Shutter Priority and Aperture Priority SITUATION SETTING SPEED A hummingbird is hovering above a flower, and you don't want it's wings to be blurry Very fast shutter speed 2000 to 4000 Your kids are playing soccer, and you want the images to be sharp and clear Fast shutter speed 500 to 1000 You are taking a portrait of your favorite pet, and your pet is being polite and sitting still Moderate shutter speed 125 to 500 A carousel is spinning and you want to show how fast it Slow shutter speed and 8 to 60 is going by letting the horses blur tripod You want to take a photograph of your favorite building Very slow shutter at night speed and tripod 8" to 30" Shutter priority refers to a setting on some cameras that allows the user to choose a specific shutter speed while the camera adjusts the aperture to ensure correct exposure. This is different from manual mode, where the user must decide both values, aperture priority where the user picks an aperture with the camera selecting the shutter speed to match, or program mode where the camera selects both. Shutter priority with longer exposures is chosen to create an impression of motion. For example, a waterfall will appear blurred and fuzzy. If the camera is panned with a moving subject, the background will appear blurred. When photographing sports or highspeed phenomena, shutter priority with short exposures can ensure that the motion is effectively frozen in the resulting image. Shutter priority is often abbreviated with Tv (literally, "time value") or S on a camera mode dial. Aperture priority, often abbreviated Av (for Aperture value) or A on a camera dial, is a setting on some cameras that allows the user to choose a specific aperture value while the camera selects a shutter speed to match. The camera will ensure proper exposure. This is different from manual mode, where the user must decide both values, shutter priority where the user picks a shutter speed with the camera selecting the aperture to match, or program mode where the camera selects both. The main purpose of using aperture-priority mode is to control the depth of field. Aperture priority is useful in landscape photography, where a narrow aperture is necessary if objects in foreground, middle distance, and background are all to be rendered crisply, while shutter speed is often immaterial. It also finds use in portrait photography, where a wide aperture is desired to throw the background out of focus and make it less distracting. Another common use of aperture priority mode is to suggest how the camera should decide a shutter speed, without risking a poor exposure. In landscape photography a user would select a small aperture when photographing a waterfall, hoping to allow the water to blur through the frame. When shooting a portrait in dim lighting, the photographer might choose to open the lens to its maximum aperture in hopes of getting enough light for a good exposure. In addition, aperture priority mode allows the photographer to force the camera to operate the lens at its optimum apertures within the limits of maximum/minimum aperture for a given focal length of the lens. Commonly, lenses provide greatest resolving power with a relatively medium-sized aperture.
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