A 46` Grand Banks Classic Yacht Operating Manual

A 46` Grand Banks Classic Yacht Operating Manual
A 46’ Grand Banks Classic Yacht
Operating Manual
Edition of April 1, 2017 • Copyrighted. See notice next page.
Introduction & General Boat Description
Important Vessel Numbers
Operating Checklists & Maneuvering Suggestions
Specific Discussion of Boat Systems
“What to Do” for Some Specific Concerns
This notice is a part of this manual, and is placed here to warn you as an owner, crew member or passenger
on this vessel that the author of this manual assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions herein,
and represents only that the writings and illustrations herein represent his “best efforts” to provide a
comprehensive overview of the vessel, so that it can be operated by a person who has the necessary experience
and/or training to operate such a vessel given the additional information herein.
You should be aware that this operating manual is provided as a convenience to the owner(s), crew members
and passengers on this vessel, and is not complete in every detail. Given the complexity of this boat and
its systems, there is no way that all conditions, contingencies, and operating details can be covered, both
because of space limitations and because of ordinary oversight as contingencies are speculated upon by the
author. Likewise, it is possible either through oversight and/or changes in the vessel as a result of additions,
modifications, or deletions to or of equipment since publication of this manual, that items discussed will
operate differently than described, be absent from the vessel, or be added to the vessel without discussion in
this volume.
As a vessel owner, crew member or passenger on this vessel, you are here at your own risk, and the author of
this manual has no responsibility for your actions whatsoever. If you do not feel competent to undertake any or
all operations detailed herein, do not undertake it/them; get help from a competent person.
I thank you, (and my lawyer thanks you.)
Copyright 2012 Joseph D. Coons
This manual was written for this boat’s owner and it’s charter company by Joseph D. Coons,
1220 Birch Falls Drive, Bellingham, WA 98229, tel (360) 647-0288, email joejudyc@comcast.net.
All rights reserved. This manual may not be quoted, copied, or duplicated, in whole or in part, in printed
or electronic form, without express written consent from the author.
About the Author
Joe Coons is a retired AM-FM broadcasting station owner and computer systems corporate executive who throughout his
life was involved in communications and mechanical, electrical, and electronic systems. He cruised his own boat on the
Hudson River and Lake Champlain when a teen and in his early twenties, and during the 70’s and 80’s accumulated some
2,500 hours as an instrument-rated private pilot. Beginning in 1986 he became seriously involved in boating as a boat
owner, subsequently working in a “retirement career” as a broker, also commissioning vessels, operating a charter fleet,
checking out boat charterers, and training new power boaters. He has held a 50-ton Coast Guard Master’s license, and
operated his own boats and a substantial number of others from 26 to 70 feet in the near- coastal waters of Washington
State, British Columbia, and Alaska. His “helm time” exceeds 8,000 hours. In addition, he has trained hundreds of boaters
in the skills of vessel operation.
Section 1: Introduction & General Boat Description
1A: About This Manual
1A1: Manual Objective and Limitations
This manual is intended to introduce you to “Patos”, its systems, and features, allowing you to operate it with the
confidence and self-assurance necessary to enjoy your cruising vacation to its fullest. It is not intended to replace a basic
understanding of seamanship, including navigation skills, weather interpretation or boat handling. You are expected
to have an understanding of these subjects obtained through other sources, including training, seminars, reading and
perhaps most important, experience.
There is no way that a small manual like this one can answer every question or give you a solution to every circumstance,
foreseen or unforeseen. If you have a question which limits your understanding or handling of this vessel, ask the owner,
a specialist, or contact the Jet-Tern Marine/Grand Banks company offices for details (you might make a list of questions
as you read the manual, saving them all up to ask at one time).
1A2: How the Manual is Organized
The manual is divided into six sections numbered “1” to “6” plus an index (Section 7). Within each section are
subsections lettered “A” to “Z” as required.
In section 4, which deals with the specific information about the vessel’s equipment and systems, the manual is
organized by major categories, such as “Anchor”, “Dinghy, Davit & Outboard”, “Fresh Water System”, etc.
Note that “Electrical System - AC” and “Electrical System-DC” are two separate categories, and within them are
such items that are a part of each, such as “Inverter”, “Generator”, etc.; Likewise, all electronic equipment is in the
“Electronics” section.
A complete index is at the back of the manual in Section 7.
Important Note:
All the text in this manual, and all the detail photographs, are current as of the publication date;
a few of the general photographs in this manual (such as “salon” or “flybridge”) do not include
equipment that has been upgraded since the first printing.
Thank you for your understanding.
1B: General Description of this Vessel
1B1: Exterior
Flybridge, Cockpit, Side & Forward Decks
The Grand Banks 46’ Classic is a traditional yacht design, with
fiberglass hull, cabin, and flybridge structures, a teak swim step,
teak decks, rails, and gunwhale caps, and stainless steel welded
fittings and handrails. The window frames are of painted wood
with sliding glass panes, while the windshield frame is of the
same material with a center- opening windshield section for
Of particular note are the easy walk-around decks, enabling safe,
secure passage about the boat by passengers and crew. A roomy cockpit
section with a storage lazarette beneath is especially useful for fishing and
for handling the dinghy after it is launched from its davit on the sundeck.
On the side decks are the two fuel fills, one port-side and the other
starboard. A holding tank pump-out deck fitting is also here. The water tank
fills are on the port side, in the side and fore decks.
Forward on the bow deck is the anchor windlass with foot switches allowing
chain movement both “up” and “down” electrically. The anchor is retracted
into the bow pulpit which hangs out over the bow to give better chain
clearance from the hull than otherwise possible; this pulpit is strong and
braced, easily supporting not only the anchor during hauling but also an
attending crew member if necessary. After passing over the winch, the
chain goes below decks via a hawse pipe in the foredeck.
Shore power connection, swim
shower outlet, and salt water
faucet in the cockpit.
On the bow deck is the windlass and
salt water anchor washdown faucet.
Winter covers are on the rails.
There are shore power connections
(with an adjacent fuse holder) at both the bow and
stern, selected by the shore power switch in the
electric panel; when this cable is to be disconnected,
the switch should first be turned to the “off “
position to avoid arcing which could damage the
plug contacts. The boat’s 30-amp shore power cable
is 50 feet long and stays with the boat when away
from its home dock.
The side deck photo was taken right
after the boat was washed!
Three steps above the aft side decks is the “sun deck“.
Here you will find the permanently-mounted barbeque
with its own fixed propane tank, and the dinghy.
Up three steps from the sun deck is the flybridge, with seating
for crew and passengers, and the upper helm station. In addition
to the helm’s instruments and controls, the console has storage
for the ship’s canvas covers and a space for flybridge electronics.
Within the storage compartments beneath the seats you will
find a complement of life jackets (on the starboard side) and the
propane tank for the ship’s stove (to port).
Looking down at the sundeck, dinghy, and barbeque
(in the blue cover to right) from the flybridge.
The spacious flybridge; the fitted cushions
for the settees are not shown.
The cockpit has two large hatches into the room lazarette
storage lockers. In it are stowed spare anchor and rope,
bridle, cleaning materials, outboard spare oil, etc.
1B2: Interior
Main Deck
The boat is entered by either side door, port or starboard. These
doors are fitted with strong deadbolt locks, and in addition have
stainless catches affixed to the cabin sides to hold them open;
these “hold-open catches“ should be engaged manually, not just
by “slamming the doors open“ to avoid damage to the catches
by bending, or the doors by banging. The doors should be
closed when underway except at very low speeds in calm waters
to avoid getting salt water inside the doorways. The starboard
and port door steps have storage beneath for shore power cord
adapters, flashlights, fire extinguishers, etc.
Starboard aft in the salon is a comfy L-settee and dining table.
The dry bar is in the left foreground, stateroom entry on right.
Helm and wet bar.
In the port aft salon corner is the TV and book racks;
these chairs double at the helm. Additional chairs
aboard can be used at the dining table.
Forward of the starboard door is a professionalquality helm station with electric switch panels
adjacent and electronics panel above holding
the inverter control, the stereo, autopilot
control, alarm and windshield wiper switch
panel, and the speed log and depth sounder;
on the helm itself are the ship’s radar, a depth
sounder and GPS/plotter. In the helm cabinet
is storage for manuals, tide tables, navigation
tools, and charts. There are two portable, high,
chairs that double as helm seats when operating
from this station.
Just aft of the starboard door is a dry bar with
the ship’s manuals in the bottom drawers.
Aft of the bar cabinet is fitted an L-settee
to starboard. The settee aft-end drawer has
emergency gear (see following sections). A
table in front of the settee is used for dining/cocktails.
From the port entry door forward are the galley upper cabinet with microwave
below (the white cabinet); the refrigerator, sink and cabinets and drawers.
To port in the salon is more seating when the helm chairs are
moved here; there is also a large- screen flat-panel TV (with a
built-in DVD player) on a swivel bracket. Forward of the port
doorway is the galley. The galley has a propane stove/oven, a
large stainless sink; a refrigerator/freezer under the counter;
and a microwave. There is extensive storage under and over
the counters, and storage holds for galley use in the forward
stateroom and head compartment floors. The stove burners
have a push- button “igniter” to light them; the oven requires
manual pilot-lighting (a “propane match” igniter is in the galley).
This view gives you an idea of the storage.
Forward Stateroom
All the way forward, the bow
guest stateroom includes two
large V-berths with an insert.
Storage includes a hanging
locker and drawers/cabinets for
crew clothing. A large overhead
hatch and side opening windows
provide plenty of light.
Forward Head/Shower
Moving aft from the stateroom
to starboard is the forward
head compartment with its own
shower stall and MasterFlush
head and basin with vanity.
There is plenty of storage in the
vanity cabinet.
Guest Cabin
The guest head has all the amenities, including a
stall shower, not in picture –behind door to
the right. (The head shownhas been replaced
by a new MasterFlush unit.)
The port guest cabin down the steps and just forward from
the galley has a double berth to port, with a dresser by the
berth with a fire extinguisher above, and a hanging locker at
the berth’s foot. There are drawers beneath the berth as well.
Windows provide light and ventilation in this spacious room.
The forward stateroom has a V-berth with
an insert to make it a spacious double.
There are drawers each side, and a freezer
is in the center under this berth.
The guest stateroom to port is comfortable and well-equipped.
Aft Stateroom
The aft (master) stateroom is down a few steps from the port
end of the salon. Forward to port in this stateroom is a head
compartment with toilet and holding tank indicator, sink/vanity,
and numerous cabinets and drawers; to starboard opposite in
the cabin is the stall shower. Between these two compartments
on the forward bulkhead are a huge hanging locker for clothing
and the salon passageway. This stateroom features a queensized island berth, beneath which are drawers including a
spacious and efficient chart drawer. To each side of the berth
are tables with cabinets beneath, as well as storage lining
the vessel’s exterior walls on each side. A vanity is aft to port
beneath the emergency exit hatch.
Master Stateroom Head & Shower
Forward to port in this stateroom is a head
compartment with toilet, sink/vanity, and
numerous cabinets and drawers.
To starboard opposite the head compartment
is the stall shower.
Between these two compartments is the
stateroom-salon steps and passageway.
(The toilet shown has been replaced
with a MasterFlush unit.)
1B3: Engine Room
Preferred access to the engine room
is through the floor hatch by the port
doorway in the salon. Engine room
lighting is turned on by a breaker in
the ship’s DC power panel by the helm
(second down in left row); high-intensity
AC lighting is also available: turn it on via
the switch by the (unused) forward hatch
under-stairway door inside the engine
Along the forward bulkhead, from
port to starboard, are a shelf with the
refrigeration compressors, under the
shelf is the fresh water filter and (atop
the hull) the port stabilizer actuator. The
stabilizer system components are left
of center, then a fixed fire extinguishing
system, fresh water faucet and a handEngine Room Access Hatch
held extinguisher. Next is the unused
under-stair door, the battery switches
and combiner, and the inverter. Outboard of the starboard engine are battery
boxes for house/starboard engine starting battery bank (with a switch for the
inverter DC supply) with the furnace above; the electric wiring cabinet, the
engine muffler, and the macerator pump and its seacock, then the starboard fuel
tank with sight gauge. Just inboard of these is the starboard Caterpillar 3208-N
210hp engine with its transmission and drive shaft. Just in front of it is its seacock
and sea strainer.
In the center of the engine room aft is the sea strainer for the genset, the fuel
manifold with Racor filters for each engine, and behind it the genset in its sound
shield cabinet with a water tank beneath (the other is under the galley). Just
port of the genset is its Racor; and the watermaker system’s reverse-osmosis
treatment unit. To port of the port engine from forward is the water heater, the
starting battery, the generator starting battery (with battery switch nearby), the
watermaker control unit, and the engine muffler and port fuel tank with sight
gauge. The port engine itself has its sea strainer and seacock just ahead of it; also
located here is the seacock and sea strainer for the refrigeration cooling. Under
the teak grid floorboard all the way forward in the E/R is the sea strainer for the
Starboard forward E/R: Battery switches,
inverter, autopilot electronics.
Port side of E/R forward: Shelf with
refrigeration; under it is charcoal water
filter; to right part of stabilizer system.
In the center of the E/R looking aft is the fuel
manifold in front of the generator cabinet.
The engine shafts lead from the transmission couplings through the hull via virtually maintenance-free shaft logs/packing
glands. Also in the engine room is a supply of extra lube oil, spare parts, oil pads, etc.
1B4: Dinghy
The boat is equipped with a four-person Glassply dinghy with
an electric-start, four-stroke Honda outboard motor, control
quadrant, fuel tank, pump and oars. It is carried on a powered
sundeck davit.
1B5: Deck Equipment
The boat has mooring lines; a stern/shore line at least 200’ long;
an appropriate all-purpose anchor with 380’ of all-chain rode
plus an emergency anchor with chain and rope rode; fenders/
bumpers; four deck chairs; an ice chest; a crab pot or ring with
line, float, and bait rigging; a hose for fresh water tank filling
and boat washing; and a boat hook.
The guest stateroom to port is comfortable and well-equipped.
1B6: Safety Equipment
There is a permanently-rigged anchor on the bow pulpit and a spare anchor in the lazarette locker that can use the stern/
shore line as a rode.
There is a ship’s bell in the port salon door step.
Carbon Monoxide Monitor
There is a CO monitor in the Master Stateroom.
Fire Extinguishers
This vessel is equipped with four fire extinguishers, one each in the engine room, port guest stateroom and aft
stateroom, plus a fixed automatic system in the engine room;.
First Aid Kit
It is in the Master Stateroom Head vanity cabinet.
Flares are in the drawer at the aft end of the salon settee.
Life Preservers/PFD’s
There are two wearable vests in each stateroom’s hanging locker, and there are standard vests under the starboard seat
on the flybridge.
A heaving line and life ring are in a hanger on the aft railing of the flybridge.
Manual in the salon under the aft floor hatch, plus two electric pumps.
VHF Radios
There are VHF radios at each helm station (see Electronics, below.)
The manual bilge pump.
Section 2: Important Vessel Numbers
Vessel Name
Vessel Official Number
Hull ID Number
Sleeps six:
Fresh water:
Holding Tank:
Length on deck:
Motor Fuel:
Motor Oil, mains:
Transmission Oil:
Engine Coolant:
14 Feet 9 Inches
4 Feet 5 inches
39,000 Pounds
Two in each stateroom
600 Gallons in two 300 gallon tanks
280 Gallons in two tanks
30 Gallons
47 feet 1 inches
#2 Diesel
15W-40 Chevron Delo Multigrade
30-weight Chevron Delo
50-50 mix, ethylene glycol & water; corrosion inhibitor added
Operating Parameters (Estimated):
Fuel Consumption
Naut. Miles/Gallon
5.5 GPH
8.5 GPH
15.0 GPH
Section 3: Checklists & Maneuvering Suggestions
3A: Operating Checklists - Patos
First Thing Each Day
Check engine oil, coolant.
Check under-engine oil pads. Okay?
Check fuel tank levels (open valves on top/bottom of sight gauges to check them!)
Check holding tank indicator. Need pumping?
Turn off anchor light if illuminated.
Starting Engines
All lines clear of propellers and on deck.
Items running on AC evaluated vis-a-vis the Inverter and Generator.
Stabilizer breaker “On”.
Throttles retarded to idle, shift levers in “neutral”.
Stop solenoid breaker “On”.
Engine power switches “On”, start engines in turn.
If engines do not turn over, see “What to Do If”.
Leaving Dock (Only 3-4 minute engine warm-up required!]
Shore power switch “Off”.
Shore power cord removed, stowed on board.
Step stool aboard, if used.
Lines removed as appropriate.
Fenders hauled aboard and stowed.
Lines and other deck gear secure/stowed.
Doors and hatches closed and secured as appropriate.
• Helms-person on watch at all times.
• RPM under 1400 until engines warm to 140°; RPM never to exceed 2400 RPM.
• Wake effects always in mind.
Approaching Dock
Fenders out on appropriate side.
Stabilizer’s in “Center” position and left ON.
Bow line OUTSIDE stanchions and bloused around toward midships.
Engines dead slow, wheel centered for engine-only maneuvering.
Mate ready to secure stern first (in most circumstances).
Arriving at Dock in Marina
Lines secure, including spring lines.
Step stool out, if needed.
When engines are shut down, Stabilizer Breaker “Off”.
Water heater breaker off until Inverter current settles (see “Inverters” below).
Shore power cord connected, shore power switch “On” to appropriate power location.
Shore power confirmed on meters, Inverter “On”, Charger “Off”.
Electric use monitored for current capacity of shore facilities.
Arriving at Mooring Buoy
Skipper puts starboard end of swim step, with mate on it, next to buoy.
Mate loops 20’ or so line, such as bow line, through buoy ring.
Mate holds two ends together, walks up side of boat to bow of boat.
With buoy held close to bow, line secured to each bow cleat through hawsepipe.
When engines are shut down, Stabilizer Breaker “Off”.
Generator running with Inverter “On”, Charger “Off” if generator is required for AC power.
Mooring at Anchor
• Anchor is lowered from pulpit while boat is backed up slowly away from anchor.
• When desired chain length out (4:1 or 5:1 scope), windlass is stopped.
• Engines reversed for “count of five” until chain pulls up virtually straight. Note: The boat is not held in reverse
against a taught anchor chain!
• When engines are shut down, Stabilizer Breaker “Off”.
Generator Starting/Stopping
Starting: Be sure “generator” breaker is “On”
Hold “Preheat” switch for 15 seconds, then release “Preheat” and hold “Start”.
Check port side exhaust for water flow, be sure Charger is “Off”.
After one minute for warmup, turn power selector from “Off” to “Gen”.
Stopping: Turn power selector from “Gen” to “Off”, wait one minute for cool-down.
Hold “Stop” switch until stopped.
Overnight Checklist in Marina
• Shore power “On”.
• Inverter “On”, Charger “Off”.
Overnight at Anchor or Buoy
• Anchor light “On”.
• DC electrical items all “Off” including radios, extra lights, etc.
Upon Arising
Start generator if necessary for battery charging.
Inverter “On” if shore power available or generator running.
Turn on heat if necessary.
Go to top of this Patos checklist.
3B: Maneuvering Suggestions
3B1: Docking & Undocking
Usually it’s easier to dock bow in. Have your mate
at the side rail opening, ready to step off and secure
the stern line, against which you can pull to swing
the bow in toward the dock. By having your mate
ready to disembark when close to the dock, he/she
will not have to jump to the dock, risking a turned
ankle or falling overboard. It is the skipper’s job to
put the boat next to the dock so the mate needn’t
jump, but merely step off!
Approaching a dock, have fenders out as required and have the bow line already rigged, passed through its hawse pipe,
and draped back on the side of the boat between the stanchions so it can be reached from the dock. Never put a line
from a cleat over a rail: the boat’s weight will bend or break the rail if it pulls against the line! When the mate’s ashore,
the line can be easily reached!
If dock clearance permits, spring the boat forward so that it pulls forward on the stern line. This will bring the stern close
to the dock. Let the bow line out enough so that the boat can rest against the stern and midships fenders.
3B2: Maneuvering in a Harbor
With its twin screws, you’ll do best if you center the rudder and steer with the engines only! The props are so large that
the boat will respond well except in high winds just with use of the propellers in forward and/or reverse. Take your time,
and keep the boat running “dead slow” so that you can plan each approach. You shouldn’t need to use the throttles at
Filling the Fuel Tanks
With the large fuel tanks, you can fuel the boat pretty fast
using a standard hose and nozzle (like those on auto gas
pumps). Fuel each tank, taking the hose around the fore-or-aft
deck to reach the outside fill pipe (don’t drag the hose over the
decks or teak rails: have someone help you handle it). Fill both
This is the port Diesel fill (larger) and one of the two Water fills...
the tanks completely but do not spill fuel! You can control the
flow rate by sound, as the fill pipes make the characteristic
“getting to the top of the bottle” pitch change when the fill
pipes begin to fill when the tanks themselves are full. (The tank vents will gurgle before the tanks are full, so when the
vents begin gurgling, slow down until you hear the fill pipes’ pitch change.)
You can tell fuel levels by the sight gauges in the engine room on each tank.
3B3: Anchoring
Anchoring can be accomplished safely with a minimum of fuss if you are prepared. Or, if you are not ready, it can be
stressful and dangerous for you or the boat.
Before attempting to anchor, select an anchorage with a soft bottom such as sand, mud, or gravel, if possible. Look
at the charts and cruising guides for tips on good locations. Then, choose the spot in the anchorage where you have
room to “swing” on the anchor without disturbing other boats. Remember, responsibility for leaving room goes to each
successive boat to arrive, for the first boat has priority in the anchorage!
Here in the Northwest, because of the deep waters, all-chain rodes and small bays, we anchor a little differently than in
the Gulf of Mexico or Carribean, for example. First, except in severe weather we use anchor chain scopes of only 4-to-1
or 5-to-1. For example, in water that is 40 feet at low tide in the typical anchorage, we might use 160 feet of chain unless
the weather was to be gale force or greater winds.
Second, because of the small bays and steep bottoms, we often rig a shore line from the stern of the boat to shore. The
best example of this would be at Todd Inlet at Butchart Gardens: Here is a bay that can accommodate 8 - 10 boats, yet
it is only about 150’ wide and 200’ long! Boats attach their bows to the mooring buoys or, in a few cases, anchor; and
then their sterns are secured to rings provided in the steep cliffs overlooking the bay. Boats are thus perhaps only 15-20’
apart, side to side.
Third, boats often will “raft” side by side in busy marinas, although this is not very common.
Fourth, courteous boaters will call vessels coming into busy bays and offer to let them raft to the same buoy, if signs on
the buoys do not limit usage to only one boat depending upon length.
Anchoring safely requires two persons, one at the helm maneuvering the boat and one on the bow operating the anchor.
Putting the bow of the boat over the spot where the anchor is to be placed after checking the depth on the depth
sounder, the windlass foot-switches are used to lower the anchor slowly toward (but not onto) the bottom, by watching
the chain markings.
The chain is measured by marks on the chain as follows:
Red-Yellow-Red Stripe
Yellow Stripe
Red Stripe
Obsolete Red-Yellow-Red Stripe
Yellow Stripe
Red Stripe
Yellow Stripe
Red-Yellow-Red Stripe
When the anchor is about to reach bottom, the boat is backed away by putting the engines into reverse for 5 seconds:
eddies from the chain indicate motion. Resume lowering the anchor while drifting backwards (watch the eddies and add
another burst or reverse if necessary!) until the desired amount of chain is out. Stop paying out chain. Engage reverse
for five seconds at a time until the chain starts to pull straight off the bow toward the anchor. A straight chain indicates a
“set” anchor!
NEVER pull on the chain for more than five seconds, and never at any engine RPM other than idle! Putting the boat’s
weight plus its horsepower on the chain forcefully even at idle will bend the anchor and/or damage the mooring gear!
If while checking the set, the chain rumbles and clunks, and seems to release in bursts, it means you’re anchoring on
a rocky bottom and the anchor is not holding. Be patient: it may not set on the first try, and you’ll have to repeat the
process sometimes to get a good “set”.
3B4: Shore Lines
When a shore line is required, anchors are set 75 - 100 feet from shore, with the boat backing toward shore during
anchor-setting. The stern line is put around a tree, and brought back to the boat. During this process, be sure to keep
clear of rocks near the shore, and allow for our Northwest tides, occasionally twelve feet, and sometimes 20 feet when
further north! Check the present tide, and high and low tides before beginning anchoring: No sense anchoring in 15 feet
of water if you’re at the “top” of a 15 foot tide!
To get to the shore, you will need to have a dinghy down, and then have your mate keep the boat’s stern toward shore
with short bursts of reverse gear. Sometimes a helpful boater already anchored will help you by taking your line to shore
for you with his dinghy, a neat “good deed” that you might reciprocate. We’ve met some nice boaters this way!
The shore line is in the lazarette, and is long enough to usually allow taking it to a tree, around it, and back to the boat
so you don’t have to go ashore to untie when leaving. With a crew member keeping the boat in position, take the dinghy
to shore pulling the end of the shore line with you. Pass it around a tree, and pull it back to the boat if you can, since
then to get away in the morning all you have to do is release the bitter end from the boat, and pull it aboard. Pull the line
tight, as long as you’ve got over 100’ total of line out: there is plenty of sag/stretch, and we want to keep the boat in its
area! If necessary, put a crab pot float or fender on the line to warn others it’s there!
Here is a sketch of a properly anchored boat with a shore line (In this drawing, S=Scope, which should be at least 4 x DH,
the Depth at Low Tide):
Section 4: Specific Boat Systems & Operations
This section of the operating manual will discuss each of the boat’s systems. The systems and major components
discussed are in alphabetical order as follows:
4A: Anchor & Ground Tackle
4L :Fuel System
4B: Barbeque
4M: Furnace/Air Conditioning
4D: Bilge Blowers
4N: Galley & Appliances
4E: Dinghy, Davit & Outboard
4P: Head Systems
4F: Electrical Systems, AC
4Q: Running Gear (Props, Shafts, Stabilizers)
4G:Electrical System, DC
4R: Safety Equipment
4H: Electronics
4S: Sea Strainers & Thru Hulls
4J: Engines & Transmissions
4T: Warning Lights, Alarms & Wipers
4K: Fresh & Waste Water Systems
4A: Anchor & Ground Tackle
4A1: Anchor Bridle
There is an anchor bridle stowed in the lazarette. Use it when anchoring overnight, as it accomplishes three goals:
• It takes the strain of the anchor off the windlass, pulpit, and pulpit pulley and directs it to the bow cleats which
are more suited to hold it;
• It reduces substantially the “chain noise” transmitted to the occupants of the forward cabin;
• It allows the anchor rode to have a lower angle relative to the sea bottom, thus increasing the anchor’s holding
To use the bridle:
• Lower the anchor normally (see page 4.2) then, after it is set,
• Hook the bridle on the chain just in front of the anchor pulpit bow roller;
• Then secure the bridle rope ends through the side-coaming hawse pipes, to the bow cleat on each side so the
bridle lines are equal in length and as long as possible;
• Last, operate the windlass to pay out anchor chain so the chain slacks and is supported by the bridle, the chain
forming a loop right in front of the boat’s bow.
If you wish, you can pay out additional chain to form a long hanging loop between the boat and bridle, which weights
the chain down in front of the boat well below its normal path; thus the chain itself becomes a “kellet” or “sentinel”,
lowering the chain angle more than the bridle alone. The weight “drooping” the chain down like this then forms a an
even more effective “snubber”, so the boat is gently held against the pressures if wind and tide.
4A2: Anchor Chain Locker & Anchor Jams
Anchor Handling:
The anchor is forward on the bow pulpit. It is raised and lowered by the electric windlass. The chain goes from the
windlass into the chain lockers through the chain pipe behind the chain wheel (“wildcat”). From here, the chain goes into
a compartment just forward of the bow locker.
Be careful when dealing with the chain! If a crew member is operating the windlass be especially careful to keep
fingers, hands, arms, etc. away from the chain!
Use the foredeck footswitches, not the helm switch, so you can see where the chain is going and be sure it is clear of
the boat properly when raising or lowering the anchor!
Lowering anchor:
If the chain jams while lowering anchor, it is because one loop of the chain on top of the pile has fallen inside another
loop of chain when the chain pile may have fallen over or shifted. The chain cannot be tangled, so that you will ever need
to disconnect it! One easy way to free the chain is, while wearing gloves, grasp the chain on the aft side of the windlass,
and, while lifting it above the wildcat manually, rapidly yank it up and down. This will usually free it.
If, on the other hand, this “yanking” technique fails, go below and open the chain locker to allow manually unoverlapping the layers of chain in the pile.
Hauling anchor:
Be careful when dealing with the chain! If a crew member is operating the windlass while a person is accessing the
chain locker, be especially careful to keep that person’s fingers, hands, arms, etc. away from the chain! Use a windlass
handle or broomstick to deal with the chain.
4A3: Anchor Chain Measurement
The chain is measured by marks on the chain. The markings are as follows:
Red-Yellow-Red Stripe
Yellow Stripe
Red Stripe
Obsolete Red-Yellow-Red Stripe
Yellow Stripe
Red Stripe
Yellow Stripe
Red-Yellow-Red Stripe
4A4: Anchor Windlass
The anchor on Patos is raised and lowered by a Lofrans Tigres Windlass on the bow pulpit. The windlass is controlled by
foot switches at the bow. The control circuit breaker for the windlass is on the windlass breaker panel on the starboard
side of the saloon helm console. The windlass raises/lowers the anchor.
Be sure to leave the breaker “Off” when the windlass is not in use. This prevents damage in the event that a footswitch
fails due to salt water contamination!
If the windlass should fail to operate when its foot switches are operated, trouble-shoot as follows:
• Be sure the windlass breaker and switch are “on”;
• If the breaker/switch was on, try the manual up/down switch at either helm (if this works, use these switches
instead of the foot switches until the foot switches are repaired);
• If the manual switches don’t work, you can quickly determine if the windlass itself has failed: Remove the back
cover from the windlass and, with a voltmeter, check to see if while a switch is depressed, there is DC voltage on
it’s terminals; if not, check the actual wires themselves where they connect to the windlass. The windlass uses so
much current that sometime the connection — though it appears tight — may have failed. If there is voltage on
the wires, tighten the nuts firmly on the terminals.
• If all this fails, use the brake wheel (green arrow) to keep the wildcat from letting out chain while you loosen the
clutch (red arrow) on the starboard side of the windlass, then put the handle in the collar on the left side (yellow
arrow) , and “ratchet” the windlass up with the handle, tightening the place after each lift to keep the chain from
slipping back.
Ratcheting collar.
Insert bar in slot.
(Collar can be rotated
by hand to access slot.)
Insert bar here (or turn
this wheel by hand) to
release clutch for manual
This is the brake wheel.
Be sure it is released
when operating the
windlass normally!
4B: Barbeque
Patos carries a propane barbecue which is located on the sundeck railing by the steps from the port side deck to the
To operate the barbecue:
1. Be sure the propane tank valve is on;
2. Open valve on barbecue at hose connection.
3. Use a butane match to light the grill.
4C: Bilge Blowers
The boat has bilge blowers controlled by a switch in the DC breaker pane at the lower helm. These blowers are not
generally needed in the cooler climates of the Northwest; they would be used in hot weather such as in southern
latitudes, or to moderately cool the engine room when an operator has to be in it when the engines are, or have been
recently running.
4D: Bilge Pumps & High Water Alarm
The boat has two bilge pumps, one in each bilge area, each controlled by a circuit breaker (always left “On”) and a toggle
“mode” switch in the “12 Volt DC” panel by the lower helm. See illustration page 4.15, explanatory text on page 4.16..
Each mode switch is labeled “Auto”, “Off”, and “Manual”, and these switches should be left in the “Auto” position.
When in “Auto”, the pump is controlled by its float switch.
When set to “Off” the pump will not run (this position is used in case the float switch will not turn off when all the water
has been pumped due to a defective float switch.)
When set to “Manual”, the pump is running without regard to the float switch. This is used by the operator to check the
bilges, to drain water below the range of the float switch, and to bypass the switch in case it is defective.
The boat also has a Bilge High Water Alarm actuated by a float switch in the engine room. It’s alarm sounder is on the
right side of the lower helm cabinet to the left of th AC meters and cigarette- lighter-style outlet.
4E: Dinghy, Davit & Outboard
4E1: Davit
The dinghy is carried on a davit on the sundeck.
To operate the davit:
At all times, please be careful not to damage anything with
the protruding outboard motor’s skeg (the protrusion below
the prop)!
1. Connect the remote control to the socket on the davit
If the davit itself is secured:
1A) Slack off some cable, then remove the restraining
1B) Remove the davit swivel retaining pin, raise the
boom to the second hole, and re-insert the pin.
(Above) The Davit. (Below) Davit control connection point.
2. Remove the dinghy restraining straps.
3. Raise the dinghy until it’s just free of the chocks (it will shift slightly aft) and
remove the bow snubber cable from the dinghy.
4. Raise the dinghy until bow rail is just under flybridge overhang, rotate the
dinghy and swing over the starboard side with bow pointing aft.
5. Lower dingy until afloat and bring it back to the aft swim step.
6. Release the three dinghy bridle snap hooks from the dinghy.
7. Secure boom with its bridle to Patos so it will not swing around if Patos rolls.
8. Remove davit remote control and stow in a dry location.
Note: Never leave the davit remote control attached. Always remove and stow in a dry location.
To re-stow the dinghy
Reverse above procedure, being sure to re-attach bow snubber cable (which will prevent the dinghy from damaging
(expensive) windows! Always remove the davit remote control and stow it in a dry location when not in use.
4E2: Dinghy
The dinghy aboard this boat is a Glassply fiberglass boat designed to carry up to four passengers safely, with four sharing
the seats.
For safety, and compliance with U.S. rules, there should be a life jacket aboard the dinghy for each passenger aboard
whenever the dinghy is at sea.
The dinghy is equipped with running lights and bilge pump. Be sure all equipment is “Off” when stowing the dinghy!
Open the drain plug in rainy weather so the pump doesn’t run.
Please be careful when pulling the dinghy ashore on beaches to minimize damage and scratches to the bottom. Dragging
can be reduced by lifting the dinghy with two persons, one on each side. Don’t “Ram” the beach; you can bump up to the
beach gently and step ashore over the bow, pulling the dinghy a little more ashore as each person off-loads. Don’t forget
to raise the outboard.
4E3: Outboard Motor
The outboard motor for the dinghy is a four-stroke Honda 15 hp, electricstart outboard. It uses plain fuel, oil should not be mixed with the
gasoline. To check the oil, remove the cover by operating the latch at the
back of the motor. The dipstick is on the starboard side, while the fill is to
port. Use the oil stowed in the lazarette.
Be sure to replace and latch the cover after the checks!
The motor has an automatic choke. .
Outboard Operation:
1. Be sure engine is lowered. Outboard tilt is manual, not electric.
Outboard with cover removed, looking at its port side.
Arrows point to oil dipstick and fill cap.
2. Pump fuel line bulb until it resists your squeeze.
3. Turn key to center “On” and “Right” to start.
4. Squeeze the shift control “up” toward the handle to advance throttle and shift gears. The black lever that
normally rests “flat” on the control quadrant can be lifted for fast idle when in neutral; it should always be all the
way down when shifting gears!
5. From neutral, push control handle forward or back squeezing the handle to engage gears and advance throttle in
either direction.
4F: Electrical Systems, AC
The AC electrical system is controlled at the AC electrical panel. In addition, there is an AC voltmeter and AC ammeter to
the right of the lower helm.
Note: The panel photographs are taken at an angle to reduce glare from the light reflections on their high-gloss
4F1: AC Generator
The ship’s Onan Generator provides 8,000 watts of AC power to the vessel and is mainly used for battery charging,
heating hot water, operation of the washer/dryer, and incidental heat using the small portable electric heaters (although
using the Diesel furnace for heating is more common).
The generator itself is in the engine room, and its oil and coolant levels are checked before each charter by the NW
Explorations staff. Access to these is by unlatching and removing the starboard side panel on the generator’s soundshield cabinet. More important is checking the sea strainer (see previous section) to be sure is has not accumulated
substantial debris while the generator was run for extended periods, particularly at anchor.
Starting the Generator:
1. Be sure the “Generator” breaker (shown in the illustration to right)
is “On”.
2. Hold down the “Heater” switch in the AC control panel by the
helm for 15 seconds (this energizes “glow plugs” to warm the
engine’s cylinders).
3. Release “Heater”. Press the “Start” switch and hold until you hear
the engine start.
4. Check the generator exhaust, or listen for it to confirm that
cooling water is being pumped from it.
5. After a brief warmup of a minute or so, switch the shore power switch in the AC power panel to “Gen”. You
should see the “AC Present” pilot light go on!
Stopping the Generator:
1. Be sure the “Generator” breaker (shown in the illustration just above) is “On”.
2. Switch the Shore Power switch to “Off”. This removes the load for the generator and allows it to cool down.
3. After at least a minute to allow the generator to cool down, press and hold the “Stop” switch in the AC power
panel until the generator comes to a complete stop.
Routine Generator Service:
The generator oil is checked by removing the dipstick on the generator's starboard side. It may be difficult to remove the
sound shield to check the oil.
It shouldn’t be necessary to add coolant, but if you do need to, use 50-50 antifreeze mix adding it to the coolant tank on
the port side of the generator (you can access the heat exchanger itself under the generator sound shield through the
access port on the top of the shield.)
Generator Problems:
The generator monitors its own operation, detecting any loss in oil pressure or any overheating. If either occurs, the
generator shuts itself off, and will not keep running when you try to restart it. If this occurs, you can confirm that the
cause was such a fault by looking on the aft starboard side of the generator where you will see a “fault”button. If a fault
has occurred, the button will be out; it is normally flush with the panel if there is no fault.
If the generator will not keep running, call NW Explorations for assistance. Before repeated starting, shut off sea water
supply to avoid water-locking the engine! Then, remember to turn it back on when the generator starts!
4F2: AC Inverter System
The Inverter Makes AC from DC...
As we said, the Inverter system is used to provide AC to the boat when there is no shore power. It is wonderful, for
example, to use the inverter to make a pot of coffee when the engine is running and you are underway, or to watch
TV in a quiet anchorage, or use a hair dryer for a few minutes in the morning. But for long-period use of AC by large
appliances, the engine or generator must be running or you must have shore power available.
Now the microwave, for example, will draw about 50 amps of DC when using the inverter to run it, so in six minutes
you use one-tenth of an hour at 50 amps, or five ampere-hours. That’s okay. But what if you want to cook a roast for 30
minutes? You would use up a lot of energy on that one job alone! That’s too much use for the inverter, and the propane
stove or oven should be used.
For a short task, the inverter is great: no starting the generator, no noise, no fuss, the power is there. If the engine are
running, use it all you wish, as long as you don’t try to do two huge jobs at once: The inverter produces a maximum of
3,500 watts of energy at a time. So the inverter is only wired to the outlets and the microwave. It will not run the water
heater, battery charger or refrigeration.
Note: Only the breakers in the panel illustration on page 26 with an asterisk (*) are powered by the inverter!
...and also is a Battery Charger, Making DC from AC!
The Inverter can also do the reverse: If there is AC power available from a shore-side source or the generator, it can
recharge the house batteries. The battery charger function receives that power through the “Inverter Battery Charger”
breaker on the AC panel. Since this breaker must be “On” for the batteries to charge using AC power, and you will want
to charge the batteries at every opportunity, we suggest that you leave it “On” for the duration of your cruise.
As noted above under the “Connecting Shore Power” section, be mindful that the Inverter can draw a lot of current
when charging the batteries, especially when first activated upon connection to shore power. Thus, you need to be
careful not to overload a shore power circuit by running other high- draw AC appliances at the same time. Monitor the
AC Ammeter to make sure the load remains below the available current as determined by the shore power service from
the marina, normally 30 amps.
Inverter Operation
The Inverter is controlled by its control panel located on above the lower helm. The panel has an LCD display that shows
the present function. LED Display lights tell you the inverter’s status.
Each of the inverter’s functions, charging and inverting, is controlled by the
small buttons on the lower left of its panel.
The charging and inverting functions should be “ON” all the time unless
you do not want the inverting function to use your batteries, such as
during winter layover or moorage where power may be off for more than a
day (and batteries could thus be depleted).
You will see the “PWR” light lit (depending if shore power or the
generator is running) or the “INV” light, indicating that the inverter is
making AC from the ship’s batteries.
The Inverter. When photo was taken,
boat was in winter layover and
“Inverter Mode” was not turned on.
If the “PWR” light is lit, you should see the “CHG” light lit, indicating that the inverter is charging the batteries as it
should; the display will show what level of charge is underway. In the illustration, the charger is applying “float” voltage
to keep the batteries “topped off”; the inverter goes to this float state when the batteries are fully charged.
In summary, both inverter functions should normally be left on! Note: Only the breakers in the panel illustration on
page 4.10 with an asterisk (*) are powered by the inverter!
4F3: AC Panel 120 Volt Breakers
This section of the AC panel provides standard 120-volt power throughout the
vessel. Below are described each breaker’s circuits and its use.
“Switch and Breaker”
“Warning Light”)
“Momentary Switch”
Leave this breaker on Always
Use when Item is Needed
Use with Caution in Exceptional Circumstances
Runs on Inverter
Port & Stbd O utlets (2) *
T o O utlets
To Inverter
W ater H eater
T o W ater H eater T herm ostat
To All Generator Control Circuits
Battery C harger
T o Battery C harger
Master Switch
Protects All AC Circuits
C ooker
Start - Heater - Stop
Genset Controls
O utlets ER/H elm /F B *
T o O utlets
Water Heater On
Indicates Water Heater Power “ON”
Icem aker *
T o Icem aker Sw itch
AC Supply On
Indicates there is AC Power
D eck Lights (2) *
T urns on D eck Lights
Reverse Polarity
Indicates Connection Hazard
Seaw ater Pum p
T o pum p’s pressure sw itch
Push to Check
Checks Reverse Polarity Bulb
4F4: AC Metering
To the right of the lower helm are two meters which show the voltage available and the
current in amperes (amps) being used by the boat. When connected to shore power or with
the generator running, you should have between 110 and 130 volts, 105 volts minimum.
When connected to 30-amp shore power you should not turn on too many breakers, lest the
load exceed 30 amps; with the generator, do not exceed 90 amps.
4F5: AC Reverse Polarity
Although we tend to think of AC Electricity as having only two conductors, it actually
has three. One of these is called “neutral”; one is “hot”; and one is “ground”, that is, it is
supposed to be the same as the water around the boat and the earth ashore.
The vessel and many of its appliances rely upon these connections having the correct
“polarity”, or relationship to one another and the earth; this is essential to be sure that users
of AC equipment do not get a shock when touching and AC equipment.
Now in a house ashore, it’s easy: We don’t “plug in” the house, for it stays connected to the utility company all the time!
But in a boat when in the harbor, we do plug in using our Shore Power cords (and sometimes using extension cords). If
the outlet to which we plug our cord, or if the cord itself is mis-wired, then these connections can become mixed up, and
then there is a significant chance of getting a shock or just as bad, a chance that running gear outside the boat will be
subject to rapid corrosion, because the boat is immersed in sea water, a good conductor of electricity.
To protect the vessel and its crew from such contingencies, a “Reverse Polarity Warning” light will illuminate when the
connection turned on.
If the “Reverse Polarity” light illuminates when connecting to Shore Power, immediately disconnect the cable and
contact the harbor master advising him/her of the problem. Do not risk shock or system damage!
4F6: AC Shore Power, Disconnecting & Connecting
The large AC selector switch on the bottom of the AC power panel is used to determine the source of AC power for the
The switch has four positions, “Off”, “Gen”, “Fwd Shore”, and “Aft Shore”. The “Shore” positions represent the bow and
stern shore power connectors for the shore cable.
This switch should be left “OFF” whenever you are connecting or disconnecting the boat to shore. This is true so that you
do not draw an arc from the plug due to the load of the boat on the connector’s pins: such an arc will burn the contacts
and eventually cause them to overheat when in use, creating a fire hazard.
Once connected to shore power, monitor the AC voltmeter and ammeter to be sure you have not overloaded the circuit.
Important Note: If the house/inverter batteries are low when you first hook up to shore power, and the inverter is
on (as it should be), the inverter will begin charging its batteries at a very high charging rate, drawing a lot of shore
power current. Until this demand reduces (see “The Inverter System” below), you should turn “OFF” other high-current
AC appliances such as the water heater.
You can then turn on AC appliances as needed. Watch the ammeter to be sure you don’t exceed the dock’s available
supply, typically 30 amps. Here are some estimates of AC power consumption for typical appliances: Water Heater, 15
amps; Inverter, up to 22 amps; Hair Dryer, 12 amps; TV, 1.5 amps; Coffeemaker, 10 amps; Microwave, 12 amps; Toaster,
12 amps.
4G: Electrical Systems, DC
4G1: DC Concepts
Each year it seems more folks are confused by the operation of electrical systems on yachts than by any other subject!
Don’t feel discouraged if something isn’t clear: you’ve got company in your confusion. So let’s try to cover some theory
here first.
Most of the equipment on any boat is run by 12-volt DC electricity from the boat’s batteries. This is true because DC
should always be available: we have batteries aboard even when there is no shore power! If the batteries aren’t run
down, everything should work, just like in the family car.
Since the batteries are used so much, we have to replenish, or charge them. The most important way we do this is by
alternators on the ship’s engine. In most cases one engine will provide enough electricity in most every case to run
everything, and still have some energy left over to add back to the battery, that is, to charge it.
Ah, but what if the engine isn’t running? Then, the batteries are slowly depleted until they have “run down” and there is
no more electricity stored in them . . . a big problem, because then we not only can’t run all the neat stuff on the boat,
we can’t start an engine to get more electricity.
So a good skipper and crew has “electrical power management” in mind whenever they turn an electrical gadget on or
It is with this concern that we can cite a reality: If we need more electricity than the batteries alone must provide, and
if the propulsion engine isn’t running, we will need to get our electrical power from an alternative source! That’s the
most important reason why we plug the boat in to shore power or use the generator: To keep from running down the
batteries. For by using battery chargers getting their power from shore power or the generator, we can keep the batteries
charged, or, at least, from getting too low.
In modern, luxury cruising boats, however, there is another important factor: Some of the “goodies” we like to have on
board such as hair dryers and microwave ovens require ordinary household electricity. This is 120 or 240 volts AC. It is
different from DC. So if we want to use these things when we’re not at a dock, we must have another way to get 110
volts AC, and for this we use the generator or an inverter, an amazing high tech gadget that takes 12 volts DC from the
ship’s batteries and makes it into 110 volts AC!
So here’s what we’ve got:
• A lot of stuff running on 12 volts DC with that electricity from the batteries;
• To keep the batteries from running down, we have alternators run by the engine, and battery chargers that get
their power from shore power or the generator;
• For the stuff that runs on 120 volts AC, we have shore power, the generator, or, for making AC out of the
batteries’ DC, the inverter.
4G2: DC Batteries
The batteries on this boat are not just one, big all-purpose battery.
To have redundancy, there are actually several “banks” of batteries
assigned different tasks.
A “starting bank” of one battery (located alongside the port engine)
is used for starting the engines only. That way, we won’t run it down
playing the stereo, for instance, and then be unable to start an
House batteries outboard of the starboard
engine. This battery is charged by port engine alternator when this
engine are in the white boxes.
engine is running, and by any other charging source through the
battery combiner there is charging voltage, or by the stand-alone charger if shore power or the generator is running and
it is turned on (this last case is rare).
Also on the port side outboard of the engine is the generator starting battery. It is charged only by the generator or, if
there is shore power and it is turned “on”, the battery charger (this is rare).
A third bank of two batteries is called “the house battery”, located outboard of the starboard engine. Connected to this
are all the pumps, interior and exterior lights, horns, navigation and radio gear, etc. (“the house”), and the starboard
engine starter. This bank is charged by the alternator on the starboard engine; when there is shore power or the
generator is running, by the inverter if it is on; when the port engine is running, by the port engine’s alternator through
the battery combiner; or, if on, the battery charger.
If necessary, (but only in emergencies) you can switch the battery switch in the forward engine room panel to “parallel”,
so that both starting and house banks are connected together! This way, we can be virtually positive that our engines will
start. Normally, however, we leave this switch in the non-paralleled position so the systems are independent.
Note: If it takes more than two attempts to start an engine, turn off its sea water valve to avoid water-locking the
engine until it starts.
What redundancy!
4G3: DC Battery Chargers
The vessel is equipped with a 12-volt battery charger, the original unit installed by Grand Banks when the boat was
manufactured. It charges all the batteries, although normally the inverter is the primary battery charger, charging the
house batteries.
The charger is switched on by its breaker in the 120-volt circuit breaker panel.
On Patos, the Inverter is the primary battery charger! Do not turn the “Battery Charger” breaker on unless the inverter
has failed, or the genset battery is dead! Normally use the Inverter only to charge the batteries!
4G4: DC Battery Switches
The boat is equipped with a small panel of battery switches mounted in the
engine room on the forward bulkhead. Battery switches for the engine starting
and house batteries are on this panel, along with a switch to parallel them. Easily
accessed from the engine room, these switches are also reachable through
the door under the companionway steps in the forward stateroom in an
Switches just to Starboard of Engine Room - Companionway Door
Connects Port Engine to the Starting Battery
Connects Starboard Engine to the Starting Battery
Pairs the Starting and House Batteries
Battery switches are above the inverter.
Note House master breakers top left.
Immediately above this panel is a box with two breakers, the house battery master breakers. The “Main” breaker is for
the House Battery supplying all the DC accessories. The other breaker, “Spare”, is unused.
An Inverter main battery switch is just forward of the starboard engine at its outboard side.
A Generator starting battery switch is just aft of the port engine on the rear engine room bulkhead.
The DC House Battery main switch is at the bottom of the DC Breaker panel. (See page 4.15.)
4G5: DC Battery Combiner
The vessel has a “battery combiner” that works automatically to keep the house and starting batteries charged all the
time. If this electronic device sees any charging voltage on any battery such as from a charger or an engine or genset
alternator, then it combines the batteries electrically, this applying this charging voltage to all of them. This is valuable
because it is therefore combining all the boat’s charging capacity to any battery that is not fully charged. Since the House
Battery is most likely to be discharged — it is used the most — the combiner brings it back to full charge most quickly, a
most desirable result only possible with such a combiner.
The combiner is also designed to “sense” if a battery has become seriously defective, such as “shorted”, in which case it
does not combine the batteries, lest a bad one ruin the good ones. An amazing system!
4G6: DC Breaker Panels
Main DC Breaker Panel
The nerve center of the DC electrical system is this DC circuit breaker
panel by the helm. On this panel are the switches that control power to
the boat’s various systems.
As for the breaker panel itself, just as in your home, most of these
switches are true “circuit breakers”: they feed power to somewhere in
the boat where there is another switch which, in turn, turns the item
on and off. An example of this would be the circuit breakers for the
horn and electric head. If the breaker is turned on, the horn won’t work
unless you push the horn button, and the head won’t flush unless you
are there in the head compartment to operate it!
But some of the other breakers also serve as the switch for the item. An
example of this would be the navigation light breaker or the macerator
pump breaker.
The Battery Switch on this panel should always be left in the “House”
position. In addition, NEVER switch this to “off” with the engines
running except in a dire electrical emergency!
See the next page for a full description of each breaker and other device
on the panel.
MS =
Switch & Breaker
Momentary Switch
Bilge Pump (2)
Engine Room Lts
Green =
Yellow =
Main DC Breaker Panel, left side of lower helm cabinet.
Master switch is large “Perko” knob
Leave this breaker on ALWAYS
in bottom ofillustration. Arrows point
to Bilge Pump control
Normally “ON” when boat is in use
switches and breakers.
Use with Caution!
To control switches on right*
Turns on engine room lights
Macerator Pump
To Stereo
To overboard pump
To horn buttons
To VHF Radios
To wipers
To Furuno NavNet 3D
To Freezer Thermostat
Navigation Lts
Turns on nav Lights
Anchor Light
Turns on anchor light
Spreader Light
Turns on deck spreader lighting
Interior Lts. (3)
To individual light switches
Drain Pump
To shower drain pump switches
Stop Sol.
F. W. Pump
To fresh water pump press. sw.
Power Port
Turns on port engine power
Galley Vent
To vent switch above range
Power Stbd
Turns on stbd engine power
Gas Stove
To propane switch in galley
Blower Port
Turns on port engine room fan
To Refrigerator Thermostat
Blower Stbd
Turns on stbd engine room fan
Head Vent
To vent switches in heads
Port & Stbd Start
Starts the engines
Electric Head
To vacuum pumps both heads
Port & Stbd Stop
Stop the engines
Turns on Instrument Lights
Bilge Pump Sws*
Instrument Lights
To Depth Displays
To “stop” buttons both engs.
See below
In general, when aboard, you’ll have the yellow switches above all “On”. The Engine switches will
be “OFF” unless running, when the “Stop Sol” and power switches will be “ON”.
*There are two bilge pump toggle switches and breakers (see arrows in picture, preceding page). The
breakers provide power to the pumps, and the switches control the operation of each as follows:
AUTO: The pump is controlled by its own float switch (normal position)
OFF: The bilge pump is off. Used if the float switch has failed, pump could
burn out.
ON: The pump is running manually. Used to test, or see how much water is
in the bilge.
Right: Windlass Breaker
Below: Small DC Breaker
Windlass Breaker
In addition to DC panel switches, there is an Anchor Wlndlass switch right of the helm.
Have it “ON” only when using the windlass.
Small DC Breaker Panel
This panel is located low, to the right of the helm. It has two breakers, for the stabilizers and autopilot. See their
instructions below.
4G7: Xantrex DC Power Monitor
On the left side of the helm cabinet is a Xantrex DC Energy Monitor. This nifty unit allows you
to check DC house battery voltage, charging/use rates in amps, and approximate cumulative
battery energy used.
The display has “step” LED’s that indicate the state of the batteries’ charge, from “empty”
(on the left) to “full” (on the right).
There are three buttons on this unit’s panel, “V”, “A/Ah” and “%”.
“V”, “Volts” mode: Unit displays the house battery voltage. The “volts” mode with 12.8 fully charged (nothing running);
14.2 or more bulk charging; 13.2 - 13.8 float charging, less than 10.0 volts, (discharged.)
“A”, “Amps” mode: Unit displays the rate of charge or discharge of the house batteries; a “-” sign appears when the
battery is discharging, no sign when charging.
“Ah”, “Amp-Hours” mode: Unit is like a “fuel gauge in reverse”. Batteries fully charged, the unit show approximately “0”.
As ampere-hours are used, the unit counts how many, i.e., after you’ve used 50 amp- hours, the unit will display “-50” or
The amp-hours readings are approximate, and relative. When you run the boat, the number should decrease again to
zero. In fact, the most useful setting for the energy monitor is the amps mode, which answers the question “Am I using up
(-) or adding power to the batteries right now?”
“%” or “percentage remaining” mode: Unit shows a calculated percentage of charge remaining.
We suggest you look at the monitor in the “A” mode especially just before bed when at anchor, to warn you if you’ve left
something on. You will normally see only a modest “-” current for your anchor light and perhaps the fridge. If nothing is
running, switching to “V” should show voltage should be about 12.6 - 12.8 (approximately fully charged.)
After you wake up, check the voltages before you start using more DC energy: You may want to charge your batteries by
“going for a boat ride” or using the generator if you were at anchor and the reading is 12.2 volts or less.
If you take readings frequently for the first day or two of your cruise, you’ll get an idea of normal system operation and
power consumption rates, and you can adjust your battery usage and generator charging activity accordingly.
4H: Electronics
The boat is equipped with extensive electronic equipment, including VHF radios, Radar, GPS/Plotters with Big Bay
displays; conventional and forward-looking Depth Sounders; Speed Log; Closed Circuit Video for engine room and cockpit
surveillance and maneuvering; an Autopilot, and a Wind Indicating System. The engines are monitored with electronic
monitors with LCD displays (See “Engines”)
Each unit is provided with a dedicated or shared circuit breaker in the DC power
panel; this breaker must be on for the unit to be used. Then the unit’s own power
button must have been depressed or its knob must be also be in the “ON” mode.
4H1: Electronics: Autopilot
The boat is equipped with a Comnav Autopilot System including a control
console at each helm.
For the unit to operate, be sure the breaker is on in the Power Panel.
Basic operation is simple:
Comnav control console.
A. Turns the system on.
B. When on, if held for 3 seconds, puts pilot into standby (S appears in upper left of display) ... or
C. When on, if held long enough for
“Release” to appear in screen, then released, it turns the system “Off”.
Engages the autopilot to hold the heading that existed when pressed. When engaged, “A”
(Autopilot) appears in upper left of display.
This function is not to be used by charterers!
Dodge control: Press once to allow manual steering; press again to resume autopilot steering on
the previous course.
Used to dodge obstacle. Hold until one until desired degree of turn is reached, then hold both
until past obstacle, then release
Turn to set a new heading.
For full details, see the Autopilot Manual.
Maintain a careful lookout when using the autopilot! It is an aid to comfortable cruising, not a replacement for an
aware helms-person! Remember, you can disengage it quickly simply by pushing the red key for three seconds!
4H2: Electronics: Carbon Monoxide Monitor
There is a Carbon Monoxide Monitor/Alarm at the forward end of the Master Stateroom on the top edge of the hanging
locker. It will alarm in the event of high CO levels.
4H3: Electronics: Datamarine Depth Sounder (Backup)
There is a second depth sounder on the flybridge (in addition to the Furuno System,
which is also there).
It is operated by the rotary switch on its front.
See warning below regarding depth sounder accuracy!
4H4: Electronics: Furuno RD-30 Depth Sounders/Displays (Prime)
The Furuno RD-30 displays are at both helms. They are primarily used to display the
water depth, water temperature and speed through the water (STW) at both
helm stations. The depth is BELOW THE KEEL. Because our waters are sometimes
very deep, the depth sounder will not display or will stay on a high depth reading
when the water’s depth is beyond its capacity.
Remember when backing up, or crossing a “tide line”, that turbulent water from
the tides, boat’s screws or another boat can interrupt the sounding information
received by the unit. Be careful!
It is turned on by the breaker in the DC power panel. Using the DISP key steps the unit through its displays. For further
information, see the manual.
Because our waters are sometimes very deep, the depth sounders will not display or will stay on a high depth reading
when the water’s depth is beyond its capacity.
Remember when backing up, or crossing a “tide line”, that turbulent water from the tides or boat’s screws (or those of
another boat) can interrupt the sounding information received by the unit. Be careful!
Note that our Northwest waters are rocky and depths change rapidly. You should be especially careful to study your
charts, and then check them often whenever running in depths of 50 feet or less, so that you don’t hit a rock! Just as
our islands “pop up” to heights of 50, 100, or even thousands of feet in a very small horizontal distance, so do rocky
4H5: Electronics: Plotters/Electronic Charting Systems
Furuno Navnet 3D System: Plotter, Radar, Sounder
The boat is equipped with a new Furuno NavNet 3D System. This single large
display is a color radar, navigation plotter, depth sounder/fish finder, and GPS
combined into a single unit. There is a repeater on the flybridge. This means
that nav data is always available at both helms.
Use the instruction manual if you are unfamiliar with the unit! Don’t be
fearful, for you will discover operation is quite intuitive once you get used to the few buttons you’ll need, primarily:
The Blue Button turns the unit on and sets the brilliance of the display; you will need to wait about 90 seconds for full
startup and the warning message to appear! After the message appears, turn and press the “Rotokey” knob (just to the
right of the display screen) to select the display you wish. Warning: Do not spend so much “head down time” looking down at these units that you stop watching where you are
going. Keep a lookout posted!
4H6: Electronics: Radar
Radar coverage is supplied by the Furuno System above.
4H7: Electronics: Stereo/CD
In the saloon forward electronics panel is Stereo AM/FM receiver with
a CD player. This is like an automobile unit. The “Front/Rear” speaker
control (fader) shifts the sound among the boat’s speakers.
If the “cabinet bottom” under the stereo is pulled down, you will find a
bracket to hold your iPod and play it through the system.
4H8: Electronics: TV/DVD/Stereo System
The boat has a DVD player and TV, a flat screen unit on a bracket that allows
it to be swung into view. The DVD player is in the side of the TV. It operates
4H9: Electronics: VHF Radio, Lower Helm
There is a conventional ICOM VHF radio at the lower helm station, to the left
of the radar and plotter displays (with the mike just underneath it). The radios
is designed for easy access to Channel 16 which is the hailing and emergency
channel in the Northwest. Detailed instructions are in its manual.
TV/DVD in the aft port salon corner.
4H10: Electronics: VHF Radio,
There is a conventional Standard Horizon
VHF radio on the flybridge. The radio is
designed for easy access to Channel 16
which is the hailing and emergency channel
in the Northwest. Detailed instructions are
in its manual.
The VHF Radio on the flybridge.
4J: Engine & Transmissions
4J1: General Discussion
The main engines on the boat are two Caterpillar 3208N Diesels, each producing a maximum of 210 horsepower.
These extraordinarily-reliable, rugged machines are the top-of-the-line, and can be expected to give you trouble-free,
economical cruising. The engines are controlled at the lower helm with circuit breaker switches and start & stop buttons;
at the upper helm there are stop and start buttons for emergencies.
On engine start, no long warm-up is required! Simply start the engines just before you leave the dock to begin inharbor maneuvering.
Do not run the engines over 1400 RPM until the temperature gauge reads at least 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
Do not run the engines for long periods with the transmission in neutral, with no load.
Engine gauges are in two clusters of five (one cluster for each engine, port and starboard) at each helm. Each cluster has
engine oil pressure; engine temperature; tachometer; battery amperage; and engine hours.
4J2: Checking the Engines
The engines require a regular, daily check, since once
underway, you will probably not check them while in use,
tucked away as they are in the engine room. Please perform
this check each morning (when the engine room is cool!):
Check the Oil
The oil level should be between the two marks on the dipstick.
The dipsticks are located on inboard side of each engine,
toward the forward end of the engine itself, and the stick “pulls
out“ upward. Use a paper towel from the roll on the forward
bulkhead, wipe the stick, reinsert, guiding the stick with the
towel to keep from bending it, and take reading.
(Above) Port engine.
(Below) Starboard engine.
Red: Dipstick. Green: Oil Fill Cap. Blue: Emergency stop button.
The distance between the two marks is about 1.5 quarts.
Add only enough oil to bring it up above the “add“ mark, say
a quart, using the oil provided on the boat. (If you need more oil, buy
it! We will reimburse you.) The oil fill on each engine is a T-handled
stopper cap in the top of one valve cover on each engine. Loosen the T
handle by turning it one or two turns and remove. After reinserting, be
sure to tighten the cap, but do not over-tighten.
DO NOT OVERFILL the crankcase (above the “full“ mark), as these
engines will quickly waste excessive lubricant. If oil is required
often, check under the engine carefully to be sure there is no
oil leak, and if there is, have it corrected promptly.
Check the Coolant Level
The plastic coolant overflow tanks are located above the forward end
of each engine, with caps on the top, and they are quite close to the underside of the salon sole (floor). If there is any
coolant in the coolant tank when the engines are cool, there is enough.
If coolant is needed, determine if there is any sign of a coolant leak under the engine, and if there is, do not run the
If there is no leak, add coolant to the tank from the jug of pre-mixed antifreeze/corrosion inhibitor/water supplied on the
boat. Choose the coolant can with the pump unit on top, remove the overflow tank’s cap by turning; insert the tube, and
pump until the coolant overflow tank is no more than one-quarter full.
Visually Inspect the Engine Room
Whenever you’re in the engine room, ask yourself, “Does everything look right?”. Look at the pads under the engines and
transmissions: while some drips are normal, there shouldn’t ever be substantial accumulations of any fluids!
Check the Sea Strainers Weekly...
...or immediately if an engine runs “hot”. The engine strainers are in the forward end of the engine room bilge. The
refrigeration sea strainer is just forward of them.
To check a strainer, shine a flashlight through it. While some “fuzziness” from trapped thin growth is normal, you should
see the light clearly on the other side; if obscured, you should clean the strainer. See below.
4J3: Engine Controls
Patos is fitted with Morse push-pull cable controls with shift and throttle connections from each helm directly to the
4J4: Engine Emergency Shutdown
In the event the stop switch fails to operate on either engine, you can shut it down manually by pressing the rubberencased button on the top of the engine (see illustration). This cuts of the engine’s fuel supply. See the illustrations on
page 35.
4J4: Engine Hydraulic System
The port main engine’s forward belt crankshaft pulley is fitted with coupling
to a hydraulic pump that operates the vessel’s stabilizers. See the “Running
Gear” section for more details.
4J5: Engine Operating Parameters
The following parameters are estimated based upon experience with the
Caterpillar 3208-NA engines:
Fuel Consumption
Naut. Miles/Gallon
5.5 GPH
8.5 GPH
15.0 GPH
Hydraulic pump on port engine.
4J6: Engine Transmissions
Check the Transmission Oil Levels every two Weeks...
...more often if a transmission shifts erratically, with the
dipstick on the starboard side of each transmission. It is
unlikely that any oil will need to be added. Be sure to check
under the transmission for leaks! Low transmission oil is a
serious matter.
With the engine idling and in neutral, remove the
transmission dipstick. Wipe it with a towel, reinsert it, and
take a reading. If the level is below the add mark, stop the
engine, add a half-pint or so of 30-weight (not multigrade)
oil through the plug in the top of the transmission case, and
then start the engine and measure again. Do not overfill, for
to do so could cause the seals to “blow out”.
Looking down at the starboard transmission.
The arrows point to the dipstick and the filler cap.
4K: Fresh, Salt & Waste Water Systems
4K1: Fresh Water Fill Location
The water tanks are filled by side deck fill pipes on the port
side midships and port side forward with a cap on each marked
You need to fill the tanks individually. You can use the sight gauge on the engine room tank to tell if your water is getting
4K2: Fresh Water Filter
There are charcoal filters on the output of the
watermaker and directly between the tanks
and the fresh water pumps. On a long trip, NW
Explorations will have supplied you with spare
filters; otherwise, you should leave them alone!
4K2: Fresh Water Heater
After the water pump, water is distributed directly to the cold water faucet lines. In
addition, it goes to the boat’s water heater. The heater uses two energy sources, (1)
heat from the port engine, so that whenever the boat is running, or has recently run,
there is hot water; and (2) 110 volts AC from shore power or generator, if available
and the water heaters’ 110-volt AC breaker is “on”. The heater is insulated well
enough to keep hot water overnight without power, provided you haven’t wasted a
lot. Note that it can take considerable time to heat water from a “cold” start!
(Top left) The aft filter (blue) is for
the watermaker output. (Top right)
In the left of the picture is the filter
for fresh water from the ship’s tanks.
4K3: Fresh Water Pumps
The water line from the tanks leads to the boat’s fresh water pumps
in the engine room, port side forward. There are two pumps (one is a
spare), selected with two valves on each pump and a DC switch mounted
nearby. Provided the circuit breaker is “On”, a pump will run whenever
its built-in pressure switch detects low water pressure. There is also an
“accumulator tank” located here; it provides a “pressure head” for the
pump, so the pump doesn’t need to run so often. Instead, a pump cycle
will provide for several minutes of routine water use before pressure
diminishes and the pump starts again.
In the event a pump should fail, turn the two valves on each pump so
the spare pump is selected, and switch the selector switch to the spare
pump. Be sure to notify Northwest Explorations that you have done this
so they can repair the defect!
You should leave the Fresh Water Pump switch on all the time so that
the flushing action of the watermaker is not impeded!
The two water pumps are in the bottom of the picture,
and the red selector switch is top left. Note the yellow
valves handles; the foreground pump is in use.
4K4: Fresh Watermaker
The boat carries a Spectra Watermaker. This great system (which requires AC
& DC power to operate) has the following features:
• It automatically flushes itself on a regular basis to keep the filtration
membranes clean and in service;
• It has automatic controls that run it for specific periods so that you
need not worry about overfilling tanks and wasting water;
• It assures you that there will always be plenty of water, however it
will take several hours to top off the tank under normal use.
• Note that you can use city water without filling the tanks. Simply
connect the hose to the pressure water inlet fitting outside the
cockpit swim door and leave the hose “on” as long as you are at
the dock; this will then go directly to the boat’s faucets as
needed, but not into the tanks.
(Above) Watermaker Control Panel.
(Below) Left side: Watermaker Engine Room
Cabinet for SeaWater and Electronics,
Right side: Water Heater
Operation is entirely automatic. If you are authorized to use the
watermaker, Simply push the AUTO/RUN button to add water to the
tanks, following these provisos:
• Do not run the watermaker while in the harbor: You will
shorten the time that the filters can be in service;
• Leave the watermaker on at all times so it can monitor its
own operations;
• Always leave the fresh water pump breaker on so that the
purge system can operate properly;
• Each depression of the AUTO/RUN button will run the
watermaker for one hour, making 20 gallons of water.
If water output falls, check the sea water intake filters in the engine room. There are two: the first one to process the
incoming water is of 20 micron porosity, while the secondary filter is 5 microns.
To change, unscrew the blue collar and exchange with a new cartridge.
4K5: Fresh Water Tanks
There are two water tanks located midships, in the engine room under the
genset and forward under the berth. They hold 280 gallons.
4K6: Sea Water Pump
Patos is equipped with a Sea Water Pump for washdown of the anchor chain
with a faucet on the bow, and for fish cleaning, etc., with a faucet at the
cockpit. It is operated by 110 volts AC in the AC Breaker Panel. For safety, his
switch should be off except when the pump is in use.
The blue filters for the sea water. Beyond
them is the stabilizer master hydraulic unit.
4K7: Waste Water
Waste water from the sinks and showers (but not from the toilets) is dumped
overboard in accordance with U.S. and Canadian law. From sink basins, the water simply flows by gravity overboard.
Since the floor of the showers is below the water line, built in shower sump pumps operate to lift this water back above
the waterline and dump it overboard.
It is therefore very important that the “drain pump” breaker in the DC panel be left “On”.
4L: Fuel System
4L1: Fuel System Concept
The Diesel fuel aboard Patos is carried in two tanks of 300 gallons each. This gives the boat great cruising range, but it
also means there can be a significant imbalance between the tanks if fuel is only used from one tank for an extended
You should understand that Diesel engines pump an excessive amount of fuel from the tank, use the excess to cool the
injection pump equipment on the engine, then return the unused excess to the tank! Typically, an engine might pump 40
gallons/hour, but use only three or four: The 36 or 37 gallons “makes the circuit” through the pump and back to the tank.
4L2: Filling the Fuel Tanks
With the large fuel tanks, you can fuel the boat pretty fast using a standard hose and nozzle (like those on auto gas
pumps). Listen carefully; as soon as you hear the fuel getting near the top, slow dow and fill slowly until the fuel just
starts to come up the fill pipes.
Fill both the tanks completely but do not spill fuel.
4L3: Fuel Fill Pipe Locations
Take the hose around the cockpit to reach the fill caps on the side decks under the salon windows approximately
midships. These are labeled “Diesel” – Use Care!
4L4: Fuel Filters
Diesel engines require absolutely clean fuel to operate
continuously. As a result, there are two kinds of fuel filters on the
boat. The primary filters are mounted on the inside of each fuel
tank aftet of the engines in the engine room.
The secondary filter is on the engine itself. It is very fine and
is the final protection to be sure the engine’s fuel is absolutely
If the engine stops, it is likely a filter is clogged. Follow through
carefully, and remember you will have to prime the engine to
re-start it. See the engine manual for this procedure. (More next
Arrows point to the primary filters for the engines
and the generator
4L5: Fuel Management and Manifold
The Fuel Manifold is located directly forward and below the
generator cabinet. Each engine has a fuel supply and, since extra fuel
is pumped to the engine that is used to cool the engines injection
pump, there is a fuel return line as well. Normally, you should simply
leave all these valves “On”. In the event you must run for an extended
period on one engine, only then would you actually change these
In such an occasion, but only then, here is a “truth table” to help you
set the valves:
Yellow handles are on the manifold valves.
Port Tank
Port Tank
Stbd Tank
Stbd Tank
Normal Operation
To Port
To Port
To Stbd
To Stbd
Use Port Tank Only
To Port
To Port
Use Stbd Tank Only
To Stbd
To Stbd
4L6: Fuel Measurement
Because of the great capacity of the tanks, you have considerable fuel!
Most short charters (one or two weeks) will not require refilling the
tanks before returning the boat, but it is valuable to know how to do it;
to run out of fuel is nearly unforgivable for a boat operator!
There are “sight gauges” on each tank; on the port tank, it automatically
has “shutters” that make the level stand out; on the starboard the oil
can be seen in it. To use them, open any valves at the gauge tube’s
upper and lower end, take the reading, then close the valves.
4M: Furnace
Arrow points to tank indicator for port tank.
4M1: Furnace
Furnace Concept
The boat is equipped with an Espar Diesel Forced Air Heating System. This is a very
compact furnace that burns the same Diesel fuel as the engines. The fuel comes from
one of the engine tanks, but it uses a negligible amount of fuel, about a pint each hour
it actually runs. The furnace heats air which is circulated throughout the boat. Individual
outlets with its own air control directs the air into each area of the boat.
The furnace is controlled by a thermostat and switch, located just left of the lower helm
by the forward companionway. The furnace’s built-in computer will warm up the furnace,
supply heat to the boat until the thermostat senses it is warm enough, then shut off the
fans while the furnace goes through a “cool-down” cycle. You need not do anything but
set the thermostat with the switch “on”!
Furnace thermostat. The switch,
upperright, turns it on
(in “1” position) and off(“0”).
The position of the dial
shown is about 70 degrees F.
To control the balance of heat between the boat’s areas, open, close, or re-direct the deflectors on the outlets.
As you can see, this furnace system is very flexible and a great addition to the boat! As long as the batteries can support
the modest DC power requirement of the fans and furnace blower, you will have plenty of quiet heat. In fact, this use of
the house batteries’ energy for air circulation is a good reason to limit use of the furnace to times when passengers are
awake, unless the boat has shore power available.
Furnace Exhaust Warning
Note the location of the exhaust aft on the starboard side of the boat!
Care should be taken not to black this outlet with fenders or while rafting due to the very
high temperature of the exhaust gases from the furnace.
Furnace Problems
If battery voltage gets too low the furnace will shut down to avoid running the batteries
dead. After the batteries are fully charged, you must reset the furnace control by turning
the main furnace “on-off” switch on the thermostat “Off”, wait ten seconds, and then “On”
again. The furnace then should operate.
Furnace Thermostat
Starboard side furnace exhaust.
See above.
4N: Galley & Appliances
Patos is fitted with a number of appliances for your convenience. Most of these (like the microwave) are easy to operate,
“just like a home appliance”; nevertheless, we will spend some time discussing these, as marine units have some
features that are slightly different than home models.
4N1: Barbecue
The boat is equipped with a propane-fired barbecue on the sundeck by the steps to the flybridge. To operate it, turn
on the propane at the tank; then using the valve on the barbecue, regulate the gas to the burner lighting it with the
“propane match” supplied.
When done using the barbecue, be sure to turn the gas off at the tank.
4N2: Microwave
There is a conventional microwave on the counter beneath the cabinet at the left end of the galley cabinets.
4N3: Propane Tank (for Stove)
Propane gas is heavier-than-air. Therefore it must be treated with care around a boat so that we can be absolutely sure
there is no gas escaping into the atmosphere to collect in the boat’s lowest spot, the enclosed bilges, to become an
explosive safety hazard. For this reason, the propane tank itself is housed above the galley in the left seat on the flying
bridge. Obviously, up there, if there is a leak, the gas will simply be vented overboard, for there is no way from there for
it to be redirected into the boat, for all openings into the salon are sealed (otherwise they’d leak in a rainstorm!).
There is, of course, a manual gas valve on the propane tank. This valve is used only when exchanging/filling tanks; it
should be fully opened. There is also a second valve, a “solenoid valve”, in the flybridge seat propane line immediately
after the manual valve. This electric valve is controlled by a switch in the galley itself, and in this way the cook can
actually shut off the propane supply to the stove at its source when it not being used, simply by throwing the switch.
4N4: Refrigeration
Refrigeration on Patos consists of an under-counter cold-plate refrigerator in the galley and a stand-up chest freezer on
the flybridge. The refrigerator runs off of compressors that are sea water cooled in the engine room, port side forward on
the shelf. Their controls are within the actual cooling compartments, like a household unit.
Hint: Your refrigeration will work better if you keep the cabinets full; many boaters fill used plastic containers with galley
water and use these as “cold sinks” in their refrigerators; that way, when the door has been opened and closed, the cold
has been saved!
Also, be careful not to put perishables (such as lettuce) against the refrigerator cold plate as they will freeze.
Instead, put items in solid containers on the back of the fridge shelves or in the cooler provided on the
4N5: Stove
The boat is equipped with a PRINCESS propane stove with three top burners
and a thermostatically-controlled oven and broiler.
Each stove burner including the oven is fitted with a “thermocouple”, a heatsensing device that also controls the gas flow. When the gas supply is “turned
on” to a burner, the gas will not flow unless (a) the burner is already on, or (b)
the cook is holding the valve in the “light” position. So you can see the safety of
this arrangement: If the burner goes out for any reason, the thermocouple will
shut off the fuel automatically, assuring you of a safe galley.
To Light a Burner:
Lighting a burner is easy and only takes five to ten seconds:
1. Be sure the propane valve circuit breaker in the DC panel is on.
2. Turn on the remote propane valve on the fly bridge by throwing the
over-the-stove “Propane” switch (when you do this, the pilot light on
the switch panel will light, and you will see the red area on the switch).
3. Turn the knob for your selected burner to “light”, holding it in, and
press the red igniter button on the left of the stove several times until
the burner lights.
Sometimes you may need to turn the knob a little further toward
“high”, or, if the tank has been changed, keep trying for a few seconds
before fuel reaches the stove after purging air from the pipe.
4. After the burner lights, continue to hold the knob in for a few seconds while the thermocouple heats up before
adjusting the flame to the desired intensity.
To Light the Oven:
Since the oven burner is out of sight when the door is closed and it is on, and since while in use, the flame, controlled by
the oven thermostat, goes on and off to control the temperature accurately, the oven has a pilot light that lights it when
in use. Therefore the cook must “light the pilot” when the stove’s oven is to be used. Also, by not leaving the pilot light
on all the time since the oven isn’t used at every meal, the boat’s propane is conserved.
Just as with the burners, lighting the oven is easy, and will take about 20 seconds:
1. Follow steps (1) and (2) above turning on the circuit breaker and propane switch.
2. Locate the pilot light assembly in the opening under the oven divider, at the right front of the burner assembly.
3. Turn the oven control to “light”, and, while holding the red “oven light” button on the right side of the range, use
a match or butane fire-lighter to light the pilot light, holding the red button in for another fifteen seconds after
the pilot is lit for the thermocouple to heat up and allow the pilot to stay on. If the pilot will not stay lit, hold the
button in longer!
4. Adjust the thermostat to the desired temperature.
Note: The oven burner will not immediately light! For safety reasons, the control has a slight time delay, and
the oven’s main burner will light after about 20 or 30 seconds following control-setting. In this way, the burner
does not “puff” on and off as you adjust the control.
5. Until you are completely done with the oven for this cooking session, you may leave the control in the “light”
position between cooking your dishes, so that to use it some more all you need to do is re-set it to a temperature
--- the pilot is still lit.
6. When done with the oven for this meal, turn it completely “off”. The pilot light will go out.
4P: Head Systems
4P1: Overview
The head system on this boat is reliable, straightforward, and easy-to-use. First, a
note about discharge of sewage:
It is forbidden to discharge untreated sewage in inland US. waters, an area
that includes all US. waters in which this boat operates. The boat holding
tank must only be emptied at proper pump-out stations if it is in US. waters.
(This rule does not apply in Canadian waters. However, in Canada, courteous
practice dictates that the holding tank be dumped only when outside confined
marinas or bays, as we are sure the reader agrees!)
The boat is equipped with two Masterflush marine heads. These heads each
have a pump-in motor macerates waste and puts it either into a holding tank
or directly overboard, as determined by the setting on a Y-valve in the head
plumbing lines. The holding tank is emptied either of two ways: by operating an
overboard macerator pump controlled at the DC power panel, or by pumping
using a shore side pump out station through the boat’s pump out fitting at the
inside base of the Portuguese bridge, starboard side.
One of the two toilets; this is in the
forward head compartment.
4P2: Head Operation
The premium heads are easy to use, odor free, and very reliable. They each
work with a separate macerator pump built in to the head itself.
The head uses about a half pint of fresh water from the ship’s supply with each
The head is operated by control on the nearby vanity cabinet.
1. Be sure the “Electric Head” switch in the DC panel is “On”. The switch
should be left on unless you have trouble with the head, in which case
you will turn the switch “Off”.
One of the toilet operating controls.
2. Before using the head if the waste will be solid, press the Head Control Button with the “Up” arrow to add water
to the bowl.
3. 3After use, press the Head Control button with the “Down” arrow to flush the head.
Only things which were eaten or drunk, or the toilet paper supplied with the boat, should be put in the heads!
Facial tissues, tampons, and other foreign matter will clog the system. If these heads are used properly, they
are very, very reliable. Failures are virtually always due to mis-use!
Do not try to flush “mitts” with multiple sheets of toilet paper!
4P3: Head Problems
The two head systems are completely separate: If you have trouble, turn off the faulty head and use just the other head;
call for assistance. Of course, if the holding tank is full, the heads cannot work! Pump the holding tank (see below) when
4P4: Holding Tank
There is a 30-gallon holding tank on the boat located in the engine room to starboard of the engines. Unless the Y-valves
are set so the heads pump overboard, the sewage from each head goes to the holding tank. If dumped overboard from
this tank, the effluent passes through a through-hull valve (normally open) just aft of the holding tank in the engine room
on the starboard side of the boat.
4P5: Head Holding Tank Level Gauge
The boat is equipped with a tank level indicator in the aft head compartment, so it is easy to tell if a tank is full. Check
this indicator regularly and don’t flush if full! Note that after a few uses, the “empty” light will extinguish, and no light
will be lit until the tank reaches the “mid” position.
4P6: Head Waste Overboard Pump
If not in U.S. waters or a “no-discharge zone”, you can dump the tank overboard without a pump out station by turning
“ON” the macerator pump at the DC panel. Leave it on until either the “empty” indicator LED shows on the tank level
unit in the rear head compartment, or until you see bubbles coming fron under the boat.
It takes about ten minutes to empty a full holding tank.
If it is emptied while underway, have someone monitor the operation, checking the tank level indicator to be sure that
the pump is not forgotten and left running, lest you ruin the pump!
4P7: Head Holding Tank Pumpout
If dumped overboard from this tank, the effluent passes through a through-hull valve which is normally in the correct
position. To dump the tank, use a shore side pump out station connecting to the “Waste” deck fitting on the side deck.
4P8: Head Y-Valves
The heads are equipped with Y-valves in the engine room. The aft head Y-valve is aft on the port side near the fuel tank;
the forward head Y-valve is on the forward bulkhead to starboard.
In US. Waters, the Coast Guard Rules require that valves be “secured” in the holding tank position assuring that all
effluent will be kept aboard in the tank. If you turn the valves to over-board while in Canadian waters, re-secure them
with wire ties.
4Q: Running Gear
4Q1: Shaft Seals
The vessel is equipped with dripless shaft seals that are lubricated by water from the engines; the seal should be
occasionally checked by the owner to be sure that there is not inappropriate water leakage. Adjustment should be rarely
4Q2: Stabilizers
The boat is fitted with a hydraulic stabilizer system consisting of active fins on
the underside of the vessel just aft of the engine room bulkhead. These fins are
controlled by a control head (just above the inverter control) in the pilothouse,
with adjustments for sensitivity and trim. The stabilizer hydraulic pump is
driven by the port engine, and the stabilizers do not affect the boat when it is
not underway, and only reach their full effectiveness at speeds over 5.0 knots
or so.
When using the engines, the “Stabilizers” breaker on the small panel to the
right of the lower helm (near the salon floor) should be “On”.
Stabilizers Control Panel
With the breaker on, press the buttons to control the stabilizers as follows:
This button should have been pressed when not underway, or when backing. This
is important!
Press to engage stabilizers when underway.
GPS/Speed Signal Bypass
Turns off the system’s automatic speed compensation. Normally left out/unbypassed.
Sensitivity Controls: Roll
Rate & Roll Angle
Adjusts the sensitivity of the system to changing conditions.
Alarms: Temperature &
These alarms light/sound for high fluid temperature or low hydraulic fluid level. If an
alarm sounds, it can be silenced by pressing the “Alarm” button on the screen.
Immediately investigate the cause; call NW Explorations for assistance.
For other information about operation, consult the Naiad Operating Manual.
4R: Safety Equipment
4R1: Safety - Equipment Listing
This vessel is equipped with complete safety equipment, detailed on page 1.10.
4R2: Safety - Fire Suppression System
The boat has a fire suppression system built in to the engine
room. It is thermostatically operated, and if it operates
because of a fire, it sounds an alarm and lights the warning
light shown in the photo to right. IMMEDIATELY SHUT DOWN
A control on the helm (to starboard of the wheel near the
windlass breaker) can then be operated to silence the alarm.
4R3: Safety - Safety Panel
This panel in the pilothouse will alert you for several anomalies in the boat’s systems,
or if you have left some lights on that could run down your batteries. LED’s indicate the
cause if an engine alarm is sounding, if the DC engine room lights are on; and whether
a bilge pump is running. The windshield wiper controls are also here.
4S: Sea Strainers & Through-Hulls
Safety panel to left,
wiper controls on right.
4S1: Sea Strainer Cleaning and Seacocks
The sea strainers on this boat are secure and reliable. They protect the
engine, generator and refrigeration cooling systems from water-borne
debris which might block internal equipment passages. If a sea strainer
needs cleaning (see above regarding inspection) here is the procedure:
1. Look at the base of the strainer near the hull. On one side is a
valve lever with a relatively long handle; on the other side is a
“T”-shaped knob. Loosen the T-knob two turns. The valve itself
may begin to “weep” sea water, do not be alarmed.
2. Turn the longer valve lever so it is perpendicular to the sea
strainer (parallel to the hull).
3. Tighten the T-handle; the weeping will stop.
A sea strainer; this one is forward of
the starboard engine.
4. Using the same spanner you use for the fuel and water tank
deck caps, unscrew the top of the sea strainer. Then remove
the strainer by pulling it out the top of the assembly. Rinse the strainer thoroughly and, if necessary, remove any
debris from the glass housing.
5. Reinsert the strainer, tighten the top cover with the spanner, AND TURN THE VALVE BACK ON C failure to do so
This entire operation will take 5-10 minutes at most, and will assure you of cool engines.
4T: Warning Lights & Alarms, Wipers & Washers
See the Safety Panel, Page 46.
See the Bilge Alarm Control, Page 21.
4T1: Windshield Wiper/Washer Controls
The windshield wipers are controlled by the three knobs on the safety panel above the helm to starboard. Turning the
knob turns on the wiper, the further you turn it clockwise the faster it runs.
Pressing a knob will activate the washers for all three windshields.
Section 5: “What to Do If” for Some Specific Concerns
The anchor chain is continuous, secured at both ends, and cannot tangle. But sometimes a pile of chain will fall over, and
one loop of chain will fall through another loop. Usually you can clear this by grasping the chain where it exits the hawse
pipe from the chain locker with your hands, and pulling it up or down to “jiggle” the loop out of the chain; you may have
to retrieve some chain to do this, in order to have enough slack to jiggle it! It is rare when this will not clear the jam. The
other solution: Go below and clear the tangle in the chain locker. Caution: Turn off the windlass breaker to protect your
hands when manhandling chain!
This can happen if you “pull the boat to the anchor” with the windlass. You should move the boat under power until
it is over the anchor, or, even better, slightly ahead of it before hauling. Usually this will clear it. Otherwise, take a line
and form a fixed, loose loop around the chain. Weight the loop, and lower it down the line until it reaches the bottom,
sliding down the chain. Then, using the dinghy, take the line forward past the anchor so that you can pull the anchor out,
opposite the direction its flukes are pointing. This should help you to pull the anchor free.
If the motor isn’t running, is the circuit breaker by the lower helm on? If the motor is running, is the clutch tight? Use the
anchor windlass handle. Windlasses are equipped with a shear pin to protect them: if you sheared the pin, you will have
to haul the anchor by hand using the emergency handle.
Have you run the engines or generator enough? Is something left on (like the engine room or mast lights, too many
electronics, etc.) that is too great a load for the time you were not charging? Are you using the inverter for big jobs? Use
the stove or shore power. Have you had the inverter on whenever plugged in to shore power or running the generator?
You must, for the house batteries to charge!
Is the drive belt for the water pump intact? Spare belts are in the engine room spares kit. Is the sea strainer clogged? See
that section in this manual. Is the impeller shot? If sea strainer is clear and belt is good, this is likely. Change (spare in
spares kit) or call a mechanic. Do not run engine if it overheats!
If starter does not turn, is transmission in neutral? Try jiggling shift lever while pushing start button. Check battery,
battery switches. Try starting after switching the “Batt Parallel” switch on in the engine room. Or start generator, charge
all the batteries. If starter turns, assume fuel problem: did you bump a fuel valve on the manifold at back of engine
room? Make sure all open, if one was closed, re-prime engine or call a mechanic if you can’t do this (see Caterpillar
engine manual).
Is breaker on? Turn it on. Have you over-filled the holding tank? Pump it to allow more effluent to enter it. See the
“Heads” section of this manual. If all else fails, just use only the other head.
Engines in Neutral: don’t try to back off, you may foul the net more. Try pulling the boat back with the dinghy &
outboard. Get assistance from the fisherman. You are responsible for damage you cause to a net!
Best thing: have the prop checked by a diver or dive it yourself if able. Check for vibration. Try turning shaft by hand in
engine room, both should be turn-able with engine in neutral. Is shaft noisy, or does it load engine? Do not use that side
or call Vessel Assist. See emergency procedures, next chapter.
Is there water in the tank? Is F.W. Pump breaker on? If capable, check pressure switch on pump, run manually if
Section 6: Emergency Procedures
• Put on life jackets
• Contact the Coast Guard with an emergency “MAYDAY” call.
• If adrift, prepare to anchor to keep the boat from drifting into danger. If the boat is really sinking, consider
“beaching it” if necessary.
• Launch the dinghy and prepare to board if necessary. Take a handheld VHF radio, if available. Be sure to wear life
In a true emergency, you certainly are authorized to call for immediate commercial assistance as minimally required to
assure the safety of you and the boat.
It is not an emergency, however, if neither you nor the boat are at risk.
If you have any concern about your long-term safety, contact the Coast Guard, either normally or using an urgent “PAN”
call. Tell them that you are calling to advise them about your situation, so they can keep in touch.
Be sure that the status and safety of the boat and crew is someone’s responsibility while you sort out the boat’s problem.
For example, delegate your mate to keep a watch for hazards, or to operate the boat on course slowly while you deal
with the difficulty.
Here is a checklist for solving the problem:
(A) Isolate it;
(B) Get the manuals; (C) Get parts;
(D) If necessary, call vendors for help.
Over the years, most problems with boats are caused by misuse! Holding tanks overflow because they aren’t checked;
heads clog because foreign matter (especially facial tissues and tampons) are put in them; engines fail because they run
out of fuel, then must be “purged” to re-start. Use the boat carefully, and you’ll avoid these problems.
Almost all problems that are not operator-caused, i.e., that are boat deficiencies, are caused by pumps that fail, hoses
and belts that break, and seawater strainers that get clogged. Generally, these problems are annoyances, and usually
they are inconvenient, but they still can happen. Try to stay calm, collected, and be a professional by dealing with the
problem in a businesslike, calm way. It will make everyone’s day a better one!
Hitting a log is a real risk in our Northern waters because logging, and “log rafts,” are such a big part of our commerce.
If you hit a log:
• Did you put a hole in the boat? Idle the engine, then think: usually, you can tell just by where the noise of the hit
came from. Check the bilges (don’t forget the lazarette area, where the rudder posts are) after putting the engine
into idle and/or neutral, if necessary.
If you did “hole” the boat, go immediately to the “If an Emergency” on the preceding pages.
• If no hole, and still idling, is the boat vibrating?
If “yes,” put the engine into neutral, try acceleratang it. If there is vibration or any unusual noise (grinding or
squealing) shut down one main engine and use the other engine. Proceed to the closest safe harbor.
• If there is no vibration, you probably did no running gear damage. Congratulations! Have the boat checked by a
diver as soon as possible.
AC 3, 10, 13-14, 18, 21, 23-28, 37-38
AC Power Panel 24, 27
Air Conditioning 18
Alternator 28-29
Ammeter 23, 25, 27
Anchor 3-4, 11, 13-14, 16, 18-20, 23, 31-32,
38, 48, 50
Anchoring 16-18
Anchor Windlass 4, 20, 48
Autopilot 7, 31-32
Barbeque 5, 18, 21
Battery 10, 14, 23, 25, 27-32, 34, 41, 48
Battery Charger 25, 28-29
Battery Combiner 28-29
Bell 11
Berth 8-9, 38, 42
Bilge Pump 22, 31, 46
Canvas 5
CD 34
Chain Locker 18-19, 48
Chart 9
Checklist 14, 50
Circuit Breakers 30
Cleaning 38, 46
Coast Guard 2, 45, 50
Coolant 13, 23-24, 35
Davit 3-4, 11, 18, 22
DC 10, 14, 18, 20-21, 25, 27-33, 37-38, 41-44, 46
DC Power Panel 10, 33, 43
Deck Chairs 11
Depth Sounder 7, 16, 33
Diesel Furnace 23
Dinghy 3-5, 11, 17-18, 22-23, 48-50
Dryer 23, 25, 27
DVD 7, 34
Dvd Player 7, 34
Electronics 3, 5, 7, 11, 18, 32-34, 48
Emergencies 28, 34
Emergency 7, 9, 11, 29-30, 34, 36, 48-51
Energy Monitor 31
Engine 10-11, 13, 15-16, 21, 23-25, 27-29,
31-32, 34-40, 42, 44-46, 48-49, 51
Exhaust 14, 24, 41
Fenders 11, 13, 15, 41
Filters 10, 37-39
Fire Extinguishers 6, 11
Flares 11
Flashlight 35
Flybridge 3-5, 11, 21-22, 33-34, 41
FM 34
Freezer 7-8, 42
Fresh Water 3, 10-11, 37-38, 44
Fuel 4, 10-11, 13, 15, 18, 23, 31, 36, 39-40, 42,
45-46, 48, 50
Fuel Fill 39
Fuel Filters 39
Fuel Tank 10-11, 13, 39, 45
Furnace 10, 18, 23, 40-41
Galley 7-8, 10, 18, 41-42
Generator 3, 10, 13-14, 23-26, 28-29, 32, 37,
40, 46, 48
Genset 10, 29, 38
GPS 7, 32-33
Handheld VHF 50
Head 7-9, 11, 18, 22, 30, 33, 37, 43-45, 48
Heater 10, 13, 24-25, 27, 37
Hitting a Log 51
Holding Tank 4, 9, 13, 43-45, 48
Hose 11, 15, 21, 38-39
Hydraulic 36, 45
Inverter 3, 7, 10, 13-14, 25, 27-29, 45, 48
Key 23, 32-33
Law 38
Life Ring 11
Lines 11, 13, 17-18, 37, 43
Log 7, 32, 49, 51
Maneuvering 13, 15-16, 32, 34
Manuals 7, 50
Mayday 50
Meters 13, 21, 26
Microwave 7, 25, 27-28, 41
Navnet 33
Oil 10, 13, 23-24, 34-36, 40
Oil Leak 35
Oil Pressure 24, 34
Outboard 3, 10-11, 18, 22-23, 28-29, 49
Owner 2-3, 45
Plotter 7, 33-34
Polarity 26-27
Power Monitor 31
Prime 33, 39
Propane 5, 7, 21, 25, 41-43
Propeller 49
Pump 10-11, 21-23, 30-31, 35-40, 43-46, 48-49
Radar 7, 32-34
Radio 28, 34, 50
Refrigerator 7, 42
Reset 41
Restart 24
Reverse Polarity 26-27
Rudder 15, 51
Seacocks 46
Sea Strainer 10, 23, 35, 46, 48
Sea Water 24, 27-28, 38, 42, 46
Shaft 10, 45, 49
Shore Line 11, 16-17
Shore Power 4, 6, 13-14, 24-28, 37, 41, 48
Shower 8-9, 38
Spares 48
Stabilizers 18, 31, 36, 45
Starting 10, 13-14, 24-25, 28-29, 48
Stereo 7, 28, 34
Stern Line 15, 17
Sundeck 4, 11, 21-22, 41
Table 7, 40
Temperature 33-34, 41, 43
Throttles 13, 15
Tools 7
Transmission Oil 36
TV 7, 25, 27, 34
VHF 11, 32, 34, 50
Voltage 20, 25-26, 28-29, 31, 41
Voltmeter 20, 23, 27
Wake 13, 32
Washdown 38
Washer 23, 47
Water Fill 37
Water Heater 10, 13, 25, 27, 37
Watermaker 10, 37-38
Windlass 4, 14, 16, 18-20, 31, 46, 48
Winds 15-16
Windshield Wiper 7, 46-47
NW Explorations
2623 South Harbor Loop Bellingham, Washington 98225
www.nwexplorations.com | (800) 826-1430 | (360) 676-1248
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