File Transfer Using Bluetooth

File Transfer Using Bluetooth
2004:088 CIV
MASTER’S THESIS
File Transfer
Using Bluetooth
MARCUS CARLSSON
ERIK HOLMBERG
MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAMME
Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering
Division of Computer Science and Networking
2004:088 CIV • ISSN: 1402 - 1617 • ISRN: LTU - EX - - 04/88 - - SE
FILE TRANSFER USING
BLUETOOTH
D E S I G N I N G A N D I M P L E M E N T I N G A B LU E T O O T H
A P P L I C AT I O N AC C O R D I N G T O T H E B LU E T O O T H
S P E C I FI C AT I ON
Version 2
Marcus Carlsson, Luleå University of Technology
Erik Holmberg, Uppsala University
March 1, 2004
ABSTRACT
Bluetooth is one of the standards for wireless communication. It is excepted that the number of
services provided over Bluetooth links will rapidly increase during the next few years. This puts hard
demands on the Bluetooth specification, to preserve the interoperability between services offered
from different manufactures. It’s the Blutooth profile specification that states the requirements on a
Bluetooth application.
This thesis investigates one of the existing application profiles, the file transfer application profile
and the requirements for the implementation of that profile. The file transfer profile requires some
functionality from the underlying profiles and dictates the way that they should be implemented. This
thesis will also bring up the different layers in the Ericsson Bluetooth PC Reference Stack.
The Graphical user interface (GUI) of the file transfer applications is designed like a common
FTP application. The requirements of the file transfer application are the ability to browse a remote
folder structure and to push and pull files. The server decides if the user has read-only or read and
write permissions in the shared folders. The server also has the ability to decide which folders a user
gets access to.
The file transfer profile depends on several underlying profiles and protocols. Two profiles
handle discoverability and connection establishment. For the transferring of files the object exchange
protocol is used. This protocol is based on the IrOBEX protocol, a protocol used for Infrared data
communication. A complete file transfer must implement all these profiles and protocols.
The application implemented is a client/server file transfer application. It fulfills all the
mandatory requirements of the profile specification. It is really a set of five different programs, three
running on the server and two on the client. On each there is a security application, which handles
discovery and connection establishment. There is one client and one server application, which handle
the communication and file browsing. The fifth application is a tool to configure which files that
should be shared and to whom.
1
Preface
This Master Thesis work was done at Ericsson Microelectronics AB at the department of
Application Development in Kista during the winter 2000-2001. The thesis concludes the Master of
Science study in Electrical Engineering, with a major in Computer Communications, at Luleå
University of Technology and Technical Physics at Uppsala University School of Engineering.
Our gratitude goes out to our supervisors Henrik Arfwedson and Johan Meivert at Ericsson
Microelectronics who have helped us with support and knowledge during the whole project. We
would also like to thank our examiners Bengt Lennartsson at Luleå University of Technology and
Ander Svärdström at Uppsala University School of Engineering.
The first version of this report was written by Erik Holmberg and Marcus Carlsson in March
2001. Since then much has happened concerning wireless communication. Companies have
developed new Bluetooth hardware and software. Even the Bluetooth specification has changed
several times. This means that some information in this report might be out of date.
This report exists in two versions. One version of the report was submitted and accepted by
Uppsala University in 2001. Since then the report has been restructured and rewritten by Marcus
Carlsson so that it could be used at Luleå University of Technology in 2004.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................4
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
PROJECT DESCRIPTION ..............................................................................................................5
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT BLUETOOTH .......................................................................................... 7
THE BLUETOOTH MODULE........................................................................................................................... 8
THE HOSTSTACK .......................................................................................................................................... 10
OUR WORK..................................................................................................................................... 12
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
5
OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
SPECIFICATION ................................................................................................................................................ 5
LIMITATIONS AND RISKS................................................................................................................................ 5
THE BLUETOOTH SYSTEM ........................................................................................................7
3.1
3.2
3.3
4
BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................. 4
PARTICIPANTS .................................................................................................................................................. 4
REPORT STRUCTURE ....................................................................................................................................... 4
WORKING PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................................ 12
HARDWARE .................................................................................................................................................... 13
SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................................................................... 14
APPLICATION ................................................................................................................................................. 17
DESIGN ........................................................................................................................................................... 21
IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................................................................................ 26
DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................................. 35
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
WORKING PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................................ 35
HARDWARE .................................................................................................................................................... 35
SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................................................................... 35
APPLICATION ................................................................................................................................................. 36
THE FUTURE .................................................................................................................................................. 37
6
ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS.................................................................................... 38
7
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 39
8
TOOLS............................................................................................................................................. 40
3
1
I N T RO D U C T I O N
In the fall 2000 two students, Marcus Carlsson and Erik Holmberg, started working with their
master thesis Ericsson Microelectronics AB1 at the department of Application Development.
The project objective was to develop an application implementing a higher layer of the Bluetooth
specification. The project was done with focus on wireless communication.
The result of this project is an application implementing the Bluetooth File Transfer Profile. The
application consists of two parts, a server and a client. The server accepts incoming connections and
shares files. The client application allows the user to search for available servers and connect. Files
and folder structures can then be transferred between the client and server applications.
1.1
BACKGROUND
Wouldn’t it be great to make every minute count? If you could conveniently connect to your
corporate network or send/receive email while waiting in the doctor’s office, having your car
serviced, or even traveling around the globe? Imagine having your mobile PC and PDA automatically
synchronize your address list and calendar as soon as you walk through your office door. Imagine
never again having to wrestle with cables to connect electronic devices. With Bluetooth wireless
technology, these features, and many more, will soon become routine functions of mobile
computing.
The authors of this report believe that wireless communication will be used more and more in
the future. Bluetooth is one of the technologies competing to become one of the standards for
wireless communication. With this project the Bluetooth specification will be studied and
investigated. Furthermore an implementation of a Bluetooth application will be made according to
the specification.
1.2
PARTICIPANTS
The participants in this thesis project are the students Marcus Carlsson and Erik Holmberg and
the supervisors Henrik Arfwedson and Johan Meivert on Ericsson Microelectronics.
1.3
REPORT STRUCTURE
This report is divided into four chapters. The project description part gives a thorough
description of the objective, goal and limitations of the thesis work.
The Bluetooth System section contains a short description of the Bluetooth hardware and
software. This can be skipped by readers already familiar with the Bluetooth architecture.
Our work is a chapter that describes all the steps done in this thesis work. It starts with the
planning of the work and finishes with finished application. It describes the design and development
phases.
In Section 5 the experience gained and thoughts about this thesis work are discussed.
1
Ericsson Microelectronics was bought by Infineon Technologies in 2002.
4
2
P RO J E C T D E S C R I P T I O N
This section describes what should be achieved as well as the boundaries of the thesis project.
2.1
OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this thesis is to study and investigate the Bluetooth specification. This is
achieved by the development of an application implementing a Bluetooth profile. The application
should implement one of the application profiles in the Bluetooth Specification 1.0 b. [3]. The
application chosen is Network Neighborhood which implements the File Transfer Profile. This
profile specifies a client-server type of application. The server makes itself available to other devices,
accepts incoming connections and allows basic file transfer operations. The client should find devices
with the corresponding service, make a connection and allow the user to push, pull and manipulate
files on the server. The application should be able to interoperate with other applications following
the specification.
The scope of the thesis is limited to the File Transfer profile. However the File Transfer Profile
is highly dependent on the underlying layers in the stack and profiles. Thus many features which are
required in lower profiles are also discussed thoroughly in this report.
2.2
SPECIFICATION
This section will try to give an early requirement specification for the resulting application. The
requirements will become more and more specific during the project since an important part of the
work is to find the system requirements. Some parameters experienced as important for the final
products are listed below.
The application shall:
•
Discover and identify other devices
•
Find desired services in other devices
•
Connect to and communicate with a device implementing the same profile
•
Present an “easy to use” graphical user interface
2.3
LIMITATIONS AND RISKS
Since this project is a development project there are a couple of uncertainty parameters that
should be considered.
2.3.1
LIMITATIONS
A number of Bluetooth stacks were available when this thesis work started. However few are
certified and even fewer are tested for interoperability. It might turn out that two devices running
5
stacks from different vendors can’t communicate at all. Hopefully the functionality can be shown
using the same stack on both devices.
2.3.2
RISKS
The Bluetooth technology2 is a new and unexplored area. The Bluetooth specification 1.1 [Ref. 1]
is determined the same week as writing this, so it is not certain that this thesis work will result in
anything more than an investigation and a research report. The project may take longer to complete
than the scheduled 20 weeks and therefore there is a possibility that we will have to finish off even
before we have a functioning application.
2
This report was first written in 2001 when the Bluetooth Technology was new.
6
3
T H E B L U E TO OT H S Y S T E M
This section will discuss the corner stones, which are used as a foundation for a Bluetooth
application. It will also give the reader some background information about Bluetooth. The
Bluetooth hardware figures and information are mainly from the Ericsson Bluetooth Module Irma C,
but other solutions have similar architectures.
3.1
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT BLUETOOTH
Bluetooth is a wireless personal area network (PAN) technology from the Bluetooth Special
Interest Group, (www.bluetooth.com), founded in 1998 by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba.
Bluetooth is an open standard for short-range transmission of digital voice and data between mobile
devices (laptops, PDAs, phones) and desktop devices. It supports point-to-point and multipoint
applications. Bluetooth provides up to 723 kb/s data transfer within a range of 10 m and up to 100
m with a power amplifier. Unlike IrDA, which requires that devices are aimed at each other (in line
of sight), Bluetooth uses omnidirectional radio waves that can transmit through walls and other nonmetal barriers. Bluetooth transmits in the unlicensed 2.4GHz band and uses a frequency hopping
spread spectrum (FHSS) technique that changes its signal 1600 times per second. If there is
interference from other devices, the transmission does not stop, but its speed is downgraded. The
name Bluetooth comes from King Harald Blatand (Bluetooth) of Denmark.
The Bluetooth Specification is developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). Their
goal is to specify rules for the radio and data communication over Bluetooth. A layered protocol
stack referred to as the “Bluetooth protocol architecture” has been developed. The architecture
dictates how communication should be performed at all levels from radio up to high-level application
protocols. This would allow applications written in conformance to the Specification to interoperate
with each other.
Bluetooth was originally designed to eliminate cables between remote devices in a short range,
e.g. between a digital camera and a cellular phone. Thus it was implemented to be cheap and have
low power consumption.
The interest in the Bluetooth technology grew and more companies joined the SIG. As people
understood that Bluetooth would be a new fairly large standard for wireless communication, this
resulted in a great demand from the market for Bluetooth products and OEM products for use in
customer products.
The ultimate objective of the Bluetooth specification is to allow applications, written in a manner
that is conformant to the specification, to interoperate with each other. To achieve this, matching
applications in remote devices, e.g. client/server, must run over identical protocol stacks. That is on a
large scale what the Bluetooth stack is, a number of protocols following a standard. This does not
mean that all Bluetooth devices should be able to send and receive data to/from every other
Bluetooth device, but it does mean that a Bluetooth device from Toshiba running OSE shall be able
to speak with another device from Ericsson running Linux.
A Bluetooth system today usually consists of two physically separated parts. One is the
Bluetooth module and the other one is the host, e.g. the PC or the embedded system that is going to
use the transferred information. These two parts communicate with each other over UART or USB
using the Host controller interface, HCI, protocol. Thus the Bluetooth stack is divided in two parts.
7
The stack which resides inside the host, e.g. PC or PDA, is referred to as the hoststack. More
information about Bluetooth can be found in [7].
3.2
THE BLUETOOTH MODULE
The module itself is a small embedded system on a small PCB and it consists of a number of
parts; the Baseband (the processing unit), the Flash memory, a 13MHz crystal, and a radio module.
The module has not itself an internal antenna; such a device must be added externally. The Ericsson
Irma C module layout is depicted in Figure 1.
Figure 1, The Bluetooth module and a match
The baseband chip inside the module is used to control the radio traffic. Watched from inside
the baseband chip, it processes commands from the host, establishes links to other Bluetooth devices
and sends commands, status and data over the radio link. It also, of course, receives data and
commands from other devices and handles error correction, encryption and retransmissions. The
baseband chip, depicted in the mid/bottom of Figure 1, encapsulates an Arm7 processing unit, 56k
RAM, different communication interfaces and 8 address pins that can be set to be GP I/O pins if
one wishes to. It has also some Bluetooth specific hardware where some of the functionality resides
[ref.2]
An external flash memory of 8MBit (1Mb) is included in the module. The Bluetooth firmware
resides inside this memory. A flash memory is used today3, even though it is much more expensive
than a ROM, this is probably mainly because of the constant upgrades of the firmware under the
development phase that Bluetooth module undergoes today. In the future the flash will most
certainly be replaced with a ROM.
3
In 2003 and 2004 this is still true even though some vendors have changed to ROM.
8
The Bluetooth radio module is in fact a module in
itself. It is a short-range microwave frequency radio
transceiver for Bluetooth communication. The
module is designed to operate in the globally
available ISM frequency band, 2.4 -2.5 GHz. Fast
frequency hopping (1600 channel hops/s) with 79
channels available (2.402 to 2.480 GHz) and a
maximum TX & RX bit rate of 1 MBit/s exploits the
maximum channel bandwidth allowed in the
unlicensed ISM band. Figure 2 shows the Ericsson
radio module.
Figure 2, The Bluetooth Radio
The Bluetooth module includes firmware for the Host Controller Interface (HCI), and the link
manager (LM) and the baseband operating system; in Ericsson module it is OSE delta. The firmware
(FW) resides in the flash. The protocol stack in the firmware is fully specified in the Bluetooth
specification since it is absolutely necessary that the information sent runs over identical protocol
stacks. The protocol stack in the firmware consists of two layers, the HCI and the Link Manager
Protocol layer seen in Figure 3. The Link Controller is a hardware block which controls the radio.
Figure 3, The Controller Bluetooth stack
The HCI layer can be seen as a "Bluetooth language". It is a set of instructions used for
communication between a Host and a Host Controller (e.g. a Bluetooth module and a PC). The HCI
protocol layer has a set of standardized commands and signals but can also implement producer
specific commands. The HCI layer communicates with either the host's HCI layer through a
hardware interface driver or it communicates with the Link Manager.
The Link Manager in each Bluetooth module can communicate with another Link Manager in
another Bluetooth module using the Link Manager Protocol (LMP), which is a peer-to-peer protocol.
The Link Manager assembles data and control messages sent over the air. The Link Manager
exchanges information with the radio module through the link controller.
9
3.3
THE HOSTSTACK
This is on a large scale a summary of the different protocols and criteria for Bluetooth products
significant for the basic understanding of Bluetooth and our system. More information on this topic
is found in the Bluetooth specification [2] and [3].
Host stack
Profiles
L2CAP, SDP,
RFCOMM
HCI Layer
Physical Layer
(UART, USB)
Figure 4, The hoststack
In Figure 4 the basic layers of a hoststack are depicted. The HCI layer is the lowest layer in the
hoststack (and the highest layer in the host controller stack) and it is the one that communicates with
the Bluetooth device over a serial connection. HCI is essentially a standardized communication
language between host and host controller. The Host Control Transport Layer (i.e. physical bus, for
example UART) driver provides the HCI layers with the ability to exchange information with each
other. The objective of the HCI-UART Transport Layer is to make it possible to use the Bluetooth
HCI over a serial interface between two UART's on the same PCB.
HCI is a standardized Bluetooth "command language" and is an abbreviation for Host
Controller Interface. There are four kinds of HCI packets that can be sent; i.e. HCI Command
Packet, HCI Event Packet, HCI ACL Data Packet and HCI SCO Data Packet and all the packages
have different packet structures. The command packet is sent from the host to the host controller
and is used for the set up of the Bluetooth device and for the connection between the units. The
event packet is sent from the host controller to the host to confirm that a command has been
completed. The data packet is used to exchange data between the host and the host controller. The
HCI layer does not provide the ability to differentiate the four HCI packet types. Therefore, if the
HCI packets are sent via a common physical interface, a packet indicator has to be added. The HCI
packet indicator shall be sent immediately before the HCI packet. All four kinds of HCI packets have
a length field, which is used to determine how many bytes are expected for the HCI packet. When an
entire HCI packet has been received, the next HCI packet indicator is expected for the next HCI
packet. Over the UART Transport Layer, only HCI packet indicators followed by HCI packets are
allowed.
The Service Discovery Protocol, SDP is a crucial part of the Bluetooth framework. Finding the
service wanted is fundamental for all the usage models. The SDP provides a means for applications
to discover which services are available and to determine the characteristics of those available
services using an existing L2CAP connection. After that, an appropriate separate connection between
two or more Bluetooth devices can be established using information obtained via SDP. The service
discovery application does not make use of SDP as a means for accessing a service, but rather as a
means for informing the user of a local device about the services available on remote devices. For
10
example a Bluetooth enabled phone wants to connect to a PC and send a picture. It connects and
asks, through SDP, if the PC supports the File Transfer Profile. If the PC does, the phone can use
the parameters retrieved through SDP and send the picture.
L2CAP is an acronyme for Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer Protocol. L2CAP is
based around the concept of "channels". A channel is a logical link between two L2CAP layers on
physical devices, which means that it handles multiplexing. A channel identifier (CID) refers to each
end-point of an L2CAP channel. An L2CAP implementation exposes the outgoing maximum
transfer unit (MTU) and segments higher layer packets into ’chunks’ that can be passed to the Link
Manager via the Host Controller Interface (HCI). On the receiving side, an L2CAP implementation
receives ’chunks’ from the HCI and reassembles those chunks into L2CAP packets using
information provided through the HCI from the packet header. Compared to wired physical media,
the data packets defined by the Baseband Protocol are limited in size. Exporting a maximum
transmission unit (MTU) associated with the largest Baseband payload (341 bytes for DH5 packets)
limits the efficient use of bandwidth for higher layer protocols that are designed to use larger packets,
but L2CAP is designed to have as little overhead as possible to minimize this effect. Large L2CAP
packets must be segmented into multiple smaller Baseband packets prior to their transmission over
the air. Similarly, multiple received Baseband packets may be reassembled into a single larger L2CAP
packet. The Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) functionality is absolutely necessary to support
protocols using packets larger than those supported by the Baseband. L2CAP permits higher level
protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kB in length. If for
example a big IP packet comes in it is segmented into smaller packets to be able to be sent over the
radio link.
RFCOMM is a transport protocol, with additional provisions for emulating RS-232 serial ports.
The protocol is based on the ETSI standard TS 07.10. RFCOMM is a simple transport protocol,
with additional provisions for emulating the 9 circuits of RS-232 (EIATIA-232-E) serial ports. The
RFCOMM-protocol supports up to 60 simultaneous connections between two BT devices. For the
purposes of RFCOMM, a complete communication path involves two applications running on
different devices with a communication segment between them. RFCOMM is able to
transmit/receive data packets of up to 32 kB over such a link.
The Bluetooth profiles are standards and references developed by the Bluetooth SIG for
implementation of different usage models. This will secure that a product designed to be able to
connect to a file transfer server always will be able to connect to one, independently of who has
designed it. The usage models describe APIs and functionality that has to be implemented in the
products to get this desired compatibility. The profiles below are just examples of some of the most
widely spread profiles. Only a few profiles will be described later in this document. The rest can be
found in the Bluetooth specification [2] and [3].
•
File transfer profile – Describes the actions and requirements that have to be supported
by an application when browsing, retrieving and sending files between Bluetooth
devices. Found in PCs and PDAs.
•
Headset profile – Specifies the interface that is used for communication between phone
and a headset. Describes the possible user actions as well as commands used between
phone and headset. Used in Mobile Phones.
11
4
O U R WO R K
This section will describe our work and the steps to achieve the objective in this thesis work.
4.1
WORKING PROCEDURE
This section is used to describe the working procedure that was used to achieve a functioning file
transfer application. The actions will be presented in chronological order.
The thesis work started in the fall 2000 with a very vague description of the objective. The goal
was to have an application implementing a profile. This had to be refined to a more specific
description. A lot of choices had to be made. Which hardware, Bluetooth stack and profile should be
used? To answer these questions more knowledge about Bluetooth was needed. Step one in the
working procedure was therefore to study the Bluetooth specification.
During step one many ideas for applications arose. The next step would be to use the new
knowledge and decide on one application. To do that Bluetooth hardware, software and host
platform had to be taken into account. The Ericsson Irma C Bluetooth module had already been
selected. But could the available Bluetooth stacks provide the functionality needed by the
application? A comparison of the available stacks was therefore made.
The next step was the design of the application. Since Bluetooth is designed as a layered
architecture, the profiles are very dependent on the protocols below. Therefore the chosen hardware
and stack had to be studied closer.
After the design phase the implementation phase started. The application was developed using 3
steps.
•
Achieve communication between the Bluetooth stack and the module.
•
Achieve communication between two Bluetooth devices, using stack and application.
•
Achieve profile and application communication.
In the last step a whole protocol will be implemented. The last step will therefore require most of
the time and effort.
12
4.2
HARDWARE
When selecting Bluetooth hardware the natural selection was the Irma C from Ericsson
Microelectronics. This choice was of course influenced by the fact that the thesis work was done at
Microelectronics. However the alternatives out on the market weren’t that many. The Irma C was the
second generation Bluetooth chip from Ericsson and had already been proven in consumer products.
Thus it was a good choice. When working with the Irma C module the development board Ericsson
Bluetooth Starter Kit, EBSK, was used. For more information see [5] and [6].
The EBSK consists of two PCBs called Motherboard and Daughterboard, which are connected
together, see Figure 5 below.
Figure 5, Ericsson Bluetooth Starter Kit and the EBSK block diagram
The EBSK connects to the host using an ordinary 9-pin D-sub serial port or USB. The
Motherboard carries power circuits, power filters, start-up circuitry, voice codec and interfaces. The
Daughterboard, which is plugged on the Motherboard, is replaceable making it easy to upgrade.
The daughter board carries the Ericsson Bluetooth module. In addition to this it also has a RF
switch to choose to either use the onboard antenna or an external antenna connected to the SMA
connector. The Daughterboard has 22 connectors drawn out on the PCB, but the baseband chip has
many more. The reason for this is that these pins on the daughter board are the only ones drawn out
on the module, which in turn also is a PCB with a number of components on it. Communication is
carried out using the module’s built-in high-speed USB (Universal Serial Bus), UART or PCM
interface (for voice). The layout of the daughter board can be seen in Figure 6.
13
Figure 6, EBSK Daughterboard layout
When selecting the host platform the natural selection was a Desktop and Laptop computer. The
desktop could illustrate an access point which was immobile. While the laptop could move around
and still connect to the desktop. Most laptops and desktops already have a UART available for the
communication with the Bluetooth Module
4.3
SOFTWARE
On the Host computers the operating system was selected to Windows NT or Windows 98.
These two operating systems are4 used on a large part of all desktops and laptops. The decision was
also based on the fact that appropriate development tools already were available for these platforms.
The following section describes the process of selecting a stack for these platforms. After that the
selected stack is described in more detail.
4.3.1
SELECTING STACK
Many companies have developed their own Bluetooth stacks, however many of these are for
specific platforms. Since the target platform was a PC running windows a generic stack or one for
that specific platform was needed.
The other property that was important was stability and interoperability. Since so few stacks has
been qualified5 it’s very hard to determine if they will work together. However the qualification
proves that they work against a reference system.
4
Windows NT and Windows 98 were popular in 2000/2001.
5
Several stacks have been qualified since 2000
14
In Table 1 below is a short list of some of the stacks that were part of the evaluation when the
thesis work started. Only the ones that were possible as platforms will be discussed.
Company
Operating System
Qualified
Free of charge
Ericsson
Generic (or windows)
Yes
Free for Ericsson
Axis
Linux (source)
No
Yes
Enea
OSE
Yes
No
Widcomm
GKI (generic)
Yes
No
IBM
Linux
No
Yes
Iar Systems
Generic
No
Yes (for eval.)
Table 1. Bluetooth stacks
The Ericsson stack is available both as generic Ansi C code and as a PC reference stack. The
stack contains all layers needed to build end-user applications. All layers are made according to the
specification and are qualified. The stack is already used in several customer oriented projects.
Another positive aspect with the Ericsson stack is that it has been tested with the Irma C module.
The axis stack is available as source code. However it is not qualified. Another drawback is that it
does not include the SDP layer. SDP is needed in all applications implementing a profile. Therefore it
is not a candidate.
The stack from Widcomm seems to be very complete and flexible. It is completely qualified and
is available in source. Several Companies are already using this stack for customer products. The
drawback is that it isn’t free of charge.
Iar System has developed a generic stack. However at the time it lacks many of the needed
features. The SDP part is very limited and does only support a few predefined profiles.
The choice of stack was made with respect to stability and adaptation to the target platform. The
hoststack chosen is the Ericsson stack, more detailed information about it follows below.
4.3.2
THE ERICSSON STACK
The Ericsson Bluetooth hoststack is built in a layered architecture where each layer can use the
ones below. Each layer encapsulates its own data and other layers are not polluted except at the
interfaces. It has been designed with portability in mind and also time-to-market in producing any
new applications. This is achieved by a cradle architecture shown in Figure 7 below. Three interface
layers are used to create static boundaries between the stack and the applications, the OS and the
communication ports. The virtual OS interface separates the protocols from OS dependent features
and the serial interface layer encapsulates the port drivers. These two layers ensure easy portability
since only the HCI driver and the OS adaptation have to be implemented on a new platform. The
application programmer’s interface provides a static interface for applications and other layers above
the hoststack. It gives access to the interfaces of all layers in the stack. Since the hoststack has static
15
interfaces on all sides it is easy to improve the protocols without having to make changes in the
applications. More information about this stack can be found in [4].
Figure 7, The Ericsson hoststack
There are five main layers in the Ericsson hoststack.
SCM - Stack Connection Manager – The Stack Connection Manager handles and administrates
the Bluetooth baseband connection. It is used by an application to create and take care of data and
voice links independent of other applications. This enables several applications on top of the stack
communicating over different channels but on the same link, with the local routing handled within
L2CAP.
RFCOMM - is a transport protocol, which emulates a RS-232 serial port. It provides means for
data communication with flow control to higher level layers. These layers can be end-user
applications as well as higher layer protocols.
SDP - Service Discovery Protocol - Discovery of services is a crucial part of the Bluetooth
framework. Service discovery is fundamental for all the usage models. The SDP provides a means for
applications to discover which services are available and to determine the characteristics of those
available services using an existing L2CAP connection. After that, an appropriate separate
connection between two or more Bluetooth devices can be established using information obtained
via SDP. The service discovery application does not make use of SDP as a means of accessing a
service, but rather as a means of informing the user of a Local Device about the services available to
his/her device by (and possibly via) Remote Device(s).
16
L2CAP - Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol - provides connection-oriented and
connectionless data services to upper layer protocols with protocol multiplexing capability,
segmentation and reassemble operation, and group abstractions. L2CAP permits higher level
protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kB in length.
HCI Driver - Host Controller Interface - The HCI Interface establishes the communication
between the stack and the HCI Firmware in the Bluetooth module connected to the equipment
running the stack. The HCI Interface ensures that the stack can run over a generic hardware. The
HCI Interface is standardized by the Bluetooth SIG. The HCI driver, as developed in this software,
is split into a Generic Component and an Environment Dependent Component.
If a layer wants to make use of the services of another layer it has to register itself to it. This can
be done with the request register function that is present in every API of every layer. If this is done
the two layers have an interface with each other. If a layer doesn’t want to make use of another layer
anymore, it can call the request de-registration function.
The communication between layers is done by function calls and messages. There are two
different communication messages, control and data. Control messages are used to exchange
information between layers. Data messages are used to send data through the stack. At the sending
side every layer adds its heading to the data and sends it down. On the receiving side the header is
pealed off for each layer on its way up to the receiving layer. Communication from a higher layer or
an application to a lower layer is done by a call to an API-function in the lower layer. When a lower
layer communicates with a higher layer interprocess messages are used.
4.4
APPLICATION
When both the hardware and software platforms were chosen, there were still a variety of
possible applications. Most applications using Bluetooth could use the host hardware at least as
development platforms. And the Ericsson stack is the most versatile on the market. The selection of
applications was limited to the following three:
•
Lan Access – This application implements the LAN Access profile. It consists of two
sides, LAN access point and LAN access terminal. This application shows the usefulness
and advantages with wireless technology. However it requires a lot of non-Bluetooth
specific programming. The stack would have to be connected to the Windows NT or
Windows 98 IP stack somehow.
•
Wireless speakers – These two applications would stream audio from a server part to a
client part. This application looked as the most fun and useful application. However no
profile is specified for streaming audio.
•
File Transfer – This application implements the file transfer profile. It allows a client to
browse, send and retrieve files on a server. This application shows the strengths of
Bluetooth, transmission of files without any wires. The application is also a direct
implementation of a profile.
The selection was made with the following arguments:
•
The thesis project objective is to implement a complete Bluetooth application. This
requires that the application complies with a profile.
17
•
The application should visualize the advantage of having no wires.
•
The effort should be focused on the Bluetooth protocols and profiles.
The application that complied best to these demands was the File Transfer application. The
decision was therefore to make a Bluetooth Server and Client.
4.4.1
FILE TRANSFER PROFILE
This section will give a short introduction to the profiles used in the file transfer implementation.
For more detailed information, see [3]. The upper two profiles, the file transfer profile and the
generic object exchange profile are discussed in more detail, while the other profiles used are
discussed more briefly, just to give an idea of their purpose.
File Transfer Profile
The file transfer profile defines all the requirements for the protocols and procedures that shall
be used by the application providing the file transfer usage model. The most common devices using
this profile are PCs, notebooks and PDAs. The scenarios covered by this profile are the following:
•
Browse an object stored on a remote device. This can for example be the file system of a
PC. Browsing involves viewing objects and navigating the folder hierarchy.
•
Transfer objects between two devices. This can for example be copying files and folders
from one PC to another.
•
Manipulate objects on a remote device. This includes deleting old objects and creating
new ones.
The server has to be set into file transfer mode. This mode enables a client to perform file
transfer operations with the server. The server should set the device in limited discoverable mode.
The file transfer service should also be recorded in the SDDB (Service Discovery Data Base).
The client has to be able to select the server from a list of possible servers, and set up a
connection. It should know how to display the server’s folder hierarchy, including the files in the
folders, and move through the server’s folder hierarchy to select the current folder. The current
folder is where items are pulled and/or pushed. The client has to be able to perform file transfer
operations to and from the server.
Many of the functionalities required by the file transfer profile are supported in profiles or
protocols below. For example all the file transfer operations used in the file transfer profile are
specified in a profile called Generic Object Exchange Profile, described below.
In Figure 8 the Bluetooth profile structure and the dependencies of the profiles are depicted. A
profile is dependent upon another profile if it reuses parts of that profile, by referring to it implicitly
or explicitly. Dependency is also illustrated; a profile has dependencies on the profile(s) in which it is
contained, directly and indirectly. For example, the Object Push profile is dependent on Generic
Object Exchange, Serial Port, and Generic Access profiles.
18
Figure 8. The Bluetooth profile structure and dependencies
Generic Access Profile (GAP)
The purpose of the Generic Access Profile is:
•
To introduce definitions, recommendations and common requirements related to modes and
access procedures to be used by transport and application profiles.
•
To describe how devices are to behave in standby and connecting states in order to
guarantee that links and channels always can be established between Bluetooth devices, and
that multi-profile operation is possible. Special focus is put on discovery, link establishment
and security procedures.
•
To state requirements on user interface aspects, mainly coding schemes and names of
procedures and parameters, needed to guarantee a satisfactory user experience.
Serial Port Profile (SPP)
The Serial Port Profile defines the protocols and procedures that shall be used by devices using
Bluetooth for UART RS232 (or similar) serial cable emulation. The scenario covered by this profile
deals with legacy applications using Bluetooth as a cable replacement, through a virtual serial port
abstraction (which in itself is operating system-dependent).
19
Only one connection at a time is dealt with in this profile, thus only point to point configurations
are considered. However this shouldn’t be a limitation, since multiple executions of this profile
should be able to run concurrently in the same device.
The use of security features such as authorization authentication and encryption is optional. But
the support for authentication and encryption is mandatory.
Bonding is not explicitly used in this profile. Thus support for bonding is optional. RFCOMM is
used to transport the user data, modem control signal and configuration commands. Only
connection oriented channels shall be used, thus broadcast will not be used in this profile.
Generic object exchange profile (GOEP)
This profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices necessary for the support of the
object exchange usage models. The usage model can be, for example, Synchronization, File Transfer,
or Object Push. The requirements are expressed by defining the features and procedures required for
interoperability between Bluetooth devices in the object exchange usage models. The features that
the generic object exchange profile provides for the application profiles are the following,
establishing of an object exchange session, pushing data and pulling data.
The GOEP profile is based on the IrOBEX protocol. IrOBEX stands for IrDA object exchange
and IrDA stands for infrared data communication. Often OBEX is used for short. One of the most
basic and desirable uses of the IrDA infrared communication protocols is simply to send an arbitrary
“thing”, or data object, from one device to another, and to make it easy for both application
developers and users to do so.
OBEX is a compact, efficient, binary protocol that enables a wide range of devices to exchange
data in a simple and spontaneous manner. OBEX is being defined by members of the Infrared Data
Association to interconnect the full range of devices that support IrDA protocols. It is not, however,
limited to use in an IrDA environment. The OBEX protocol can be compared with the HTTP
protocol, but it doesn’t have all the features and options. A selection of the OBEX commands is
presented below, for more information, see [3] and [1].
•
Connect - This operation initiates the connection and sets up the basic expectations of
each side of the link.
•
Disconnect - This command signals the end of an OBEX session.
•
Put - The put operation sends one object from the client to the server.
•
Get – The Get operation retrieves an object from the server.
•
Abort – This operation aborts any ongoing operation.
•
Setpath - The setpath operation is used to change the current directory on the remote
device.
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4.5
DESIGN
An early choice in the thesis work was to use the Ericsson host stack. Together with the
Ericsson PC reference stack a few test examples were included. One of the applications was a chat
program. The program searches for other devices and presents the result to the user. The user selects
the desired device and a connection is created between the two Bluetooth devices. User written text
messages can then be exchanged between the server and the client using the created connection. The
connection is established according to the two lower profiles, generic access and serial port. The file
transfer profile is dependent on both these profiles, which made the chat application a perfect
example to study. The Bluetooth chat was broken down and compared to the Bluetooth
specification, tracing the procedure to connect and send messages. Many ideas to the basic Bluetooth
design came from the test application.
Many of the features required in the application are specified in the file transfer profile. This
helped in the design a great deal. A choice was made to only implement the mandatory functionalities
described in the profile.
The whole File Transfer application consists of two parts, a server and a client side. A lot of the
Bluetooth specific functionality will be the same for the server and the client. The list below
describes these common objects.
1. Initilization of the Bluetooth stack and the Module.
2. A security module handling the Bluetooth connections.
3. A Bluetooth communication part which sends and receives messages from the stack.
4. An OBEX module which can decode and generate messages.
5. A module for the profile level authentication
The OBEX and authentication module are really big parts of this application therefore they will
be described in their own sections below.
4.5.1
SECURITY APPLICATION
An early design choice is to do the initialization and handle security from the security application.
This is a logical choice since the security application is necessary for any other Bluetooth
functionality. The Security application should therefore initialize the stack and prepare it for further
communications. The security applications are named Server Security and Client security, since some
functionality differs.
On startup the Security application loads the stack and establishes a communication path to it. It
then sets the device name in the Bluetooth module. The device name can be requested by remote
devices as a compliment to the device address. The application registers as security handler with the
SCM, which means that it gets all the messages concerning links and connections. The security
application handles the discoverability and connectability towards other devices. The security on the
link is also handled here. However in our application, neither encryption nor authentication is used at
this level.
21
After the initialization the functionality starts to differ between the server and client security. On
the server side it answers to inquiry and allows a remote device to connect and establish an ACL link.
The client side remains hidden from all other devices. The Client also allows searching for possible
servers and presents this list to the user. The search only looks for devices that support the OBEX
file transfer service. The user can then select which server to connect to.
4.5.2
SERVER APPLICATION
The server application registers a file transfer service and waits for incoming connections. The
GUI for this can be very simple. Something like an icon in the taskbar just to show that the server is
running and perhaps some status info. A client needs to connect to the server on two levels
RFCOMM and OBEX. The RFCOMM commands, which are quite few, are understood directly by
the application. The OBEX commands are decoded and generated using the OBEX module,
described below. When a client connects the server needs to authenticate the user and permit the
user to see the folders allowed. For the authentication the authentication module, called OurMD5, is
used. The authentication module is described in a Section 4.5.5 below. For the management of users
and file permissions a GUI is needed. The solution to this is a standalone application called the
sharing application described further down. The class diagram for the server can be seen in Figure 9.
Figure 9. Server application class diagram
The main server dialog has a class CMainServer which handles the Bluetooth communication.
LocalLile is used to read, write and list folders from the local file structure. CAppData is the structure
holding the configured settings for file transfer users and permissions. The Server_state_machine
handles the generation and decodeing of the OBEX commands.
The sharing application is only needed on the server side. It allows the user to manage the file
transfer users allowed to logon to the server. Using the sharing application the visible folders for
each user and the read/write permissions can be configured. These settings are then saved to a
configuration file which is used by the server. The class diagram can be seen in Figure 10.
22
Figure 10. Class diagram for sharing application
The sharing application consists of three dialogs. The main dialog presents a view of the local file
system, handled by LocalFile. There is also a view of the folders shared. The dialog CAccessDlg is
used to edit which users should have writing or reading permissions to the folders. CEditUserDlg is a
dialog used to edit the user database. The sharing information is stored in the CAppData object,
which is stored to a file.
4.5.3
CLIENT APPLICATION
In the client application much more user interaction is needed. The idea to the GUI came from a
regular internet file transfer protocol program, an FTP program. An FTP program provides the user
with the options connect, disconnect, remove, put, get, list, and abort. These commands are very
similar to the ones specified by the file transfer profile. No connect command is needed since the
link level connection is handled by the client security application. The GUI of the client is very
familiar to a person who has used a common FTP application, but it is also made as intuitive as
possible for new users.
When the client is started it retrieves the handle to the transport layer from the client security
application. It then initiates the OBEX connection. Once the connection is established the basic idea
is to show both the local and the remote file system at all times. The user can then select one or more
files and send or retrieve them from the server. There should also be a window that shows the user
the status of the ongoing actions.
23
Figure 11. Class diagram for Client application
The client design is similar to the design of the server, but the functionality differs. The class
diagram is shown in Figure 11. The CClientDlg has a lot of user interaction. It is the main GUI for
this application. When the CClientDlg starts it creates a RFCOMM connection to the remote device
and stores that information in the CConnectionInfo object. When the connection is established the
user is queried whether OBEX authentication should be used or not. CAuthentication is a dialog
doing that. If authentication is activated the authentication module, called OurMD5, is used. It then
uses CMainClient to create an OBEX connection. CMainClient has one instance of
Client_state_machine, which parses incoming OBEX packets and puts together outgoing ones. The
Client_state_machine uses the OBEX module, described below, to generate and decode OBEX
packets. LocalFile does all the filesystem operations, when the user pulls or pushes a file.
CFolderListParser is a simple XML parser, which translates folder listing objects into a list in the
GUI.
4.5.4
OBEX MODULE
OBEX is the module that speaks the language used when transferring files or browsing folders.
OBEX has to keep track of all ongoing actions. This means that a packet generator/decoder and a
state machine are needed.
When designing the OBEX module two alternatives are possible. OBEX can be written as a
layer or as an independent module. Both options were considered in the design process.
OBEX layer
If implementing OBEX as a layer all Bluetooth traffic would go through it. A new API would
have to be specified for all Bluetooth events and commands. The OBEX layer would also have to be
24
a separate process. One serious drawback of the layer architecture is that OBEX would be very
dependent of the stack.
Figure 12.OBEX layer design
OBEX Generator/Decoder
If OBEX is implemented as a module used only to generate and decode messages it would be
more independent of the stack. If file transfer or any other profile using OBEX was to be
implemented on any other stack this module could be easily reused. When using this design all
Bluetooth traffic not concerning OBEX is handled directly in the application. The OBEX module
design makes it easy to add support for several simultaneous connections. Just use an instance of
OBEX for each connection. It was decided that this design alternative was the best.
Host system
1. Generate packet
Application
OBEX + statemachine
Packet generator
B. Decode
packet data
C. Handle
the packet
2. Send packet
Packet decoder
A. Receive packet
data
Stack
Figure 13. OBEX generator/decoder architecture
25
OBEX is called by the Main objects to handle and parse the incoming messages and to create the
outgoing messages. Booth on the client side and on the server side, OBEX consists of a state
machine that parses the incoming messages. Depending on the current state that the state machine is
in, it only allows some operations. The return value from the state machine tells Main what kind of
message it was, if the message was fully understood. Main can then decide the next action and the
next message that should be sent.
To ensure that OBEX is system independent it has nothing to do with reading and writing from
and to files. OBEX just indicates where to read in an incoming message and where to put the
content of a file in an outgoing message. The same procedure is used when assembling folder listings.
4.5.5
AUTHENTICATION
The file transfer profile uses optional authentication on a profile level. Since no link security is
used this higher level authentication is chosen instead. This choice is made because higher level
authentication is used in the profile which is more in the scope of this thesis work.
The authentication uses the fact that both sides must know the same password. The client uses
the authentication module to calculate a checksum of the password and a nonce. It then sends the
nonce used and the checksum to the server side. The server then does the same calculation and
compares the checksums to see if the client password was correct. This way the password is never
sent over the air. The nonce is a random 16 byte string and should never be used more then once. To
calculate the checksum a MD5 algorithm is used.
4.6
IMPLEMENTATION
The whole implementation of the applications was divided into different steps. Each step
followed a circular process where the application got better and better. Features and functionality
were added to the application during the implementation phase. The applications are written using
C++ and the development environment is Microsoft Visual Studio. During the testing and
debugging phase mistakes were rooted out. This continued until the application was stable and the
next step in the implementation process could be taken. During the debugging and testing tracing
tools are used. It is possible to trace the communication both at the UART interface and in the air.
The implementation process is described in Figure 14.
Figure 14, Implementation process
The steps come from the working procedure, see Chapter 4.1. In the actual implementation
phase these three steps were broken down to even smaller parts.
26
4.6.1
SERVER SECURITY
When the Server security application starts it initializes the stack. It registers as a user of the
desired protocols and starts receiving events from the stack. It then configures the interface to
UART and selects settings.
The Server security application will handle creation of connections and the server’s availability to
other devices. It is a single process message handler. The Server security has a simple user interface
which presents some information about the incoming messages from the stack in a dialog window. It
should also start the server application either automatically or by user interaction.
Figure 15. Security server Dialog 1
Figure 16. Server security, main dialog
This application consists of two dialogs. When the application is started the window in Figure 15
pops up. In this window you can specify a name for your server. This name will be set as device
name in the Bluetooth module. It can be requested by remote devices as a compliment to the device
address. In Figure 16 the main window of the application is shown. In this window all Bluetooth
events will be logged and the server can be started. Since no interaction is needed the window can be
minimized to the system tray with the Hide button. This application registers as security handler with
the SCM, which means that it gets all the messages concerning links and connections. The security
application handles the discoverability and connectability towards other devices. The security on the
link is also handled here. However in our application, neither encryption nor authentication is used at
this level. It answers to inquiry and allows a remote device to connect and establish an ACL link.
This application has nothing to do with the security in the meaning of which folders a client can
access, which files he can read or write in or which password a user has. This application just starts a
server with an OBEX file transfer service that a client can access. The parts that control the accessing
of folders are the server and sharing applications.
27
4.6.2
CLIENT SECURITY
The Client security application initializes the communication with the stack on start-up. It then
directly starts using the Bluetooth functionalities. The Client security application presents possible
file transfer servers to the user to connect to. It takes care of the device search. It finds all devices
within range and displays them to the user. Then it checks whether the selected device is a file
transfer server, if so the user can connect to it. The graphical user interface is shown in Figure 17.
Figure 17. Client Security dialog
When initializing the stack the security application registers to receive events from the stack. It
then configures the interface to UART and selects settings. When the initialization is done an inquiry
is performed and all devices within range answer with their device address. It then requests the
names from all discovered devices. This information is presented in the upper list, which will contain
both the Bluetooth address and a device name. If the user wants to update the device list, for
example if a new device enters the area or if an old device leaves the area, the refresh button is used.
To see the services offered by a device, simply highlight the device in the device list and press the
Select Device button. The selection initiates a service discovery procedure. The services that the
device offers will be displayed in the service field. Note that only services of OBEX file transfer type
will be listed. Also in the service field there exists a Refresh button, used to update the list of services
on the currently selected device. If the connect button is pressed, an ACL connection will be
established with the remote device and the client application is started.
28
Using the Server Security application and the Client security application the stack is initialized
and communication with the Bluetooth module can be started. The security applications also allow
communication between different Bluetooth devices. The client can request the name and which
services another device supports. The security applications have established a link layer connection.
Using this connection higher layer communication can be achieved.
4.6.3
SERVER
The Server is started by the Server Security application when an incoming connection is
established. The link layer connection parameters are passed as arguments by the security application.
The Server registers to the stack, and thereby starts a subscription for Bluetooth messages. It then
waits for an incoming RFCOMM connection. When the connection is established the mainServer is
initialized.
When the mainServer is started the application data, containing sharing settings and user
permissions, are read from the file assembled by the Sharing application. An incoming message from
the stack arrives at the message handler in the dialog. If it is an OBEX message it is passed to the
mainServer. The message is passed on to the OBEX module, where it is interpreted and a code is
returned to mainServer. The OBEX module is described in Section 4.6.6. The mainServer checks
that the necessary conditions, such as writing and reading permissions, are correct and carries out the
command. If the command involves any file or folder manipulation it is sent to LocalFile. The
response message is put together by OBEX module and sent to the client by mainServer.
Figure 18. Server Dialog
Figure 18 shows the GUI of the server. There is one field in the window that logs the actions
performed by the client. In the other field information about the user is presented. The information
is the Bluetooth address and the service that is used. The Hide button allows the user to minimize
the window to the system tray.
29
4.6.4
SHARING
The sharing application is a stand alone program. Figure 19 and Figure 20 show the dialogs of
the application. Figure 19 shows the main window. This window is used to control which folders to
represent in the root folder of the server. With the sharing application the server side can add new
and remove old users. This is done in the edit user window shown to the right in Figure 20. The
access to read and write is edited in the Access permissions window, left picture in Figure 20. There
is one user called guest, who doesn’t require a password. Therefore no authentication is done for a
guest user. If a user name and a password are used by the client, the authentication procedure is used.
Figure 19. Sharing main dialog
Figure 20. Sharing permission dialog and user dialog
The information written in the sharing application is stored in a file. The file is used by the server
in the OBEX connection procedure to authenticate a user. Both the username, password and the
permissions is visible in clear text in the file.
30
4.6.5
CLIENT
The Client application is started by the Client security application and the ACL link parameters
are received as arguments. It then immediately tries to connect to the server, first on RFCOMM level
and then on OBEX level using the existing link. To be able to make the OBEX connection it needs
to know if the user wants to be anonymous or use a specific username and password. MainClient
consists of two state machines and a method to send messages. One of the state machines controls
the action performed by the user in the GUI. An action to put a file will cause MainClient to call a
method in OBEX that creates a put message, and LocalFile is used to read from the file. When the
message is created, MainClient will send it to the server. An incoming message will be passed to
OBEX via MainClient. The second state machine will interpret the return value from OBEX and
take the right measure. The main difference between mainClient and the mainServer is that
mainClient also gets user interaction events, since all communication with the server is initialized by
the user on the client side.
When the user changes folder on the remote device, a folder listing object is returned. This
contains a description of the content in the new folder. The FolderListParser interprets the content
of the folder listing object. Immediately when a tag with a file or a folder is found the content is
presented to the user in the GUI. The folder listing objects are expressed as an object of the
Extensible Markup Language (XML).
The LocalFile class is a part of the Sharing, Client and Server applications. It handles the reading
and writing from and to files, the creation of folder listing objects and it also keeps the position of
the current folder in mind. The current folder is an indicator to keep track of where in the folder
structure the application is. The necessary information, for example the name of the file to open, the
size that can be put in a message and where to put it, is announced by the class using it.
31
Figure 21. Client dialog
The graphical user interface allows the client to perform different actions on the server and it
presents the results of the user actions. Figure 21 shows how the GUI looks. The GUI of the client is
where all the user interaction will take place. The upper left corner contains the server information.
The address is the Bluetooth device address and the service field contains the service that the server
offers.
The information about the local device consists of three fields. The fields inform the user about
the current drive, where in the folder structure the user is and the content of the current folder.
The information about the remote device contains information of where in the folder structure
the current folder is and the contents of the current folder.
Between the information lists about the devices some buttons indicate the different actions the
user can perform. The Make dir button creates a folder on the selected device. The new folder will be
located as a child folder of the current folder. The Delete button will delete the highlighted file. Our
version does not delete folders. Before the selected file will be deleted a security measure has been
taken. Before the delete action takes place, the user has to confirm the deletion in a message box.
This is a common security measure. The Refresh button is used to update the folder structure both
on the client and on the server side. If changes are made in the folder structure of the client or if the
server decides to share more folders, the user has to update the window by pressing the Refresh
button. When a file is transferred the progress bar indicates the proportion of the file that has been
transferred. The Put Æ button will send the highlighted file from the client to the current folder of
32
the server, and the Get Å button will send the highlighted file on the server to the current directory
of the client. When an action is performed, for example a get request, all buttons will be disabled and
an Abort button will be enabled. The Abort button will terminate the current action and set the client
to wait for a user action and the server to wait for an incoming message. The kind of message doesn’t
matter. The disconnect message will end the current OBEX session and a user can logon with a
different username and get access to other folders. The disconnect action should always be available.
4.6.6
OBEX MODULE
The OBEX module is a direct translation of the mandatory features in the Bluetooth
specification. It is implemented as a module which generates and decodes OBEX messages. All
actions are function driven and the results are returned as pointers. Everything is executed in the
function caller context.
Before any messages can be sent or received the OBEX module needs to be initialized. The
maximum OBEX packet size must be specified since it depends on the maximum transmission unit
of the transport layer. The initialization also starts the state machine. The state machine keeps track
of all the ongoing command sequences. It is the state machine that checks which commands are
allowed both for incoming and outgoing traffic. Since it had to check for erroneous communication
initiated both by the local and remote sides it became quite complex.
Generating messages
When generating OBEX packets functions available in the OBEX API are used. The OBEX
module provides a function named Create_xxxx(…) for every OBEX message that can be sent.
For example Create_put_message(). The OBEX module then generates a complete OBEX message.
The length of the constructed message is given as a return parameter. Since the OBEX module is
completely independent of the operating system and transport layers some things must be done by
the application. In these cases the create-functions construct all the headers, length fields and make
space for the payload. Then a public pointer is set to indicate where the application should copy the
data to. This procedure is used for packets containing file data or folder listing objects. The memory
buffer used is allocated by the application; the OBEX module will never allocate memory. This way
the application decides on the number of buffers that should be used and has full control of the
memory consumption.
Decoding messages
When decoding packets the received message is passed to a decode function. This function
returns a specific message code for every type of OBEX packet that can be received. The application
can then take the correct step. If data is received a public pointer is used to pass it to the application.
The application must make sure that the data is handled before the message is freed.
Debugging
During the development and debugging of the OBEX module the air trace instrument is used.
The instrument is from the company CATC and is called Merlin. Merlin is basically a Bluetooth radio
that listens to ongoing communication between two Bluetooth devices. The Merlin software can then
33
decode the different packages and show the payload. This helped a lot during the debugging phases,
when rooting out packet errors. This showed that the OBEX packets were correct between the
Server and the Client. Otherwise packet errors made on one side could have been corrected on the
other side. The Merlin tester was also used for interoperability tests of the implemented OBEX
protocol.
34
5
DISCUSSION
This thesis work is a learning process from the beginning to the end. Large quantities of
information and specifications had to be comprehended to achieve the goals of the project. This
information is not only Bluetooth specific. A lot of information regarding communication, stack
architectures and programming is also acquired.
5.1
WORKING PROCEDURE
The work was mainly conducted according to the working procedure planned in the beginning
of the thesis work. Some small deviations were made due to the problems with the hardware and the
hoststack. If the hardware problems had been known earlier more time would have been spent on
the USB transport layer in an earlier phase of the project.
We are convinced that the working procedure to achieve a fully functioning Bluetooth
application was the right way to go. Through it we had the opportunity to handle small parts of the
difficulties in a sequential process that led to the final system.
5.2
HARDWARE
It is always good to start a development on PC platforms. A PC has plenty of resources and
tools to get the development started. However one big problem was discovered when the application
started to send data over the UART. The problem occurred at UART speeds as low as 57600 bits per
second and it got worse at higher speed. The UART started loosing bytes of data when sending files.
This corrupted the communication at different levels depending on which bytes were lost. The
problem occurred frequently on both desktops and laptops, but it was much worse on the laptops. It
proved to be a known problem. The UART flow control on the PC’s weren’t fast enough. When the
module signaled STOP the PC didn’t stop fast enough. The problem is discussed further in Chapter
5.3.
A solution to this problem would have been to implement the application using the USB
interface. However the first hoststack didn’t have the USB transport layer implemented. And when
the second stack, with USB support, was released the thesis work was almost done.
5.3
SOFTWARE
Ericsson stopped the development of the PC reference stack at the end of the thesis work. Two
versions were released and none of those were stable. Sometimes it hanged the whole host system.
The solution would have been to change hoststack vendor or implement a new hoststack based on
the generic solution from Ericsson. That would however consume too much time and effort for this
thesis work.
A flow control problem in the UART caused a lot of weird problems in the stack, in the
application and OBEX. Since the error could occur at any level in the stack or application it was hard
to find. A lot of debugging was done trying to find these errors before the cause was found. The real
cause of these errors comes from a flaw in the Bluetooth specification. When Bluetooth was
designed the only likely cause of data corruption considered was the radio link. Therefore error
control, error correction and resending are only done on the radio level. An error that occurs before
the packet is sent or after it is received can cause trouble anywhere in the stack or application. It
doesn’t help to have error correction in the application since errors can still cause the stack
35
communication to fail. Possible solutions would instead be to have error control and resending over
the UART layer or in the lowest layer of the hoststack.
5.4
APPLICATION
Many problems and issues during the development arose during the development of the GUI.
These issues are not directly related to the Bluetooth communication. However a lot of experience
regarding the interaction needed for Bluetooth communication was gained when solving these issues.
Even though most of the Bluetooth communication is handled by the OBEX module it is still a
heavy load on the application developer. The fact that the hoststack functionality is generic and very
unlimited makes it more complicated to use. The advantage is that the stack is very flexible and
adaptive.
Perhaps the file transfer profile should have been developed as an easy to use module instead. In
that case only a small API would be presented to the application. This would limit the amount of
Bluetooth communication that has to be handled in the application. It would also make the file
transfer profile more reusable.
The information that is written in the sharing application is stored in a file. The file that contains
the user names and the passwords is not encoded, because this wasn’t a main purpose of the thesis.
The user has to keep malicious people away from his computer.
When investigating potential problems and testing the applications the air Bluetooth analyzer
Merlin is used. By learning how to use this instrument and utilize it in the development process a lot
of issues are discovered and solved. It also gives a hint of how well the application will interoperate
with other applications.
5.4.1
AMBIGUITIES
During the implementation it became obvious why the qualification process for Bluetooth
products is needed. It wasn’t always that easy to understand what the specification stated. During the
implementation of the profiles some ambiguities came up.
The first ambiguity is in the IrOBEX protocol. It involves the creation of a new folder.
According to IrOBEX a new object is created with a put request with an empty end of body header.
However in the section that involves the folder browsing service, a new folder is created with a
setpath request. The file transfer file follows the last procedure. It states that a new object, in this
case a folder, is created with a setpath request with the name of the folder in the name header. The
get request with an empty name header would be better to use because it would be found faster. The
whole packet doesn’t have to be scanned to find out if it exists.
According to IrOBEX sending a get command with an empty name header is used to pull the
contents of the current folder. The file transfer profile on the other hand states that a get command
without a name header is sent to retrieve the contents of the current folder.
IrOBEX has a feature that is stated more consistent in The Bluetooth profile specification. This
feature is to retrieve the content of a child folder. According to IrOBEX you should send a get
request with the name of the child folder in a name header and a type header that specifies the folder
object type. The file transfer profile tells you to first send a setpath request to set the current folder
to the root folder. Then send a get request to retrieve the content of the current folder. The way that
it’s stated in GOEP is more consistent and similar to the other operations.
36
5.5
THE FUTURE
A natural future development for this project is to change the transport layer used. Some
companies have already implemented a UART protocol that uses error control and resendings.
However Ericsson has no such plans6. USB would be a better alternative for this application. That
would increase speed and hopefully stability.
The next step would be to enable multi point communications. As it is now, only one client can
connect at the time. The possible number of use cases increases if the application could handle
several connections. The Bluetooth module and stack can already handle this. It would only require
some small changes in the Server security part and that a server was started for each connection.
6
Atleast no such plans existed 2001.
37
6
Abbreviation
ACL
API
ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS
USB
Description
Asynchronous Connection-less Link
Application Programmers Interface
An interface presented to the application programmer.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Bluetooth Special Interest Group
Bits Per Second
Bluetooth
Channel Identifier
Ericsson Bluetooth Starter Kit
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
File Transfer Protocol
Generic Access Profile
Generic Object Exchange Profile
General Purpose Input / Output
Graphical User Interface
Host Controller Interface.
Bluetooth protocol layer that provides a command interface with the
baseband controller
Infrared Data Association
Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
Bluetooth protocol layer that provides protocol multiplexing and packet
segmentation and reassembly
Link Manager Protocol
Memory Transfer Unit
Object Exchange
Personal Computer
Personal Digital Assistant
Point-to-Point Protocol
Radio Frequency
Serial Cable Emulation Protocol
Bluetooth protocol layer that provides serial port emulation and
Multiplexing
Read Only Memory
Security Connection Manager
Synchronous Connection-Oriented Link
Service Discovery Protocol
Bluetooth protocol layer that provides access to descriptions and
attributes of Bluetooth services
Special Interest Group
Serial Port Profile
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
The electronic circuit that makes up the serial port.
Universal Serial Bus
XML
Extensible Markup Language
ASCII
Bluetooth SIG
BPS
BT
CID
EBSK
ETSI
FTP
GAP
GOEP
GP I/O
GUI
HCI
IrDA
L2CAP
LMP
MTU
OBEX
PC
PDA
PP
RF
RFCOMM
ROM
SCM
SCO
SDP
SIG
SPP
UART
38
7
REFERENCES
[1]
IrDA Object Exchange Protocol V1.2 (1999-03). Infrared Data Association. www.irda.org.
[2]
Specification of the Bluetooth System, Core, V1.0 B (1999-12). Special Interest Group.
www.bluetooth.org.
[3]
Specification of the Bluetooth System, Profiles, V1.0 B (1999-12). Special Interest Group.
www.bluetooth.org.
[4]
Users Manual – Bluetooth PC Reference Stack by Ericsson, version R1a (2000-04). Ericsson
Bluetooth Starter Kit.
[5]
Bluetooth Architecture Overview, 2000-06-26. Ericsson Bluetooth Starter Kit
Documentation.
[6]
Ericsson Bluetooth Starter Kit Introductional Slides, 1999-09. Ericsson Bluetooth Starter Kit
Documentation.
[7]
General Bluetooth information and links. www.bluetooth.org, 2000-2001.
[8]
Brian W. Kernighan, Dennis M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language, Second Edition,
1988.
[9]
Jon Bates, Tom Tompkins, Using Visual C++ 6, 1998.
[10]
Larry L. Peterson, Bruce S. Davie, Computer Networks, 1996
39
8
TO O L S
Microsoft Visual Studio 6.0
Sys Internals PortMon
CATC Merlin Bluetooth Tracer With Software
Ericsson Microelectronics PC reference stack
Ericsson Microelectronics Ericsson Bluetooth Starter Kit, EBSK
Microsoft Office
Jasc Paintshop Pro 7
40
APPENDIX
OBEX IMPLEMENTATION
This section will describe the packet exchange between the client and the server. The packets
exchanged are the packets that we have designed and implemented. This section gives a deeper
understanding of the implementation. Examples are given for all packets used. All values are
hexadecimal values. The only exception is the content of a few headers such as name, user-id and the
body header. The size of the field and header are depicted above each packet. Below each packet an
explanation is given.
CONNECT
This section will bring up all the packets that use the opcode for connect. The first example
shows a connect request without authentication. Figure 1 shows the packet flow. The request and
response packets are shown in Table 1 and Table 2.
Figure 1. Establishment of OBEX session without authentication
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
0x80 0x001A 0x10
Byte 4
Byte 5-6
0x10
0x007F 0x46 0x0013 0xF9EC7BC4953C11D2984E525400DC9E09
Byte 7
Byte 8-9
Byte 10-25
Table 1. Connect request packet
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
0xA0 0x001F 0x10
Byte 4
Byte 5-6
0x10
0x007F 0xCB 0x01
Byte 7
Byte 8
Byte 9-12
Byte 13
Byte 14-15
0x00000001 0x4A 0x0013
Byte 16-31
0xF9EC7BC4953C11D2984E525400DC9E09
Table 2. Connect response packet
This example shows the procedure to establish an OBEX session and make use of the
authenticate challenge option. The first request can either be the packet described in Table 1, or if the
client initiates the authenticate challenge, the first packet will be the one described by Table 3.
Independently of the connect request the response will look like the packet depicted in Table 4. The
server includes the authenticate challenge header and the response code for unauthorized in the
I
response. The second connect request (Table 5) includes the authenticate response header, as
response for the authenticate challenge header in the request. It also includes an authenticate
challenge header to authenticate the server. The second and last response (Table 6) includes the
authenticate response header, the response code is success if the server accepted the request.
Figure 2. Connect with authenticate challenge
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x80
0x006C 0x10 0x10 0x007F 0x46
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5-6
Byte 7
Byte 8
Byte 9-24
0x0013
0xF9EC7BC4953C11D2984E525400DC9E09
Byte 25
Byte 26-27
Byte 28
Byte 29
Byte 30-46
Byte 47
Byte 48
Byte 49
0x4d
0x0018
0x00
0x10
--------------------- 0x02
0x01
0x00
Table 3. Connect packet with authenticate challenge
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4
0xC1 0x0021 0x10
Byte 30
Byte 31
Byte 32
0x02
0x01
0x00
Byte 5-6
Byte 7
0x10 0x007F 0x4d
Byte8-9
Byte 10
Byte 11
0x001A 0x00 0x10
Byte 28
Byte 29
0xdigest string 0x00
Byte 12-27
0x01
Table 4. First connect response packet
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x80
0x0060 0x10
Byte 3
Byte 26
Byte 27
Byte 4
Byte 5-6
0x10
0x007F 0x46
Byte 7
Byte 8-9
Byte 10-25
0x0013
0xF9EC7BC4953C11D2984E525400DC9E09
Byte 28
Byte 29
Byte 30-45
Byte 46
Byte 47
byte 48
byte 49
Byte 50-51
Byte 52
Byte 53
0x4D 0x0018 0x00
0x13
-------------------- 0x02
0x01
0x00
0x4e
0x003D 0x00
0x13
Byte 54-69
Byte 70
Byte 71
Byte 72-76
Byte 77
Byte 78
Byte79-94
-----------
0x01
0x05
Erik\0
0x02
0x13
----------------
Table 5. Second connect request
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5-6
0xA0
0xC1
0x004C
0x10
0x1
0
0x007F 0xCB 0x00000001 0x4A 0x0013 0xF9EC7BC4953C11D2
984E525400DC9E09
Byte 7
Byte 8-11
Byte 12
Byte 31
Byte 32-33
Byte 34
Byte 35-40
Byte41
Byte 42
Byte 43-58
0x4E
0x0027
0x00
Digest_rsp
0x02
0x10
Nonce_rec
II
Byte 13-14
Byte 15-30
Table 6. Second connect response packet
SETPATH
The setpath request is used to browse the remote folder structure and to create new folders.
Figure 3.13 shows the packet exchange during a setpath request. A setpath request has to fit in one
single packet. The tables below describe the different packets that make use of the opcode for
setpath. The first is setpath forward, used to set the current folder to the child folder. The request
and response are shown in Table 7 and Table 8.
Figure 3. Setpath request
Table 7 shows a request to set the current folder on the server to a child folder with the name
Arfwedson, Table 8 shows the response packet. 0xC4 is returned if the folder doesn’t exist.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6-9
Byte 10
Byte 11-12
Byte 13-33
0x85
0x0021
0x02
0x00
0xCB
0x00000001 0x01
0x0017
Arfwedson\0
Table 7. Setpath forward
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0 0x0003
0xC4
Table 8. Response packet for setpath forward
III
Table 9 shows a request to set the current folder on the server back to the parent folder. No
name header is required. Table 10 shows the response packet. The response code is 0xC4 if the
current folder is the root folder.
te 0
By
0x85
Byte 1-2
Byte3
Byte4
Byte 5
0x000A 0x03 0x00 0xCB
Byte 6-9
0x00000001
Table 9. Setpath backward
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0 0x0003
0xC4
Table 10. Response packet for setpath forward
Table 11 shows a request to set the current folder on the server to the root folder, Table 12
shows the response packet.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x85
0x000A 0x02
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6-9
0x00
0xCB
0x00000001 0x01
Byte 7
Byte 8
0x0003
Table 11. Setpath root
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0 0x0003
Table 12. Response packet for setpath root.
Table 13 shows a request to create a folder with the name ERICSSON, and the respons packet is
shown in Table 14.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x85
0x000A 0x00
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 5
Byte 6-9
0x00
0xCB
0x00000001 0x01
Byte 7
Byte 8
Byte 9-30
0x0003 ERICSSON\0
Table 13. Create folder
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0 0x0003
Table 14. Response packet for create folder
GET
The get operation is used to get the content of a file or to get a folder-listing object. The get
operation can also be used to get the content of a folder (all files and folders and the containing
content). The get operation of a folder is optional and is not supported by this version. Figure 4
illustrates the packet exchanges if the request and the response fit in a single packet. Figure 5
illustrates when the request fits in a single packet, but the response packet doesn’t fit in a single
packet.
IV
Figure 4. Get request
Table 15 shows the request to get the file Marcus.txt from the server. No type header is used.
The response packet is depicted in Table 16. The get request can also concern a folder-listing object.
That case is illustrated in Table 17. A type header must be used but a name header isn’t sent. The
response packet is shown in Table 18.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8
Byte 9-10
Byte 11-32
0x83
0x001F
0xCB
0x00000001
0x01
0x0017
Marcus.txt\0
Table 15. A request to get the file Marcus.txt
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8-108
0xA0
0x006B
0x48
0x0068
H…s.
Table 16. The response message for the request to get the file Marcus.txt, file size is 101 bytes
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8
Byte 9-10
Byte 11-32
0x83
0x001F
0xCB
0x00000001
0x42
0x0017
Xobex/folderlisting\0
Table 17. A request to get a folder listing of the server’s current folder
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8-108
0xA0
0x0069
0x48
0x0066
<...>
Table 18. The response message for the request to get the folder-listing object of the current
folder, the size of the folder-listing object is 99 bytes.
V
Figure 5. Get request
Suppose that the file Marcus.txt will be transferred. The size of the file is 500 bytes and the
maximum OBEX packet length is 255 bytes. The first packet has the same look as the packet shown
in Table 15. The response packet, illustrated in Table 19, will now contain the response code for
continue, not success. Since the client gets the response code for continue, he knows that the server
has more to send. He will ask the server for more. The second request packet is depicted in Table 20.
The second response depicted in Table 21 will also transfer 259 bytes. Totally 498 bytes has been
transferred now, two bytes left to transfer. The last response packet, Table 23, will transfer those two
bytes. This packet will have the final bits set. The third request, illustrated in Table 22, has the same
appearance as the second request packet.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-5
Byte 6-254
0x90
0x00FF
0x48
0x00FC
…
Table 19. First response packet, final bit not set. This response will transfer 249 bytes of the
requested file.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x83
0x0003
Table 20. Second request packet, note that this packet contains neither a name header nor a
connection Id header
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-5
Byte 6-254
0x90
0x00FF
0x48
0x00FC
…
Table 21. Second response packet, final bit not set, even this packet transfers 249 bytes
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x83
0x0003
Table 22. Third request packet, note that this packet contains neither a name header nor a
connection Id header
VI
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-5
Byte 6-7
0xA0
0x0008
0x49
0x0005
.
Table 23. Last response packet, final bit set. This last response will transfer the last two bytes
PUT
The put operation is used to put objects to a server. The object can for example be a file. The
operation to put folders isn’t supported by our version. The put operation is also used to delete files
and folders. However deletion of folders isn’t supported by our version. Figure 6 shows the packet
exchange when both the request and the response fit in one single packet.
Figure 6. Illustration of the put procedure when the request fits in one packet.
In Table 24 the put packet is illustrated. The client requests the server to put the file
JonasBredband.txt to the server. The size of the file is 155 bytes. Table 25 shows the response
packet. The request to delete a file is shown in Table 26. In this case the file is Marcus.txt, no body
header is used. The response packet for the delete request is shown in Table 27.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8
Byte 9-10
Byte 11-36
Byte 37
Byte 38-39
Byte 40194
0x82
0x002B
0xCB
0x00000001
0x01
0x0024
JonasBredband.txt\0
0x49
0x000B
…
Table 24. A request to put the file JonasBredband.txt, the content of the file is in the body
header
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0
0x0003
Table 25. The successful response packet for a request to put the file JonasBredband.txt
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8
Byte 9-10
Byte 11-22
0x82
0x00
0xCB
0x00000001
0x01
0x0019
Marcus.txt\0
VII
Table 26. A request to delete the file Marcus.txt
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0
0x0003
Table 27. The successful response packet for a request to delete the file Marcus.txt
Figure 7. File put of a file that doesn’t fit in one OBEX packet.
If a file doesn’t fit in one OBEX packet the final bit will not be set in the request. Figure 7 shows
an example of this case. The file Meivert.txt should be transferred from the server to the client. The
size of the file is 250 bytes. Suppose that the maximum OBEX packet length is 255 bytes. Table 28
shows the first request packet. 215 bytes of the file will be sent in the first packet. The first response
will contain the response code for continue, to indicate to the client to send more. The first response
packet is shown in Table 29. The second, and last request has the final bits set, Table 30 illustrates
this. The last response is illustrated Table 31.
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
Byte 8
Byte 9-10
Byte 11-36
Byte 37
Byte 38-39
0x02
0x00FF
0xCB
0x00000001
0x01
0x0019
Meivert.txt
0x48
0x00D7 …
Byte 40-254
Table 28. A request to put the file Meivert.txt, the content of the file is in the body header
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0x90
0x0003
Table 29. The response packet for the first request
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 37
Byte 38-39
Byte 40-254
0x82
0x0029
0x49
0x0026
…
Table 30. The second request, the content of the file is placed in the body header
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0
0x0003
VIII
Table 31. The last response packet, final bit set
ABORT
The abort action is used to terminate the current operation, for example a put action. An Abort
message sequence is shown in Figure 8. Both the request and the response must each fit into one
single packet. Table 32 illustrates the request packet and Table 33 illustrates the response packet.
Figure 8. The Abort request
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
0xFF
0x0008
0xCB
0x00000001
Table 32. Format of the abort request
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0
0x0003
Table 33. Format of the abort response
DISCONNECT
The disconnect operation is used to end the current OBEX session. Both the request and the
response must fit in one single OBEX packet. The Disconnect Message sequence is shown in and
the packets in
IX
Figure 9. Disconnect request
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
Byte 3
Byte 4-7
0x81
0x0008
0xCB
0x00000001
Table 34. Format of the abort request
Byte 0
Byte 1-2
0xA0
0x0003
Table 35. Format of the abort response
X
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