14.7. Universal Serial Bus (USB) Specifications

14.7. Universal Serial Bus (USB) Specifications
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.1
14.7. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
General References
http://www.usb.org.
http://www.beyondlogic.org/usbnutshell/
USB References
http://www.ftdichip.com/Documents/ProgramGuides/D2XXPG34.pdf
http://www.ftdichip.com/Drivers/D2XX.htm
http://www.ftdichip.com/Documents/InstallGuides/Windows_XP_Installation_Guide.pdf
http://www.dlpdesign.com/test.shtml
http://www.ftdichip.com/Projects/CodeExamples.htm
http://www.dlpdesign.com/drivers/D2XXPG21.pdf
Voltage
Sound
Microphone
0 to 5V
Amp
0 to 1023
ADC
ADC_In
ADC
FifoWrite
OC
ISR
UM245R
USB
v
t
v
f
your
application
FTD2XX
.DLL
FTD2XX
.sys
Windows
USB
stack
PC
USB
Old Lab 4.1. Data-flow graph of the digital scope and spectrum analyzer.
Specifications
Short distance (typically less than 4 meters)
USB 2.0 supports three speeds.
High Speed - 480Mbits/s
Full Speed - 12Mbits/s
Low Speed - 1.5Mbits/s
One host per bus (at a time)
all transactions and scheduling bandwidth
Token-based protocol
Tiered star topology (Host-centered)
Hub provides power
Monitors power
Switching off a device drawing too much current
Filter out high speed and full speed transactions
7-bit address, up to 127 devices can be connected
Host loads and unloads drives automatically
by Jonathan W. Valvano
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.2
Host
device
device
Root Hub
Hub2
device
Hub1
device
device
device
device
Hub3
device
device
Figure 14.31. USB network topology.
2 1
1 2 3 4
3 4
USB Type A
USB Type B
Figure 7.18. USB connectors.
Pin Number
Color
1
Red
2
White
3
Green
4
Black
Table 7.5. USB signals.
Function
VBUS (5 V)
DD+
Ground
The D+ and D- are twisted pair differential data
Non Return to Zero Invert (NRZI) encoding
1 is represented by no change in level
0 is represented by a change in level
String of zeros causes the NRZI data to toggle each bit time
String of ones causes long periods with no transitions in the data
Bit stuffing ensures transitions to which the receiver can synchronize
0 inserted after 6 consecutive 1’s
1 inserted after 6 consecutive 0’s
0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
Data
Idle
NRZI
Idle
by Jonathan W. Valvano
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.3
The USB architecture comprehends four basic types of data transfers:
• Control Transfers: Used to configure a device
• Bulk Data Transfers: Large quantities and wide latitude in constraints.
• Interrupt Data Transfers: Used for timely but reliable delivery of data.
• Isochronous Data Transfers: Prenegotiated bandwidth
Prenegotiated latency
Streaming real time transfers
Audio or video applications
Stream pipe
Unidirectional
+3.3V
1.5kΩ
±5%
Host D+
or
Hub D15kΩ
±5%
+3.3V
D+ Full
Speed
D- Device
1.5kΩ
±5%
Host D+
or
Hub D-
15kΩ
±5%
15kΩ
±5%
15kΩ
±5%
Figure 14.32. Pull-up resistors on USB devices signal specify the speed.
Each USB transaction consists of three packets
• Token Packet (header),
• Optional Data Packet, (information) and
• Status Packet (acknowledge)
Token Packet
Sync PID ADDR ENDP CRC5 EOP
Data Packet
Sync PID
Handshake Packet
Sync PID EOP
Start of Frame
Sync PID Frame Number CRC5 EOP
Data
Figure 14.33. USB packet types.
by Jonathan W. Valvano
CRC16 EOP
D+ Low
Speed
D- Device
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.4
USB functions provide a capability
Printer, Thumb Drive, Scanner, Modem or your 9S12.
Endpoints are sources or sinks of data (buffers within the device)
Host can send data to an endpoint
Device puts data in endpoint, but it is not transferred until host requests it
USB
Host
Device
EP0 In
Addr=2
EP0 Out
Function
EP1 In
(Addr,Endpoint,Direction)
EP1 Out
Device
EP0 In
EP0 Out
Addr=3
EP1 In
EP1 Out
EP.. In
EP.. Out
Figure 14.34. USB data flow model.
pipe is a logical connection between the host and endpoint(s).
how much bandwidth
what transfer type (Control, Bulk, Iso or Interrupt)
direction of data flow
maximum packet/buffer sizes
Stream Pipes can be used send unformatted data.
Data flows sequentially
pre-defined direction, either in or out.
bulk, isochronous and interrupt transfer types
controlled by the host or device
Message Pipes have a
defined USB format
host-controlled
Data is then transferred in the desired direction
support control transfers.
by Jonathan W. Valvano
Function
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.5
Personal Computer
User
Program
COM
driver
USB-to-Serial
Converter
USB
driver
Embedded System
USB
Port
SCI
Port
Personal Computer
User
Program
USB
driver
USB
USB
Port
SCI
driver
User
Program
Embedded System
USB
Parallel
Interface
Module
I/O
Port
User
Program
Figure 14.35. Modular approach to USB interfacing.
14.7.2. Modular USB interface
USB-to-serial converters
IOGear Inc.
Wyse Technology
D-Link Corporation
Computer Peripheral Sys, Inc.
Jo-Dan International, Inc.
http://www.iogear.com
http://www.wyse.com
http://www.dlink.com
http://www.cpscom.com
http://www.jditech.com
USB parallel interface module.
send and receive data using parallel handshake protocols
Include a USB-enabled interface and receiver/transmit FIFO buffers
more flexible than the serial cable method,
the microcontroller module can be tailored
USB drivers can be tailored
burn PID and VID numbers into EEPROM.
data is unformatted
does not implement high bandwidth bulk transfers
does not negotiate for real-time bandwidth with isochronous data transfers.
Companies that make these modules include
Future Tech. Devices Inter. Ltd.
http://www.ftdichip.com/
ActiveWire, Inc.
http://www.activewireinc.com
DLP Design, Inc.
http://www.dlpdesign.com
Elexol Pty Ltd.
http://www.elexol.com
by Jonathan W. Valvano
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.6
14.7.3. Integrated USB interface
LM3S5651
•
•
•
•
Microchip PIC18F2455
FTDI FT245BM
Freescale 9S12UF32
STM32F103
by Jonathan W. Valvano
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.7
Similarities of USB and CAN
• Local wired network
• Serial
• Half-duplex
• Differential pair, voltage encoded
• Microcontroller hardware support (built-in I/O functions)
• Short distances (same box, same room)
• Bit stuffing
Differences between USB and CAN
• CAN is distributed, USB is host-controller
• USB bandwidth is higher
• CAN can have more nodes
• USB is powered, CAN is not powered
• USB has negotiated speed, CAN is fixed speed
• USB is addressed by destination, CAN has data types
by Jonathan W. Valvano
Real-time Operating Systems
Lecture 27.8
• USB typically used to connect microcontroller to PC/Mac
by Jonathan W. Valvano
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