Packaging and Assembly for Wearable Electronics Timothy G. Lenihan, Ph.D. Senior Analyst TechSearch International, Inc. www.techsearchinc.com © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. What’s Wearable Electronics? • Wearable electronics not clearly defined today • Products for consumer/fitness, medical, communication and fashion – Smart bracelets such as Nike’s FuelBand and other fitness products – Products for wrist account for 34% of shipments • Smart watches such as Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch • Wearable medical devices such as portable blood pressure monitors, calorie trackers, heart rage monitors, etc. • Glass-based products, more than just Google Glass © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. How Big is the Market? • Market estimates for wearable electronics vary • Industrial Economics and Knowledge Research Center (IEK) projects the global market value of wearable devices to be $5.5 billion this year growing $35 billion in 2018 • IHS predicts 10 fold increase from 2013 to 2018 • IDC projects >$20 billion market in 2018 – Global shipments projected to grow from 19 million units in 2014 to 112 million units in 2018 © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. IoT Growth Includes WLP • • MEMS and sensors growth driven by IoT Many different packages for wearable electronics © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Wearable Product Requirements? • • • • • What are reliability requirements? – Lifetime? – Environmental exposure (UV light, sweat, stress, washer/dryer, cleaning fluids, mud, dust, wafer, sunscreen, etc.) Fitness activity bands – Polymer encased electronics – Components must survive mold process temperatures – Must withstand twist, bend, flex compression – Must not react with bodily and environmental fluids Printed circuit design require environmental protection – Thermal management – Shock and vibration – Electrostatic discharge (ESD) – Bodily and environmental fluids Fabrics for wearable electronics – Weaving of metallized yarns – Lamination of circuit boards – Examples T-shirt for muscle stimulation therapy Need special reliability tests – Drop test (is it shock proof?) – Thermal stress (simulation) – Is it moisture resistant? © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Package Choices: Which Ones Do I Use? • Quad flat no-lead (QFN) • Fine pitch ball grid arrays (FBGA) with laminate or flex circuit substrate • Ceramic land grid array (CLGA) • LGA (with laminate substrate), typically wire bond moving to flip chip • Flip chip BGA (FC-BGA) • Wafer level package (WLP) • Fan-out WLP (FO-WLP) • Stacked die package (WB, or FC and WB) • Package-on-package (PoP) – Memory stack in top package – Logic in bottom package can be WB, FC, Embedded die, or FOWLP • System-in-Package (SiP) • Integrated Passive Device (IPD) WLP PoP FO-WLP FC-BGA QFN LGA module © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Flip Chip on Leadframe MIS Coreless Substrate with Flip Chip Source: APS. • Potential low-cost flip chip solution • Conventional 1-2-1 substrate (left) • Two-layer MIS substrate (right) – Direct filled microvia down to 50µm diameter for improved routing © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. No One Solution for Wearables • Packaging options (found in today’s products) – BGA, FBGA – Flex circuit CSP – LGA (including MCM) – Chip-on-board (COB) – PoP – Stacked die CSP – Leadframe packages such as QFN, SOP, TSOP – Ceramic packages – Integrated passive devices – WLP – Embedded die • Packaging options (emerging) – FO-WLP – MIS package (leadframe versions with mold compound as underfill and substrate) – SiP • Cost/Performance trade-off determines adoption, but Cost and Form Factor are key © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Product Board Options • Flexible circuit – Many medical products – CHECKLIGHT head impact monitor from MC10 – Wrist bands • Rigid flex – Wrist bands – Smart watches • Printed circuit board – Pedometers – Smart watches Source: TPSS. © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Wearable Electronics Enabled by Flexible Circuits • Flexible substrates – – – – – – Materials such as polyimides, LCP, Teflon, etc. Thin substrates Fine pitch features Multiple die Embedded active die and passives possible Folded assembly • Low-cost processing • Reliability proven historically – Roll-to-roll – Flexibility © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. NIKE FUEL™ BAND Polymer Lithium-ion battery x 2 Integrated USB Key functions – Monitor activities and provides metrics Overmolded rubber BT antenna in FPC Rigid FPC LED array Tactile switch C3H MEMS Accelerometer STMicroelectronics Magnesium battery cover USB adapter cable Source: TEConnectivity. © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. PEBBLE Smartwatch Vibrator B to B connector Speaker B&W epaper BT antenna BtoB (Plug 16pos) ST micro LIS3DH 3-axis accelerometer Magnetically attached power Li-Ion polymer battery 12 © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Source: iFixit. Samsung Galaxy Gear • Many different components – WLP – FC-CSP – QFN • Mounted on rigid flex board • Flex circuit inside • Display: OLED Source: TPSS © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Medical Devices with IPDiA Integrated Passives Source: IPDiA. © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc. Conclusions • Many different products • Many different types of boards/substrates • Many different package types • Need many different reliability tests • Need new materials to achieve realization of future product designs © 2014 TechSearch International, Inc.
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