Cross-platform C++ development using Qt

Cross-platform C++ development using Qt
Cross-platform C++
®
development using Qt
Fall 2005
QT Presentation By Gabe Rudy
QT Presentation
Overview
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About Trolltech®/QT
Qt Features and Benefits
Examples and Code
Demos and more Code!
Questions
About Trolltech/QT
QT Presentation By Gabe Rudy
QT Presentation
Trolltech
• Founded in 1994
• Offices:
– Oslo, Norway (HQ) Eirik Chambe-Eng
– Santa Clara, California
– Brisbane, Australia
• Ownership:
– Majority by employees
– 24% VC
• Main products: Qt and Qtopia®
Haavard Nord
QT Presentation
Products
• Qt: a complete C++ application development
framework
• Qtopia: a comprehensive application platform
and user interface for Linux-based consumer
electronics
• QSA: Qt Script for Applications
• Teambuilder: distributed compilation solution
Linux®/Unix
QT Presentation
Other Products First
• Any Linux based PDQ will
be running QTopia, which is
based on QT-embedded.
• If you know QT, you could
easily write for this
platform.
QT Presentation
Qt in a nutshell
• Qt is a complete C++ application
development framework, including
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A comprehensive C++ class library
RAD GUI development tool (Qt Designer)
Internationalization tool (Qt Linguist)
Help browser (Qt Assistant)
Source code and comprehensive documentation
QT Presentation
Qt is comprehensive
• Qt supplies 80-90% of commonly needed
functionality for rich client developers
– 400+ fully documented classes
– Core libs: GUI, Utility, Events, File, Print, Network,
Plugins, Threads, Date and Time, Image processing,
Styles, Standard dialogs
– Modules: Canvas, Iconview, Network, OpenGL®, SQL,
Table, Workspace, XML
– Tools: Designer, Assistant, Linguist
– Extensions: ActiveQt, Motif migration, MFC migration
• Qt Solutions for platform-specific customer requests
• Easy to add/extend/customize
QT Presentation
Qt is cross-platform
• The Qt API and tools are consistent across all
supported platforms
– Qt runs on mobile phones to Cray
supercomputers
• Consequence for users and customers
– Freedom of choice in terms of development and
deployment platform
– Protection against changing platform fashions
QT Presentation
A few platforms it runs on:
Windows® 95 through Server 2003
Mac OS® X
Linux and embedded Linux
AIX, BSD/OS, FreeBSD, HP-UX, IRIX,
NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, Tru64 UNIX
• And more
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QT Presentation
Qt is native
• Qt builds on the native graphics layer
• Qt applications run at compiled speed
QT Presentation
Native look on Windows
QT Presentation
Native look on Linux
QT Presentation
Native look on Mac OS X
QT Presentation
Qt is open source, but…
QT Presentation
QT is also Commercial
• QT requires a commercial license if you plan
to sell your product written in QT.
• Per developer licensing
• License cost based on edition and number of
platforms
• Windows does not have GPL version of QT
• NO runtime fees/roalties etc.
QT Presentation
Qt is rock solid
• Qt is used as the basis of the Linux KDE (K
Desktop Environment)
– Millions of lines of code, strong reliability requirements,
industry strength stability
• Widely used by Linux community
– thousands of developers
– millions of end-users
• Used commercially in a wide variety of demanding
applications
– Medical devices
– Air traffic guidance
QT Presentation
Qt customers
• Adobe, Agilent, ARM, Boeing, Bosch, Cadence, Canon,
CEA Technologies, ChevronTexaco, DaimlerChrysler,
Deutsche Telekom, Earth Decision Sciences, ESA,
Fraunhofer, HP, IBM, Intel, i-penta JD Edwards, Lockheed
Martin, LogicaCMG, Mentor Graphics, NASA, NEC, NTT,
PGS, Pioneer, Rohde & Schwarz, Scania, Schlumberger,
Sharp, Shell, Siemens, Sony, STN-Atlas, Stryker Leibinger,
Synopsys, Thales...
• Qt is used for a wide variety of applications: mass-market
and custom software, internal apps, research, modeling,
visualization, etc..
QT Presentation
Sample application: Abobe
Photoshop Album
Qt Features and Benefits
QT Presentation By Gabe Rudy
QT Presentation
Qt Features
• Unique features in Qt
– Cross-platform, consistent, compiled API
– Signals and slots
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Class library overview
Qt tools overview
Documentation
Third-party integration
QT Presentation
Cross-platform, consistent API
Application
Application
Application
Qt/X11 lib
Qt/Windows lib
Qt/Mac lib
Unix or Linux
MS Windows
MacOS
• Use the standard native tools to build Qt apps (IDE,
debugger etc.)
• Qt provides a platform-independent encapsulation of the
local window system and operating system
• The Qt API is identical on every platform, applications are
compiled to native executables
• Result: Write once, compile everywhere
QT Presentation
Signals & Slots
• Unique inter-object communication
mechanism, provides
– Type-safe callback between objects
– Facilitates loose coupling / encapsulation
• Sender and receiver does not ”know about” each other
– 1-to-many, many-to-1 communication between
objects
• Fully Object-oriented
QT Presentation
Class Library Overview
• Full set of GUI classes
– Widget set and GUI toolkit
• Operating system encapsulation classes
– OO, C++ class interface to C system calls
• SQL database access classes
– Data storing and retrieval
• Utility classes
– Commonly useful classes
• Integration & Migration classes
– Using Qt with other libraries and legacy code
QT Presentation
OS encapsulation classes
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File & directory handling
Date & time
Registry / preferences
Networking
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Process handling
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exec, terminate, kill, stdin/stdout/stderr I/O
Threading
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URL, socket, TCP, DNS, FTP, HTTP
start, terminate, semaphore, mutex, wait
Dynamic library loading
QT Presentation
SQL Database classes
Application
Qt library
OS
SQL
Database
DB-vendor’s
driver library
• Store, retrieve, query, traverse & modify DB data
• Database-independent API
– Oracle, Sybase/MS SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL, DB/2,
Interbase, ODBC
• DB-aware widgets
– Editable forms and tableviews
QT Presentation
Utility classes
• String and regular expressions
– Unicode
• Text and binary I/O
– codecs
• Collections
– Optional alternatives to STL collections
• XML I/O
– Parser with SAX2 interface
– DOM level 2 implementation
QT Presentation
Integration & Migration classes
• OpenGL
– 3D graphics rendering in a Qt widget
• ActiveX
– Host ActiveX controls in a Qt app
– Use Qt to create ActiveX controls
• Motif
– co-exist with legacy Motif code; stepwise migration
• Netscape Plugins
– Create Netscape/Mozilla/Opera LiveConnect plugins with Qt
QT Presentation
Development Tools Overview
• Qt Designer
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Visual GUI builder
• Qt Linguist
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Language translators’ tool
• Qt Assistant
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Help browser
• qmake
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Makefile generator, eases cross-platform builds
QT Presentation
Qt Designer
MyDialog.xml
MyDialogBase.cpp
MyDialog.cpp
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WYSIWYG, drag & drop GUI builder
Supports the Qt auto-layout system
Designs stored in open, documented XML format
Does not interfere with user’s source code
QT Presentation
Documentation
• Reference Manual
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HTML
generated from the source code
Fully cross-referenced
Browsable from Qt Assistant
or normal web browser: doc.trolltech.com
• Tutorials
• Examples
• Qt programming books
Examples and Code
The fun stuff.
QT Presentation By Gabe Rudy
QT Presentation
Hello World(ish)
#include <qapplication.h>
#include <qlabel.h>
int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
QApplication myapp(argc, argv);
QLabel* mylabel = new QLabel("Hello MSU“,0);
mylabel->resize(80,30);
myapp.setMainWidget(mylabel);
mylabel->show();
return myapp.exec();
}
QT Presentation
Signals and Slots (in-depth)
QT Presentation
Signals and Slots – example
QT Presentation
Defining Signals and Slots
• New C++ Syntax for defining Signals/Slots
class myClass : public QObject {
Q_OBJECT
//required macro, no semicolon
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signals:
void somethingHappened();
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public slots:
void slotDoSomething();
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private slots:
void slotDoSomethingInternal();
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};
QT Presentation
Gory Details
• Signals: emit events
– declare as signals, otherwise normal member functions
– You don't implement them. Rather, you send them with the keyword
emit
– E.g. emit sliderChanged(5)
• Slots: receive and handle events
– Normal member functions declared as slots
• Connect: must connect signals to slots
– QObject::connect( mymenu, SIGNAL(activated(int)), myobject,
SLOT(slotDoMenuFunction(int)) );
• moc: meta object compiler (preprocessor) converts these new
keywords to real C++
QT Presentation
Hello World Proper
int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
QApplication myApp(argc, argv);
QWidget* myWidget = new QWidget();
myWidget->setGeometry(400, 300, 120, 90);
QLabel *myLabel = new QLabel("Hello MSU!",myWidget);
myLabel->setGeometry(10, 10, 80, 30);
QPushButton* myQuitButton = new QPushButton("Quit", myWidget);
myQuitButton->setGeometry(10, 50, 100, 30);
QObject::connect(myQuitButton, SIGNAL(clicked()), &myApp,
SLOT(quit());
myapp.setMainWidget( myWidget );
myWidget->show();
return myApp.exec();
}
QT Presentation
Hello with QT Designer
• Create a widget/dialog/wizard etc in Designer
• Use the code generated at compile time in the
program.
#include "helloui.h" //Generated at compile time
int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
QApplication myApp(argc, argv);
HelloUI* hello = new HelloUI(0);
myApp.setMainWidget( hello );
hello->show();
return myApp.exec();
}
QT Presentation
Look at Designer .ui and Demo
• Designer generates clean xml code
• Demo shows off QT well.
QT Presentation
Thank you!
Additional information resources:
• http://www.trolltech.com/
• http://kde.org
• Gabe
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