s (peer mode)
-9 dBm
-3 dBm
-20 dBm
-3 dBm
Multi-mode Coupling Links (ISC, HiPerLinks/ISC-2, ISC-3)
Operating at 1 Gbit/s (Discontinued)
-16.5 dBm
-8.7 dBm
-26.5 dBm
-8.7 dBm
Single-mode Coupling Links (1 x IFB)
-7 dBm
0.5 dBm
-13 dBm
-0 dBm
Multi-mode Coupling Links (12 x IFB) Operating at 5 Gbit/s
-5.4 dBm
-1.5 dBm
-14.5 dBm
-1.5 dBm
Multi-mode ICA (24x PCIe)
-7.6 dBm
2.4 dBm
-9.5 dBm
2.4 dBm
Sysplex Timer (ETR/CLO)
-20.5 dBm
-15 dBm
-29 dBm
-14 dBm
Measuring transmit-out power
See Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71 for information about
using the Miniature Optical Power meter, P/N 25F9767.
Note: The biconic or ST adapter should still be inserted into the power meter optical port, and the
black-coded connector of the test cable should still be attached to the power meter.
1. Make sure the connectors are clean; then assemble the test equipment using the appropriate figure:
Figure 72 on page 75; ESCON multi-mode link
Figure 73 on page 75; FDDI multi-mode link
Figure 74 on page 75; ATM, FICON, 10 GbE LR, or single-mode FICON link
Figure 75 on page 76; ESCON multi-mode link with MT–RJ connector
Figure 76 on page 76; FICON or ISC-3 peer mode link with LC connector
Notes:
a. For ISC-3 compatibility mode single-mode links, see “Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs)
single-mode power level measurement procedures” on page 80.
b. For ETR links, see “ETR link multi-mode power level measurement procedures” on page 86.
2. Observe the power meter display and record the value on the work sheet. The transmit level should
read within specifications for the channel type. See Table 6 on page 73.
Note: If the level is not within this range, the device transmitter optical port could be dirty, or the
transmitter could be defective.
3. Remove the coupler from the link jumper cable, and reconnect the jumper cable to the device.
4. Have you obtained the transmit and receive levels for both devices?
v If Yes, return to the fast-path step that directed you here.
v If No, return to “Measuring receive-in power” on page 71 and repeat the procedure for the other
device.
74
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Duplex-to-Biconic
Test Cable
(18F6948)
Biconic
Adapter
(02G6156)
Power
Meter
(12G8814
or
25F9767)
Device
Figure 72. Measuring transmit-out power for an ESCON multi-mode link
MIC-to-MIC
Test Cable
(92F8977)
ST-to-ST
Test Cable
(02G6159)
MIC-to-ST
Adapter
(92F9009)
Power
Meter
(12G8814
or
25F9767)
Device
T
Figure 73. Measuring transmit-out from a multi-mode device - FDDI
SC-to-SC
Cable
Device
T
SC-to-ST
Adapter
(54G3424
or
54G3381)
ST-to-ST
Test Cable
(02G6159)
Power
Meter
(12G8814
or
25F9767)
Figure 74. Measuring transmit-out from a device - ATM, FICON, 10GbE LR, or single-mode FICON
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
75
ST Adapter
MT-RJ to ST TX Test Cable
Without Pins (11P0297)
Device
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 75. Measuring transmit-out power for an ESCON link with MT– RJ connectors
LC to ST Test Cable
(21L3656)
ST Adapter
Device
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 76. Measuring transmit-out power for a FICON or ISC-3 peer mode link with LC connectors
Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs) multi-mode power level
measurement procedures
Some coupling links use a different type of laser safety control than ESCON links, so they require a
different method for measuring transmit and receive power levels. Coupling links operating at 2 Gbit/s
(peer mode) do not require this procedure; the previous method for measuring single-mode links may
still be used in this case (see Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71).
Other coupling links operating at 1 Gbit/s use a safety method called Open Fiber Control (OFC); the
transmitters on both ends of the link will only function if there is a complete fiber link between both
pairs of transmitters and receivers. If the link is opened at any point (such as unplugging a connector or
breaking a fiber) both transmitters automatically shut down as a safety measure. The transmitters will
automatically turn on again within 10 seconds after the link is re-established. To maintain a complete link
while measuring the power levels, it is necessary to use a fiber optic splitter to tap off a small amount of
light from an operating link. This measurement can be used to determine the power levels in the link
according to the following procedures.
Because some coupling links use OFC laser safety control, it is not possible to measure the fiber loss
using the MAPs. All link problem determination and link verification for these links must be performed
using the Fast Path method.
The coupling links use a different type of optical connector than the ESCON links. The SC duplex
connector should be held by the sides of the connector body when plugging so that the fibers on the
transmit and receive sides are not accidentally pushed together. The connector should plug with a
maximum force of about 5 lbs.; if plugging is difficult, move the connector slightly side to side, rather
than forcing it into the housing. The connector is keyed to allow insertion in only one orientation; note
the orientation of the keys when you remove the connector so that it will be easier to re-insert.
Note: Standard SC duplex products are available from many vendors; When using a non-IBM cable,
consult the customer’s specifications for insertion and withdrawal.
Measuring device transmitter and receiver levels
If you did not measure the transmitter and receiver levels of the device, as instructed by the device
maintenance publication, use the following procedure.
See Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71 for information about
using the Miniature Optical Power meter, P/N 25F9767.
This procedure must be performed before measuring the power levels on the channel.
76
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
1. Insert the optical wrap plug (part number 16G5609 for SC and 15R7536 for LC) into the optical
channel and perform any available hardware diagnostic tests. This will determine if the optical
transmitter and receiver card are functioning properly. This will not, however, determine if they are
operating within specification limits.
2. Run the wrap tests using the wrap test procedure in the maintenance information manual for the
device:
If the wrap test fails, replace the channel card using the instructions in the maintenance
information manual for the device. Then continue measuring the device transmitter and receiver
levels using the procedure in that manual.
If the wrap test completes successfully, insert the optical splitter tool (part number 54G3426).
Attach the splitter connector marked “DEVICE TO BE MEASURED” into the optical transceiver
and connect the rest of the test equipment (see Figure 77).
3. Measure the transmit-out power level of the device; it should be between -8.7 and -16.5 dBm.
Note: Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power
meter reading to obtain the actual optical power reading. This reading should be between -5.0 and
+1.3 dBm.
4. If the transmit-out level is out of specification limits, replace the channel card. using the instructions
in the maintenance information manual for the device. Then continue measuring the device
transmitter and receiver levels using the procedure in that manual.
5. If the transmitter power is within specification limits, connect the test equipment (see Figure 78 on
page 78).
6. Measure and record the receive-in power level.
Note: Do not replace the card on the basis of this measurement, even if the power meter continues to
read L0. A bad receiver light level may be caused by a fault in the fiber optic cable or in the
transmitter on the other end of the link.
7. If this is your first time through this procedure, repeat steps 1 through 6 for the device attached to the
other end of the link.
If this is your second time through this procedure, continue with “Measuring receive-in power for a
multi-mode coupling link.”
Multimode Splitter
PN 54G3426
A
Multimode SC Duplex Coupler
PN 54G3421
B
Device
B
A
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Multimode
Wrap Plug
PN 16G5609
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 77. Measuring device transmitter levels for a multi-mode coupling link
Measuring receive-in power for a multi-mode coupling link
See Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71 for information about
using the Miniature Optical Power meter, P/N 25F9767.
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
77
Make sure the connectors are clean; then assemble the test equipment (using Figure 78) as follows:
1. Switch on the power meter, and allow approximately 5 minutes for warm-up.
Note: Some instruments have a power-on hold (POH) pushbutton to prevent automatic power-off.
2. Set the power meter to 850 nm.
3. Zero the power meter with darkened sensor.
4. Remove the SC duplex connector from the device whose receiver is to be measured. Attach the duplex
connector of the splitter (part number 54G3426) labeled “DEVICE TO BE MEASURED” to the open
end of the link, using the SC duplex coupler (part number 54G3421).
5. Attach the other, unmarked end of the splitter to the device. The splitter is now positioned to measure
the optical power coming from the other end of the link into the device receiver.
6. Attach the ST connector adapter (part number 02G6157) to the power meter, and insert the ST
connection from the splitter into the power meter.
7. Observe the power meter display. Be sure to wait at least 10 seconds after completing the connections
for the link to re-establish transmitting, and for the power meter reading to stabilize before taking a
reading. The power meter reading should be between - 8.7 dBm and - 26.5 dBm.
Notes:
a. Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power meter
reading to obtain the actual optical power reading. The receiver optical power should be between
-15.0 dBm and + 1.3 dBm, ± 0.5 dBm.
b. If the level is not within this range, the receiver is not getting enough light; either the transmitter
is bad or there is a fault in the cable connecting the transmitter and receiver. Continue with
“Measuring transmit-out power for a multi-mode coupling link.”
If the level is within this range and the receiver is not operating properly, the device receiver
optical port could be dirty, or the receiver could be defective. Clean the TRS and repeat the
measurement; if the level is still out of spec, then the receiver is defective; record the level
measured, and replace the card with the defective receiver.
8. Go to “Measuring transmit-out power for a multi-mode coupling link.”
Multimode Splitter
PN 54G3426
Multimode SC Duplex Coupler
PN 54G3421
A
A
A
B
B
A
B
B
Device
To
Coupling
Facilty
Channel
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Multimode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 78. Measuring receive-in power for a multi-mode coupling link
Measuring transmit-out power for a multi-mode coupling link
Note: The ST connector of the splitter (part number 54G3426) should remain connected to the power
meter.
78
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
See Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71 for information about
using the Miniature Optical Power meter, P/N 25F9767.
Assemble the test equipment (using Figure 79) as follows:
1. Remove the splitter from the device and the link.
2. Attach the splitter connector marked “DEVICE TO BE MEASURED” to the device, and attach the
unmarked splitter connector to the link using the SC duplex coupler (part number 54G3421). The
splitter is now positioned to measure the transmitter output power of the device.
3. Observe the power meter display. Be sure to wait at least 10 seconds after completing the connections
for the link to re-establish transmitting, and for the power meter reading to stabilize before taking a
reading. The power meter reading should be between - 8.7 dBm and - 16.5 dBm.
Notes:
a. Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power meter
reading to obtain the actual optical power reading. The transmitter optical power should be
between -5.0 dBm and + 1.3 dBm, ± 0.5 dBm.
b. If the level is within this range and the link is not operating properly, continue with the link
maintenance procedure.
If the level is not within this range, the device transmitter optical port could be dirty, or the
transmitter could be defective. Clean the transmitter port and repeat the measurement; if the level
is still out of range, the transmitter is defective; replace the card with the bad transmitter.
4. Remove the splitter from both the device and the link, and reconnect the link to the device.
5. Have you obtained the transmit and receive levels for both devices?
v If Yes, return to the Fast Path step that directed you here.
v If No, return to “Measuring receive-in power for a multi-mode coupling link” on page 77 and
repeat the procedure for the other device.
Note: The optical power meter reading taken with the splitter represents 10% of the true optical
power in the link (10 dB), minus some loss associated with the splitter tool. The combined loss is
marked on each splitter. To correct a power meter reading for the 10% power sampling, add the
value given on the splitter to the power meter reading.
This measurement procedure is accurate to within ±. 0.5 dB, because of variations in the splitter's
optical connectors.
Multimode Splitter
PN 54G3426
A
Multimode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3421
A
A
B
A
B
B
Device
To
Coupling
Facilty
Channel
B
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 79. Measuring transmit-out power for a multi-mode coupling link
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
79
Coupling links (InterSystem Channel - ISCs) single-mode power level
measurement procedures
Some coupling links use a different type of laser safety control than ESCON links, so they require a
different method for measuring transmit and receive power levels. Coupling links operating at 2 Gbit/s
(peer mode) do not require this procedure; the previous method for measuring single-mode links may
still be used in this case (see Appendix C, “Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels,” on page 71).
Other coupling links operating at 1 Gbit/s use a safety method called Open Fiber Control (OFC); the
transmitters on both ends of the link will only function if there is a complete fiber link between both
pairs of transmitters and receivers. If the link is opened at any point (such as unplugging a connector or
breaking a fiber) both transmitters automatically shut down as a safety measure. The transmitters will
automatically turn on again within 10 seconds after the link is re-established. To maintain a complete link
while measuring the power levels, it is necessary to use a fiber optic splitter to tap off a small amount of
light from an operating link. This measurement can be used to determine the power levels in the link
according to the following procedures.
Because some coupling links use OFC laser safety control, it is not possible to measure the fiber loss
using the MAPs. All link problem determination and link verification for these links must be performed
using the Fast Path method.
The coupling links use a different type of optical connector than the ESCON links. The SC duplex
connector should be held by the sides of the connector body when plugging so that the fibers on the
transmit and receive sides are not accidentally pushed together. The connector should plug with a
maximum force of about 5 lbs.; if plugging is difficult, move the connector slightly side to side, rather
than forcing it into the housing. The connector is keyed to allow insertion in only one orientation; note
the orientation of the keys when you remove the connector so that it will be easier to re-insert.
Note: Standard SC duplex products are available from many vendors; if you are using a non-IBM cable,
consult the vendor's specifications for insertion and withdrawal.
Measuring device transmitter and receiver levels
If you did not measure the transmitter and receiver levels of the device, as instructed by the device
maintenance publication, use the following procedure.
This procedure must be performed before measuring the power levels on the channel.
1. Insert the optical wrap plug (part number 78G9610 for SC and 15R7536 for LC) into the optical
channel and perform any available hardware diagnostic tests. This will determine if the optical
transmitter and receiver card are functioning properly. This will not, however, determine if they are
operating within specification limits.
2. Run the wrap tests using the wrap test procedure in the maintenance information manual for the
device:
v If the wrap test fails, replace the channel card using the instructions in the maintenance information
manual for the device. Then continue measuring the device transmitter and receiver levels using
the procedure in that manual.
v If the wrap test completes successfully, insert the optical splitter tool (part number 54G3427). Attach
the splitter connector marked “DEVICE TO BE MEASURED” into the optical transceiver and
connect the rest of the test equipment (see Figure 80 on page 81).
For ISC3, connect the LC to SC conversion kit, part number 05N4808, between the splitter and the
device (see Figure 81 on page 81).
3. Measure the transmit-out power level of the device.
80
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Note: Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power
meter reading to obtain the actual optical transmit-out power level. This reading should be between
-11.0 and -3.0 dBm.
4. If the transmit-out level is out of specification limits, replace the channel card. using the instructions
in the maintenance information manual for the device. Then continue measuring the device
transmitter and receiver levels using the procedure in that manual.
5. If the transmitter power is within specification limits, connect the test equipment (see Figure 83 on
page 83 or Figure 81).
6. Measure and record the receive-in power level.
Note: Do not replace the card based on this measurement, even if the power meter continues to read
L0. A bad receiver light level may be caused by a fault in the fiber optic cable or in the transmitter on
the other end of the link.
7. If this is your first time through this procedure, repeat steps 1 on page 80 through 6 for the device
attached to the other end of the link.
If this is your second time through this procedure, continue with “Measuring receive-in power for a
single-mode coupling link” on page 82.
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
Single-mode SC Duplex Coupler
PN 54G3430
B
A
A
B
Device
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Single-mode
Wrap Plug
PN 78G9610
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 80. Measuring device transmitter levels for a single-mode coupling link
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
Single-mode SC Duplex Coupler
PN 54G3430
B
A
A
B
Device
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Single-mode
Wrap Plug
PN 78G9610
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 81. Measuring device transmitter levels for an ISC3 operating at compatibility mode
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
81
Measuring receive-in power for a single-mode coupling link
Make sure the connectors are clean; then assemble the test equipment (using Figure 82 or Figure 83 on
page 83) as follows:
1. Switch on the power meter, and allow approximately 5 minutes for warm-up.
Note: Some instruments have a power-on hold (POH) pushbutton to prevent automatic power-off.
2. Set the power meter to 1300 nm.
3. Zero the power meter with darkened sensor.
4. Remove the SC duplex connector from the device whose receiver is to be measured. Attach the duplex
connector of the splitter (part number 54G3427) labeled “DEVICE TO BE MEASURED” to the open
end of the link, using the SC duplex coupler (part number 54G3430).
For ISC3, connect the LC to SC conversion kit, part number 05N4808, between the splitter and the
device (see Figure 83 on page 83).
5. Attach the other, unmarked end of the splitter to the device. The splitter is now positioned to measure
the optical power coming from the other end of the link into the device receiver.
6. Attach the ST connector adapter (part number 02G6157) to the power meter, and insert the ST
connection from the splitter into the power meter.
7. Observe the power meter display. Be sure to wait at least 10 seconds after completing the connections
for the link to re-establish transmitting, and for the power meter reading to stabilize before taking a
reading.
Notes:
a. Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power meter
reading to obtain the actual optical received-in power level. The receiver optical power should be
between - 20 dBm and -3 dBm , ± 0.5 dBm.
b. If the level is within this range and the receiver is not operating properly, the device receiver
optical port could be dirty, or the receiver could be defective.
8. Go to “Measuring transmit-out power for a single-mode coupling link” on page 83.
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
B
Single-mode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3430
A
B
B
A
A
B
Device
A
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Single-mode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
Figure 82. Measuring receive-in power for a single-mode coupling link (ISC Legacy)
82
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
To
Coupling
Facilty
Channel
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
Single-mode SC Duplex Coupler
PN 54G3430
A
B
A
A
B
Device
B
B
A
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
To
Coupling
Facilty
Channel
Single-mode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 83. Measuring receive-in power for an ISC3 operating at compatibility mode to ISC legacy link (ISC3 to ISC
legacy)
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
LC to LC
Coupler
(05N6766)
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
A
A
B
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
LC
A
A
B
B
Device
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
B
Single-mode Cable
to Coupling Facility
Channel
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 84. Measuring receive-in power for an ISC3 operating at compatibility mode (ISC3 to ISC3)
Measuring transmit-out power for a single-mode coupling link
Note: The ST connector of the splitter (part number 54G3427) should remain connected to the power
meter.
Assemble the test equipment (using Figure 85 on page 84 or Figure 86 on page 84) as follows:
1. Remove the splitter from the device and the link.
2. Attach the splitter connector marked “DEVICE TO BE MEASURED” to the device, and attach the
unmarked splitter connector to the link using the SC duplex coupler (part number 54G3421). For ISC3,
connect the LC to SC conversion kit, part number 05N4808, between the splitter and the device (see
Figure 86 on page 84). The splitter is now positioned to measure the transmitter output power of the
device.
3. Observe the power meter display. Be sure to wait at least 10 seconds after completing the connections
for the link to re-establish transmitting, and for the power meter reading to stabilize before taking a
reading.
Notes:
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
83
a. Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power meter
reading to obtain the actual optical received-in power level. The transmitter optical power should
be between -11.0 dBm and - 3.0 dBm, ± 0.5 dBm.
b. If the level is within this range and the link is not operating properly, continue with the link
maintenance procedure.
If the level is not within this range, the device transmitter optical port could be dirty, or the
transmitter could be defective. Clean the transmitter port and repeat the measurement; if the level
is still out of range, the transmitter is defective; replace the card with the bad transmitter.
4. Remove the splitter from both the device and the link, and reconnect the link to the device.
5. Have you obtained the transmit and receive levels for both devices?
v If Yes, return to the Fast Path step that directed you here.
v If No, return to Figure 82 on page 82 or Figure 83 on page 83 and repeat the procedure for the other
device.
Note: The optical power meter reading taken with the splitter represents a percentage of the true
optical power in the link, minus some loss associated with the splitter tool. The combined loss is
marked on each splitter. To obtain the actual transmit-out power level, add the value given on the
splitter to the power meter reading.
This measurement procedure is accurate to within ± 0.5 dB, because of variations in the splitter's
optical connectors.
Single-mode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3430
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
B
A
B
A
B
A
A
B
Device
To
Coupling
Facilty
Channel
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Single-mode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
Figure 85. Measuring transmit-out power for a single-mode coupling link
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
Single-mode SC Duplex Coupler
PN 54G3430
B
A
A
A
B
Device
To
Coupling
Facilty
Channel
B
A
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
B
Single-mode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 86. Measuring transmit-out power for an ISC3 operating at compatibility mode to ISC legacy link (ISC3 to ISC
legacy)
84
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
LC to LC
Coupler
(05N6766)
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
B
B
A
LC to SC Conversion Kit
(05N4808)
LC
A
A
A
B
Device
B
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Single-mode Cable
to Coupling Facility
Channel
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
Figure 87. Measuring transmit-out power for an ISC3 operating at compatibility mode for an ISC3 compatibility link
(ISC3 to ISC3)
Isolating link segments using the splitter tool
Coupling facility links operating at 2 Gbit/s (peer mode) do not use Open Fiber Control (OFC). Coupling
facility links operating at 1 Gbit/s (compatibility mode) use the laser safety method known as Open Fiber
Control (OFC). The transmitters on both ends of the link only function if there is a complete fiber link
between both pairs of transmitters and receivers. If the link is opened at any point (such as unplugging a
connector or breaking a fiber), both transmitters automatically shut down, as a safety measure. The
transmitters will automatically come on within 10 seconds after the link is re-established. To isolate a
segment of the link, it is necessary to use a fiber optic splitter to tap off a small amount of light from an
operating link.
Figure 88 (multi-mode link) and Figure 89 on page 86 (single-mode link) show how to assemble the test
equipment. Within 10 seconds after the link is assembled with the test equipment shown, the laser comes
on and the power meter shows the light levels within the link.
Multimode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3421
Multimode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3421
A
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
B
B
Device
Multimode Splitter
PN 54G3426
Multimode Cable
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Device
Multimode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
Figure 88. Isolating a link segment using the multi-mode splitter
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
85
Single-mode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3430
Single-mode Splitter
PN 54G3427
Single-mode Dup/Dup Coupler
PN 54G3430
A
A
B
A
B
B
A
B
A
A
B
B
Device
Single-mode Cable
ST Adapter
PN 02G6157
Device
Single-mode Cable
Power
Meter
12G8814
Figure 89. Isolating a link segment using the single-mode splitter
ETR link multi-mode power level measurement procedures
Some ETR cards require the receive-in signal (timing and pulses) from the 9037 Sysplex Timer to be
connected for the transmit-out power to be at the correct level. If the receive-in signal is disconnected
during the measurement, the transmit-out number may be significantly lower than it is during normal
operation. This is true for z990 and later server ETR cards.
Be sure that you have measured the Receive-In power level using the instructions in “Measuring
receive-in power” on page 71 prior to this Transmit-Out measurement. If the Receive-In power level does
not meet specification, the Transmit-Out measurement can be incorrect on a functional ETR card.
To make the transmit-out power meter reading on those cards, you must ensure that the transceiver on
the ETR card continues to receive light. The ETR card generally connects to the ETR channel via an
MT-RJ-to-ESCON duplex adapter cable (Figure 28 on page 11). If this is not the case, you must use the
appropriate adapters to make sure the receive-in signal is connected to the ETR card transceiver during
the transmit-out power level measurement.
Measuring transmit-out power for an ETR link
Make sure the connectors are clean. Then assemble the test equipment (using Figure 90 on page 87) as
follows:
1. Switch on the power meter, and allow approximately 5 minutes for warm-up.
Note: Some instruments have a power-on hold (POH) pushbutton to prevent automatic power-off.
2. Set the power meter to 1300 nm.
3. Zero the power meter with darkened sensor.
4. The ESCON duplex connector has two ST simplex connectors. Disconnect the transmit side ST
connector only.
Note: Ensure that you have disconnected the transmit side by checking the Loss of Light LED on the
card.
5. Connect the transmit side ST connector to the power meter using Figure 90 on page 87.
6. Observe the power meter display. Be sure to wait at least 10 seconds after completing the connections
for the transmit-out power level to stabilize and for the power meter reading to stabilize before taking
a reading.
Notes:
86
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
a. Each optical splitter is labeled with the total splitter loss in dB. Add this value to the power meter
reading to obtain the actual optical received-in power level. this level should be between -20.5
dBm and -15.0 dBm, ±0.5
b. If the level is within this range and the link is not operating properly, continue with the link
maintenance procedure.
c. If the level is not within this range, the device transmitter optical port could be dirty, or the
transmitter could be defective. Clean the transmitter port and repeat the measurement. If the level
is still out of range, the transmitter is defective and you must replace the card with the bad
transmitter.
7. Disconnect the ST connector from the power meter and reconnect it to the ESCON Duplex connector.
8. Have you obtained the transmit and receive levels for both devices?
v If Yes, return to the Fast Path step that directed you here.
v If No, use the device inFigure 70 on page 73 for the ETR card receive level and refer to Maintenance
Information for the 9037 Model 002 Sysplex Timer, SY27-2641, to measure the 9037 Sysplex Timer
device.
Transmit ST Connector
ST
Power
Meter
12G8814
or
25F9767
MT-RJ
Device
ST
Figure 90. Measuring transmit-out power for an ETR link
Appendix C. Measuring Device Transmit and Receive Levels
87
88
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Appendix D. Measurement Conversion Tables
English-to-metric conversion table
English value
Multiplied by Equals metric value
Fahrenheit
(°F -32) x 0.556 Celsius
Inches
2.54 Centimeters (cm)
Inches
25.4 Millimeters (mm)
Feet
0.305 Meters (m)
Miles
1.61 Kilometers (km)
Pounds
0.45 Kilograms (kg)
Pounds
4.45 Newtons (N)
Metric-to-english conversion table
English value
Multiplied by Equals metric value
Celsius
(°C x 1.8) + 32 Fahrenheit
Centimeters (cm)
0.39 Inches
Millimeters (mm)
0.039 Inches
Meters (m)
Kilometers (km)
Kilograms (kg)
Newtons (N)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
3.28 Feet
0.621 Miles
2.20 Pounds
0.225 Pounds
89
90
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Appendix E. Work Sheets
The work sheets in this appendix may be copied and should be kept as a permanent account record.
Device 1
Device 2
Customer Name
Date
Type
Serial
Port
Type
Serial
Port
A1
B1
Fiber 1
A2
Jumper
B2
Fiber 2
P0
dBm
Fiber 1
Fiber 2
P1
Reference Level
dBm
L
Maximum Link Loss
dB
P1
L
Reference Level
dBm
Maximum Link Loss
dB
(-)
F1
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A1
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
(-)
dBm
F2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A2
dBm
91
Cable Administration Work Sheet
Strain Relief
Used? (Y/N)
Length (meter or ft)
Loss (dB or dB/km) and
Bandwidth (Mhz km)
Specifications
Modified? If yes,
Loss Measurement
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
Connector Types
1
Jumper Cable Information
Vendor
Product
Information
Machine Type
Ser #
Port #
Stack Storage?
(Y/N)
From Label
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
M/T Serial
Path ID/Segment ID
To Label
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
Installer
Length (km or ft)
Attenuation Specification
(dB/km) or Loss
Measurement (dB)
2
Trunk Information
Cable Manufacturer
and Fiber Core Size
( lm)
Bandwidth
Specifications
(Mhz km)
# of Splices
and Type
Connector
Type(s) and Panel(s)
OTDR Print?
If Yes, ID
From Panel ID
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
Path ID and
Segment ID
To Panel ID
Fiber 1/Fiber 2
End-End Link
Verification Loss (dB)
Loss
Measurement
Date Tested
3
4
Service
Comments
5
Figure 91. Example of a cable administration work sheet
Table 7. Jumper cable power levels
Link/fiber type
Cable length in meters (Ft.)
Level at ▌C1▐ /▌D2▐
Level at▌C2▐/▌D1▐
ESCON, ATM, FDDI, FICON, and GbE
Multi-mode
4 to 73 (12 to 240)
-22.0 dBm
-29.0 dBm
Multi-mode
74 to 146 (243 to 479)
-22.1 dBm
-28.9 dBm
92
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Table 7. Jumper cable power levels (continued)
Link/fiber type
Cable length in meters (Ft.)
Level at ▌C1▐ /▌D2▐
Level at▌C2▐/▌D1▐
Multi-mode
147 to 219 (482 to 719)
-22.2 dBm
-28.8 dBm
Multi-mode
220 to 292 (722 to 958)
-22.4 dBm
-28.6 dBm
Multi-mode
293 to 365 (961 to 1198)
-22.5 dBm
-28.5 dBm
Multi-mode
366 to 438 (1201 to 1437)
-22.6 dBm
-28.4 dBm
Multi-mode
439 to 500 (1440 to 1640)
-22.7 dBm
-28.3 dBm
Coupling link, FICON SX, GbE SX
Multi-mode
7 (21)
-6.0 dBm
-15.0 dBm
Multi-mode
13 (33)
-6.1 dBm
-14.9 dBm
Multi-mode
22 (66)
-6.2 dBm
-14.8 dBm
Multi-mode
31 (93)
-6.3 dBm
-14.7 dBm
Multi-mode
46 (138)
-6.4 dBm
-14.6 dBm
Multi-mode
61 (183)
-6.5 dBm
-14.5 dBm
ESCON, ATM, FICON LX, GbE LX, Coupling Facility
Single-mode
7 (21)
-11.0 dBm
-20.0 dBm
Single-mode
13 (33)
-11.1 dBm
-19.9 dBm
Single-mode
22 (66)
-11.2 dBm
-19.8 dBm
Single-mode
31 (93)
-11.3 dBm
-19.7 dBm
Single-mode
46 (138)
-11.4 dBm
-19.6 dBm
Single-mode
61 (183)
-11.5 dBm
-19.5 dBm
Note: ESCON channels using the FICON connector may use FICON cables with the values described above.
Appendix E. Work Sheets
93
MAP work sheet: link configuration 1
Device 1
Device 2
Customer Name
Date
Type
Serial
Port
Type
Serial
Port
A1
B1
Fiber 1
A2
Jumper
B2
Fiber 2
P0
dBm
Fiber 1
Fiber 2
P1
Reference Level
dBm
L
Maximum Link Loss
dB
P1
L
Reference Level
dBm
Maximum Link Loss
dB
(-)
F1
94
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A1
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
(-)
dBm
F2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A2
dBm
MAP work sheet: link configuration 2
Device 1
Device 2
Customer Name
Date
Type
Serial
Port
B1
Type
Serial
Port
C1
Fiber 1
Jumper 1
A2
A1
D1
Distribution
Panel
D2
C2
Jumper 2
B2
Fiber 2
P0
dBm
Fiber 1
Fiber 2
P1
Reference Level
dBm
L
Maximum Link Loss
dB
P1
L
Reference Level
dBm
Maximum Link Loss
dB
(-)
(-)
F1
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A1
dBm
F2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A2
dBm
P1
Reference Level
dBm
P1
Reference Level
dBm
L
Maximum Link Loss
dB
Maximum Link Loss
dB
L
(-)
F1
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A1
(-)
dBm
F2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A2
dBm
Appendix E. Work Sheets
95
MAP work sheet: link configuration 3
Device 1
Device 2
Customer Name
Date
Type
Serial
Port
Type
Serial
Port
Distribution
Panel 1
B1
Distribution
Panel 2
C1
A1
D1
Fiber 1
Jumper 1
A2
C2
Trunk
Jumper 2
D2
B2
Fiber 2
P0
dBm
Fiber 1
Fiber 2
P1
Reference Level
dBm
L
Maximum Link Loss
dB
P1
L
Reference Level
dBm
Maximum Link Loss
dB
(-)
(-)
F1
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A1
dBm
F2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A2
dBm
Px
Reference Level
dBm
Px
Reference Level
dBm
J1
Maximum Link Loss
dB
J2
Maximum Link Loss
dB
(-)
(-)
G1
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at C1
dBm
G2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at D2
dBm
Py
Reference Level
dBm
Py
Reference Level
dBm
J2
Maximum Link Loss
dB
J1
Maximum Link Loss
dB
(-)
H1
96
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A1
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
(-)
dBm
H2
Maximum Acceptable
Receive Level at A2
dBm
Fast path work sheet: all link configurations
Device 1
Device 2
Customer Name
Date
Type
Serial
Port
Type
Serial
Port
Distribution
Panel 1
B1
Distribution
Panel 2
C1
A1
D1
Fiber 1
Jumper 1
A2
Trunk
C2
Jumper 2
D2
B2
Fiber 2
dBm
C1
dBm
C2
dBm
D1
dBm
D2
B1
Device 1 Transmit Level
dBm
B2
Device 2 Transmit Level
dBm
A1
Device 2 Receive Level
dB
A2
Device 1 Receive Level
dB
(-)
(-)
dBm
Fiber 1 Link Loss
dBm
Fiber 2 Link Loss
Table 8. Maximum link loss when using the device as a transmitter
Fiber type
Maximum loss
Maximum length
Trunk size
Multi-mode (1300 nm)
8 dB
2.0 km (1.24 miles)
62.5 µm
Multi-mode (1300 nm)
8 dB
2.0 km (1.24 miles)
50.0 µm
Multi-mode (1300 nm)
8 dB
3.0 km (1.86 miles)
62.5 µm
multi-mode (850 nm)
8 dB
1.0 km (0.62 miles)
50.0 µm
Single-mode (1270 - 1340 nm)
14.0 dB
20 km (12.4 miles)
9 to 10 µm
Single-mode Coupling link (1270 - 1355
nm)
7.0 dB
3.0 km (1.86 miles)
9 to 10 µm
multi-mode (850 nm)
6.0 dB
550 meter (0.31 miles)
50 µm or 62.5 µm
Multi-mode calculated link loss work sheet
A. Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
Connection loss multiplied by the number of
connections in the link:
________- µm-to-________- µm connection:
________- µm-to-________- µm connection:
________ dB
________ dB
x
x
________
________
=
=
________ dB
________ dB
Appendix E. Work Sheets
97
A. Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
Splice loss multiplied by total number of
splices in the link:
Jumper cable loss multiplied by the
combined length of the jumper cables:
Trunk loss per kilometer multiplied by the
total trunk length (in km):
________ dB
x
________
=
________ dB
________ dB/km
x
________ km
=
________ dB
________ dB/km
x
________ km
=
________ dB
(For FDDI only, add 2.0 dB system loss to this value.)
Total component mean
loss
(+) __________
________ dB
B. Calculating the multi-mode component variance loss
Connection variance multiplied by the
number of connections in the link:
________- µm-to-________- µm
________- µm-to-________- µm connection:
Splice variance multiplied by total number
of splices in the link:
Jumper cable loss multiplied by the
combined length of the jumper cables:
________ dB2
________ dB2
________ dB2
x
x
x
________
________
________
=
=
=
________ dB2
________ dB2
________ dB2
________ dB/km
x
________ km
=
________ dB2
(For FDDI only, add 0.04 dB2 system loss to this value.)
(+) __________
________ dB2
Total component
variance loss
C. Calculating the total multi-mode link loss
Total component mean loss:
Square root of total component variance loss
multiplied by 3:
=
________ dB x 3
=
________ dB
=
________ dB
p_________ dB
2
High order mode loss (ESCON only):
=
50.0-µm trunk = 1.5 dB
62.5-µm trunk = 1.0 dB
Note: Maximum allowable link loss for different type links is given in Calculated link loss
Table A-1 on page A-2.
________ dB
(+) __________
________ dB
Single-mode calculated link loss work sheet
A. Calculating the single-mode component mean loss
Connection loss multiplied by the number of ________ dB
connections in the link:
Splice loss multiplied by total number of
________ dB
splices in the link:
Jumper cable loss multiplied by the
________ dB/km
combined length of the jumper cables:
98
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
x
________
=
________ dB
x
________
=
________ dB
x
________ km
=
________ dB
A. Calculating the single-mode component mean loss
Trunk loss per kilometer multiplied by the
total trunk length (in km):
________ dB/km
x
________ km
=
Total component mean
loss
________ dB
(+) __________
________ dB
B. Calculating the single-mode component variance loss
Connection variance multiplied by the
number of connections in the link:
Splice variance multiplied by total number
of splices in the link:
________ dB2
x
________
=
________ dB2
________ dB2
x
________
=
________ dB2
(+) __________
________ dB2
Total component
variance loss
C. Calculating the total single-mode link loss
Total component mean loss:
Square root of total component variance loss
multiplied by 3:
=
p
______+0.05 dB
________ dB x 3
=
________ dB
=
________ dB
=
0.50 dB
2
Jumper assembly loss plus excess connector
loss:
Calculated link loss
(+) __________
________ dB
Calculating the loss in a multi-mode link
This chapter describes how to calculate the maximum allowable loss for an fiber optic link that uses
multi-mode components. It shows an example of a multi-mode ESCON link and includes a completed
work sheet that uses values based on the link example. The same procedures may be used to calculate
the link loss for a coupling link, ATM, FDDI, FICON, or GbE link. Note that the jumper and trunk losses
for a multi-mode coupling link will be larger than for a multi-mode ESCON link of the same length. This
is because all ESCON, ATM, FDDI, FICON, and GbE links operate at 1300 nm wavelength, while
multi-mode coupling links operate at 780 nm, and the fiber loss is greater at 780 nm. Be sure to use the
fiber loss corresponding to the proper wavelength for multi-mode links; refer to the ESCON and coupling
link physical layer documents for more information.
Each link has a loss (attenuation) whose value depends on the loss induced by each cable, connector, and
splice. This value, when calculated, cannot be greater than the maximum link loss (see Table 4 on page
65).
Use the following explanation and refer to the configuration example (Figure 92 on page 102) and the
work sheet example (Table 9 on page 102). Although actual values should be used if possible, this
example uses the typical loss values shown in Table 5 on page 67.
Completing a loss work sheet for a multi-mode link
Use Section A of the Link Loss Work Sheet to calculate the total component mean loss, Section B to
calculate the component variance loss, and Section C to calculate the total link loss.
Appendix E. Work Sheets
99
Dispersion
Dispersion in an optical system is the spreading of information pulses over the fiber with distance. The
maximum distance at which the incoming signal pulses are still separated well enough for correct
detection is the point at which the link becomes dispersion limited. Fibers are available from vendors in
different sizes and characteristics. Dispersion is not a factor for 62.5/125-µm fiber with a modal
bandwidth of 500 MHzvkm for distances up to 2 km. Dispersion can become a consideration for other
fiber sizes as distances approach the FDDI 2-km maximum. Most FDDI products have been designed to
meet the FDDI maximum specification for 62.5/125-µm fiber. For greater distances or for fiber that does
not meet the FDDI specification, contact the device manufacturer.
Dispersion is not a limiting factor for ESCON, GbE, ATM, or FICON links.
Link limitations
FDDI multi-mode link
The following link conditions should be met, on a FDDI link, when using the work sheets provided:
v If 50-µm jumper cables are used in the design, all link segments of the design should use only 50-µm
fiber.
v A connection from 100- to 50-µm fiber is not supported, because of excessive attenuation.
v A connection from 62.5- to either 50- or 100-µm fiber and subsequently back to 62.5-µm fiber should be
made only once within the link.
v Splices should be made only to fibers with the same core diameters.
ESCON, GbE, ATM, or FICON link
An ESCON, GbE, ATM, or FICON link should use either single-mode or multi-mode fiber throughout
and not convert from one fiber type to another. Although the ANSI FICON does not include the use of
long wavelength (1300 nm) lasers in multi-mode fiber, IBM will support 50.0 µm and 62.5 µm multi-mode
fiber as well as 4.0 µm single-mode fiber as specified in Refer to the Fiber Channel Connection (FICON I/O
Interface Physical Layer, SA24-7172.
Loss calculation
Each link has a specific calculated loss value that depends on the loss induced by each cable, connector,
and splice. This calculated value combined with other parameters cannot be greater than the maximum
link loss. Maximum link loss specifications are given in Table 4 on page 65.
Section A: Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
The fiber cable manufacturer should provide either the component mean (average) loss or worst-case
specification data. If the mean value is not available, use the worst-case specification data to complete
Section A. If the manufacturer's data is not available, use the typical component loss values from Table 5
on page 67.
Connections: Multiply the average connection loss value by the total number of connections in the link.
Connections to coupling link-capable, FICON-capable, or ESCON-capable devices are included in the
device specification and should not be included in the connection calculation.
Note: A link consisting of one IBM duplex-to-duplex jumper cable is considered to have no connections
when calculating the link loss.
Splice Loss: Multiply the splice loss value by the total number of link splices. If the link has both
mechanical and fusion splices, calculate the losses separately, then enter the total on the work sheet.
Jumper Cable Loss: Multiply the combined length of the jumper cables in kilometers by the jumper cable
loss per kilometer.
100
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Trunk Cable Loss: Multiply the total length of the trunk cable in kilometers by the cable loss per
kilometer.
Section B: Calculating the multi-mode component variance loss
The fiber cable manufacturer should provide the values used to determine variance loss. This loss,
attributable to manufacturing tolerances or installation methods (or both), is induced by connections and
splices.
v If the manufacturer’s data is not available, use the typical component loss values from Table 5 on page
67.
v If the manufacturer has provided only worst-case specification data, it includes the variance loss. Enter
a value of zero on the work sheet for the Total Component Variance Loss.
v If the manufacturer provides a standard deviation (σ) value, use the square of this value to determine
the component variance loss. For example, if σ equals 0.24, then enter a value of 0.06 (0.24 squared) on
the worksheet for the Total Component Variance Loss.
Connections: Multiply the connection variance value by the total number of connections in the link.
Connections to ESCON-capable devices are included in the device specification and should not be
included in the connection calculation.
Splice Variance: Multiply the splice variance value by the total number of splices in the link.
v For FDDI links only, include the system variance of 0.04 dB2.
Section C: Calculating the total multi-mode link loss
The total calculated link loss includes the following values:
v All calculated component mean losses.
v Three times the square root of the sum of the calculated component variances.
v The higher-order mode loss. This loss, induced by the connectors and the first few hundred meters of
each link, is assigned a constant value, depending on the trunk fiber size. This loss should only be
included for an ESCON link.
– For 50.0-µm trunk fiber, use 1.5 dB.
– For 62.5-µm trunk fiber, use 1.0 dB.
v The FDDI system loss, for FDDI links only; this value is 2.0 dB and includes extinction ratio penalty,
higher order mode losses and retiming penalty for an FDDI link.
Loss calculation example for a multi-mode ESCON link
Figure 92 on page 102 shows a link example consisting of:
v Jumper Cable 1 (IBM duplex-to-duplex, multi-mode, 13 meters).
v
Jumper Cable 2 (IBM duplex-to-duplex, multi-mode, 77 meters)
(combined jumper cable length = 90 meters or 0.09 km).
v 1.5 km of 50-µm trunk cable (bandwidth = 800 MHzvkm).
v One 62.5-µm-to-50.0-µm physical-contact connection (in each fiber).
v One 50.0-µm-to-62.5-µm physical-contact connection (in each fiber).
v Six 50-µm mechanical splices (in each fiber).
v Trunk cable connectors are ST (physical contact).
Note: The example of a completed Calculated Link Loss Work Sheet (Table 9 on page 102) uses Table 5
on page 67, which lists typical values for currently used components. Use Table 5 on page 67only if the
Appendix E. Work Sheets
101
manufacturer’s specifications are not available.
Figure 92. Example of a multi-mode ESCON link
Table 9. Example of a completed calculated link loss work sheet for a multi-mode link. This example was completed
for an ESCON link.
A. Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
Connection loss multiplied by the number of
connections in the link:
__62.5___- µm-to-__50.0__- µm connection:
__50.0___- µm-to-__62.5__- µm connection:
________- µm-to-________- µm connection:
Splice loss multiplied by total number of
splices in the link:
Jumper cable loss multiplied by the
combined length of the jumper cables:
Trunk loss per kilometer multiplied by the
total trunk length (in km):
__2.10__ dB
___0____ dB
________ dB
__0.15__ dB
x
x
x
x
___1___
___1____
________
___6____
=
=
=
=
__2.10__ dB
___0____ dB
________ dB
__0.90__ dB
__1.75__ dB/km
x
__0.09__ km
=
__0.16__ dB
__0.90__ dB/km
x
__1.5___ km
=
__1.35__ dB
(For FDDI only, add 2.0 dB system loss to this value.)
B. Calculating the multi-mode component variance loss
102
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Total component mean
loss
(+) __________
__4.51__ dB
Table 9. Example of a completed calculated link loss work sheet for a multi-mode link. This example was completed
for an ESCON link. (continued)
A. Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
Connection variance multiplied by the
number of connections in the link:
__62.5__- µm-to-__50.0__- µm
__50.0__- µm-to-__62.5__- µm connection:
________- µm-to-_______- µm connection:
Splice variance multiplied by total number
of splices in the link:
__0.12__ dB2
__0.01__ dB2
_______ dB2
__0.01__ dB2
x
x
x
x
(For FDDI only, add 0.04 dB2 system loss to this value.)
____1___
____1___
________
____6___
=
=
=
=
__0.12__ dB2
__0.01__ dB2
_______ dB2
__0.06__ dB2
(+) __________
__0.19__ dB2
Total component
variance loss
C. Calculating the total multi-mode link loss
Total component mean loss:
Square root of total component variance loss
multiplied by 3:
=
p__0.19___ dB
__0.44__ dB x 3
=
__4.51__ dB
=
__1.32__ dB
2
High order mode loss (ESCON only):
=
50.0-µm trunk = 1.5 dB
62.5-µm trunk = 1.0 dB
Note: Maximum allowable link loss for different type links is given in Calculated link loss
Table A-1 on page A-2.
___1.5__ dB
(+) __________
__7.3___ dB
Loss calculation for an FDDI multi-mode link
Figure 93 on page 104 shows a link example consisting of:
v Jumper Cable 1: IBM FDDI-to-IBM FDDI, physical contact, 62.5 µm, 12 m.
v Jumper Cable 2: ST-to-ST, physical contact, 62.5 µm, 12 m.
v Jumper Cable 3: IBM FDDI-to-IBM FDDI, physical contact, 62.5 µm, 12 m.
v 2.0 km of 62.5-µm trunk cable
– The first trunk segment is 100 m.
– The second trunk segment is 1.9 km.
v Seven 62.5 µm mechanical splices
– Two splices are included to allow for possible future repair.
– Five splices are already in the fiber.
v Trunk cable connectors are ST (physical contact).
Appendix E. Work Sheets
103
Distribution
Panel
FDDI Jumper 1
FDDI-to-ST
Adapter
Device
1
ST Connectors
Distribution Panel
ST Couplers
Splice
Repair
Splice
Trunk
Cable
Repair
Splice
Splice
Splice
Splice
ST-to-ST Jumper Cable 2
Trunk
Cable
Splice
Distribution
Panel
FDDI Jumper 3
ST Connectors
Device
2
FDDI-to-ST
Adapter
Figure 93. Typical FDDI link and components
Note: The example of a completed Calculated Link Loss Work Sheet (Table 10) uses Table 5 on page 67,
which lists typical values for currently used components.
Table 10. Example of a completed calculated link loss work sheet for an FDDI link
A. Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
Connection loss multiplied by the number of
connections in the link:
__62.5___- µm-to-__62.5__- µm connection:
_________- µm-to-_______- µm connection:
Splice loss multiplied by total number of
splices in the link:
Jumper cable loss multiplied by the
combined length of the jumper cables:
Trunk loss per kilometer multiplied by the
total trunk length (in km):
__0.4___ dB
________ dB
__0.15__ dB
x
x
x
___4___
________
___7____
=
=
=
__1.6___ dB
________ dB
__1.05__ dB
__1.75__ dB/km
x
__0.036__ km
=
__0.06__ dB
__1.0___ dB/km
x
__2.0___ km
=
__2.0___ dB
(For FDDI only, add 2.0 dB system loss to this value.)
B. Calculating the multi-mode component variance loss
104
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Total component mean
loss
(+) __________
__4.71__ dB
Table 10. Example of a completed calculated link loss work sheet for an FDDI link (continued)
A. Calculating the multi-mode component mean loss
Connection variance multiplied by the
number of connections in the link:
__62.5__- µm-to-__50.0__- µm
________- µm-to-_______- µm connection:
Splice variance multiplied by total number
of splices in the link:
__0.02__ dB2
________ dB2
__0.01__ dB2
x
x
x
(For FDDI only, add 0.04 dB2 system loss to this value.)
____4___
________
____7___
=
=
=
__0.08__ dB2
_______ dB2
__0.07__ dB2
(+) __________
__0.15__ dB2
Total component
variance loss
C. Calculating the total FDDI multi-mode link loss
System loss (2.0 dB):
Total component mean loss:
Square root of total component variance loss
plus system variance loss (0.04 dB)
multiplied by 3:
=
__0.436__ dB x 3
=
=
2.0 dB2
__4.71__ dB
=
__1.31__ dB
p_0.15+0.04_ dB
2
Note: Maximum allowable link loss for different type links is given in Calculated link loss
Table A-1 on page A-2.
(+) __________
__8.02__ dB
Calculating the loss in a single-mode link
This chapter describes how to calculate the maximum allowable loss for an ESCON link that uses
single-mode components. It shows an example of a single-mode ESCON link and includes a completed
work sheet that uses values based on the link example. The same procedure can be used to calculate the
loss for a single-mode coupling link.
Each link has a loss (attenuation) whose value depends on the loss induced by each cable, connector, and
splice. This value, when calculated, cannot be greater than the maximum link loss (see Table 4 on page
65).
Use the following explanation and refer to the configuration example (Table 10 on page 104) and the
work sheet example (Table 11 on page 107). Although actual values should be used if possible, this
example uses the typical loss values shown in Table 5 on page 67.
Completing a loss work sheet for a single-mode link
Use Section A of the Link Loss Work Sheet to calculate the total component mean loss, Section B to
calculate the component variance loss, and Section C to calculate the total link loss.
Section A: Calculating the single-mode component mean loss
The fiber cable manufacturer should provide either the component mean (average) loss or worst-case
specification data. If the mean value is not available, use the worst-case specification data to complete
Section A. If the manufacturer's data is not available, use the typical component loss values from Table 5
on page 67.
Appendix E. Work Sheets
105
Connections: Multiply the average connection loss value by the total number of connections in the link.
Connections to coupling link-capable or ESCON-capable devices are included in the device specification
and should not be included in the connection calculation.
Notes:
1. A link consisting of one IBM duplex-to-duplex jumper cable is considered to have no connections
when calculating the link loss.
2. The ESCON XDF Adapter kit does not add connection loss to the link.
Splice Loss: Multiply the splice loss value by the total number of link splices. If the link has both
mechanical and fusion splices, calculate the losses separately, then enter the total on the work sheet.
Note: Because a single-mode link can be up to 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) and fiber cable is available in
reels of from 1 to 7 kilometers (0.62 to 4.35 miles), single-mode trunk cable could require “reel-to-reel”
splicing. If this loss is included in the trunk cable loss, do not include it in the splice loss calculation. If
not certain about whether to include this value, contact your marketing representative.
Jumper Cable Loss: Multiply the combined length of the jumper cables in kilometers by the jumper cable
loss per kilometer.
Trunk Cable Loss: Multiply the total length of the trunk cable in kilometers by the cable loss per
kilometer.
Section B: Calculating the single-mode component variance loss
The fiber cable manufacturer should provide the values used to determine variance loss. This loss,
attributable to manufacturing tolerances or installation methods (or both), is induced by connections and
splices.
v If the manufacturer’s data is not available, use the typical component variance loss values from Table 5
on page 67.
v If the manufacturer has provided only worst-case specification data, it includes the variance loss. Enter
a value of zero on the work sheet for the Total Component Variance Loss.
v If the manufacturer provides a standard deviation (σ) value, use the square of this value to determine
the component variance loss. For example, if σ equals 0.24, then enter a value of 0.06 (0.24 squared) on
the worksheet for the Total Component Variance Loss.
Connections: Multiply the connection variance value by the total number of connections in the link.
Connections to coupling link-capable or ESCON-capable devices are included in the device specification
and should not be included in the connection calculation.
Note: The ESCON XDF Adapter kit does not add connection loss to the link.
Splice Variance: Multiply the splice variance value by the total number of splices in the link.
Section C: Calculating the total single-mode link loss
The total calculated link loss includes the following values:
v All calculated component mean losses.
v Three times the square root of the sum of the calculated component variances plus the jumper
assembly variance loss (0.05 dB)
v The jumper assembly loss and the excess connector loss. For a 9-µm trunk cable, these values are:
– Jumper assembly loss = 0.3 dB
– Excess connector loss = 0.2 dB.
106
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Loss calculation example for a single-mode link
Figure 94 shows a link example consisting of:
v Jumper Cable 1 (IBM duplex-to-duplex, single-mode, 92 meters).
v Jumper Cable 2 (IBM duplex-to-duplex, single-mode, 122 meters) (combined jumper cable length = 214
meters or 0.21 km).
v 19.76 km of 9-µm trunk cable.
v Two physical-contact ST connections (in each fiber).
v Two mechanical splices (in each fiber).
Note: The example of a completed Calculated Link Loss Work Sheet (Table 11) uses Table 5 on page 67,
which lists typical values for currently used components. Use Table 5 on page 67 only if the
manufacturer’s specifications are not available.
Figure 94. Example of a single-mode ESCON link
Table 11. Example of a completed calculated link loss work sheet for a single-mode link. This example was completed
for an ESCON link.
A. Calculating the single-mode component mean loss
Connection loss multiplied by the number of __0.35__ dB
connections in the link:
Splice loss multiplied by total number of
__0.15__ dB
splices in the link:
Jumper cable loss multiplied by the
__0.8___ dB/km
combined length of the jumper cables:
x
___2___
=
__0.706__ dB
x
___2____
=
__0.30___ dB
x
__0.21__ km
=
__0.17__ dB
Appendix E. Work Sheets
107
Table 11. Example of a completed calculated link loss work sheet for a single-mode link. This example was completed
for an ESCON link. (continued)
A. Calculating the single-mode component mean loss
Trunk loss per kilometer multiplied by the
total trunk length (in km):
__0.5___ dB/km
x
__19.76__ km
=
Total component mean
loss
__9.88__ dB
(+) __________
__11.05__ dB
B. Calculating the single-mode component variance loss
Connection variance multiplied by the
number of connections in the link:
Splice variance multiplied by total number
of splices in the link:
__0.06__
x
____2___
=
__0.12__ dB2
__0.01__ dB2
x
____2___
=
__0.02__ dB2
(+) __________
__0.14__ dB2
Total component
variance loss
C. Calculating the total single-mode link loss
Total component mean loss:
Square root of total component variance loss
plus system variance loss (0.04 dB)
multiplied by 3:
=
p_0.14_+0.05 dB
__0.436__ dB x 3
108
Calculated link loss
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
__11.05__ dB
=
__1.31__ dB
=
0.50 dB
2
Jumper assembly loss plus excess connector
loss:
.
=
(+) __________
__12.86__ dB
Appendix F. Fiber optic cleaning procedures
Introduction
With increasing speeds of optical connections, the cleanliness of the connections assumes greater
importance in ensuring maximum performance and error free transmission. Due to the tighter tolerances
associated with state of the art optics, levels of contamination that were acceptable at lower speeds may
not be at higher speeds. Most issues can be avoided by adhering to the following best practices
v When cables or connectors are not in use, use “clean” dust covers provided.
v Ensure that the cable length and type used is suitable for the speed and application.
v Clean optical connections and fiber prior to connection or reconnection.
v Ensure cables are properly seated within the connector.
Kits are commercially available for cleaning and inspecting these connections. IBM also offers services
that will ensure optimal condition of the network.
Fiber optic server interfaces include:
v Enterprise Systems Connection (ESCON)
v Fibre Connection (FICON)
v IntraSystem Coupling (ISC)
v OSA - Express (Gbe) Gigabit Ethernet
v External Time Reference (ETR)
v Host Channel Adapter LR 1x (HCA-O LR)
v Host Channel Adapter SR 12x (HCA-O SR)
v RoCE
v Integrated Coupling Adapter (ICA 24x)
Each requires connectivity planning for different fiber types and new fiber optic connectors. Similarly,
connectivity requirements for every I/O device must be known because their connectors may not be the
same as the connectors on a server, director, or switch. Fiber optic technology is evolving rapidly with
new standards, small form factor connectors, and enhanced fiber types. IBM offers a full range of services
for optical cabling.
Although there are a multitude of fiber optic connectors, the components of those connectors are virtually
the same: the ferrule (male), the end-surface, and the coupler (female). This publication contains the
cleaning procedures for those fiber optic components.
Terms associated with Fiber Optic cabling include:
1. Long wavelength laser (LX)
2. Short wavelength laser (SX)
3. Single Mode (SM)
4. Multimode (MM)
5. Mode Conditioning Patch cabling (MCP)
6. Fiber Optic SubAssembly (FOSA)
7. Fibre Channel Standard (FCS)
8. Multi-Fiber Push-on (MPO)
9. Transmitter Receiver Shell (TRS)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
109
10. Small Form Factor (SFF)
11. Small Form Pluggable (SFP)
12. Process Plug / Dust Cover
13. Dust Cap
Precautions
Please use the following precautions when handling fiber optic equipment:
v Make sure the cable cutouts in the floor tiles have the appropriate protective edging.
v Route the cables away from any sharp edges or projections that could cut the outer jacket.
v Do not route the cables near unprotected steam or refrigeration lines.
v Do not coil the cable to less than a 96.0 mm (3.78 in.) diameter.
v Do not bend the cable to less than a 50.8 mm (2.0 in.) radius.
v Do not pull cables into position; place them.
v Do not grasp the cable with pliers.
v Do not attach a pull rope or wire to the connectors.
v Always clean the connectors before installing, attaching, or replugging them to reduce link loss.
v Do not remove the protective plugs or protective covers until you are ready to clean the connectors
and attach the cables to a device.
v Always leave the protective plugs and protective covers on unused ports and cable connectors.
v Connect the cable carefully to prevent damage to the connector housing or the fiber optic ferrules.
v Before inserting the connector, make sure the connector and receptacle keying are aligned.
Materials required
The following fiber optic cleaning materials are available through the IBM Tools Catalog
http://pokgsa.ibm.com/~tstesc/public/ , or are part of the ship group.
Item
IBM part number
Alcohol pads
59P4739
|
Cleaning kit
45P5948
LC Port Cleaning Tool
54Y4392
| MPT/MPO Fiber Optic Trunk Connector Cleaner
|
43W3044
Air Pump (Ship Group)
45D2645
| Fiber Optic Cleaning Wipes
|
45P5945
| Fiber Scope
|
00P7031 or equivalent
Note: Included in the Cleaning Kit are 18 lint free cloths, 10 Microswabs, and 10 foam swabs.
General cleaning procedures
Before performing any of the following procedures, read the statements in “Safety” on page v.
110
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
v End-faces on fiber optic connectors must be free of dust and other debris which could interfere with
signal quality.
v To facilitate cleaning, refer to “Materials Required” for the tool recommended for the application.
v Compressed gas (ref CO2), filtered dry air or Air pump 45D2645 may be used to remove dust.
Compressed air is not recommended due to possible oil contamination.
Note: If air is used, keep the air nozzle approximately 50 millimeters (2 inches) from the component
and continue blowing into the component for 5 seconds.
v Dust caps applied over the connector end-face should always be used on unplugged connectors.
v The ONLY acceptable solution for cleaning dust covers is isopropyl alcohol. Do NOT use water for
cleaning.
Couplers
This procedure is used to clean any duplex coupler.
v Blow out any debris using Air Pump 45D2645
v Clean the inside of the coupler with a swab saturated with isopropyl alcohol. Swabs can be found in
Cleaning Kit PN 46G6844, alcohol pads PN 59P4739
Note: Always check the area you have just cleaned to be sure it is free of lint or cotton fuzz.
Wrap plug
For LC wrap plugs:
1. The port cleaning tool (54Y4392) comes with an adapter for cleaning LC connectors. Follow the
instructions included with the tool.
For non-LC wrap plugs:
1. Place a clean cloth (from Cleaning kit 46G6844) on a flat surface
2. Hold the wrap plug against the cloth at a 90% angle
3. Slide the end face of the wrap plug against the cloth. Approx one centimeter.
4. Install dust caps on wrap plug after usage
Appendix F. Fiber optic cleaning procedures
111
Protective plug
This procedure is used to clean any protective plug. Before performing this procedure, complete the
appropriate procedure for cleaning the coupler or SFP into which the protective plug will be inserted.
1. Gently wipe each arm of the protective plug at least 5 times with an alcohol pad using a pinch and
twist motion.
2. Wait 5 seconds for the alcohol to dry
3. Immediately insert the protective plug into the SFP assembly.
Fiber optic cable connector cleaning procedure
Use this general procedure to clean any fiber optic cable connector. Repeat these steps as necessary.
For LC cables:
1. The port cleaning tool (54Y4392) comes with an adapter for cleaning LC cable connectors (end face).
Follow the instructions included with the tool.
For non-LC cables:
1. Place a clean cloth (from Cleaning kit 46G6844) on a flat surface
2. Hold the connector against the cloth at a 90% angle
3. Slide the end face of the connector against the cloth. Approx one centimeter.
4. Immediately plug the cleaned cable connector, or install dust caps if not used.
Duplex connector:
112
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Small form pluggable (SFP) transceiver
Use this general procedure to clean fiber optic SFP transceivers..
Note: The optical ports of a transceiver should be cleaned when contamination is suspected due to
reduced optical performance or when non-approved practices have been observed (ie. Plugging a wrap or
cable that has not been cleaned first).
1. Clean the inside of the optical port with an LC Port Cleaning Tool: 54Y4392. Two “clicks” of this tool
in both ports has been shown effective at cleaning most types of debris.
Note: Always check the area you have just cleaned to be sure it is free of lint or cotton fuzz.
MPO Transceiver
Note: The optical ports of a MPO transceiver should be cleaned when contamination is suspected due to
reduced optical performance or when non-approved practices have been observed (ie. Plugging a wrap or
cable that has not been cleaned first). This transceiver provides a parallel, multi-mode communication
path on Host Channel Adapters.
1. Remove cable from transceiver
2. Blow air over the transceivers using Air Pump 45D2645
3. Clean MPO connector (refer to Fiber Optic Cable Connector Cleaning Procedure)
4. Re-plug cable and re-test
Common connectors
Table 12. common connectors
Description
Connector
LC Duplex used for FICON Express LX, FICON Express
SX, and ISC-3
SC Duplex used for OSA Express ATM SM, OSA Express
ATM MM, FDDI, OSA Express Gigabit LX and OSA
Express Gigabit SX
ESCON Duplex used for both ESCON and ETR
Appendix F. Fiber optic cleaning procedures
113
Table 12. common connectors (continued)
Description
MTRJ (Multimode)
SCDC (Single mode and multimode)
MTP Connector used for high density fiber optic cabling
on IBM eServer™ systems, storage systems, switches, and
directors
114
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Connector
Appendix F. Fiber optic cleaning procedures
115
1
2
2
1
3
3
Cleaning Procedure for MPO cables and
Transceivers
Fiber microscope (Tool Catalog) or equivalent
00P7031
Always clean the connectors before installing, attaching or
and cable connectors
Always leave the protective plugs/covers on unused ports
device.
ready to clean the connectors and attach the cable to the
Do not remove the protective plugs/covers until you are
plugging them to reduce Link Loss
The core diameter of single mode fiber is 9 microns or
~55-75 microns.
Smallest size of an object recognizable to the naked eye is
about the size of pollen or dust.
Ÿ
SFP: Small Form Pluggable
MPO: Multi-fiber Push On
Ÿ
Ÿ
Definitions:
Use dust covers on cables and transceivers
Do not touch the end of fiber optic cables
Ÿ
Remember!
Ÿ
Ÿ
Interesting Facts:
Ÿ
Ÿ
Ÿ
Best Practices:
Fiber Cleaning Kit (Tool Catalog)
Air Pump (Ship Group)
Fiber Optic Cleaning Wipes (Tool Catalog)
45D2645
1.25mm Fiber Cleaner (Tool Catalog)
54Y4392
45P5945
45P5948
MPT/MPO Fiber Optic Trunk Connector Cleaner
(Tool Catalog)
43W3044
Tools:
m_z/index.html
http://pokgsa.ibm.com/home/r/o/rosowers/web/public/syste
Link to SSR material:
IBM Tools Catalog: http://pokgsa.ibm.com/~tstesc/public/
?OpenDatabase
https://www.304.ibm.com/servers/resourcelink/svc03100.nsf
(SY27-7694)
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links:
References:
Appendix F: Fiber optic cleaning procedures
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Fiber Optic
Connection
Care
Preventive Maintenance of Fiber
Optic Cables and Optics
Modules
The end of a fiber optic cable and the inner surface of an
cleaned and maintained to ensure optimum reliability and
optical module lens are surfaces that should be properly
system performance.
Contaminated cable connectors often transfer contaminants
inserted into.
and particulates into the optical module into which they are
whenever a cable is not connected. It is therefore
Dust covers prevent contamination and should be used
and optical transceivers.
important to have a source of clean dust covers for cables
“The technique by which
optical cables are handled can
have a significant impact on
function and reliability.”
contaminated or dirty connector or fiber.
In industry studies the #1 cause of link failure is a
handling procedures.
Examples of transceiver contamination due to poor cable
contaminants.
Oils from skin and fibers from clothing are common
2
3
Cleaning Procedure for LC cables and
Optical SFP’s
1
2
1
3
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
116
Appendix G. Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the US.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries.
Consult your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in
your area. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that
only that IBM product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program,
or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is
the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or
service.
IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this
document. The furnishing of this document does not grant you any license to these patents. You can send
license inquiries, in writing, to:
IBM Director of Licensing
IBM Corporation
North Castle Drive, MD-NC119
Armonk, NY 10504-1785
US
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION “AS IS”
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of express or
implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.
This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically
made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication.
IBM may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this
publication at any time without notice.
Any references in this information to non-IBM websites are provided for convenience only and do not in
any manner serve as an endorsement of those websites. The materials at those websites are not part of
the materials for this IBM product and use of those websites is at your own risk.
IBM may use or distribute any of the information you provide in any way it believes appropriate without
incurring any obligation to you.
Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their
published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and
cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM
products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of
those products.
Statements regarding IBM's future direction or intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice,
and represent goals and objectives only.
This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate
them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and
products. All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to actual people or business enterprise is
entirely coincidental.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
117
Trademarks
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com® are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in
many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other
companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the web at “Copyright and trademark
information” at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml.
Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United
States, other countries, or both.
Linux is a trademark of Linux Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
Other company, product, or service names may be the trademarks or service marks of others.
Class A Notices
The following Class A statements apply to this IBM product. The statement for other IBM products
intended for use with this product will appear in their accompanying manuals.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Statement
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this
equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the user will be
required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Properly shielded and grounded cables and connectors must be used in order to meet FCC emission
limits. IBM is not responsible for any radio or television interference caused by using other than
recommended cables and connectors or by unauthorized changes or modifications to this equipment.
Unauthorized changes or modifications could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Industry Canada Compliance Statement
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Avis de conformité à la réglementation d'Industrie Canada
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
European Community Compliance Statement
This product is in conformity with the protection requirements of EU Council Directive 2014/30/EU on
the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility. IBM cannot
accept responsibility for any failure to satisfy the protection requirements resulting from a
non-recommended modification of the product, including the fitting of non-IBM option cards.
118
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
This product has been tested and found to comply with the limits for Class A Information Technology
Equipment according to European Standard EN 55032. The limits for Class A equipment were derived for
commercial and industrial environments to provide reasonable protection against interference with
licensed communication equipment.
European Community contact:
IBM Deutschland GmbH
Technical Regulations, Department M372
IBM-Allee 1, 71139 Ehningen, Germany
Tele: +49 (0) 800 225 5423 or +49 (0) 180 331 3233
email: halloibm@de.ibm.com
Warning: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
VCCI Statement - Japan
The following is a summary of the VCCI Japanese statement in the box above:
This is a Class A product based on the standard of the VCCI Council. If this equipment is used in a
domestic environment, radio interference may occur, in which case the user may be required to take
corrective actions.
Japanese Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA)
Confirmed Harmonics Guideline (products less than or equal to 20 A per phase)
Japanese Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA)
Confirmed Harmonics Guideline with Modifications (products greater than 20 A per
phase)
Appendix G. Notices
119
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - People's Republic of China
Declaration: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user may need to perform practical action.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - Taiwan
The following is a summary of the EMI Taiwan statement above.
Warning: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user will be required to take adequate measures.
IBM Taiwan Contact Information:
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - Korea
! ""# $%&( A')() *+,-./01 2 ""!34
56+ 7# 8&+# ! 91 :;<=" >?@, ABC;
DEFG 8&<# H1 I-() .4J.
Germany Compliance Statement
Deutschsprachiger EU Hinweis: Hinweis für Geräte der Klasse A EU-Richtlinie zur
Elektromagnetischen Verträglichkeit
Dieses Produkt entspricht den Schutzanforderungen der EU-Richtlinie 2014/30/EU zur Angleichung der
Rechtsvorschriften über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit in den EU-Mitgliedsstaaten und hält die
Grenzwerte der EN 55032 Klasse A ein.
120
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Um dieses sicherzustellen, sind die Geräte wie in den Handbüchern beschrieben zu installieren und zu
betreiben. Des Weiteren dürfen auch nur von der IBM empfohlene Kabel angeschlossen werden. IBM
übernimmt keine Verantwortung für die Einhaltung der Schutzanforderungen, wenn das Produkt ohne
Zustimmung von IBM verändert bzw. wenn Erweiterungskomponenten von Fremdherstellern ohne
Empfehlung von IBM gesteckt/eingebaut werden.
EN 55032 Klasse A Geräte müssen mit folgendem Warnhinweis versehen werden:
"Warnung: Dieses ist eine Einrichtung der Klasse A. Diese Einrichtung kann im Wohnbereich
Funk-Störungen verursachen; in diesem Fall kann vom Betreiber verlangt werden, angemessene
Maßnahmen zu ergreifen und dafür aufzukommen."
Deutschland: Einhaltung des Gesetzes über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten
Dieses Produkt entspricht dem “Gesetz über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten
(EMVG)“. Dies ist die Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 2014/30/EU in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
Zulassungsbescheinigung laut dem Deutschen Gesetz über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von
Geräten (EMVG) (bzw. der EMC EG Richtlinie 2014/30/EU) für Geräte der Klasse A
Dieses Gerät ist berechtigt, in Übereinstimmung mit dem Deutschen EMVG das EG-Konformitätszeichen
- CE - zu führen.
Verantwortlich für die Einhaltung der EMV Vorschriften ist der Hersteller:
International Business Machines Corp.
New Orchard Road
Armonk, New York 10504
Tel: 914-499-1900
Der verantwortliche Ansprechpartner des Herstellers in der EU ist:
IBM Deutschland GmbH
Technical Regulations, Abteilung M372
IBM-Allee 1, 71139 Ehningen, Germany
Tel: +49 (0) 800 225 5423 or +49 (0) 180 331 3233
email: halloibm@de.ibm.com
Generelle Informationen:
Das Gerät erfüllt die Schutzanforderungen nach EN 55024 und EN 55032 Klasse A.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - Russia
Appendix G. Notices
121
122
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
Index
A
E
K
accessibility viii
contact IBM viii
features ix
adapter
types 8
assistive technologies
ESCON, GbE, ATM, or FICON
limitations 100
keyboard
navigation
F
L
Fast path work sheet 97
FC connector 3
FDDI connector
cleaning 21
installing 21
removing 21
FDDI connector keys
labeling 20
removal 21
FDDI multi-mode link
limitations 100
loss calculation 103
FDDI service limitations
general 15
jumper cable connector 15
link bandwidth 15
fiber optic information transfer 1
fiber optic links, introduction 1
fusion splice 8
labeling, FDDI connector keys 20
laser 2
LED 2
level
measuring 71
light propagation, direction of 24
link
cable administration work sheet 61
configuration, typical 13
description 13
installation documentation 59
light propagation, direction of 24
problem determination 27
service activities 19
service strategy 19
training topics 19
typical configurations 21
link installation documentation 59
link limitations
ESCON, GbE, ATM, or FICON 100
FDDI multi-mode link 100
link problem determination
fast-path method 39
introduction 27
procedures 27
summary 19
typical link failures 23
using MAPs 28
link specifications 65
link verification
summary 25
tools and test equipment 69
loss calculation
FDDI multi-mode link 103
multi-mode component mean
loss 100
multi-mode component variance
loss 101
multi-mode link total 101
single-mode component mean 105
single-mode component variance 106
single-mode link 105
single-mode total link 106
viii
B
biconic connector 3
bidirectional fiber optic information
transfer 1
C
cable administration information 59
cable administration work sheet 91
explanation of entries 61
introduction 59
cable handling precautions 55
calculating link loss in a multi-mode
link 99
checklist, pre-installation 55
cleaning, FDDI connector keys 21
connector
biconic 3
FC 3
IBM duplex 3
nonphysical-contact 2
protection 57
ST 3
connectors
optical cable 2
conversion table, measurement 89
conversion table, metric-to-English 89
coupler
types 8
coupling link 12
multi-mode power level
measurement 76
receive-in power measurement 82
single-mode power measurement 80
transmit-out power measurement 83
D
dispersion 100
distribution panel
adapters 8
couplers 8
purpose of 8
documentation
cable administration information 59
cable administration work sheet 61
device installation 56
link installation 59
duplex connector 3
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2015, 2016
I
information transfer
bidirectional 1
unidirectional 1
information transfer, fiber optic 1
installation
cable handling 55
jumper cables 55
link documentation 59
tools, test equipment, and parts
installing, FDDI connector 21
introduction to fiber optic links 1
69
J
jumper cable
connector protection 57
connectors 2
description 6
elements 6
handling precautions 55
installation summary 55
layout 57
light propagation 24
maximum loss values 30
nonphysical-contact connector
physical-contact connector 2
pre-installation checklist 55
routing 56
slack management 57
strain relief 57
viii
M
3
MAP work sheet
link configuration 1 94
link configuration 2 95
link configuration 3 96
MAPs
link problem determination
measurement
conversion tables 89
28
123
measurement (continued)
coupling link single-mode power 80
measurement, coupling link multi-mode
power 76
measuring
device
receive level 71
transmit level 71
device transmit and receive 76
device transmitter and receiver 80
receive-in levels
single-mode link coupling link 82
receive-in power 71
receive-in power for a multi-mode
coupling link 77
transmit-out levels
single-mode link coupling link 83
transmit-out power 74
transmit-out power for a multi-mode
coupling link 78
mechanical splice 8
meter, MOP 71
metric-to-English conversion table 89
modes 2
MOP meter 71
MOP multimeter 71
multi-mode
calculated link loss work sheet 97
multi-mode coupling link
measuring receive-in power 77
measuring transmit-out power 78
multi-mode fiber 2
multimeter, MOP 71
N
navigation
keyboard viii
nonphysical-contact connectors
3
O
optical cable
handling precautions 55
information transfer 1
optical cable connectors 2
optical component loss values,
typical 67
optical fiber
determining the size 2
elements 1, 2
general 1
optical specifications
component loss values, typical
124
U
receive-in power
measuring for a multi-mode coupling
facility link 77
receive-in power, measuring 71
recommendations for keying FDDI
networks 20
removal, FDDI connector keys 21
removing, FDDI connector 21
Revisions viii
unidirectional fiber optic information
transfer 1
S
safety equipment 56
service activities, link 19
service strategy, link 19
shortcut keys viii
single-mode
calculated link loss work sheet
single-mode component mean
loss calculation 105
single-mode component variance
loss calculation 106
single-mode fiber 2
single-mode link
loss calculation 105
single-mode total link
loss calculation 106
specifications
link 65
optical component loss values,
typical 67
specifications, jumper cable
maximum loss 30
splice
fusion 8
mechanical 8
splitter tool 12, 85
ST connector 3
67
69
98
test equipment
calibration of 44
obtaining reference levels using 44
test equipment calibration 45, 46, 48
ESCON multi-mode
obtaining P3 50
ESCON single-mode
obtaining P0 51
obtaining P1 51
tools, list of 69
training topics, link 19
transmit-out power
measuring for a multi-mode coupling
facility link 78
transmit-out power, measuring 74
transmitter and receiver levels
measuring 80
transmitter-receiver subassembly
(TRS) 1
trunk cable
description 8
typical link configurations 21
Maintenance Information for Fiber Optic Links
V
variance loss, multi-mode link
101
W
work sheet
cable administration 91
fast path 97
multi-mode calculated link loss 97
single-mode calculated link loss 98
work sheets 91
cable administration 61
T
P
physical-contact connector 2
pre-installation checklist
cable inventory 55
documentation 56
safety equipment 56
preinstallation checklist
tools, test equipment, and parts
R
IBM®
Printed in USA
SY27-7694-01
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