Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S
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Adaptec SCSI RAID
2120S/2200S
Software User’s Guide
R
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Copyright
© 2002 Adaptec, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the
prior written consent of Adaptec, Inc., 691 South Milpitas Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035.
Trademarks
Adaptec and the Adaptec logo are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc., which may be
registered in some jurisdictions.
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Microsoft Corporation in the US and other countries, used under license.
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All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Changes
The material in this document is for information only and is subject to change
without notice. While reasonable efforts have been made in the preparation of this
document to assure its accuracy, Adaptec, Inc. assumes no liability resulting from
errors or omissions in this document, or from the use of the information contained
herein.
Adaptec reserves the right to make changes in the product design without
reservation and without notification to its users.
Disclaimer
IF THIS PRODUCT DIRECTS YOU TO COPY MATERIALS, YOU MUST HAVE
PERMISSION FROM THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OF THE MATERIALS TO
AVOID VIOLATING THE LAW WHICH COULD RESULT IN DAMAGES OR
OTHER REMEDIES.
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Contents
1
Introduction
Document Overview 1-1
Organization 1-1
Additional Supplied Documentation 1-2
Supported RAID Types 1-2
RAID-0 1-3
RAID-1 1-3
RAID-5 1-4
RAID-10 1-5
RAID-50 1-6
Simple Volume 1-6
Spanned Volume 1-6
RAID Volume 1-7
Features 1-7
Optimized Disk Utilization 1-7
Array Reconfiguration 1-7
Drive Enclosures 1-8
Hot Spares 1-8
Automatic Rebuild On Replacement 1-9
SCSI Devices Supported 1-9
Supported Controllers 1-9
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Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S/2200S Software User’s Guide
2
Using Adaptec RAID Configuration
Using the Array Configuration Utility 2-2
Managing Arrays 2-2
Creating Arrays 2-6
Initializing Disk Drives 2-9
Rescanning Disk Drives 2-9
Using the SCSISelect Utility 2-10
Starting and Exiting SCSISelect 2-10
Using the SCSISelect Menus 2-10
Using the Controller Configuration Utility 2-11
Using the SCSI Configuration Utility 2-13
Using the Disk Utilities 2-15
Viewing the Event Log 2-16
3
Adaptec Storage Manager-Browser Edition
About Adaptec Storage Manager 3-2
Login to Adaptec Storage Manager 3-4
Installing a Security Certificate 3-6
Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager 3-7
Pop Up Tool Tips 3-8
Physical Devices 3-8
Logical Devices 3-11
Creating Arrays 3-12
Advanced Options 3-13
Creating and Deleting Hot Spares 3-16
Creating Hot Spares 3-16
Deleting Hot Spares 3-16
Deleting Arrays 3-17
Modifying Arrays 3-17
User Interface Options 3-19
Viewing Events 3-20
Help 3-20
Displaying and Modifying Properties 3-21
Applying Changes 3-21
Controller Properties 3-21
Channel Properties 3-23
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Contents
Physical Device Properties 3-23
Enclosure Properties 3-25
Logical Device Properties 3-26
Viewing and Creating Tasks 3-27
Task Viewer Tab 3-27
New Tasks Tab 3-28
About Adaptec Storage Manager Notifier Service 3-29
Notifier Service Event Levels 3-29
Enabling and Configuring the Notifier Service 3-31
Controlling ARCPD for Windows 2000 3-31
Controlling ARCPD for Unix and Linux 3-31
Controlling ARCPD for NetWare 3-32
Configuring the Notifier Service 3-32
System Event Log 3-32
Configuring E-mail Notification 3-33
Reconfiguring E-mail Notification 3-34
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4
Using the Command Line Interface
Introducing the Command Line Interface 4-2
Accessing the Command Line Interface 4-2
Terminology 4-3
Using the CLI 4-4
Opening and Closing a Controller 4-4
Creating Single-Level Arrays 4-4
Deleting Arrays 4-7
Enabling Spares 4-8
Displaying Controller Information 4-9
Displaying Disk Information 4-11
Displaying Array Information 4-13
The CLI Commands 4-16
General Control Commands 4-16
Container (Array) Commands 4-18
Controller Commands 4-29
Diagnostic Commands 4-32
Disk Commands 4-34
Logfile Commands 4-38
Task Commands 4-39
Enclosure Commands 4-40
Using Automated Command Scripts 4-44
A
vi
Glossary
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1
Introduction
In this Chapter
Document Overview
1-1
Supported RAID Types
1-2
Features
1-7
SCSI Devices Supported
1-9
Supported Controllers
1-9
Document Overview
This section reviews the contents of the Adaptec SCSI RAID Software
User’s Guide and includes an introduction to the major features of
your controller, as well as some of the terminology used.
Organization
Chapter 1, Introduction, briefly describes contents of the guide, the
software supplied with your RAID controller and the capabilities
of the controller.
Chapter 2, Using Adaptec RAID Configuration, introduces ARC, a
BIOS-based utility, that allows you to configure various features of
the RAID controller, as well as create and manage arrays. This
chapter provides step-by-step instructions on how to use ARC.
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Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S/2200S Software User’s Guide
Chapter 3, Adaptec Storage Manager-Browser Edition, provides an indepth look at Adaptec Storage Manager, an easy-to-use storage
configuration application that supports both local and remote
management. This chapter describes the user interface, and
provides step-by-step instructions on using Adaptec Storage
Manager to configure and manage your storage subsystem.
Chapter 4, Using the Command Line Interface, introduces the CLI, a
text command line-based interface that supports the full feature set
of Adaptec storage controllers. This chapter provides an
introduction to using the CLI to manage your storage subsystem.
More detailed coverage is provided in the Software Reference Guide
supplied on the CD with your controller.
Appendix A, Glossary, provides an alphabetical list of terms with
brief definitions.
Additional Supplied Documentation
Other documentation supplied with your controller:
■
Quick Install Guide—A printed booklet that describes
installing your controller and software in commonly used
situations.
■
Installation Guide—Supplied in PDF form on the same CD as
this guide, the Installation Guide provides more detailed
instructions on installing your controller and software, as well
as covering less commonly used configurations.
■
Software Reference Guide—Comprehensive information on
the CLI, and DOS ACU.
Supported RAID Types
RAID is an acronym for either Redundant Array of Independent
Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. The goal of RAID
is to provide higher capacity, performance and/or reliability from
combinations of disk drives than it is practical to achieve with a
single drive.
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Introduction
Adaptec RAID controllers support the following types of array:
RAID-0
A RAID-0 is created by striping data across two or more disk
drives. Simple striping like this creates no redundancy to protect
the data, but by sharing the load equally across multiple drives, it
does provide the best read and write performance of any RAID
type.
RAID-0
Drive
Drive
Drive
Data 0
Data 1
Data 2
Data 3
Data 4
Data 5
Data 6
Data 7
Data 8
Data 9
Data 10
Data 11
RAID-1
A RAID-1 must contain only two disk drives. All data stored on the
array is written to both drives. This duplication, or mirroring, of
the data provides redundancy, ensuring that if one drive fails no
data loss will occur.
RAID-1
Drive
Drive
Data 0
Data 0
Data 1
Data 1
Data 2
Data 2
Data 3
Data 3
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Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S/2200S Software User’s Guide
The cost of this redundancy is inefficient use of capacity, because
all data is written to both drives, only half of the total capacity is
available.
RAID-1 offers no write performance advantage over a single drive,
but read performance benefits from being able to share the load
between two drives.
RAID-5
A minimum of three drives is required to create a RAID-5. Like a
RAID-0, data is striped across the drives, however in the case of a
RAID-5, the capacity of one drive is used to store parity
information. The controller generates this parity data every time
data is written to the array, and it is distributed in stripes across all
the drives.
In the event of a drive failure, the contents of the failed drive can be
rebuilt from the data and parity on the remaining drives.
RAID-5
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Data 0
Data 1
Data 2
Parity 0
Data 3
Data 4
Parity 1
Data 5
Data 6
Parity 2
Data 7
Data 8
Parity 3
Data 9
Data 10
Data 11
Using parity minimizes the capacity cost of redundancy. Since only
one drive is used to store parity, the worst case of a three-drive
RAID-5 only loses one third of the total capacity, for arrays with
more drives the lost capacity is smaller.
RAID-5 write performance is limited by the need to generate parity
data for every write. Read performance is good because the load is
spread equally across all the drives.
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Introduction
RAID-10
A RAID-10 is an example of a dual-level array and is created by
using two or more equal-sized RAID-1s to create a RAID-0.
RAID-10
RAID-1
RAID-1
Data 1
Data 0
Data 2
Data 3
Top-Level Arrays
Data 4
Data 5
Data 6
Data 7
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Data 0
Data 0
Data 1
Data 1
Data 2
Data 2
Data 3
Data 3
Data 4
Data 4
Data 5
Data 5
Data 6
Data 6
Data 7
Data 7
Second-Level Arrays
The top level RAID-0 shares the load among the second level
RAID-1s, improving both read and write performance. Since
second level arrays are RAID-1, only half the total capacity of the
drives in the array is available.
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RAID-50
A RAID-50 is a dual-level array created by using two or more
equal-sized RAID-5s to create a RAID-0.
RAID-50
RAID-5
RAID-5
Data 0 & Data 1
Data 2 & Data 3
Data 4 & Data 5
Top-Level Arrays
Data 6 & Data 7
Data 8 & Data 9
Data 10 & Data 11
Data 12 & Data 13
Data 14 & Data 15
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Drive
Data 0
Data 1
Parity A0
Data 2
Data 3
Parity B0
Data 4
Parity A1
Data 5
Data 6
Parity B1
Data 7
Parity A2
Data 8
Data 9
Parity B2
Data 10
Data 11
Data 12
Data 13
Parity A3
Data 14
Data 15
Parity B3
Second-Level Arrays
The top level RAID-0 shares the load among the second-level
RAID-5s, improving both read and write performance. The second
level RAID-5s use of parity provides efficient redundancy.
Simple Volume
A simple volume consists of a single disk drive.
Spanned Volume
A spanned volume is created by joining two or more disk drives.
The drives do not have to be of equal capacity and are connected
end-to-end. A spanned volume offers no redundancy and no
performance advantage over a single drive.
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Introduction
RAID Volume
A RAID volume is created by joining two or more single-level
arrays of the same RAID type. Unlike dual-level arrays, the arrays
in a RAID volume do not have to be of equal capacity. In direct
contrast to dual-level arrays, the second-level arrays in a RAID
volume are not striped together, instead they are connected end-toend.
Features
Optimized Disk Utilization
For simplicity the explanations of the various types of array above
describe the arrays in terms of complete drives. Typically arrays
use the same size drives, or if drives of varying capacities are used,
the capacity used on each drive is limited to that of lowest capacity
drive.
For example, a RAID-1 constructed using one 18G and one 9G
drive will only use half of the capacity of the larger drive and the
array will be limited to 9G.
Adaptec’s Optimized Disk Utilization feature allows arrays to be
created using portion of drives. These sections of drives are known
as segments and are created automatically during the array
creation process.
Within a given array each segment will be the same size, but the
segment size does not have to equal the capacity of the smallest
drive.
Any unused capacity on drives is known as available space, and
can be used in another array or arrays.
Adaptec RAID controllers use a small segment at the beginning of
each drive connected to them to store information about the drives
and arrays attached to the controller. This area is known as the
RAID signature.
Array Reconfiguration
Adaptec RAID controllers support modifying existing arrays by
expansion, migration from one array type to another and changing
the stripe size.
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Table 1-1 lists the RAID type migrations supported by Adaptec
Storage Manager.
Table 1-1 Supported Array Migrations
Current Array Type
New Array Type
RAID-0
RAID-5 or 10
RAID-1
RAID-0 or 5 or 10
RAID-5
RAID-0 or 10
RAID-10
RAID-0 or 5
RAID-50
RAID-0 or 5 or 10
See Chapter 3, Adaptec Storage Manager-Browser Edition, for
instructions on modifying arrays.
Some operating systems, for example Windows XP, Windows
2000, Windows NT and Novell Netware, support Online Capacity
Expansion (OCE). That is, on completion of an array expansion, the
additional capacity can be used without rebooting the system.
Refer to your operating system documentation for instructions on
using the additional capacity.
Drive Enclosures
Adaptec RAID controllers support drive enclosures that include
either SES or SAF-TE enclosure management hardware.
Hot Spares
A hot spare is a drive that is reserved to replace a failing drive in a
redundant array. In the event of drive failure, the hot spare will
replace the failing drive and the array will be rebuilt.
Adaptec RAID controllers support two types of hot spares:
■
Global—protects every array that the drive has enough
available capacity to protect.
■
Dedicated—protects only the array that it has been assigned to
protect.
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Introduction
Automatic Rebuild On Replacement
Adaptec RAID controllers support a feature known as Automatic
rebuild on replacement. This may be useful in the event of a drive
failure if no hot spare is available and the failing drive is in an SES
or SAF-TE enabled drive enclosure.
When this feature is enabled (default) a rebuild of any redundant
array that the failed drive was a member of will be triggered
automatically by simply removing the failure drive and replacing it
with a new drive.
SCSI Devices Supported
In addition to SCSI hard disk drives, Adaptec RAID controllers
support a wide range of SCSI devices, from CD-ROMs and tape
drives to scanners and removable media drives.
Supported Controllers
The majority of this chapter and all the other documentation
supplied with your controller describes the capabilities of the
RAID controllers listed in the left column of Table 1-2. Adaptec
Storage Manager-Browser Edition also supports other Adaptec
RAID controllers provided the RAID management software
supplied with those cards, Adaptec Storage Manager or Adaptec
Storage Manager Pro is already installed on the system.
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Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S/2200S Software User’s Guide
Adaptec RAID controllers supported by Adaptec Storage
Manager-Browser Edition are listed in Table 1-2.
Table 1-2 Supported Adaptec RAID Controllers
Advanced Feature Set
Standard Feature Set2
Adaptec SCSI RAID 2200S, 2120S,
5400S1
Adaptec SCSI RAID 2000S, 2005S,
2010S, 2015S, 2100S, 2210S, 3200S,
3210S, 3400S, 3410S
Adaptec ATA RAID 2400A
1
In order for Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition to support an Adaptec
SCSI RAID 5400S controller, Adaptec Storage Manager Pro must be uninstalled
before Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition is installed.
2
In order for Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition to support any controller
in this column, Adaptec Storage Manager or Storage Manager Pro must be
installed. Uninstalling Adaptec Storage Manager or Storage Manger Pro will
remove support for that controller.
Installing Adaptec Storage Manager-Browser Edition on a system
with one of the standard feature set cards installed does not add
any new functionality to the existing controller.
For a detailed description of the capabilities of any controller, refer
to the documentation supplied with that controller.
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2
Using Adaptec RAID
Configuration
In this Chapter
Using the Array Configuration Utility
2-2
Using the SCSISelect Utility
2-10
Using the Controller Configuration Utility
2-11
Using the SCSI Configuration Utility
2-13
Using the Disk Utilities
2-15
Viewing the Event Log
2-16
The Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility (ARC) is an embedded
BIOS utility that includes an Array Configuration Utility (ACU)
that allows the creation, configuration, and management of arrays.
Also included are SCSISelect which supports changing SCSI device
and controller settings, and Disk Utilities to low-level format or
verify disk media.
Adaptec also provides a standalone utility to create, configure, and
manage arrays from an MS-DOS prompt. This utility is called
Array Configuration Utility (ACU) for MS-DOS and it is described
in the Adaptec SCSI RAID Software Reference Guide. This chapter
describes only the functionality of the BIOS-based ACU.
To run ARC, when prompted by the following message during the
system boot process press Ctrl+A :
Press <Ctrl><A> for Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility
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Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S/2200S Software User’s Guide
The Adaptec SCSI RAID Controller menu appears, presenting the
following options:
■
Array Configuration Utility
■
SCSISelect Utility
■
Disk Utilities
To select an option from this menu or from any of the menus
within ARC, move the cursor to the option with the Up/Down
arrow keys and press Enter. In some cases, selecting an option
displays another menu. You can return to the previous menu at
any time by pressing Esc.
The following sections discuss each of these menu options.
Using the Array Configuration Utility
The Array Configuration Utility (ACU) enables you to manage,
create, and delete arrays from the controller’s BIOS. You can also
initialize and rescan drives.
You can use the ACU to create a bootable array for the system. We
recommend that you configure the system to boot from an array
instead of from a single disk to take advantage of the redundancy
and performance features of arrays. For details on creating a
bootable array, see Deleting Arrays on page 2-4.
Note: If you are changing the configuration of a system that is
already in use on a network, log all users off the system and
shut it down in an orderly manner before you start the ACU.
Managing Arrays
Use the Manage Arrays option to view array properties and
members, make an array the boot array, manage failover
assignments, and delete arrays. The following sections describe
these operations in greater detail.
Viewing Array Properties
To view the properties of an existing array:
1 At the BIOS prompt, press Ctrl+A.
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Using Adaptec RAID Configuration
2 From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility.
3 From the ACU menu, select Manage Arrays.
4 From the List of Arrays dialog box, select the array you want to
view information on and press Enter.
The Array Properties dialog box appears, showing detailed
information on the array. The physical disks associated with the
array are displayed here, except in the case of dual-level arrays
(RAID 10 and RAID 50, for example). For dual-level arrays,
highlight the displayed member and press Enter to display the
second level. Press Enter again to display the physical disks
associated with the array.
Note: A failed drive is displayed in a different text color.
5 Press Esc to return to the previous menu.
Making an Array Bootable
You can make an array bootable so that the system boots from the
array instead of from a stand-alone (single) disk.
To make an array bootable:
1
2
3
4
At the BIOS prompt, press Ctrl+A.
From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility.
From the ACU menu, select Manage Arrays.
Select the array you want to make bootable and type Ctrl+B.
This changes the selected array’s number to 00, making it the
controller’s boot array.
5 Reboot the system.
If you are booting from the controller, bear in mind the following:
■
If the controller is not a boot device, you can disable its runtime
BIOS, see page 2-11. When the BIOS is disabled it will not
occupy any of the expansion ROM region of the system’s
memory map. This may be useful if there are several cards with
an expansion ROM (BIOS) in the system.
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Adaptec SCSI RAID 2120S/2200S Software User’s Guide
■
You cannot make a non-00 array bootable if the array is in a
build/verify or reconfiguration process.
!
Caution: The controller always uses the lowest numbered
array as its bootable array. If you delete array 00 for any
reason, the next lowest numbered array will become the
bootable array. Use the Ctrl+B option to mark the correct
array as the bootable array (by making it array 00).
If you want to boot from a stand-alone (single) disk drive, first
create a volume on that disk.
The system BIOS provides additional tools to modify the boot
order. For more information, refer to your system documentation.
Deleting Arrays
!
Caution: Back up the data on an array before you delete it. All
data on the array is lost when you delete the array. Deleted
arrays cannot be restored.
To delete an existing array:
1
2
3
4
5
At the BIOS prompt, press Ctrl+A.
From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility.
From the ACU menu, select Manage Arrays.
Select the array you wish to delete and press Delete.
In the Array Properties dialog box, press Delete again and
press Enter. The following prompt is displayed:
Warning!! Deleting will erase all data from the
array.
Do you still want to continue? (Yes/No):
6 Press Yes to delete the array or No to return to the previous
menu. At the Array Properties dialog box, select Delete again
and press Enter.
7 Press Esc to return to the previous menu.
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Using Adaptec RAID Configuration
Managing Failover Drive Assignments
To assign a hot spare drive to an array:
1 Select Manage Arrays from the Main menu.
2 On the List of Arrays dialog box, select the array you want to
assign a hot spare drive to, and type Ctrl+S. The Hotspare
Management for Array dialog box is displayed, which shows
the drives that can be assigned as hot spare drives.
3 Select a drive and press the Insert key to assign the drive as a
hot spare. The specified drive is displayed in the Assigned
Hotspares drives list.
4 Press Enter to save the hot spare drive assignment. The
following prompt is displayed:
Have you finished managing Hotspare drives?
5 Type Y (yes) to return to the Main menu.
To remove an assigned hot spare drive from an array:
1 Select Manage Arrays from the Main menu.
2 In the List of Arrays dialog box, select the array from which
you want to remove the assigned hot spare drive and type
Ctrl+S. The Hotspare Management for Array dialog box is
displayed, which shows a list of drives that can be assigned as
hot spare drives and a list of drives that are assigned as hot
spare drives.
3 From the Assigned Hotspares drives list, select the drive to
be removed, then press Delete. The specified drive is
displayed in the Select Hotspares drives list.
4 Press Enter to save the removed hot spare drive assignment.
The following prompt is displayed:
Have you finished managing Hotspare drives?
5 Type Y (yes) to return to the Main menu.
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Creating Arrays
Before creating arrays, make sure the disks for the array are
connected and installed in your system (or enclosure). Note that
any disks with MS-DOS partitions, disks with no usable space, or
disks that are uninitialized appear dimmed and cannot be used for
creating a new array. For information on how to initialize a disk
drive, see page 2-9.
To create an array:
1 Shut down and reboot the system.
2
3
4
5
6
At the BIOS prompt, press Ctrl+A.
From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility.
From the ACU menu, select Create Array.
Use the Left/Right arrow keys to select a channel.
Select the disks for the new array and press Insert. ACU
displays the largest usable space available for each disk. You
can use available space from multiple disks for the new array.
Note: Consult Table 2-1 on page 2-7 for the maximum
number of drives that can be used for each RAID level.
To deselect any disk, highlight the disk and press Delete.
Note: ACU cannot reliably find disks or enclosures that
were powered up after system power-up.
7 Press Enter when all disks for the new array are selected. The
Array Properties menu displays.
If you install a controller into a system that has been powered
down, on startup the BIOS will announce the detected
configuration changes. If the controller does not consider these
changes risky it will present a confirmation prompt and will autoconfirm if there has been no operator input in 30 seconds. If the
controller considers that the changes are risky, you will be
prompted for further action.
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Using Adaptec RAID Configuration
Assigning Array Properties
Note that you cannot change array properties from the ACU once
the array is created. To change array properties once the array is
created, use Adaptec Storage Manager.
To assign properties to the new array:
1 In the Array Properties menu, select an array type and press
Enter. Note that only those array types available according to
the number of drives selected are displayed. For a description of
the supported array types, see the installation guide shipped
with your controller.
The physical SCSI limitation for the controller is 15 drives per
channel. The maximum number of drives allowed and
minimum number of drives required depends on the RAID
level. Consult Table 2-1 for a listing of this information.
Table 2-1 RAID Levels and Drives Information
RAID Level
Maximum
Drives
Allowed
Minimum
Drives
Required
Volume
32
1
RAID 0
48
2
RAID 1
2
2
RAID 5
16
3
RAID 10
48
4
RAID 50
48
6
2 Type in an optional label for the array and press Enter.
3 Enter the desired array size. The maximum array size available
based on the segments you selected is displayed automatically.
If you want to designate a different array size, type the desired
array size and select MB (megabytes), GB (gigabytes), or TB
(terabytes) from the drop-down list. If the available space from
the selected segments is greater than the size specified, the
remaining space will be available for use in other arrays.
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4 Select the desired stripe size. The allowable stripe sizes are 16,
32, and 64 KB (the default). For RAID 50 arrays, 64 KB is the
only stripe size supported by ACU. The default stripe size gives
the best overall performance in most network environments.
5 Specify whether you want to enable read caching for the array.
This option should always be enabled to optimize performance,
unless your application is doing completely random reads,
which is unlikely.
6 Specify if you want to enable write caching for the array.
Note: By design, some controllers do not allow the use of
write caching. In such cases, the controller will not activate
write caching, regardless of the write cache setting. If this
is the case a message will be displayed that tells you the
settings have been recorded but have no effect.
Write caching options (if supported) consist of the following:
■
Enable when protected—If supported, enables the write
cache only when a battery is present and the battery’s charge
status is OK.
■
Enable always—If supported, enables the write cache even
if no battery is present or the battery’s charge status is not
OK. Note that setting an array’s write cache property to
Enable always might result in data loss or corruption if
power to the controller is lost when no battery is present or
the battery loses its charge.
■
Disable—Disables use of the write cache.
7 When you are finished, press Done.
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Initializing Disk Drives
If an installed disk does not appear in the disk selection list for
creating a new array or if it appears grayed out, you may have to
initialize it before you can use it as part of an array.
!
Caution: Initializing a disk overwrites the partition table on
the disk and makes any data on the disk inaccessible. If the
drive is used in an array, you may not be able to use the array
again. Do not initialize a disk that is part of a boot array. The
boot array is lowest numbered array (normally 00) in the List
of Arrays dialog box.
See Viewing Array Properties on page 2-2 for information on
determining which disks are associated with a particular
array.
To initialize drives:
1
2
3
4
5
At the BIOS prompt, press Ctrl+A.
From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility.
Select Initialize Drives.
Use the Right/Left arrow keys to select a channel.
Use the up and down arrow keys to highlight the disk you wish
to initialize and press Insert.
6 Repeat step 5 until all the drives to be initialized are selected.
7 Press Enter.
8 Read the warning message and ensure that you have selected
the correct disk drives to initialize. Type Y to continue.
Rescanning Disk Drives
To rescan the drives connected to the controller:
1 At the BIOS prompt, press Ctrl+A.
2 From the ARC menu, select Array Configuration Utility.
3 Select Rescan Drives.
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Using the SCSISelect Utility
The SCSISelect Utility enables you to change device and controller
settings without opening the system chassis or handling the card. If
you want to view or change the current settings, see Starting and
Exiting SCSISelect on page 2-10. For detailed descriptions of each
setting, see Using the Controller Configuration Utility on page 2-11.
Starting and Exiting SCSISelect
To start SCSISelect:
1 When you turn on or reboot your system, press Ctrl+A to access
the Adaptec RAID Configuration (ARC) utilities when
prompted by the following message:
Press <Ctrl><A> for Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility
2 If multiple controllers are installed, select the controller you
want to configure and press Enter.
3 From the ARC menu, select SCSISelect Utility.
The Controller Configuration and SCSI Configuration menu
options are displayed.
To exit SCSISelect, press Esc until a message prompts you to exit. (If
you changed any host adapter settings, you are prompted to save
the changes before you exit.) Select Yes to exit and reboot the
system. Any changes you made take effect after the system boots.
Using the SCSISelect Menus
To select a SCSISelect menu option, move the cursor to the option
with the Up/Down arrow keys and press Enter. In some cases,
selecting an option displays another menu. You can return to the
previous menu at any time by pressing Esc.
To restore the original SCSISelect default values, press F6 from the
Configure/View Host Adapter Settings screen.
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Using the Controller Configuration Utility
To access the Controller Configuration Utility:
1 When you turn on or reboot your system, press Ctrl+A to access
ARC when prompted by the following message:
Press <Ctrl><A> for Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility
2 If multiple controllers are installed, select the controller you
want to configure and press Enter.
3 From the ARC menu, select SCSISelect Utility.
The Controller Configuration and SCSI Configuration menu
options are displayed.
4 Select Controller Configuration.
You can modify the following Controller Interface Definitions:
■
Drives Write Cache — Enables or disables the write-back
cache feature of all SCSI disk drives connected to the
controller. If Disabled, the controller will disable the writeback cache of all attached drives. If Enabled, then the
controller will enable the write-back cache of all attached
drives. If Drive Default, then the controller will not change
the write-back cache setting of any attached drives. The
default is Drive Default.
!
Caution: Disk drives with write-back cache enabled do
not have the benefit of battery protection and could
lose or corrupt data as a result of unexpected power
loss or drive removal.
Certain controllers may not support drives write cache. In
those cases where drives write cache is not supported,
setting the option to Enabled has no effect.
■
Runtime BIOS — Enables or disables the controller’s
runtime BIOS. The BIOS must be enabled if you want to boot
from the controller.
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If Runtime BIOS is enabled and the BBS Support and Arraybased BBS Support options are disabled, the controller
BIOS is enabled and will post the lowest numbered array
(typically 00) on the first controller found as a legacy Int13h
bootable hard disk drive.
The default is Enabled.
■
Automatic rebuild on replacement — If enabled, this option
lets you replace a failed drive in the same enclosure slot in a
RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10 or RAID 50. Then the BIOS
recognizes that the failed drive has been replaced, initializes
the new disk, and immediately initiates a failover. Note that
this option is supported only for disks in SAF-TE enclosures
or backplanes.
The default is Enabled.
■
Array Background Consistency Check — If enabled, this
option forces the controller to constantly check all portions
of disks used by all arrays to see if the disks can return data
from the blocks. On a fully-redundant RAID 5 with no bad
segments, the controller repairs any data that cannot be
read.
The default is Disabled.
■
BBS Support — If the Runtime BIOS option and this option
are enabled and the Array-based BBS Support option is
disabled, the lowest numbered array on each controller is
posted as a BBS (BIOS Boot Specification) device.
The default is Enabled.
■
Array-based BBS Support — If Runtime BIOS, BBS
Support and this option are all enabled, the lowest
numbered three devices (typically 00, 01 and 02) on each
controller in the system are posted as BBS devices.
In a BBS-enabled system with two controllers installed, and
at least three arrays on each controller, if Array based BBS
support is enabled the “Hard drive boot order menu” will
include six entries for arrays connected to the two RAID
controllers.
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The Ctrl-B option in ACU moves any array to be array 00.
Using this option repeatedly allows any boot order to be
chosen.
The default is Disabled.
■
Physical Drives Display during POST— The default is
Disabled.
■
CD-ROM Boot Support — The default is Enabled.
■
Removable Media Devices Support — The default is
Enabled.
■
Alarm Control — The default is Enabled.
You cannot set the following options:
■
NVRAM State — Displays the current status of the NVRAM
cache. This option is available only for controllers that have
a battery and is for display only. In normal operation it will
display Clean.
■
Controller Memory Size — Displays the amount of memory
installed on the controller.
Using the SCSI Configuration Utility
The SCSI Configuration Utility enables you to modify the SCSI
Channel Interface Definitions and SCSI Device Configuration
Options.
To access the SCSI Configuration Utility:
1 When you turn on or reboot your system, press Ctrl+A to access
the Adaptec RAID Configuration (ARC) utilities when
prompted by the following message:
Press <Ctrl><A> for Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility
2 If multiple controllers are installed, select the controller you
want to configure and press Enter.
3 From the ARC menu, select SCSISelect Utility.
The Controller Configuration and SCSI Configuration menu
options are displayed.
4 Select SCSI Configuration.
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5 The Select SCSI Channel menu is displayed. Select the
appropriate channel from this menu.
You can modify the following SCSI Channel Interface
Definitions:
■
Controller SCSI Channel ID — Sets the controller’s SCSI
ID. We recommend that you leave the controller set to SCSI
ID 7, which gives it the highest priority on the SCSI channel.
■
SCSI Parity Checking — Determines whether the controller
verifies the accuracy of data transfer on the SCSI channel.
You should disable SCSI Parity Checking on the controller
and all SCSI devices if any SCSI device supported by the
controller does not support SCSI parity; otherwise, leave it
enabled. Most SCSI devices do support SCSI parity. If you
are not sure whether a device supports SCSI parity, consult
the documentation for the device.
■
Controller SCSI Channel Termination — Sets termination
on the controller card. We recommend that you leave the
default setting of Auto Mode.
■
SCSI Device Configuration — For information about these
options, see the section, SCSI Device Configuration Options.
SCSI Device Configuration Options
The SCSI device settings allow you to configure certain parameters
for each device on the SCSI channel. To configure settings for a
specific device, you must know the SCSI ID assigned to that device.
If you are not sure of the SCSI ID, see Using the Disk Utilities on
page 2-15.
■
Maximum Transfer Rate — Determines the maximum data
transfer rate that the SCSI channel supports. The maximum
effective data transfer rate is doubled when Initiate Wide
Negotiation is set to Yes and 16-bit devices are attached. (Initiate
Wide Negotiation has no effect with 8-bit devices.)
■
Enable Disconnection — Determines whether the SCSI channel
allows the SCSI device to disconnect from the SCSI channel
(sometimes called Disconnect/Reconnect or Reselection). This
option should be enabled for maximum performance. The
default is yes.
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■
Initiate Wide Negotiation — Determines whether the SCSI
channel attempts 16-bit data transfer instead of 8-bit data
transfer. The effective data transfer rate is doubled when 16-bit
data transfer is used. The default is yes.
■
QAS — Determines whether QAS (Quick Arbitration and
Selection) is used to eliminate overhead and speed up data
transfers on the SCSI bus. The default is yes.
■
Packetized — Determines whether SCSI packetization
(encapsulation) is used to reduce overhead and speed data
transfer. The packetized SCSI protocol provides a method for
transferring command and status information at the maximum
rate. The default is yes.
Using the Disk Utilities
The BIOS-based Disk Utilities enable you to low-level format or
verify the disk media of your SCSI hard disks.
To access the disk utilities:
1 When you turn on or reboot your system, press Ctrl+A to access
the Adaptec RAID Configuration (ARC) utilities when
prompted by the following message:
Press <Ctrl><A> for Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility
2 If multiple controllers are installed, select the controller you
want to configure and press Enter.
3 From the ARC menu, select Disk Utilities.
4 Select the desired channel and press Enter.
After the option is selected, a list of all SCSI IDs and the devices
at each ID is displayed. After selecting a specific ID and device,
a small menu appears, displaying the following options:
■
Format Disk—Performs a low-level format on a hard disk
drive. Each hard disk drive must be low-level formatted
before you can use your operating system’s partitioning and
file preparation utilities, such as MS-DOS Fdisk and Format.
Most SCSI disk devices are preformatted at the factory and
do not need to be formatted again. The Format Disk option
is compatible with the vast majority of SCSI disk drives.
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The controller should not be powered off or rebooted during
a disk format. Doing so may render the disk unusable until
the format is manually restarted and completed.
!
■
Caution: A low-level format destroys all data on the
drive. Be sure to back up your data before performing
this operation. Once started, you cannot abort a lowlevel format.
Verify Disk Media — Scans the media of a disk drive for
defects. If the utility finds bad blocks on the media, it
prompts you to reassign them. If you select yes, the utility
remaps the recoverable defects and no longer uses those
blocks. You can press Esc at any time to abort the utility.
Viewing the Event Log
The BIOS-based event log stores all firmware events (configuration
changes, array creation, boot activity, and so on).
To access the event log:
1 When you turn on or reboot your system, press Ctrl+A to access
the ARC when prompted by the following message:
Press <Ctrl><A> for Adaptec RAID Configuration Utility
2 If multiple controllers are installed, select the controller you
want to configure and press Enter.
3 From the ARC menu, press Ctrl+P.
4 The Controller Service Menu appears, including the option
Controller Log Information.
5 Select Controller Log Information and press Enter. The current
log is displayed.
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3
Adaptec Storage ManagerBrowser Edition
In this Chapter
About Adaptec Storage Manager
3-2
Login to Adaptec Storage Manager
3-4
Installing a Security Certificate
3-6
Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
3-7
Creating Arrays
3-12
Creating and Deleting Hot Spares
3-16
Deleting Arrays
3-17
Modifying Arrays
3-17
User Interface Options
3-19
Viewing Events
3-20
Help
3-20
Displaying and Modifying Properties
3-21
Viewing and Creating Tasks
3-27
About Adaptec Storage Manager Notifier Service
3-29
Enabling and Configuring the Notifier Service
3-31
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About Adaptec Storage Manager
Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition is a web-based
application that supports managing storage either locally (at the
system in which the storage controller is installed), or remotely
(from another system).
Any system containing an Adaptec storage controller that has
Windows or Linux and a supported browser installed can be
managed locally. Supported browsers are:
■
■
Windows
■
Internet Explorer (IE) 5.0 or later
■
Netscape 6 or later
Linux
■
Adaptec-supplied and installed version of Mozilla
■
Netscape 6 or later
These same Windows and Linux systems can also be managed
remotely. This can be achieved in two ways:
■
Installing Adaptec Storage Manager on the remote system.
■
Directing the browser on the remote system to the system you
want to manage.
Note: If you want to manage from a Linux system it is
recommended that you install Adaptec Storage Manager on
the remote system and use the Adaptec-supplied version of
Mozilla as the browser.
For Unix and NetWare installations, Adaptec Storage Manager can
only be used to manage the system remotely. Local management is
supported using the CLI.
The following explanation of the software architecture will help
you understand the possible configurations and determine which
one is most appropriate for your application. Installation
instructions are included in the Adaptec SCSI RAID Installation
Guide supplied on the same CD as this document.
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Adaptec Storage Manager-Browser Edition
Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition consists of the three
major components:
■
A supported web browser, which should already be installed
on the system.
■
The Adaptec web service which supplies content displayed on
the web browser.
■
An Adaptec-supplied storage agent.
For a locally managed system, all three components will be
installed on the same system.
To support the remote management configurations described
below, all components must be installed on systems that have a
TCP/IP connection through which the other component(s) can be
accessed.
All communication uses Secure-HTTP (S-HTTP) or SSL protocols
to encrypt all data transmitted and ensure security. Connection
over an Ethernet network, a corporate WAN, or VPN are
supported.
Several remote management configurations are possible:
■
The browser will always be on a remote system.
■
The storage agent will always be installed on the system with
the storage controller installed.
■
The web service can be installed on the same remote system as
the browser, the system with the storage controller installed on
a third system.
The storage agent is supplied for all supported operating systems,
while the web service is available only for Windows and Linux. In
order for Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition to manage
storage on a UNIX or NetWare system, the storage agent must
communicate with the Adaptec web service on a separate
Windows or Linux system.
In this configuration, the Windows or Linux system can either be
used to manage the RAID controller, or act as a server
communicating with a supported browser on a third system.
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Login to Adaptec Storage Manager
To login to a system with Adaptec Storage Manager installed:
1 Start Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition. In Windows,
you will find the application by clicking Start > Programs >
SMBE > Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition. In
Linux, you will find it by clicking Start > System > Adaptec
Storage Manager.
2 The first screen presented is the Login screen shown below.
Enter the host name or IP address of the system you want to
manage and the username and password you would use to log
into that system.
3 Click Login.
Note: When you run Adaptec Storage Manager for the first
time after installation you will have to install a security
certificate. For instructions see Installing a Security Certificate
on page 3-6.
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To login from any system with a web browser:
1 Start the web browser application and type the IP address for
the system you want to access in the address bar and press
Enter. Example: https://10.6.3.14:3513/adaptec.
When connection to the remote system is established the
Adaptec Storage Manager Login screen will appear.
Note: If you are using a proxy server to access the internet,
you will need to bypass the proxy server to access the
Adaptec Storage Manager web server. In IE, if you know
the IP address of the system you want to manage
remotely, choose Tools > Internet Options >
Connections>LAN Settings > select Use a proxy server
for your LAN >Advanced, and type the managed
system’s IP address in the Exceptions section.
In Netscape, if you know the IP address of the system you
want to manage remotely, choose Edit> Preferences >
Advanced> Proxies > Manual proxy configuration > No
Proxy For, type the managed system’s IP address.
2 Enter the host name or IP address of the system you want to
manage and the administrative username and password that
you would normally use to log into that system.
3 Click Login.
Note: When you run Adaptec Storage Manager for the first
time after installation you will have to install a security
certificate. For instructions, see Installing a Security Certificate
on page 3-6.
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Installing a Security Certificate
When using Adaptec Storage Manager for the first time after
installation, you need to create a security certificate. Follow the
steps below to create the certificate:
1 When the Security Alert window appears, click View
Certificate.
2 On the Certificate window that appears, click Install
Certificate.
3 On the Certificate Import wizard window that appears, click
Next.
4 The Certificate Import wizard window’s contents will change.
Use the default Automatically select the certificate store, click
Next.
5 On the root Certificate Store window, click Yes.
6 Another small Certificate Import wizard window will appear
with only an OK button, click OK.
7 You will be returned to the Certificate window from step 2.
Click OK.
8 You will be returned to the Security Alert window from step 1.
Click Yes. This will finish the creation and storage of the
certificate.
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Understanding Adaptec Storage Manager
Shown below is an example of a typical Adaptec Storage Manager
screen.
.
Note: Depending on your operating system, browser, and
color scheme you may notice some differences between this
illustration and your screen.
At the top of the Adaptec Storage Manager screen is the header
frame. In this area is the name of the system that you are currently
connected to and a number of buttons that perform various actions
or open additional windows.
The action buttons are Logout and Rescan. Selecting Logout will
end your session and return you to the Login screen.
Use the Rescan button to have Adaptec Storage Manager re-read
the configuration of the system. Typically, when a rescan is
required, it will occur automatically, for example, after an array is
created.
It is possible for the system configuration to change without
Adaptec Storage Manager being notified. For example, drives
inserted/removed from a non-intelligent enclosure or an enclosure
powered on after you logged in to Adaptec Storage Manager.
The remaining buttons: Events, Options, Help, Properties, and
Tasks open additional windows that provide more detailed
information, allow you to perform actions or change settings on a
specific aspect of your storage subsystem.
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For detailed instructions on using these buttons, see the sections
Viewing Events on page 3-20, User Interface Options on page 3-19,
Help on page 3-20, Displaying and Modifying Properties on page 3-21,
and Viewing and Creating Tasks on page 3-27.
Immediately following the header frame is a controller information
line including the model number of the first Adaptec storage
controller found in the system and the amount of cache memory
installed on that controller.
Beneath the controller information are Physical Devices and
Logical Devices views that show connected devices and existing
arrays on this controller. Click the
button to compress the
information displayed for this controller. Controller information
and device views are repeated for each additional Adaptec storage
controller in the system.
Select the controller by clicking anywhere on the controller
information. When the controller is selected, the Events, Properties
and Tasks buttons change from blue to amber, indicating that
clicking any of them will bring up an additional window with
information and options specific to this controller.
Pop Up Tool Tips
If you position the cursor over a device or button a pop-up tool tip
appears. For buttons, the tips contain helpful information about the
function of the button, while for devices they display additional
information.
Physical Devices
The Physical Devices view displays information about the drives
and enclosures attached to the Adaptec storage controller. The
devices are shown organized by the channel that they are
connected to and shown in numerical order.
The display for each channel includes information on maximum
speed capability, the number of the channel on the controller, and
the number of devices found (excluding the SCSI controller).
Selecting a channel or device will turn the Events, Properties, and
Tasks buttons amber. This indicates that clicking any of these
buttons will bring up an additional window with information and
options specific to that device or channel.
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At the top of the Physical Devices view, grouped to the right of
View, are three view selection buttons
. These buttons
select how Adaptec Storage Manager displays the physical devices
connected to this controller.
Hot Spares
Click the Hot Spare button
to configure a drive or drives
as hot spares. Hot spare drives are assigned to protect redundant
arrays in the event of a drive failure. If a drive fails in a redundant
array protected by a hot spare, the array will be rebuilt using the
hot spare to replace the failing drive.
A hot spare can be assigned to protect a single array or all the
arrays on the controller.
Changing How Drives are Displayed
When Adaptec Storage Manager is loaded, the Physical Devices
view will default to display a condensed view of the controller
configuration which hides detailed information about the drives.
More information is available by either positioning the mouse
pointer over the device or clicking on the arrowhead to the left of a
row of devices.
The selected display mode button will appear in a lighter shade of
blue than the other two buttons. The default display is the Text
Description View
, but in the condensed view used when
Adaptec Storage Manager is loaded, the display is the same in all
three modes.
If you change the display mode by selecting one of the other view
buttons, a yellow arrow will flash to the left of any devices where
the current condensed display prevents Adaptec Storage Manager
from showing all the information available.
An icon is always the first entry on each device line. The
icon is
used to represent a hard disk drive. If a + symbol appears with the
hard disk drive icon
, the drive is a hot spare. Different icons are
used to represent other devices.
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View
is the default display mode and when expanded, will show the
following information about each device:
■
Capacity of the drive
■
Drive manufacturer and model number
■
SCSI drive ID
When expanded, the Full Size Capacity View button
and the
Relative Size Capacity View button
represent each drive as a
bar. A drive that is not used as part of any array is shaded blue
surrounded by a dotted line.
displays a full-length bar for each drive, regardless of capacity.
displays a bar for each drive, with the largest capacity drive
full-length and the other drives proportional to the drive capacity,
relative to the largest drive.
Any part of a drive used in an array is shown as a gray segment
within the bar. Selecting any gray segment will highlight it in
amber and, in the Logical Devices view, highlight the array of
which this segment is a member.
In either the Full Size Capacity View or the Relative Size Capacity
View, a small portion at the end of the drive is shown in dark gray.
The segment at the end of the drive may vary in size from drive to
drive because, in addition to the RAID signature, the controller
also limits the usable capacity of each drive to increments of 100
MB.
This is done because hard disk drives of apparently the same
capacity from different manufacturers, or even different models
from the same manufacturer, actually vary slightly in the true
capacity available. Although, in normal operation this is not an
issue, it can be when assigning hot spares or replacing a failed
drive.
If the controller used the maximum capacity of each drive and a
hot spare or replacement drive was just a few megabytes smaller, it
would not be able to replace the failed drive. By rounding drive
capacities down to the nearest 100 MB, this possibility is effectively
eliminated.
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Logical Devices
As described earlier, when Adaptec Storage Manager loads, the
Logical Devices view is expanded and you can see the arrays
present on the controller.
At the top of this view are the following buttons: Create, Modify,
and Delete. Each button opens a wizard that will take you through,
respectively, the steps necessary to create a new array, modify an
existing array, and delete existing arrays on this controller.
Modify allows you to:
■
Change an array from one RAID level to another
■
Expand an array
■
Change the stripe size for a RAID-0, 5, 10 or 50
For detailed instructions on using these buttons, see the sections
Creating Arrays on page 3-12, Deleting Arrays on page 3-17, and
Modifying Arrays on page 3-17.
The main area of the Logical Devices view is used to display the
arrays on this controller. It defaults to a condensed view of top
level arrays. For information on top and second-level arrays, refer
to Supported RAID Types on page 1-2.
Note: The Options button allows you to display second-level
arrays if you prefer.
In this condensed view, the RAID level of each device as well as
whether it is protected by a hot spare, is visible.
If a global hot spare exists, all arrays that the hot spare is large
enough to protect will show as protected.
In the expanded view, the icons for the arrays are arranged
vertically and alongside them are the capacity, name and type of
array.
Selecting an array by clicking on it will highlight the following in
amber:
■
All the drives or segments that form the array in the Physical
Devices view.
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■
Any second-level arrays that form a top-level array in the
Logical Devices view.
■
The Events, Properties, and Tasks buttons in the header frame.
This indicates that selecting any of these three buttons will
bring up an additional window with information and options
specific to that array.
Creating Arrays
Before you use Adaptec Storage Manager to create an array, make
sure that you understand the different types of arrays supported,
as described in Supported RAID Types on page 1-2, and the type of
arrays that are most appropriate for your application.
Click Create to open the Create Array wizard. This wizard offers
the following options:
■
Create arrays using default settings.
■
Expand the wizard by clicking on Advanced to see additional
options and customize settings.
Using the default settings will create an array of the largest
possible capacity on the selected drives, use the default cache
setting and, if appropriate, the default stripe size.
To create an array using default settings:
1 Open the Create Array wizard by clicking Create for the
controller on which you want to create an array.
2 Select the type of array you want to create in Step 1 of 3 in the
Create Array wizard. Then click Next to move to Step 2 of 3.
3 Click the drives you want to include in the array. Selected
drives will display an amber check mark. When you have
completed your selection click Next to move to Step 3.
Note: The check marks will flash until you have selected
enough drives to create this type of array.
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4 Now you can accept the default name for the new array or enter
one of your choice. The name you choose must be unique, and
can be up to 15 standard ASCII characters in length.
5 When you click Finish, the system will create the new array.
Advanced Options
Creating an array by clicking Advanced in the Create Array wizard
follows the same basic process as the previous instructions, but at
each step there are additional options for you to use.
Step 1 of 3 in the Advanced area of the Create Array wizard offers
the following additional options:
■
Spanned Volumes and RAID Volumes—As described in
Chapter 1, Introduction, a spanned volume concatenates segments
from two or more drives to form a volume, while a RAID volume
concatenates two or more arrays of the same type.
■
Enable or Disable Write Caching—When write caching is
enabled, the controller stores the data in cache memory on the
controller and will accept another write to this array as soon as
the data from the previous write is safely stored in the
controller’s memory.
Since writing data to memory is much faster than writing it to
the drives, enabling write caching can significantly improve
performance. All data stored in the cache will be written to the
drives when it is most efficient for the controller.
On controllers fitted with a battery, the additional choice
“Enable when protected by battery” is available. Choosing this
option will enable write caching whenever the battery is
operating correctly, and in the event of a power failure the
battery will protect the data currently in cache.
!
Caution: Default setting for write cache is enabled. This
setting provides the best performance, but in the event of
power failure there is a risk of data loss.
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■
Enable Or Disable Read Caching—When enabled, the
controller will monitor read accesses to this array to try to
predict where future reads may occur. If it detects a pattern, the
data that seems most likely to be read next will be preloaded
into the controller’s cache memory. Since reading data from
memory on the controller is much faster than reading it from
the drives, this can have a significant impact on performance.
This setting defaults to Enabled.
Step 2 of 3 in the Advanced area of the Create Array wizard offers
the following additional options:
■
Limit Array Capacity—This option allows you to choose the
capacity of the array you are creating. The default is to make the
array the largest possible size with the drives selected. To create
multiple arrays on a single set of drives you must use this
option to limit the size of, at a minimum, the first array.
For example, if you have two 18 GB drives, and you wish to use
them to create two 9 GB RAID-1s, you would use this option to
restrict the size of the first array you create.
Note: A RAID-1 uses two drives to create a mirror; that is
all data written to a RAID-1 is written to both drives
limiting the capacity of the array to the capacity of the
smaller drives.
■
Stripe Size—For a RAID-0, 5, 10 or 50 where data is striped
across multiple drives, stripe size determines how much data is
written on each drive for a given stripe.
Note: The default stripe size has been chosen to maximize
performance for most typical applications. Changing the
stripe size is likely to adversely affect performance.
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For arrays which need to be initialized such as RAID-1 and
RAID-5, advanced options allow you to select which method is
used to initialize the array and set the priority of the initialization
task.
Step 3 in the Advanced area of the Create Array wizard offers the
following initialization options:
■
Build—For a RAID-1, the data from the primary or master
drive is copied to the secondary or slave drive. For a RAID-5,
correct parity is generated for the entire array.
The advantages of building an array are that the array is
immediately available for use, and that when the build is
complete, the array operates at maximum performance. The
disadvantages are that building takes some time, for a large
array possibly many hours, and performance is impacted until
the build completes.
■
Clear—In this case, the contents of all the drives are cleared.
The advantages of clearing an array are that the process is much
faster than building and when completed, the array operates at
maximum performance. The disadvantage is that the array is
not accessible until the clear completes.
■
Quick—In this case the array is immediately available. The
advantage of quick initialization is that the array is immediately
available with no on-going build. The disadvantage is that the
write performance of a RAID-5 or RAID-50 initialized in this
way is impacted until a Verify with fix Task is run on the array.
■
Initialization Priority—This drop-down list allows you to
adjust the priority of the initialization task. The default setting
is high, and initialization will complete as fast as possible. The
other options are medium and low. Depending on what other
tasks are running on the controller, selecting either of these
options may cause the initialization to take significantly longer.
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Creating and Deleting Hot Spares
Creating Hot Spares
To create a hot spare:
1 Click on the
button on the Physical Devices view.
2 In the Physical Devices view, select the drive(s) you want to
make hot spares.
Note: You cannot select a drive that is already used in an
array as a hot spare.
3 The advanced option for the Hot Spare button describes how to
dedicate a hot spare to protect a single array.
If you wish to dedicate a hot spare to protect a single array,
select the array you want the hot spare to protect. If you do not
select an array, the hot spare(s) will be global, that is they will
protect all the arrays on the controller that they are large
enough to protect.
4 Click Finish.
Deleting Hot Spares
To delete a hot spare:
1 Click the Hot Spare button on the Physical Devices view.
2 In the Physical Devices view select the hot spare(s) you wish to
delete.
3 Click Finish.
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Deleting Arrays
To delete an array:
1 Click the Delete button on the Logical Devices view.
2 In the Logical Devices view select the array(s) you wish to
delete.
3 Click Finish.
Deleting an array destroys all the data on the array. To help
prevent you from deleting the wrong array, a dialog will pop
up listing the array(s) that you selected in step 2.
4 Check that you selected the correct array(s) before clicking Yes.
Modifying Arrays
Modify allows you to make the following changes to existing
arrays:
■
Migrate an array from one RAID level to another
■
Expand the capacity of an array
■
Change the stripe size
Some operating systems, for example Windows 2000 and Windows
XP, support Online Capacity Expansion (OCE). That is, on
completion of an array expansion, the additional capacity can be
used without rebooting the system. Refer to your operating system
documentation for instructions on using the additional capacity.
Supported RAID level migrations are given in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Supported RAID Level Migrations
Current Array Type
New Array Type
RAID-0
RAID-5 or 10
RAID-1
RAID-0 or 5 or 10
RAID-5
RAID-0 or 10
RAID-10
RAID-0 or 5
RAID-50
RAID-0 or 5 or 10
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The following rules apply to migration:
1 The capacity of the new array must match or exceed the
capacity of the current array.
2 If the capacity and/or RAID type of the new array requires
greater total drive capacity than the current array, the
additional capacity must be on drives that are not already used
in the current array.
To modify an array:
1 Click Modify.
2 Select the array that you wish to modify.
3 Select the RAID level that you want to migrate the array to, or if
you want to expand the capacity of the existing array, select the
current RAID level.
Optionally, click Advanced to select the stripe size you want the
new array to use, or that you want to change the existing array
to.
4 If necessary, select the additional drive(s) required for capacity
expansion, or necessary to support the new RAID level.
Optionally, click Advanced to adjust the priority for the task.
5 Click Finish.
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User Interface Options
Click Options to modify the behavior of some aspects of the
Adaptec Storage Manager user interface. Changes take place
immediately when you make a new selection in one of the dropdown lists.
You can make changes in the following areas:
■
Second-Level Arrays—The default is to hide second-level
arrays in the Logical Devices view. You can choose to display
second-level arrays.
■
Background Update Frequency—This option controls how
frequently Adaptec Storage Manager polls the web server to get
updated configuration information. The default is 30 seconds.
Other choices are 15 seconds, 1 minute, and 5 minutes.
■
Highlight on Mouseover—As you move the cursor around the
Adaptec Storage Manager screen, you may notice that an amber
box surrounds the controller, channel, device, or array.
This highlight is enabled by default and can be disabled by
selecting No in the drop-down list for Highlight on mouseover.
■
Popup Tool Tips—As you move the mouse cursor around the
screen, you may notice that if you position the cursor over a
device or button a popup tool tip appears. For buttons, the tips
contain helpful information about the function of the button,
although for devices they display additional information.
Tool tips are enabled by default and appear after a brief delay.
You can opt to either disable the tool tips or to have them pop
up immediately.
Close the window by clicking the X in the top right corner.
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Viewing Events
The Events button allows you to view events for all supported
controllers in the system.
The following information is available for each event:
■
the date and time the event occurred
■
the severity of the event
■
a brief message describing the event.
The default is All which displays all levels of event: Critical,
Warning and Informational.
A drop-down list is provided that lets you choose to view either
critical and warning level events only (Warning), or critical events
only (Critical).
At the bottom of the screen is a button to Clear the event log.
Help
Click Help to open a screen with the following tabs: This
Application, Technical Support, and Sales.
Click This Application tab to view information about the name
and version of the application, as well as a link to the online help.
Click the Technical Support tab for the link to Adaptec’s Technical
Support web site.
Click the Sales tab to find telephone numbers and an e-mail
address for Adaptec Sales, as well as links to Adaptec’s Online
Store and Product Information web sites.
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Displaying and Modifying Properties
Click Properties to see additional details about many of the
components on the Adaptec Storage Manager screen. To see
properties about a particular controller, channel, device, or array,
select that item before clicking Properties.
If Properties is amber, clicking on it will open a window with
further information and options about the item selected. If
Properties is blue, clicking on it will display the hostname of the
system you are connected to.
Applying Changes
Many property windows allow you to make changes. If you have
selected a modifiable field, Apply and Cancel buttons will appear.
Controller Properties
Selecting a controller, then clicking Properties will bring up a
dialog window with the following tabs: General, Alarm, Battery,
and Details.
General Tab
Lists the following information about the selected controller:
■
Model—Adaptec model number. This is also displayed on the
main screen for each controller.
■
Serial number—A number that uniquely identifies this
particular controller.
■
Host bus—The type and the number of the bus to which this
controller is connected.
■
Memory size—The total amount of memory installed on the
controller.
■
Cache size—Most of the controller’s memory is used as data
cache. Cache size is the amount of the controller’s memory used
as data cache. Typically, it will be the majority of the memory
size indicated above.
■
Number of channels—The number of channels (SCSI or ATA)
on this controller.
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Alarm Tab
Appears for Adaptec RAID controllers equipped with an audible
alarm. The following options are available:
■
Disable—Click this button if you want to disable the alarm,
that is, if you do not want an audible warning of a problem with
this controller. Default is enabled. When Disable is selected it
becomes the Enable button.
■
Test—Use this button to test the alarm. You may want to try
this to establish if the alarm can be heard clearly in your
implementation, or if the volume of the alarm will be too
intrusive.
■
Silence—If the alarm is sounding, clicking on this button will
silence the alarm without disabling it.
Battery Tab
Appears if the controller is fitted with a battery module. This
window lists various components details for this controller:
■
Status—Shows the current status of the battery. A bad battery is
one that does not hold charge and should be replaced. Possible
values are Failed, No Charge, Charging, Active (drawing
power), Unknown.
■
Recalibrate—On some controllers, the battery periodically
needs to be run through a process known as recalibration to
ensure that it remains fully operational.
For controllers where this button does not appear, recalibration
is not required.
If this button is present, then the battery on this controller
should be recalibrated every 6 - 12 months.
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Details Tab
This window lists details of some components for this controller:
■
Monitor, Kernel, BIOS versions—These are the version
numbers of the different software components loaded on the
controller. For some controllers all three components may not
be present.
■
Hardware version—The revision level of the controller
hardware.
■
Processor type and speed—Information about the processor
fitted on the controller. This information is not available on
some controllers.
Channel Properties
Select a channel and then click Properties to bring up a dialog box
with a single tab containing the following information:
■
Type—Indicates whether the selected channel is SCSI, ATA or
Serial ATA.
■
Max data rate—The highest rate at which this channel can
transfer data, for example, 320 MB/s.
Physical Device Properties
If you select a device on a channel (other than an enclosure) and
then select Properties, a window with General, Capacity, SMART,
and LED tabs will appear.
General Tab
■
Status—This field appears only for disk drives and it indicates
the current status of the drive. Possible values are: Optimal,
Failed, Phantom (not physically found), SMART Warning,
Unknown and Missing.
■
Type—The class of device; for example: disk drive, CD-ROM,
scanner, or printer.
■
Product—The name given to this device by its vendor.
■
Vendor—The manufacturer of this device.
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■
Revision—The version number information stored on the
device.
■
Data Rate—The data transfer speed negotiated between the
controller and this device.
■
SCSI ID, LUN—For devices on a SCSI channel the SCSI ID and
LUN of the device are reported. These do not apply for ATA
and Serial ATA devices and will always return 0.
Capacity Tab
The Capacity tab appears only for disk drives and when selected,
displays a summary view listing the reserved, used, available, and
total capacities of the drive.
The capacities are reported in both the number of 512-byte blocks
(shown in both decimal and hexadecimal values) and capacity in
kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes.
Selecting the detailed option shows information for all segments on
the drive. In this view, the following information is displayed for
each segment:
■
Number of the segment
■
Start and end blocks
■
Segment size and type
Type indicates how the segment is used. The first and last
segments are always reserved. The beginning of the drive is where
the controller stores the RAID signature. The end of the drive is
where the capacity is rounded down to the nearest 100 MB.
If this segment is a component of an array, type indicates the array
level the segment is used in. If the segment is not used in an array,
and is not a reserved area, it will be shown as available.
Detailed view defaults to displaying the numbers of the start and
end blocks of each segment in decimal values. A drop-down list is
provided to allow you to display these numbers in either
hexadecimal or capacity.
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SMART Tab
For hard disk drives that support SMART predictive failure
reporting, this additional tab will appear with the following
entries:
■
Enabled—indicates if SMART reporting is enabled on this
device.
■
Predictive failure occurred—indicates if this device has
reported a predictive failure.
LED Tab
The tab appears or hard disk drives, and has two buttons, Blink
LED and Unblink All.
■
Blink LED—Clicking this button will cause the activity LED of
the selected drive to blink. Use this to identify the drive. The
activity LED will continue to blink until you click Unblink All.
■
Unblink All—Clicking this button cancels the effect of the
Blink LED button for all drives.
Enclosure Properties
Selecting an enclosure and clicking Properties will open a screen
with the following tabs: General, Fans, PSU, Temperature,
Devices and Speaker.
General Tab
The General tab includes the following information:
■
Vendor—The manufacturer of the enclosure.
■
Product—The name given to this enclosure by its vendor.
■
Revision—The version number information stored on the
enclosure.
■
Status Summary—This provides an overview of the status of
the fans, PSU(s) and temperature sensors in the enclosure.
Further detail on each component is available on the relevant tab.
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Fans and PSU Tabs
The Fans and PSU (Power Supply Units) tabs contain a table
listing, by number, all the fans/PSUs in the enclosure and their
status.
Temperature Tab
The Temperature tab contains a table listing all of the temperature
sensors in the enclosure by number. For each sensor the current
temperature and status is displayed.
You can select whether temperatures are displayed in Fahrenheit
or Celsius.
Devices Tab
The Devices tab contains a table listing the slots in the enclosure by
number. For each slot the SCSI ID of any device present is listed,
along with that device’s current status.
Speaker Tab
The Speaker tab indicates whether the enclosure is equipped with
a speaker.
For enclosures with a speaker a Silence Alarm button will also be
present to allow you to turn off the speaker in the event of a failure.
Logical Device Properties
Selecting a logical device and clicking Properties will open a screen
with the following tabs: Logical Drive and Cache Settings.
Logical Drive Tab
The Logical Drive tab includes the following information:
■
Status—Possible values are optimal, quick init, impacted, degraded,
failed, offline.
■
Array name—This is a modifiable field that displays the name
assigned to this array at creation. You can click in the array
name field and rename the array using any unique combination
of up to 15 standard ASCII characters.
■
Type—The RAID level or volume type of the selected array.
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■
Capacity—The physical capacity of the selected array in
gigabytes with the number of blocks in parenthesis.
■
Stripe Size—Where applicable, the stripe size of the selected
array.
■
Hot spare—Indicates, for redundant arrays, if a hot spare
protects the selected array.
■
Logical drive number—A number assigned to the selected
array by the controller. This number is only used by the
controller.
Note: It is worth noting that if the system is booting from the
controller that this array is connected to, the lowest number
array (typically array 0) is the boot device. ACU provides an
option to select any array and make it the boot device. If you
choose to do so, the array you choose to make the boot device
will become array 0. This action may result in other array(s)
being renumbered.
Cache Settings Tab
The Cache Settings tab duplicates the options presented in the
advanced version of the Create Array wizard. You can choose to
modify the settings for both read and write cache.
Write cache can be set to disable, enable always, or (if the controller
is fitted with a battery) enable when protected.
Read cache can be enabled or disabled.
Viewing and Creating Tasks
The Tasks button has a window which contain two tabs: Task
Viewer and New Task.
Task Viewer Tab
Displays details of current and scheduled tasks for the system or
the selected controller, channel, array or drive.
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It is only possible to create tasks for arrays or drives. If you select
Tasks for a channel, controller, or the system, all relevant tasks will
be displayed.
When Adaptec Storage Manager is installed a scheduled task is
created to perform a weekly background consistency check of all
hot spares in the system. This task can be seen by clicking Tasks
when it is blue, that is when nothing is selected.
New Tasks Tab
Allows you to create new tasks for an array or a drive. New Tasks
can either be run immediately, or scheduled to run at a later time.
Available tasks are Verify, Verify with Fix, and Clear. An
explanation of the impact of each task is given below.
■
■
Drive
■
Verify—Performs a test of the entire drive to ensure that
there are no problems. Any bad blocks found are not
repaired.
■
Verify with Fix—Performs a test of the entire drive to
ensure that there are no problems. Any bad blocks found are
repaired.
■
Clear—Erases all data on the drive. Any data previously on
the drive is not recoverable, and if all or part of the drive is
used in an array, data integrity of the array will be
compromised.
Array
■
Verify—Performs a test of the entire array to ensure that
data is consistent. Any inconsistency found is not repaired.
■
Verify with Fix—Performs a test of the entire array to
ensure that data is consistent. Any inconsistency found is
repaired.
■
Clear—Erases all data on the array. Any data previously on
the array is not recoverable.
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To create a task:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Select the array or drive you want the task to run on.
Click Tasks.
Select the New Tasks tab.
Select the type of task from the drop-down list.
Select the priority for the task. The default is High.
If you want the task to start immediately, click OK. Or, if you
want to schedule the task for later, select Schedule.
If you select Schedule, additional options will appear that will
allow you to see the day of week and time you want the task to
start, as well as the time format. Once you have selected the
time and day, click OK.
About Adaptec Storage Manager Notifier
Service
Adaptec Storage Manager - Browser Edition includes a notifier
service that enables controller events to be added to the system
event log. This service can notify users, through e-mail, of
controller events.
When you install Adaptec Storage Manager on a system equipped
with an Adaptec Advanced RAID controller, the notifier service is
installed and configured to log all events to the system event log.
The default installation has email event notification disabled.
Notifier Service Event Levels
Adaptec Advanced RAID controllers support three event levels:
■
Critical
■
Warning
■
Informational
The level(s) of events entered in the system log and received by
each user is configured independently.
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The notifier utility is named slightly differently depending on
which operating system you are using. For all versions of Microsoft
Windows the utility is named notify.exe, while for Novell
NetWare it is named notify.nlm, and for all Linux and Unix
variants it is named anotifyd.
All versions of the utility support the -c switch. This switch runs
the notifier in a configuration mode that leads you through the
steps necessary to configure the system event log and e-mail
notification.
In addition to -c, the Microsoft Windows version of the notifier
supports the switches in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2 Switches
-c
Starts the notifier in configuration mode.
-?
Lists the switches supported by the notifier.
-i
Install - installs the notifier service. The notifier is
installed by default. If the service has been
uninstalled for any reason, this switch will install the
service and set it to start automatically from the next
boot.
-u
Uninstall - removes the notifier service.
-v
Version - lists the version number of the notifier
service.
-s
Start - starts the notifier service.
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Enabling and Configuring the Notifier Service
Before you begin to configure e-mail notification you need to have
the following information available:
■
The SMTP mail server host name or IP address.
■
The port that SMTP mail server is configured to use. The default
value of 25 was chosen because it is the default for most SMTP
mail server packages. If you are unsure ask your e-mail
administrator.
■
The SMTP e-mail address to which all returned e-mail should
be forwarded. SMTP e-mail addresses take the form
myname@companyname.com.
■
The SMTP e-mail address of all users that need to receive event
notifications.
Before you configure the notifier be sure the notifier service and
ARCPD are stopped.
Controlling ARCPD for Windows 2000
To stop the ARCPD for Windows 2000, right click My Computer >
Manage > Service and Applications > then right click Adaptec
Web Server > Stop > Yes. This will also stop the Adaptec Storage
Manager Notifier.
To restart, repeat the process above for both the Adaptec Web
Server and the Adaptec Storage Manager Notifier and click Start
instead of Stop.
Controlling ARCPD for Unix and Linux
The ARCPD starts automatically in both Unix and Linux. To stop
the ARCPD, in the /opt/Adaptec/SMBE/etc prompt, type Daemon
stop.
To restart, type Daemon restart (as it appears in the list of
selections in /opt/Adaptec/SMBE/etc).
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Controlling ARCPD for NetWare
To stop the ARCPD using NetWare, type unload arcpd.nlm
then unload notify.nlm.
To restart the ARCPD, type load arcpd.nlm then load
notify.nlm.
Configuring the Notifier Service
To configure the notifier service:
1 Place your cursor at a command prompt in the directory where
Adaptec Storage Manager was installed.
2 Type any of the following commands:
■
For Windows: notify -c > Enter
■
For Unix/Linux: anotifyd -c > Enter
■
For Netware: load notify -c > Enter
System Event Log
The next step in configuring the notifier utility will ask you
whether or not controller events should be added to the system
event log. The default is set to log no events.
To add controller events:
1 Choose Y (yes).
2 Select which level(s) of events you want to log. The list of events
are found in Table 3-3. Each level of event can be enabled or
disabled independently. For example, press 1 to enable logging
of Critical events. Alternatively, to log both Critical and
Warning, press 1 then 2.
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3 When you have completed all selections, press 4 to exit.
Table 3-3 Commands for Event Log
Event Commands
Event Log Levels
1
Critical
2
Warning
3
Informational
4
Exit
Configuring E-mail Notification
After you have selected the level of events, you will be asked if you
would like to configure e-mail notification. Choosing N (no) exits
the notifier configuration mode.
To configure e-mail notification:
1 Select Y.
2 A prompt is displayed to enter the IP address or hostname of
the SMTP e-mail server on the network. Type in either the
hostname or IP address of the server and press Enter.
3 Next you will be prompted for the port number that the e-mail
server is using. Accept the default if that is correct for your mail
server, or provide the appropriate value and press Enter.
4 Another prompt is displayed, prompting you to enter an e-mail
address that all bounced mail should be forwarded to. Type in
the full SMTP e-mail address and press Enter.
5 The next prompt will enable you to enter the e-mail address of
the first user to be notified. Type in the full SMTP e-mail
address and press Enter.
6 Select the level of events you want the first user to receive. If
you wish to add more users, press Y and repeat the steps above.
7 When you have completed all selections, press 4.
8 Press Y if you want to add additional recipients or press N to
exit the configuration utility.
9 Restart ARCPD and the notifier.
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Reconfiguring E-mail Notification
To change the level of events e-mailed to a user, or to stop all
messages from being sent to a user, re-run the notifier in
configuration mode.
At the system event log prompt, press Y. The configured events
you previously selected will be displayed. Press 4 to exit the
display. Press Enter at the IP address, port number, and bounced email prompts to leave these prompts unchanged.
Type the e-mail address for the user you wish to remove, delete, or
modify. Press Enter.
A prompt asks if you want to delete the selected user. Press Y to
remove the user. Press N to modify the level of events the user
receives.
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4
Using the Command Line
Interface
In this Chapter
Introducing the Command Line Interface
4-2
Accessing the Command Line Interface
4-2
Terminology
4-3
Using the CLI
4-4
General Control Commands
4-16
Container (Array) Commands
4-18
Controller Commands
4-29
Diagnostic Commands
4-32
Disk Commands
4-34
Logfile Commands
4-38
Task Commands
4-39
Enclosure Commands
4-40
Using Automated Command Scripts
4-44
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Introducing the Command Line Interface
To configure and manage components running on the controller,
Adaptec provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI)
called Adaptec Storage Manager as well as a command line
interface (CLI).
The CLI provides an alternative to Adaptec Storage Manager.
Through the CLI, you can perform most of the storage
management tasks that you can perform with Adaptec Storage
Manager and, in addition, some tasks not available in the GUI. To
automate testing or array creation in a production environment,
the CLI enables you to use CLI commands in Windows command
scripts and UNIX/Linux shell scripts.
This chapter describes briefly some of the commands available in
the CLI. For a full description of all the CLI commands see the
Adaptec SCSI RAID Software Reference Guide.
Accessing the Command Line Interface
You can execute the command line interface (CLI):
■
From the Windows XP, Windows 2000 or Windows NT Start
button
Note: The following procedure assumes that you accepted
the default location for the software during installation.
To access the CLI from the Windows XP(basic disk only),
Windows 2000(basic disk only) or Windows NT Start button:
1 Click the Start button and move the mouse cursor to
Programs. Click on Programs.
2 Move the mouse cursor to SMBE. The Adaptec program
group will display.
3 Move the mouse cursor to the CLI icon. Click on CLI.
■
From the NetWare server console
To access the CLI from the NetWare server console, type
aaccli at the prompt. When the system displays the CLI>
prompt, which indicates that you can now use CLI commands.
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Using the Command Line Interface
■
From the UNIX/Linux prompt
To access the CLI from the UNIX/Linux prompt, display a
window and type aaccli in any directory. When the system
displays the CLI> prompt, you can use CLI commands. For the
commands to work in any directory, the path in the startup file
(.login or .cshrc) must include the directory where the
software is installed. See your UNIX/Linux documentation for
information on setting up directory paths in the .login and
.cshrc files.
Terminology
For a complete discussion of terminology, see the Glossary in this
guide. Table 4-1 lists and defines some terms used in this chapter
and is presented here for your ease-of-use:
Table 4-1 Terminology Chart
Term
Preferred Term
Definition
container
array
A logical disk created from
available space and made up of one
or more segments on one or more
physical disks.
chunk
stripe
Contiguous set of data written to
one segment before the controller
moves to the next segment.
freespace
available space
Space on an initialized disk that is
not in use.
partition
segment
Contiguous area of a physical drive
that makes up some or all of an
array.
failover disk
hot spare
Drive available to replace a failed
component in an array.
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Using the CLI
Brief descriptions of many of the CLI commands are provided later
in this chapter.
This section contains some examples of using CLI commands to
perform common tasks.
■
Opening and Closing a Controller
■
Creating Single-Level Arrays
■
Deleting Arrays
■
Enabling Spares
■
Displaying Controller Information
■
Displaying Disk Information
■
Displaying Array Information
Opening and Closing a Controller
Before any command can be sent to a specific controller that
controller must first be opened. Only one controller may be open at
any time.
To open controller AAC0 use the following command.
CLI> open AAC0
When you have finished with the controller close it with the
following command.
AAC0> close
Creating Single-Level Arrays
This section explains how to create and work with single-level
arrays. The RAID software supports four types of single-level
containers:
■
Volume
■
RAID 0
■
RAID 1
■
RAID 5
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Using the Command Line Interface
Before you can work with arrays, you must have previously
opened the controller. In addition, you must have initialized your
disk(s) to prepare for array operations.
The minimum size of an array is 10 MB.
Before creating any array, use the disk show space command
to display information about your disks. In the following example,
the Usage column indicates Free for each disk, which means that
the space on each disk consists of available space.
AAC0> disk show space
Executing: disk show space
Scsi C:ID:L Usage
Size
----------- ---------- ------------2:01:0
Free
64.0KB:8.47GB
2:02:0
Free
64.0KB:8.47GB
2:03:0
Free
64.0KB:8.47GB
2:04:0
Free
64.0KB:8.47GB
After creating an array, use the container list command to
display information about the array. In the following example, the
Num Label column indicates the array ID 0 and the array label
Venus. The Type column indicates a Volume set. The Total Size
column indicates that the array is 100 MB.
AAC0> container list
Executing: container list
Num
Total Oth Stripe
Scsi
Partition
DrLabel Type
Size
Ctr Size
Usage
C:ID:L Offset:Size
-- ----- ------ ------ --- ------ ------- ------ ----------0
Volume 100MB
None
2:01:0 64.0KB: 100MB
Venus
Creating a Volume Set
To create a volume set, use the container create volume
command. In the following example, the volume set 0 is created on
SCSI device (2,01,0) from 100MB (megabytes) of available space.
The array’s raw cache is enabled, and the label Venus is specified.
AAC0> container create volume /cache=TRUE /label=Venus
((2,01,0), 100M)
Executing: container create volume /cache=TRUE /
label=Venus ((CHANNEL=2,ID=1,LUN=0),104,857,600)
container 0 created
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Creating a RAID 0
When creating a RAID 0, you need to determine the stripe size that
is most suitable for your environment. The stripe size attribute
indicates the number of bytes in a stripe, the amount of data
written to a segment before the I/O data stream switches to the
next segment in the stripe. The stripe size can be 16 KB, 32 KB, or
64 KB. The default stripe size is 32 KB. Note that you can use the
container reconfigure command at a later time to change the
stripe size.
To create a RAID 0, use the container create stripe
command. In the following example, the stripe set 0 is created on
SCSI device (2,01,0) from 100 MB of available space. The array’s
raw cache is enabled, and the label Mars is specified.
AAC0> container create stripe /cache=TRUE /label=Mars
((2,01,0), 100M)
Executing: container create stripe /cache=TRUE /
label="Mars" ((CHANNEL=2,ID=1,LUN=0),104,857,600 )
container 0 created
Creating a RAID 1
To create a RAID 1, use the container create new_mirror
command. In the following example, a RAID 1 is created on SCSI
devices (2,2,0), and (2,3,0) using 100 M of available space from each
SCSI device.
AAC0> container create new_mirror ((2,2,0), 100M)
(2,3,0)
Executing: container create new_mirror
((CHANNEL=2,ID=2,LUN=0),104,857,600 )
(CHANNEL=2,ID=3,LUN=0)
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Using the Command Line Interface
Creating a RAID 5
When creating a RAID 5, you need to determine the stripe size that
is most suitable for your environment. See Creating a RAID 0 for
more information about determining the appropriate stripe size for
your environment.
To recreate the data of a failed disk in a RAID 5, you use a form of
redundancy called parity. When you set up parity, you initialize
the parity stripes by using a scrubbing switch (/scrub=TRUE).
Parity is set up in the background, and the disks are available
immediately.
The /scrub switch is not available in UNIX/Linux. For UNIX/
Linux, the RAID 5 is always created by building.
To create a RAID 5, use the container create raid5
command. In the following example, a RAID 5 is created on SCSI
devices (2,1,0), (2,2,0), and (2,3,0) using 100 M of available space
from each SCSI device. The /stripe_size switch specifies that each
stripe is 64 K in size.
AAC0> container create raid5 /stripe_size=64K ((2,1,0),
100M) (2,2,0) (2,3,0)
Executing: container create raid5 /stripe_size=65,536
((CHANNEL=2,ID=1,LUN=0),104,857,600)
(CHANNEL=2,ID=2,LUN=0) (CHANNEL=2,ID=3,LUN=0)
Deleting Arrays
To delete an array, use the container delete command. In the
following example, array 0 is deleted.
AAC0> container delete 0
Executing: container delete 0
After running the container delete command, use the
container list command to verify that the array was deleted.
In the following example, no arrays are found on the controller.
AAC0> container list
Executing: container list
No containers found.
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Enabling Spares
A spare disk (also called a “hot spare”) is a disk that you configure
to recover data from a failed segment/disk in a redundant array.
To assign one or more spare disks for a single array, use the
container set failover command. To assign one or more
spare disks for all arrays, use the container set
global_failover command. The main characteristic of these
commands is that you must “manually” assign the spare disk to
one or more arrays. In fact, you might consider the previously
described spare mechanism as “manually set spare.”
Note: RAID 1, 5 10 and 50 use the spare assignment if a disk
fails. (RAID 1, 5, 10 and 50 are often referred to as redundant
arrays).
Automatic rebuild on replacement allows you to replace a failed
disk with a replacement disk. The controller automatically assigns
the disk you insert as a hotspare without your having to first assign
it manually using the container set failover or
container set global_failover command.
See the Adaptec SCSI RAID Software Reference Guide for more
information on the container set failover and container
set global_failover commands.
!
Caution: The controller deletes any data on the replacement
disk when automatic rebuild on replacement is enabled and
you remove the failed disk and insert the replacement disk in
the failed disk’s slot.
Note: The automatic spare feature works only with disks that
reside in an SAF-TE or SES enabled enclosure.
Through the CLI, you can:
■
Display a controller’s automatic rebuild on replacement status
■
Enable automatic rebuild on replacement
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Using the Command Line Interface
To display a controller’s automatic rebuild on replacement status,
use the controller show automatic_failover command.
In the following example, rebuild on replacement is indicated as
DISABLED.
AAC0> controller show automatic_failover
Executing: controller show automatic_failover
Automatic failover DISABLED
To enable automatic spare, use the controller set
automatic_failover command with the /failover switch, as in
the following example:
AAC0> controller set automatic_failover
/failover_enabled=TRUE
Executing: controller set automatic_failover
/failover_enabled=TRUE
After running the controller set automatic_failover
command, use the controller show automatic_failover
command to verify that automatic rebuild on replacement has been
enabled. If necessary, you can now replace a failed disk with a
replacement disk.
Displaying Controller Information
Controllers exhibit a number of attributes that you can display or
manage using the following CLI commands:
■
controller list
Controller Attribute:
Indicates:
controller (adapter) name
Name
controller (adapter) type
Product name
controller availability
Access mode
Example of controller list:
CLI> controller list
Executing: controller list
Adapter Name
Adapter Type
----------------------\\.\AAC0
Adaptec xxxxx
Availability
-----------read/write
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■
controller details
Controller Attribute:
Indicates:
controller (adapter) name
Name
controller (adapter) type
Product name
controller availability
Access mode
controller remote computer
Name of remote computer on
which an open controller resides
controller serial number
Last six hexadecimal characters of
serial number
controller CPU type
CPU
number of channels
Number of channels
number of devices per channel
Maximum number of devices, not
including host controller
controller CPU speed
Clock speed (in megahertz)
controller memory
Total amount of memory that
programs can use
Example of controller details:
AAC0> controller details
Executing: controller details
Controller Information
---------------------Remote Computer: .
Device Name: AAC0
Controller Type: Adaptec xxxxx
Access Mode: READ-WRITE
Controller Serial Number: Last Six Digits = 8A277A
Number of Channels: 2
Devices per Channel: 15
Controller CPU: 80203
Controller CPU Speed: 100 Mhz
Controller Memory: 64 Mbytes
Battery State: Ok
Component Revisions
---------------------CLI: 3.0-0 (Build #5478)
API: 3.0-0 (Build #5478)
Miniport Driver: 3.0-0 (Build #5478)
Controller Software: 3.0-0 (Build #5478)
Controller BIOS: 3.0-0 (Build #5478)
Controller Firmware: (Build #5478)
Controller Hardware: 3.3
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Using the Command Line Interface
Before opening a controller, you may want to use the controller
list command to display a list of controllers. In the following
example, the Adapter Name column indicates that AAC0 is the
name of the controller installed on the computer. The example also
indicates the controller’s path, which is \\.\
CLI> controller list
Executing: controller list
Adapter Name
Adapter Type
----------------------\\.\AAC0
Adaptec xxxxx
Availability
-----------read/write
Displaying Disk Information
The CLI enables you to monitor or manage disk attributes, prepare
a disk for use by a controller, and detect defects using the following
CLI commands:
■
disk list
Disk Attribute:
Indicates:
SCSI device ID
An ID number assigned to each SCSI device
attached to a SCSI channel
device type
Whether the device is a disk, printer, scanner,
and so on
removable media
Whether the media is removable (diskette or
CD-ROM, for example)
vendor ID
Name of a device vendor
product ID
Device model number
revision number
Device revision number
number of blocks
Total number of disk block available on a
device
bytes per block
Number of bytes for each block
disk usage
Either MS-DOS, Initialized, Not Initialized,
Offline, or Unknown
shared channel
N/A
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Example of disk list:
AAC0> disk list
Executing: disk list
C:ID:L Device Type Blocks
Bytes/Block Usage
Shared
------ ----------- -------- ----------- ----------- -----2:01:0 Disk
17783240 512
Initialized NO
2:02:0 Disk
17783240 512
Initialized NO
■
disk show defects
Disk Attribute:
Indicates:
disk defects
■
■
Total number and location of primary defects
(defects that originate during manufacturing)
Total number and location of grown defects
(defects that originate after manufacturing)
Example of disk show defects:
AAC0> disk show defects /full=true (3,1,0)
Executing: disk show defects /full=TRUE
(CHANNEL=3,ID=1,LUN=0)
Number of PRIMARY defects on drive: 5
Defect 1 at cylinder 229, head 7, sector
Defect 2 at cylinder 575, head 0, sector
Defect 3 at cylinder 576, head 0, sector
Defect 4 at cylinder 578, head 0, sector
Defect 5 at cylinder 579, head 0, sector
Number of GROWN defects on drive: 0
■
203
219
55
238
74
disk verify
Disk Attribute:
Indicates:
disk defects
■
■
Total number and location of primary defects
(defects that originate during manufacturing)
Total number and location of grown defects
(defects that originate after manufacturing)
Example of disk verify:
AAC0> disk verify
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Using the Command Line Interface
Displaying Array Information
The CLI enables you to display and manage the attributes
(characteristics) of arrays using the following commands:
■
container list
Array Attribute:
Indicates:
drive letter
Letter associated with an array. Not
automatically assigned when you create an
array.
root special file
UNIX/Linux root special file associated
with the array and created by the operating
system after array creation. Appears in the
Num Label column.
array number
ID of an array (number from 0 to 63).
array label
Name assigned to an array. Not
automatically assigned. Appears in the
Num Label column.
array type
Whether an array is a volume, RAID 0,
RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10, RAID 50, or a
reconfigured array.
creation date
Month, day, and year the array was created.
creation time
Hour, minute, and second the array was
created.
total size
Number of bytes in an array. The size of an
array is the size of the available space when
the array was created, reconfigured, or
extended.
stripe size
Number of bytes in a stripe (amount of data
written to a segment before the I/O data
stream switches to the next segment/array).
read only
Whether an array is read-only accessible.
An array can be set to read-only if not in use
by an application.
read/write
Whether an array is read-write accessible.
lock
Whether an array is locked into volatile
memory space on the currently open
controller. Typically, you lock and unlock
arrays only under the direction of technical
support.
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4-14
Array Attribute:
Indicates:
resident file system
Type of file system, if any, that resides on an
array. Usage column.
multi-partition
container
That a file system resides on a multipartition array (array that has multiple
operating systems or MS-DOS partitions).
Usage column.
netware
environment
The array resides in a NetWare system.
Usage column.
UNIX opened
There is a mounted file system on the array.
unknown file system
There is an unknown file system on the
array
unmapped
containers
The array is unusable and cannot be
mounted.
phantom container
The RAID controller software cannot
configure the array or the array is offline.
valid container
The UNIX/Linux operating system
recognized the array and there has been a
query (such as mount, fdisk, read, or write)
on the array.
mirror set create
Creation of a RAID 1 (mirror).
mirror set normal
The RAID 1 is in the normal state.
reconfiguration copy
container
An array is being used as a copy (hidden)
array (Copy).
reconfiguration
destination
container
An array is being used as a destination
(hidden) array (Dest).
reconfiguration
RAID-5 set
An array is being used as a RAID 5 (hidden)
array (Raid5).
reconfiguration
source container
An array is being used as a source (hidden)
array (Source).
reconfiguration
temporary container
An array is being used as a temporary
(hidden) array (Temp).
RAID-5 set
unprotected
Creation of a RAID 5 (Unprot).
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Using the Command Line Interface
Example of container list:
AAC0> container list
Executing: container list
Total
Label Type
Oth Stripe
Size
Scsi
Ctr Size
Usage
Partition
C:ID:L Offset:Size
----- ----- ----- --- ------ ------- ----- -----------Volume 30MB
0
None
Venus
■
2:01:0
64KB: 15MB
2:02:0
64KB: 15MB
container show cache
Cache Attribute:
Indicates:
global container read
cache size
Number of blocks dedicated to the read
cache.
global container write
cache size
Number of blocks dedicated to the write
cache.
read cache setting
Whether the read cache is enabled.
Example of container show cache:
AAC0> container show cache 0
Executing: container show cache 0
Global container Read Cache Size : 5345280
Global container Write Cache Size : 63332352
Read Cache Setting
: ENABLE
Write Cache Setting
: ENABLE
Write Cache Status
: Active, cache enabled
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The CLI Commands
For details on the CLI commands, refer to the Command Line
Interface Reference Guide available in PDF format on the distribution
CD-ROM enclosed with your controller.
General Control Commands
Command Summary:
close
Closes the currently opened controller.
exit
Closes the opened controller and exit the CLI.
help [/full] [{command}]
Invokes general or topical help.
Parameters
{command}—If a command has more subcommands, help
lists the subcommands and their functions. If a complete
command is used, such as container list, the CLI help
displays all possible switches
Switches
/full—Displays all relevant commands along with the
command format and all command switches.
history_size {buffer_size}
Sets the size of the history buffer.
Supported on UNIX/Linux only.
Parameters
{buffer_size}—Size of the command history buffer.
Default is 200.
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Using the Command Line Interface
open [/readonly{=boolean}] [/domain{=string}]
{string}
Opens a controller for access by the CLI. The controller must
be open before any command can be targeted at that
controller.
Parameters
{string}—Computer name and the controller to open.
Switches
/readonly{=boolean}—Specifies whether to open the
controller for read-only access. A value of TRUE opens the
controller for read-only access. If opening a controller with
read-only access, you can use only the commands that do
not change the controller configuration.
/domain{=string}—Domain (local or a trusted domain)
in which the computer that contains the controller resides. If
not specified, the CLI assumes the local domain.
Switch supported on Windows XP (basic disk only),
Windows 2000 (basic disk only) and Windows NT.
reset_window
Resets the window.
Supported on UNIX/Linux only.
toggle_more
Turns on or off the <Press any key to continue>
functionality.
Supported on NetWare only.
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Container (Array) Commands
Before working with arrays, you must have previously opened the
controller. In addition, you must have initialized your disk(s) to
prepare for array operations.
The following commands are used to display, create, and manage
arrays.
Command Summary:
container add_level {container}
Creates a multilevel volume array which contains the array
as its only element.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to convert to a multilevel
volume.
container clear [/always{=boolean}]
[/wait{=boolean}] {container}
Clears the array.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to clear.
Switches
/always—Specifies whether to clear the array even if it has
data on it. The default is FALSE, meaning that the command
clears the array only if it has no data on it. All user files must
be closed; the /always switch cannot override this
restriction.
/wait—Specifies whether to clear the array synchronously
and not return the command prompt until the clear array
task completes. The default is FALSE, meaning that the
command clears the array asynchronously and the
command prompt returns immediately.
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Using the Command Line Interface
container create mirror [wait{=boolean}]
[/io_delay{=integer}] {container} {scsi_device}
Creates a RAID 1 from a single entry volume.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array on which to create a RAID 1
(mirror).
{scsi_devices}—ID for the SCSI device whose available
space to use for mirroring the volume specified in the
{container} parameter.
Switches
/wait—Specifies synchronous RAID1 creation.
/io_delay—Number of milliseconds between each I/O
used for the RAID 1 creation.
container create mmirror [/io_delay{=integer}]
[/wait{=boolean}] {container} {scsi_device}
[{scsi_device}...]
Creates a multilevel array of RAID 1s from a multilevel
array of single entry volumes.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array whose underlying volumes
the command converts to RAID 1s.
{scsi_device}—ID for the SCSI device whose available
space to use to create the multilevel array of RAID 1s.
{scsi_device}...—IDs for additional SCSI devices
whose available space to use to create the multilevel array of
RAID 1s.
Switches
/io_delay—Number of milliseconds between each I/O
used for the RAID 1 create.
/wait—Specifies synchronous RAID 1 creation.
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container create mstripe [/stripe_size{=integer}]
[/label{=string}] {container} [{container}...]
Creates a multilevel RAID 0 (stripe).
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array from which to create the
multilevel RAID 0.
{container}...—ID(s) of array(s) from which to create
the multilevel RAID 0.
Switches
/stripe_size—Stripe size for the RAID 0.
/label—Label for the RAID 0.
container create mvolume {container}
[{container}...]
Creates a multilevel volume.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array from which to create the
multilevel volume.
{container}...—ID(s) of array(s) from which to create
the multilevel volume.
Switches
/label—Label to assign to the multilevel volume.
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Using the Command Line Interface
container create new_mirror [/cache{=boolean}]
[/clear{=boolean}] [/label{=string}]
[</quick_init{=boolean}>] [/scrub{=boolean}]
[/wait{=boolean}] {free_space} [{scsi_device}...]
Creates a RAID 1 (mirror) from two available spaces.
container create raid5 [/cache{=boolean}]
[/stripe_size{=integer}] [/clear{=boolean}]
[/label{=string}] [</quick_init{=boolean}>]
[/scrub{=boolean}] [/wait{=boolean}] {free_space}
[{scsi_device}...]
Creates a RAID 5.
Parameters
{free_space}—SCSI device and its associated available
space used to create the array.
{scsi_device}...—One or more SCSI devices whose
available space to use to create the array.
Switches
/cache—Specifies whether to enable the array’s cache.
/stripe_size—Stripe size for the array (only applies to
RAID 5).
/clear—Specifies whether to clear the entire array during
initialization.
/label—Label to assign to the newly created array.
/quick_init—Specifies to use the Quick Init process,
making the array available immediately.
/scrub—Specifies whether to set up the parity by building.
/wait—Specifies whether the command prompt returns
only after the parity-protect operation completes.
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container create stripe [/cache{=boolean}]
[/stripe_size{=integer}] [/label{=string}]
{free_space} [{scsi_device}...]
Creates a RAID 0 (stripe).
Parameters
{free_space}—SCSI device and its associated available
space to use to create the RAID 0.
{scsi_devices}...—One or more SCSI devices.
Switches
/cache—Specifies whether to enable the array’s raw cache
mode.
/stripe_size—Stripe size for the RAID 0. Defaults to
64 KB.
/label—Label to assign to the new RAID 0.
container create volume [/cache{=boolean}]
[/label{=string}] {scsi_device}, {free_space},
{scsi_device}, [{free_space}...]
Creates a volume.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—SCSI device and its associated available
space to use to create the volume.
{free_space}—Available space to use to create the
volume.
{scsi_device}, {free_space}...—Additional SCSI
devices and associated available spaces.
Switches
/cache—Enables the array’s raw array cache.
/label—Label to assign to the new volume.
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Using the Command Line Interface
container delete [/always{=boolean}]
[/unconditional{=boolean}] {container}
Deletes the array.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to delete.
Switches
/always—Specifies to delete the array even if it has data <a
file system>. (Cannot override open files.)
/unconditional—Specifies that the array be deleted even
if it has a file system. (Overrides open files.)
container list [/all{=boolean}] [/full{=boolean}]
[{container}]
Lists information about the array(s) on the controller.
Parameters
{array}—ID of the array containing information to
display.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to list all containers on the system.
/full—Specifies whether to display detailed information.
container lock {container}
Locks an array into volatile memory space.
Parameters
{array}—ID of the array to lock.
container move {container} {container}
Moves the first array number specified to the second array
number specified; in effect, to renumber an array.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to renumber.
{container}—ID number to assign to the array specified
in the first array parameter.
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container promote {container}
Creates a multilevel volume from a RAID 0 or a single entry
volume.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to promote into a multilevel
array.
container readonly {container}
Sets the protection on the array to read-only access.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to set to read-only access.
container readwrite {container}
Sets the protection on an array to read-write access.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to set to read-write access.
container reconfigure [/stripe_size{=integer}]
[/mirror{=boolean}] [/partition_move{=boolean}]
[/partition_size{=integer}] [/raid5{=boolean}]
[/raid10{=boolean}] [/restart{=boolean}]
[/stripe{=boolean}] [/volume{=boolean}]
[/wait{=boolean}] {container} [{scsi_device}...]
Changes the configuration of an array.
Parameters
{container}—ID number of the array to reconfigure.
{scsi_device}...—One or more SCSI devices.
Switches
/stripe_size—Stripe size of the array.
/mirror—Reconfigure the array into a RAID 1.
/partition_move—Specifies that the array will move
partitions instead of add extra space.
/partition_size—Size of a partition.
/raid5—Reconfigure the array into a RAID 5.
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Using the Command Line Interface
/raid10—Reconfigure the array into a RAID 10 (stripe of
mirrors).
/restart—Restart reconfiguring the array.
/stripe—Reconfigure the array into a RAID 1.
/volume—Reconfigure the array into a volume.
/wait—If specified, waits for reconfiguration to complete
before returning.
container release_cache {container}
Releases the controller’s cache buffers.
Parameters
{container}—Specifies the ID number of the array on
which to release cache buffers.
container remove failover {container}
{scsi_device} [{scsi_device}...]
Removes one or more failover disks.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array whose assigned failover
disk(s) to remove.
{scsi_device}—ID for the SCSI device to remove as a
failover disk(s).
{scsi_device}...—ID(s) for any other SCSI device(s) to
remove as a failover disk.
container remove global_failover {scsi_device}
[{scsi_device}...]
Removes a global failover assignment.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID for the SCSI device to remove as a
failover disk.
{scsi_device}...—ID(s) for any other SCSI device(s) to
remove as a failover disk(s).
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container restore RAID5 {container}
Tries to restore a RAID 5 that has a number of dead
segments as members.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the RAID 5 to restore.
container scrub [/io_delay{=integer}]
[/no_repair{=boolean}] [/wait{=boolean}]
{container}
Checks and repairs the consistency of a redundant array (for
example, RAID 5 or mirrors).
Parameters
{container}—ID of the redundant array to build.
Switches
/io_delay—Number of milliseconds the controller waits
between I/Os when building the array.
/no_repair—Specifies whether the build operation be
performed without repairing the error.
/wait—Specifies whether the build operation be performed
synchronously or asynchronously.
container set cache
[/read_cache_enable{=boolean}]
[/unprotected{=boolean}]
[/write_cache_enable{=boolean}] {container}
Sets cache parameters for a specific array. Useful only if a
native operating system's file system resides on the array.
Parameters
{container}—Specifies the ID of the array on which to set
cache parameters.
Switches
/read_cache_enable—Specifies whether to enable the
read-ahead cache.
/unprotected—Specifies whether to set the container's
NVRAM write-back cache to disable, enable when
protected, or enable always. Use this switch in conjunction
with the /write_cache_enable switch.
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Using the Command Line Interface
/write_cache_enable—Specifies whether to set the
container's NVRAM write-back cache to disable, enable
when protected, or enable always. Use this switch in
conjunction with the /unprotected switch.
container set failover {container} {scsi_device}
[{scsi_device}...]
Assigns an automatic failover disk for a single array.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array on which to assign an
automatic failover disk(s).
{scsi_device}—ID for the SCSI device to assign as a
failover disk.
{scsi_device}...—ID(s) for additional SCSI device(s) to
assign as failover disk(s).
container set global_failover {scsi_device}
[{scsi_device}...]
Assigns an automatic failover disk for all arrays.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID for the SCSI device to assign as a
failover disk.
{scsi_device}...—ID(s) for additional SCSI device(s) to
assign as failover disk(s) to all arrays.
container set io_delay {container} {integer}
Sets the I/O delay (in milliseconds).
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array on which to set the I/O
delay.
{integer}—Number of milliseconds the controller waits
between I/O operations.
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container set label {container} {string}
Assigns a new label to the array.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to which to assign a label.
{string}—Specifies the label to assign.
container show cache {container}
Displays caching parameters for an array.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array whose associated cache
parameters to display.
container show failover [{container}]
Displays an array’s assigned failover disks.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array whose assigned failover
disk(s) to display.
container unlock {container}
Unlocks the array.
!
Caution: Use only under the direction of Technical
Support.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the array to unlock.
container unmirror {container}
Changes the RAID 1 (mirror) to a volume and frees the
redundant space.
Parameters
{container}—ID of the RAID 1 to unmirror.
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Using the Command Line Interface
Controller Commands
The following commands are used to display the status of a variety
of controller attributes and to perform such tasks as pausing and
resuming I/O and enabling or disabling automatic failover.
Command Summary:
controller details
Shows details about the open controller and software.
controller firmware compare [/C{controller_ID}]
[{controller_ID}...] [/D{UFI_file_path}]
Compares the contents of each of the flash components on a
controller to the corresponding image in user flash image
(UFI) files and indicates whether they match.
Switches
/C{controller_ID}—ID representing the set of
controllers on which to perform the firmware comparison.
/D{UFI_file_path}—Location of the UFI files.
controller firmware save [/C{controller_ID}]
[{controller_ID}...] [/D{UFI_file_path}]
Saves the contents of a controller’s flash in user flash image
(UFI) files.
Switches
/C{controller_ID}—ID representing the set of
controllers on which to perform the firmware comparison.
/D{UFI_file_path}—Location of the UFI files.
controller firmware update [/C{controller_ID}]
[{controller_ID}...] [/D{UFI_file_path}]
Updates a controller’s flash components from the flash
image data in a pair of user flash image (UFI) files.
Switches
/C{controller_ID}—ID representing the set of
controllers on which to perform the firmware comparison.
/D{UFI_file_path}—Path where the pair of UFI files are
located.
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controller list [/domain{=string}] [{string}]
Lists all controllers or displays information about the
currently opened controller.
Parameters
{string}—Computer name from which to display a list of
controller or specific information about the open controller.
Switches
/domain—Specifies the domain in which the host to be
searched resides. Supported on Windows XP, Windows
2000 and Windows NT.
controller pause_io [{integer}]
Pauses all I/O activity on the open controller to allow online
manipulation of hardware.
Supported on Windows XP (basic disk only), Windows
2000 (basic disk only), Windows NT and NetWare only.
Parameters
{integer}—Time in seconds to cause the controller to wait
before resuming I/O.
controller rescan
Rescans the SCSI channels and updates all underlying
structures.
controller reset_scsi_channel {integer}
Resets a specific SCSI channel on the open controller.
Parameters
{integer}—Channel on which to reset this SCSI channel.
controller resume_io
Performs rescan operation and then resumes I/O after
pause_io.
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Using the Command Line Interface
controller set automatic_failover
[/failover_enabled{=boolean}]
Turns on or off automatic failover for the controller.
Switches
/failover_enabled—Specifies whether to turn on or off
automatic failover on the controller. Specify 1 to enable, 0 to
disable. The default is 0.
controller set container_verify
[/verify_enabled{=boolean}]
Turns the container verify task on or off.
Switches
/verify_enabled—Specifies whether to turn on or off the
container verify feature. The command defaults to TRUE,
which means the command turns on the container verify
feature.
controller show automatic_failover
Displays the automatic failover status (enabled or disabled)
for the controller.
controller show channels
Displays all of the channels on the controller with the
characteristics of each channel.
controller show container_verify
Displays the status of the container verify status.
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Diagnostic Commands
Use the diagnostic commands to provide technical support
personnel with information needed to troubleshoot controller
problems. Use these commands only under the direction of
technical support personnel.
Command Summary:
diagnostic clear boot_parameters
Clears all boot-time parameters.
diagnostic dump structures{string}
Saves internal data structures.
Parameters
{string}—Name of the file to contain the internal data
structures.
diagnostic dump text
Displays diagnostic information.
diagnostic load_containers
When in maintenance mode, allows arrays to be loaded so
they can be verified.
diagnostic moderation set count
Sets the default interrupt count on the controller.
diagnostic moderation set timer {integer}
Sets the default interrupt timer on the controller.
Parameters
{integer}—Value to set as the default interrupt timer.
diagnostic moderation show count
Displays the default interrupt count on the controller.
diagnostic moderation show timer
Displays the default interrupt timer on the controller.
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Using the Command Line Interface
diagnostic set boot_parameter{string} {integer}
Sets the boot-time parameter.
Parameters
{string}—Name of the boot-time parameter.
{integer}—Value for the boot-time parameter.
diagnostic show boot_parameter {string}
Displays the value of the boot-time parameter.
Parameters
{string}—Boot-time parameter character string whose
associated value you want to display.
diagnostic show history [/old{=boolean}]
[/current{=boolean}]
Displays the history buffer contained in the controller’s
NVRAM.
Switches
/old—Specifies that this command use the controller
history buffer from the previous boot.
/current—Specifies that this command use the current
controller history buffer (default).
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Disk Commands
Use the disk commands to manage disks connected to a RAID
controller. The CLI enables you to monitor disk characteristics and
parameters, prepare a disk for use, and detect defects.
Command Summary:
disk blink {scsi_device} {integer}
Causes the disk access light to blink.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device to blink.
{integer}—Number of seconds for the SCSI disk to blink.
Zero (0) stops the blinking.
disk initialize [/always{=boolean}]
[/unconditional{=boolean}] {scsi_device}
Initializes a SCSI disk on the currently opened controller.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device to initialize,
Switches
/always—Specifies whether to initialize the disk even if the
disk has existing data. (Cannot override open files.) Default
is FALSE.
/unconditional—Specifies whether to initialize the disk
even if arrays on the disk have open files. Default is FALSE.
disk list [/all{=boolean}] [/full{=boolean}]
[{scsi_device}]
Lists the disks available on the controller.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—Specifies the ID of the SCSI device to
display information.
Switches
/all—List of all SCSI devices on the controller.
/full—Detailed information for devices. Default is FALSE.
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Using the Command Line Interface
disk remove dead_partitions {scsi_device}
Removes all failed segments from a disk.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device from which to
remove failed segments.
disk set default {scsi_device}
Sets the default SCSI ID for use in CLI commands.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device.
disk set smart [/all{=boolean}]
[/clear{=boolean}]
[/enable_exceptions{=boolean}][/logerr{=boolean}]
[/perf{=boolean}] [/report_count{=boolean}]
[{scsi_device}]
Changes a disk’s S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and
Reporting Technology) configuration.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device on which to
change S.M.A.R.T. configurations.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to enable S.M.A.R.T.
configurations for all disks.
/clear—Clears the S.M.A.R.T. error counts for the disk.
/enable_exceptions—Specifies whether to enable
S.M.A.R.T. exception reporting.
/logerr—Specifies whether to enable logging of
S.M.A.R.T. exception reporting.
/perf—Specifies whether to report exceptions according to
the MRIE mode.
/report_count—Number of times an exception can be
reported. (0 indicates no limit.)
/update—Specifies whether to update the number of
device errors found on the specified SCSI device.
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disk show default
Displays the current default for the SCSI device ID.
disk show defects [/full{=boolean}] {scsi_device}
Shows the number of defects and/or the defect list for a
specific disk drive.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device.
Switches
/full—Specifies whether to display the defect count and
the list of defects.
disk show partition
Displays a list of partitions on the disks attached to the
currently opened controller.
disk show smart [/all{=boolean}]
[/full{=boolean}] [/view_changeable{=boolean}]
{scsi_device}
Displays the S.M.A.R.T. configuration information for one or
all disks.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device for which to
display S.M.A.R.T. information.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to display S.M.A.R.T.
configurations for all disks.
/full—Specifies whether to display detailed S.M.A.R.T.
configuration information for one or all SCSI disks.
/view_changeable—Specifies whether to display the
configuration information that can be set on a S.M.A.R.T.
disk.
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Using the Command Line Interface
disk show space [/all{=boolean}] [{scsi_device}]
Displays space usage information.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device for which to
display space usage information.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to display all space usage.
disk verify [/repair{=boolean}] [/wait{=boolean}]
{scsi_device}
Verifies all blocks on a SCSI device and, optionally, repairs
any bad blocks.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—Specifies the ID of the SCSI device to
verify.
Switches
/repair—Specifies whether to automatically repair bad
blocks.
/wait—Specifies whether to perform verification
synchronously or asynchronously.
disk zero [/repair{=boolean}] [/wait{=boolean}]
{scsi_device}
Clears an entire SCSI disk (by writing zeros). All data is
erased and cannot be recovered.
Parameters
{scsi_device}—ID of the SCSI device to clear.
Switches
/always—Specifies whether to clear the disk, even if it has
data on it. (Cannot override open files.)
/wait—Specifies whether to clear the disk synchronously
or asynchronously. TRUE synchronous and the command
prompt does not return until the clear disk task completes.
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Logfile Commands
Command Summary:
logfile end
Ends logging of all output and closes the log file.
logfile start [/append{=boolean}] {string}
Begins logging of all CLI command line activity to a file.
Parameters
{string}—Name of the file to contain to contain CLI
command line activity.
Switches
/append—Specifies whether to append all CLI command
line activity to an existing output file if one exists.
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Using the Command Line Interface
Task Commands
Use the CLI commands to display and manage tasks. A task is an
operation that occurs only on the controller, asynchronous to all
other operations. Examples of tasks are clearing a disk and creating
a RAID 1. Once a task is running on the controller, the CLI enables
you to display, stop, suspend, and resume the task.
Command Summary:
task list [/all{=boolean}] [{integer}]
Lists the task(s) running on the controller.
Parameters
{integer}—Task ID.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to list all currently running tasks.
task resume [/all{=boolean}]
Resumes a task that was suspended or all of the tasks that
were suspended.
Parameters
{integer}—Task ID for the task to resume.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to resume all suspended tasks.
task stop [/all{=boolean}] [{integer}]
Stops one or all tasks on the controller.
Parameters
{integer}—Task ID for the task to stop.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to stop all suspended tasks.
task suspend [/all{=boolean}] [{integer}]
Suspends one or all tasks running on the controller.
Parameters
{integer}—Task ID for the task to suspend.
Switches
/all—Specifies whether to suspend all running tasks.
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Enclosure Commands
The enclosure commands operate on enclosure management
devices that support Version 1.0 of the SCSI Accessed
Fault-Tolerant Enclosures (SAF-TE) specification. If you are not
using an enclosure, the following commands will not be available.
Command Summary:
enclosure activate slot {enclosure} {slot}
Activates a device in a slot in the SAF-TE enclosure.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device on which to activate a device.
{slot}—Unit number associated with the slot.
enclosure identify slot [/stop{=boolean}]
{enclosure} {slot}
Identifies a device in the enclosure.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device on which to identify a slot.
{slot}—Unit number associated with the slot.
Switches
/stop—Specifies whether to stop identifying the slot.
enclosure list [/all{=boolean}] [/full{=boolean}]
[{enclosure}]
Lists components for one or all enclosure devices.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device whose associated components to
display.
Switches
/all—Lists all enclosures on the system.
/full—Displays detailed component information.
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Using the Command Line Interface
enclosure prepare slot {enclosure} {slot}
Prepares a device in a slot for insertion/removal.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device on which to prepare a slot.
{slot}—Unit number associated with the slot.
enclosure set alarm [/on{=boolean}] {enclosure}
Turns the audible alarm on or off.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device whose audible alarm to set.
Switches
/on—Specifies whether to turn the audible alarm on or off.
enclosure set door [/lock{=boolean}] {enclosure}
{door}
Locks or unlocks a specific door on a specific enclosure.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device on which to lock the door.
{door}—Unit number of the door.
Switches
/lock—Specifies whether to lock the door associated with
the unit number.
enclosure set fan [/off{=boolean}] {enclosure}
{fan} [{speed}]
Sets the speed of a specific fan.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device on which to set the speed of a fan.
{fan}—Unit number associated with the fan.
{speed}—Speed at which to set the fan.
Switches
/off —Specifies whether to turn off the fan.
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enclosure set interval {second}
Sets the monitor reporting interval (in seconds).
Parameters
{second}—Number of seconds for the monitor reporting
interval.
enclosure set power {enclosure} {powersupply}
Turns on or off a specific power supply.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device.
{powersupply}—Unit number associated with the power
supply.
Switches
/off—Specifies whether to turn on or off the power supply
associated with the unit number.
enclosure set scsiid {enclosure} {slot}
{device_id}
Sets the SCSI ID of the device slot.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device.
{slot}—Unit number associated with the device slot to
assign a SCSI channel number.
{device_id}—ID of the SCSI device.
enclosure set temperature {enclosure} {degree}
Sets the temperature threshold.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device on which to set a temperature
threshold.
{degree}—Temperature (in degrees Fahrenheit from 0 to
255).
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Using the Command Line Interface
enclosure show fan [{enclosure}] [{fan}]
Displays the status of a specific fan.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device for which to display fan status.
{fan}—Unit number associated with the fan.
enclosure show power [{enclosure}]
[{powersupply}]
Displays the status of one or more power supplies.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device for which to display power supply
status.
{powersupply}—Unit number associated with the power
supply.
enclosure show slot [{enclosure}] [{slot}]
Displays the status of a specific device slot on a specific
enclosure.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device for which to display device slot status.
{slot}—Unit number associated with the device slot
whose status to display.
enclosure show status [{enclosure}]
Displays general status of a specific enclosure.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device for which to display status.
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enclosure show temperature [{enclosure}]
[{sensor}]
Displays temperature status of a specific enclosure.
Parameters
{enclosure}—ID associated with the enclosure
management device for which to temperature status.
{slot}—Unit number associated with the temperature
sensor whose status to display.
Using Automated Command Scripts
To execute a CLI command script, type the @ (at sign) followed by
the file name that contains the CLI commands, for example:
AAC0>@commandscript.txt
In its simplest form, a CLI command script is a text file that
contains valid CLI commands. A carriage return linefeed follows
each command. The following CLI command script:
1
2
3
4
Opens controller AAC0 by invoking the CLI command open.
Invokes controller details.
Closes controller AAC0 by invoking the CLI command close.
Exits the example CLI command script.
open AAC0
controller details
close AAC0
exit
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A
Glossary
A
activity
See task.
ACU
Array Configuration Utility. An application used to create,
configure, and manage arrays from the controller’s BIOS or MSDOS.
array
A logical disk created from available space and made up of one or
more segments on one or more physical disks. Arrays are typically
used to provide data redundancy and/or enhanced I/O
performance. For more information, see the Adaptec SCSI RAID
Software Reference Guide. See also hot spare, segment, volume, RAID 0,
RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 10, RAID 50.
Also known as a container.
array initialization
See initialize.
ATA
AT Bus Attachment. Standard parallel interface to IDE hard disks
typically used in desktop computers and some entry-level servers.
Serial ATA is a successor to ATA.
automatic failover
See automatic rebuild on replacement
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Glossary
automatic rebuild on replacement
In the event of a drive failure in a SAF-TE or SES enclosure
attached to a controller with no available hot spares, if rebuild on
replacement is enabled then when the failed drive is replaced with
a new drive, a rebuild will start automatically.
available space
Unused space on an initialized disk from which logical devices
(arrays) are created. When an array is deleted, the space that it
used is returned to the available space pool.
Also called available segment.
B
bad segment
Segment that is in an unknown state.
background consistency check
Option that forces the controller to constantly check all portions of
disks used by all arrays to see if the disks can return data from the
blocks. On a fully-redundant RAID 5 with no dead segments, the
controller will repair any data that it cannot read. See also
consistency check command.
battery
In the event of a power failure, a battery supplies power to
maintain data in the RAID controller’s cache, thereby permitting
any dirty data in the cache to be flushed to the drives when power
is restored. See also battery reconditioning, dirty data.
battery reconditioning
Periodic discharge/recharge that conditions the battery to attempt
to regain lost capacity. Does not apply to all types of battery.
blink
Command that blinks the drive LEDs of all hard disks in a selected
array or of a single selected hard disk.
bootable array
Array configured as the boot device.
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Glossary
build
Background initialization of a redundant array. The array is
accessible throughout. RAID 5 generates parity based on the
current contents of the member segments while RAID 1 copies the
contents of one (master) drive to a second (slave) drive.
bus
See channel.
C
cache
Fast-access memory on the controller that serves as intermediate
storage for data that is read from or written to devices.
capacity
Total usable space available in megabytes or gigabytes.
channel
Any path used for the transfer of data and the control of
information between storage devices and a storage controller. Each
controller's channels are identified by a number from 0 to the
maximum number of channels minus one. Also known as a bus.
chunk
See stripe.
clear
Foreground initialization of a fault-tolerant array. A clear operation
zeros all blocks of the array. The array is not accessible until the
clear task is complete.
CLI
Command Line Interface. The CLI provides a text-based means of
configuring and managing components running on the controller.
concatenation/concatenating
Joining of physical or logical drives in sequential order.
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Glossary
consistency check command
Command that reads all the blocks of a RAID 1 or RAID 5 to
determine if the blocks are consistent. If any inconsistent blocks are
detected, they are fixed.
container
See array. Container is another term for array used in the Adaptec
SCSI RAID Software Reference Guide.
D
dead partition
See failed.
dedicated hot spare
Component that can take the place of a failed component only on
the fault-tolerant array to which it is explicitly assigned.
degraded
A redundant array in which one or more members have failed such
that data is intact but redundancy has been compromised is in the
degraded state. The array and all data on it is accessible but a
further drive failure would cause the array to fail and result in data
loss.
dirty data
Data that has been written to a cache but which has not been
“flushed” out to its final destination.
disk
Physical disk drive. Randomly accessible, re-writable data storage
device. Also called hard disk.
disk ID
Unique disk identifier that consists of the channel number, SCSI ID
(target ID), and LUN. For example, (channel:ID:LUN) 1:04:0. See
also channel; LUN; SCSI device ID.
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Glossary
drive LED
Disk indicator LED that illuminates during Read or Write
operations.
dual-level array
Logical disk created from two or more single-level arrays. See also
RAID 10, RAID 50.
E
enclosure
Physical housing for disks, which usually contains one or more
power supplies, fans, and temperature sensors. Enclosures are
normally external to the computer to which they are connected,
although some computers do contain internal enclosures.
enclosure management device
Processor that monitors the fan, power supplies, temperature
sensors, and drive presence within a drive enclosure.
event
Notification or alert from the system, indicating that a change has
occurred.
event log
File used to maintain information about prior controller activities
or errors.
event notification
Means used by the system to communicate information about
events that have occurred.
expand
Add space to an array by adding available space.
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Glossary
F
failed
State of a non-redundant array that has suffered a single drive
failure, or a a redundant array that has suffered multiple drive
failures will be failed and become inaccessible. This will result in
data loss.
failed segment
A segment that is no longer usable by an array because it is either
logically bad, and therefore no longer needed, or physically
damaged.
failover
In a redundant array that has suffered a failure, to automatically
reconstruct the missing data onto an assigned hot spare.
fault-tolerant arrays
Refers to an array that can tolerate a disk drive failure without loss
or date, and can continue to function. Fault tolerant, or redundant
arrays, include RAID 1, 5, 10 and 50 arrays. See also Redundant
first logical device
Device with (virtual) logical device order number 0 (zero). The
boot device of the system. Also called first virtual device.
foreign disk
Disk that has previously been initialized on another Adaptec RAID
controller. The RAID signature on the disk allows the RAID
controller to identify whether the disk was initialized on the
controller it is currently connected to or not.
freespace
See available space.
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Glossary
G
global hot spare
Disk that can replace a failed component in any array on the same
controller, provided that the available capacity is at least equal to
that of the failed component. See also hot spare.
H
hard disk
See disk.
hot spare
Disk configured to be available to automatically receive
reconstructed data in the event of a drive failure in a redundant
array. See also rebuild, global hot spare.
hot swap
To remove a component from a system and install a new
component while the power is on and the system is running.
I
impacted
An impacted array is one which has been created but for some
reason the initial build operation did not complete. All member
drives are present and operational, and all data written to the array
is protected. The array can be made optimal by running a Verify
with Fix Task on it.
initialize
Process of preparing a disk for use by the controller. When a disk is
initialized, the controller records the RAID signature on the disk.
initialized array
An array that is ready for data reads and writes. Arrays can be
initialized by build or clear.
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Glossary
L
legacy disk
Disk that contained a valid partition table when connected to the
controller. The controller manages the disk as a legacy disk array
where there is a one-to-one logical to physical mapping of array to
disk.
logical device
Device (disk) comprised of spaces from one or more physical
drives and presented to the operating system as if it were one
drive.
logical device order
Sequence in which the system’s operating system detects the
arrays, single hard disks, and other devices connected to the
controller when the server boots.
low-level format
Process performed by the drive firmware that completely cleans
any data off the hard disk.
LUN
Logical Unit Number. The number assigned to a subdevice of a
SCSI device. Each SCSI device can contain up to eight subdevices
numbered 0 through 7. However, most SCSI devices contain only
one subdevice (LUN 0).
M
migration
See reconfiguration.
mirror set
See RAID 1.
mirroring; mirrored array
See RAID 1.
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Glossary
monitoring
Process of receiving, displaying, and logging system events.
multilevel array
See dual-level array.
O
OCE
Online Capacity Expansion. The incremental expansion of an array
that requires no downtime and retains all the attributes of the
original array. See also reconfiguration, RAID 0, RAID 5.
offline array
Array that can no longer be accessed.
offset
Distance from the beginning of a disk to the start of a segment.
optimal
An array in its normal operational state in which all of the
components are present and operating correctly is optimal. For
redundant arrays, the entire array is protected.
P
parity
Form of error-checking redundancy used to protect the data in a
RAID 5.
partition
See segment.
phantom object
Object that represents a component that cannot be configured by
the controller management software; for example, a missing drive.
physical drive
Single drive. See also logical device.
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Glossary
Q
quick init
An array initialized using the Quick Init option is available
immediately, with no on-going background controller activity. All
data written to an array that has been quick initialized is protected.
An array created using this option will remain in a Quick Init state,
and for RAID 5 and 50 write performance will be degraded, until a
verify with fix is run on the array.
R
RAID
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (alternative definition
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks). Redundancy, however, is
not a feature of RAID 0.
RAID 0
Single-level array consisting of two or more equal-sized segments
residing on different disks. RAID 0 distributes, or stripes, data
evenly across its respective drives in equal-sized sections. See also
single-level array.
Also known as a stripe set.
RAID 0/1
See RAID 10.
RAID 1
Single-level array consisting of two equal segments residing on
two different disks. Provides redundancy by storing the same data
on two components.
Also known as a mirror set.
RAID 5
Single-level array consisting of at least three equal-sized segments
with the capacity of one segment used for parity data. In a RAID 5,
parity is distributed in stripes across all segments.
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Glossary
RAID 10
Dual-level array created by using two or more equal-sized RAID 1s
to create a RAID 0. See also stripe, stripe set.
RAID 50
Dual-level array created by using two or more equal-sized
RAID 5s. See also RAID 0, stripe, stripe size.
RAID signature
The area on each disk reserved for use by the RAID controller.
RAID volume
Concatenation of multiple RAID 0, RAID 1, or RAID 5 arrays.
rebuild
Background regeneration of redundant data (and/or parity) on a
RAID 1, 5, 10 or 50.
reconfiguration
Process of expanding an array or migrating an array from one
RAID type to another; changing the stripe size of a RAID 0,
RAID 5, RAID 10 or RAID 50 or moving a logical device’s segments
to other disks.
redundant
The ability of an array to maintain operability when one or more
hardware failures occur. RAID 1, 5, 10 and 50 are redundant. In the
event of a drive failure redundant arrays can be restored to normal
operation by replacing the failed drive and rebuilding the array.
rescan
Process of updating the current screen to show all currently
available resources.
S
SAF-TE
SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure. See enclosure.
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Glossary
SCSI
Small Computer System Interface. High-speed parallel
communication scheme permitting data transfer rates of up to 320
MB/sec using the Ultra320 specification. The current specification
supports up to 15 devices per channel. See also ATA.
SCSI device ID
Or SCSI ID. Number assigned to each SCSI device attached to a
SCSI channel. Also known as target ID.
second-level array
Logical device (lower array in a dual-level array) that is never
visible to the operating system and can be used only by other
logical devices. For example, a RAID 1 that is a member of a RAID
10 is a second-level array. Contrast with visible array and top-level
array.
segment
Reserved area on a physical disk that is a by-product of array
creation or failover operation. That is, when the software creates an
array, it automatically converts the user-specified available space
into segments. A segment is always part of a logical device and
cannot be used by more than one logical device at a time.
serial ATA
A successor to ATA that transfers data across a serial interface,
instead of a parallel one.
simple volume
Single segment of a drive’s available space.
single-level array
Array created from one or more segments. See also volume, RAID 0,
RAID 1, RAID 5.
S.M.A.R.T.
Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology. This
technology is a drive feature designed to determine the reliability
status of a disk. If S.M.A.R.T. senses that a potential problem is
imminent, the user may be notified and advised of the appropriate
action.
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Glossary
snapshot
Instantaneous read-only copy of an array at a precise point in time.
spanned volume
Concatenation of segments on two or more drives.
spare
See hot spare.
stripe
Contiguous set of data distributed across all the disks in an array.
A stripe set distributes, or stripes, data evenly across its respective
disks in equal sized sections called stripes.
stripe size
In striped array types, (RAID 0, RAID 5, RAID 10, RAID 50) data is
distributed, or striped, across the member disks in equally-sized
sections. The amount of data in each section on a disk is the stripe
size.
stripe set
See RAID 0.
stripe set of mirror sets
See RAID 10.
stripe set of RAID 5
See RAID 50.
T
task
An operation that occurs only on the RAID controller,
asynchronous to all other operations; for example, initializing a
disk or verifying an array. Some tasks can take an extended period
of time, particularly if the RAID controller is also performing
intensive data I/O while the task is running.
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Glossary
top-level array
Upper array in a dual-level array. For example, the RAID 0 in a
RAID 10 is a top-level array.
V
verify
Low-level check that a drive, logical device, or hot spare is good. In
a RAID 5, verify is a low-level check that data and parity is
consistent and logs errors and, optionally, corrects errors in parity.
In a RAID 1, verify is a low-level check that contents of both
members segments are consistent and, optionally, corrects errors
while assuming that the master drive is correct. For a drive (and
hot spare) verify performs a low-level check that the whole drive
can be read.
virtual device order
See logical device order.
visible array
Array (logical device) that is visible to the operating system and to
users. Also know as top-level array. Contrast with second-level array.
volume
See simple volume, spanned volume, RAID volume.
volume set of mirror sets
See RAID volume.
volume set of RAID 5
See RAID volume.
volume set of stripe sets
See RAID volume.
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Glossary
W
warning threshold temperature
User-specified temperature limit above which Adaptec Storage
Manager - Browser Edition displays a warning in the Enclosure
view windows, the Enclosure Properties dialog box, and the
Enclosure Fans, Temperature Sensors and Power Supplies dialog
box.
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Glossary
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R
Adaptec, Inc.
691 South Milpitas Boulevard
Milpitas, CA 95035 USA
© 2002 Adaptec, Inc.
All rights reserved. Adaptec and the Adaptec logo
are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc. which may be
registered in some jurisdictions.
Stock Number: 513218-06, Ver. AA CLM 10/02
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