Prepare bakery products for patisserie

Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
D1.HPA.CL4.10
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products
for patisserie
D1.HPA.CL4.10
Trainee Manual
Project Base
William Angliss Institute of TAFE
555 La Trobe Street
Melbourne 3000 Victoria
Telephone:
(03) 9606 2111
Facsimile:
(03) 9670 1330
Acknowledgements
Project Director:
Chief Writer:
Subject Writer:
Project Manager:
Editor:
DTP/Production:
Wayne Crosbie
Alan Hickman
Garry Blackburn
Alan Maguire
Jim Irwin
Daniel Chee, Mai Vu, Jirayu Thangcharoensamut, Kaly Quach
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967. The Member
States of the Association are Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam.
The ASEAN Secretariat is based in Jakarta, Indonesia.
General Information on ASEAN appears online at the ASEAN Website: www.asean.org.
All text is produced by William Angliss Institute of TAFE for the ASEAN Project on “Toolbox
Development for Front Office, Food and Beverage Services and Food Production Divisions”.
This publication is supported by the Australian Government’s aid program through the ASEANAustralia Development Cooperation Program Phase II (AADCP II).
Copyright: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 2013.
All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to ensure that this publication is free from errors or omissions. However,
you should conduct your own enquiries and seek professional advice before relying on any fact,
statement or matter contained in this book. The ASEAN Secretariat and William Angliss Institute of
TAFE are not responsible for any injury, loss or damage as a result of material included or omitted
from this course. Information in this module is current at the time of publication. Time of publication is
indicated in the date stamp at the bottom of each page.
Some images appearing in this resource have been purchased from stock photography suppliers
Shutterstock and iStockphoto and other third party copyright owners and as such are non-transferable
and non-exclusive. Clip arts, font images and illustrations used are from the Microsoft Office Clip Art
and Media Library. Some images have been provided by and are the property of William Angliss
Institute.
Additional images have been sourced from Flickr and SKC and are used under Creative Commons
licence: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
File name: TM_Prepare_bakery_products_for_patisserie_FN_070214
Table of contents
Introduction to trainee manual........................................................................................... 1
Unit descriptor................................................................................................................... 3
Assessment matrix ........................................................................................................... 5
Glossary ........................................................................................................................... 7
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products............................................................. 15
Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products ............................................. 67
Element 3: Store bakery products ................................................................................... 71
Presentation of written work ............................................................................................ 75
Recommended reading................................................................................................... 77
Trainee evaluation sheet................................................................................................. 79
Trainee Self-Assessment Checklist................................................................................. 81
© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Introduction to trainee manual
Introduction to trainee manual
To the Trainee
Congratulations on joining this course. This Trainee Manual is one part of a ‘toolbox’
which is a resource provided to trainees, trainers and assessors to help you become
competent in various areas of your work.
The ‘toolbox’ consists of three elements:

A Trainee Manual for you to read and study at home or in class

A Trainer Guide with Power Point slides to help your Trainer explain the content of the
training material and provide class activities to help with practice

An Assessment Manual which provides your Assessor with oral and written questions
and other assessment tasks to establish whether or not you have achieved
competency.
The first thing you may notice is that this training program and the information you find in
the Trainee Manual seems different to the textbooks you have used previously. This is
because the method of instruction and examination is different. The method used is called
Competency based training (CBT) and Competency based assessment (CBA). CBT and
CBA is the training and assessment system chosen by ASEAN (Association of SouthEast Asian Nations) to train people to work in the tourism and hospitality industry
throughout all the ASEAN member states.
What is the CBT and CBA system and why has it been adopted by ASEAN?
CBT is a way of training that concentrates on what a worker can do or is required to do at
work. The aim is of the training is to enable trainees to perform tasks and duties at a
standard expected by employers. CBT seeks to develop the skills, knowledge and
attitudes (or recognise the ones the trainee already possesses) to achieve the required
competency standard. ASEAN has adopted the CBT/CBA training system as it is able to
produce the type of worker that industry is looking for and this therefore increases
trainees chances of obtaining employment.
CBA involves collecting evidence and making a judgement of the extent to which a worker
can perform his/her duties at the required competency standard. Where a trainee can
already demonstrate a degree of competency, either due to prior training or work
experience, a process of ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is available to trainees to
recognise this. Please speak to your trainer about RPL if you think this applies to you.
What is a competency standard?
Competency standards are descriptions of the skills and knowledge required to perform a
task or activity at the level of a required standard.
242 competency standards for the tourism and hospitality industries throughout the
ASEAN region have been developed to cover all the knowledge, skills and attitudes
required to work in the following occupational areas:

Housekeeping

Food Production

Food and Beverage Service
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Introduction to trainee manual

Front Office

Travel Agencies

Tour Operations.
All of these competency standards are available for you to look at. In fact you will find a
summary of each one at the beginning of each Trainee Manual under the heading ‘Unit
Descriptor’. The unit descriptor describes the content of the unit you will be studying in the
Trainee Manual and provides a table of contents which are divided up into ‘Elements’ and
‘Performance Criteria”. An element is a description of one aspect of what has to be
achieved in the workplace. The ‘Performance Criteria’ below each element details the
level of performance that needs to be demonstrated to be declared competent.
There are other components of the competency standard:

Unit Title: statement about what is to be done in the workplace

Unit Number: unique number identifying the particular competency

Nominal hours: number of classroom or practical hours usually needed to complete
the competency. We call them ‘nominal’ hours because they can vary e.g. sometimes
it will take an individual less time to complete a unit of competency because he/she
has prior knowledge or work experience in that area.
The final heading you will see before you start reading the Trainee Manual is the
‘Assessment Matrix’. Competency based assessment requires trainees to be assessed in
at least 2 – 3 different ways, one of which must be practical. This section outlines three
ways assessment can be carried out and includes work projects, written questions and
oral questions. The matrix is designed to show you which performance criteria will be
assessed and how they will be assessed. Your trainer and/or assessor may also use
other assessment methods including ‘Observation Checklist’ and ‘Third Party Statement’.
An observation checklist is a way of recording how you perform at work and a third party
statement is a statement by a supervisor or employer about the degree of competence
they believe you have achieved. This can be based on observing your workplace
performance, inspecting your work or gaining feedback from fellow workers.
Your trainer and/or assessor may use other methods to assess you such as:

Journals

Oral presentations

Role plays

Log books

Group projects

Practical demonstrations.
Remember your trainer is there to help you succeed and become competent. Please feel free to
ask him or her for more explanation of what you have just read and of what is expected from you
and best wishes for your future studies and future career in tourism and hospitality.
2
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Unit descriptor
Unit descriptor
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
This unit deals with the skills and knowledge required to Prepare bakery products for
patisserie in a range of settings within the hotel and travel industries workplace context.
Unit Code:
D1.HPA.CL4.10
Nominal Hours:
50 hours
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Performance Criteria
1.1 Select required commodities according to establishment type/style, recipe and
production requirements
1.2 Prepare a variety of bakery products to desired product characteristics
1.3 Produce a variety of bakery products according to standard recipes and enterprise
standards
1.4 Use appropriate equipment to prepare and bake bakery products
1.5 Use correct techniques to produce bakery products to enterprise standards
1.6 Bake bakery products to enterprise requirements and standards
1.7 Select correct oven conditions for baking bakery product
1.8 Prepare a variety fillings, coatings/icing and decorations for bakery products
Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
Performance Criteria
2.1 Decorate bakery products using coating, icing, and decorations to according to
standard recipes and/or enterprise standards and/or customer requests
2.2 Present/display bakery products to enterprise standards using appropriate service
equipment
Element 3: Store bakery products
Performance Criteria
3.1 Store at correct temperature and conditions of storage
3.2 Maintain maximum eating quality, appearance and freshness
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Unit descriptor
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Assessment matrix
Assessment matrix
Showing mapping of Performance Criteria against Work Projects, Written
Questions and Oral Questions
The Assessment Matrix indicates three of the most common assessment activities your
Assessor may use to assess your understanding of the content of this manual and your
performance – Work Projects, Written Questions and Oral Questions. It also indicates
where you can find the subject content related to these assessment activities in the
Trainee Manual (i.e. under which element or performance criteria). As explained in the
Introduction, however, the assessors are free to choose which assessment activities are
most suitable to best capture evidence of competency as they deem appropriate for
individual students.
Work
Projects
Written
Questions
Oral
Questions
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.1
Select required commodities according to
establishment type/style, recipe and
production requirements
1.2
1, 2, 3, 4
1
1.2
Prepare a variety of bakery products to desired
product characteristics
1.1
5, 6, 7, 8,
2
1.3
Produce a variety of bakery products
according to standard recipes and enterprise
standards
1.6
9, 10, 11,
12,
3
1.4
Use appropriate equipment to prepare and
bake bakery products
1.2, 1.4
13, 14, 15
4
1.5
Use correct techniques to produce bakery
products to enterprise standards
1.2, 1.4
16, 17,
18, 19
5
1.6
Bake bakery products to enterprise
requirements and standards
1.6, 1.7
20, 21
6
1.7
Select correct oven conditions for baking
bakery product
1.2
22, 23
7
1.8
Prepare a variety fillings, coatings/icing and
decorations for bakery products
1.7
24, 25
8
Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
2.1
2.2
Decorate bakery products using coating, icing,
and decorations to according to standard
recipes and/or enterprise standards and/or
customer requests
2.1
26
9
Present/display bakery products to enterprise
standards using appropriate service
equipment
2.1
27
10
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Assessment matrix
Work
Projects
Written
Questions
Oral
Questions
Element 3: Store bakery products
3.1
Store at correct temperature and conditions of
storage
3.1
28
11
3.2
Maintain maximum eating quality, appearance
and freshness
3.1
29
12
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Glossary
Glossary
Term
Explanation
Acidity
Sourness is the taste caused by the presence of acids in solution.
Different types of fermentation produce different acids. When milk
sours, lactic acid is formed, and when vinegar is made from apples or
grain, ascetic acid is formed. Sour rye bread is made by the addition
of sours or ferments containing bacteria, which produce various
acids, but mostly lactic and ascetic.
Alcohol
The alcohol formed during the fermentation of sugar by yeast is ethyl
alcohol, the same alcohol found in beer and whisky (chemically
known as ethanol).
Ambient Temperature
Anti Oxidant
Appearance
Ascorbic acid
Baking Time
Boiling point
Bake Out
Bake/Baking
Temperature of the surrounding area, room temperature.
A material which, when added to a product, extends the life of the
product by protecting it against oxidisation.
Visual stimulation, does it look attractive, does it look good.
Vitamin C.
Time taken to complete the baking process.
100ºC.
Bake for the full extent.
Subjecting food to heat inside an enclosed area: oven.
Bakers Flour
Flour which produces doughs having good gas retention properties
and strong, elastic doughs. Usually associated with higher protein
content.
Batch
A given quantity determined by the amount needed.
Bind
Combining two or more ingredients to form a mixture.
Creaming
The process of beating sugar and fat for the purpose of incorporating
air.
Docking
Punching a number of vertical impressions into a dough so that the
dough will expand uniformly without bursting during baking.
Dusting flour
A flour used to prevent sticking of products to the bench or
equipment.
Egg wash
Egg or egg yolk with some milk or water added, for brushing products
prior to baking to improve colouring and to give a glossy sheen when
baked.
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Glossary
Term
Explanation
Elasticity
The property whereby doughs regain their original shape after having
been stretched or otherwise distorted.
Enzyme
A substance produced by living organisms which has the power to
bring about changes in organic materials.
Fermentation
The chemical changes of an organic compound due to action of living
organisms (yeast or bacteria), usually producing a leavening gas.
Formula
A recipe giving ingredients, amounts to be used and a method of
combining them.
Gelatinise
Heated water entering a starch granule, rupturing it, and allowing the
contents to spill out and form a colloidal suspension.
Glaze
A coating that is applied to baked products for protection and
appearance.
Gluten
The protein of wheat flour which combines with water forming a
rubbery mass which retains the gas and steam in baking and gives
volume to the product.
Kneading
To manipulate dough by folding and pressing until the required
consistency is obtained.
Lean dough
A dough that is not very rich in fat, sugar and eggs, or one that
contains a smaller percentage of these ingredients than the average.
Leavening
Raising or lightening by air, steam or gas (carbon dioxide). The agent
for generating gas in a dough or batter is usually yeast or baking
powder.
Leavening Agent
Ingredients used to introduce carbon dioxide, like yeast or baking
powder.
Moulding
Manipulation of dough to provide a desired size and shape.
Moulding
Manipulating dough into the desired shape.
Oxidization
The colouring of certain fruits due to exposure to air.
Proof (American)
The rise of yeast doughs during proving usually referred to as the
amount of increase in volume of the product after being shaped and
before going to the oven: half prove = 50% increase in volume threequarter prove = 75% increase full prove = doubling in volume.
Prove (Australian)
The rise of yeast doughs during proving usually referred to as the
amount of increase in volume of the product after being shaped and
before going to the oven: half prove = 50% increase in volume threequarter prove = 75% increase full prove = doubling in volume.
Prover
A cabinet into which yeast goods are placed before baking.
Leavening Agent
Ingredients used to introduce carbon dioxide, like yeast or baking
powder.
Quark
A mild tasting curd cheese. It is moist in texture and used in fillings
and toppings.
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Glossary
Term
Explanation
Rich Dough
One that contains more than average of the enriching ingredients fat,
sugar and eggs.
Shortening
Fat or oil used to tenderise baked products.
Sifting
To pass through a fine sieve for effective blending, for aerating and to
remove foreign or oversized particles.
Skinning
The drying out and forming of skin on uncovered doughs.
Slack dough
A dough containing excess water.
Water absorption
Water required to produce a dough of a desired consistency. Flours
vary in ability to absorb water. This depends upon the age of the
flour, moisture content, wheat from which it was milled, storage
conditions and milling process.
Zest
The finely grated oily coloured outer skin of washed, untreated citrus
fruit.
Zitron
The candied fruit of the cedrat tree, green to yellow in colour; the
flavour of its fleshy aromatic part is desirable in European festive
baking.
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Glossary
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Bakery goods
Bakery Goods
Definition:
Bakery goods can divide into several categories:

Bread and bread rolls

Sweet yeast products

Cake and sponge products

Sweet and savoury pastries.
For the baker and patissier
It opens an opportunity to be creative, either by reformatting
recipes, selecting the right formulae and ingredients for
specific products, varying sizes and shapes and also in
varying baking times and temperatures to achieve different
styles, eating qualities and outcomes.
Yeast Goods or fermented goods are all products made and
aerated with fresh and compressed , dried or liquid yeast –
natural or manufactured.
Products include breads, croissants, Danish pastries, Buns,
Fruit Loaves, Babas, Savarins and many other specialty
items such as yeasted cakes, panetone, gugelhupf and
beesting.
Dough yield calculations and water temperature requirements
are important skill to know when working with yeast good.
Dough yield calculations will enable the baker to produce
exactly the amount of dough that will be needed to produce
the required number of units for sale.
Water temperature requirements are needed to produce product at the correct
temperature so that product moves at the required rate.
As the doughs are mixed heat is generated during the mixing process. Having all the
doughs finish at the same temperature allows for proofer time and oven time to be
regulated.
If this is not managed then doughs will be ready to go into the oven and if the product in
the oven is not ready to be used then the unbaked product will over proof and will not be
in optimum condition.
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Bakery goods
Water temperature for required Finish Dough Temperature (FDT)
The ideal FDT for no-time, rapid or instant doughs is 27ºC – 29ºC.
The variation of water temperature is known as your experience figure because the
required water temperature to finish a dough at a pre-determined figure is based on
bakery conditions and the baker’s experience. These include:
1. Climatic conditions
2. Bakehouse environment
3. Dough size
4. Mixer speed
5. Flour temperature
6. Mixing time
7. Specialty ingredient additions–gluten, conditioners etc.
8. Experience
Note: In subsequent topics, students should refer back to these notes when calculating
dough quantity and required water temperature for FDT.
Calculating required water temperature for required dough temperature
Example
Required
FDT
Multiply by 2
x2
31ºC
=
Subtract flour temp.
62ºC
21ºC
Equals required water temp
=
41ºC
Actual
Required FDT
Multiply by 2
28ºC
x2
=
Subtract actual flour temp.
Subtract Experience
Calculated req. water temp.
Actual water temp. used
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56ºC
Bakery goods
Dough yield calculations
When bakers talk about a ‘1kg’ dough, this weight actually applies to the flour content of
the dough only.
When all the other ingredients are added, the total dough weight is referred to as the
expected yield (from 1kg of flour).
Total dough weight = expected yield
In calculating the ingredient weights for a given amount of dough (the required yield) we
use the expected dough yield from 1kg of flour using the following formula:
New base weight of flour = required yield/expected yield
Example: Use the following dough formula to calculate the actual quantities of ingredients
for the required yield.
Ingredient
%
1kg
factor
Required
Flour
100
1.000
4.1
4.100
Salt
2
0.020
4.1
.082
Improver
1
0.010
4.1
.041
Yeast
4
0.040
4.1
.164
Water
60
0.600
4.1
2.460
Total
1.670
6.847
Total Dough Weight
Expected yield
F.D.T.27 degrees C. Finished Dough Temperature
Required yield is the number of units to be produced multiplied by the scaled unbaked
weight:
3 units @ a scaled weight of 0.520kg (3 x 0.520 = 1.560kg)
4 units @ a scaled weight of 0.300kg (4 x 0.300 = 1.200kg)
5 units @ a scaled weight of 0.800kg (5 x 0.800 = 4.000kg)
Gives the total required yield (dough weight) = 6.760kg
New base weight of flour = required yield/expected yield
= 6.760 ÷ 1.670 = 4.047904 factor – Round up to = 4.1 factor
Apply factor 4.1 to all ingredients 4.1 x 1.000kg flour = 4.100
Add up the new recipe and the total weight should be sufficient to produce the required
dough weight.
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Bakery goods
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Element 1:
Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.1 Select required commodities according to
establishment type/style, recipe and
production requirements
Commodities used to produce bakery products may include:


Flour
Sugar









Fruit, dried
Nuts, whole and ground
Egg, fresh or powdered
Milk, fresh or powdered
Cream, fresh or imitation
Gelatine or vegetarian equivalent – setting agents
Flavourings and essences
Chocolate or cocoa
Fats, oils, margarines and shortening.
Depending on the product the term ‘bakery product’ is a generic
term that describes bread, yeast goods, quick bread and pastry
items.
Ingredients
Flour
Wheat is the prime grain that flour is obtained from for the baking
industry.
White flour is the most popular flour, this is because other parts of
the wheat grain are harsh and are unpopular with the general
public. This is not to say they are not good to eat.
The following information relates to doughs for bread and yeast
goods, not pastry.
Flour consists of the following elements on average:
Starch
64 – 71%
Protein
9 – 14%
Sugar
2 – 4%
Moisture
Fat
Enzymes
11 – 15%
1 – 2%
naturally occurring in wheat flour
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Starch 64% – 71%, provides main body structure through gelatinisation – bursts (through
heat) and swell.
Starch is broken down by enzymes into simple sugars, which are to
be used by yeast as food.
Proteins soluble: 9 – 14%
Gluten is formed when insoluble proteins (Glutenin and Gliadin) are
hydrated with moisture, normally water.
The combination of these 2 proteins allows the flour to ‘take up’
water and hold the moisture within the gluten structure.
When this gluten is developed it becomes tough and elastic allowing
bread dough to expand and hold gas produced during fermentation.
In unleavened dough like pastry this gluten structure allows for it to be stretched out over
large area without breaking.
It is grey, tasteless and is tough and slightly elastic.
Glutenin – gives strength.
Gliadin – provides elasticity.
Soluble proteins: 1% – 2%, Albumin, Globulin and Protease.
Sugar
Sucrose 2 – 4%: all plant material naturally contains
sugar. 1.5 – 2% is sufficient for gas production up to 5
hours (Bulk Ferment Time) plus glucose, plus dextrose
(inversion of cane sugar).
If flour is low in these sugars, malt can be added to
formulae, to allow longer Bulk Fermentation Times
(BFT).
Moisture 11 – 15%
The natural proportion of water depends on conditions of growth, storage and milling.
Wheat is a hard grain and needs to be soaked in water to aid the milling process.
There are laws pertaining to the amount of moisture
allowed in flour. In Australia it cannot be more than 15%.
Fat 1 – 2% this contains carotene, the colouring pigment
of flour.
Enzymes
– amylase change starch in sugars.
– condition the proteins.
Responsible to soften the gluten, dough tolerance is reduced and could cause collapsing
of the bread, especially in wholemeal products.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Factors influencing flour behaviour

Quantity and quality of gluten

Diastatic capacity, the ability to change starch into sugars to provide food for the yeast
to ferment through enzymatic activity.
Salt (sodium chloride)
Salt is a natural mineral that consists of 6 parts chlorine
and 4 parts sodium.
Functions of salt are:

Controls fermentation

Toughens gluten (stabilising it)

Increases volume

Enhances flavours in bread and provides product with
its characteristic flavour

Controls dough – lack of salt results in doughs which are sticky and are difficult to
handle

Increases shelf life: acts as an antiseptic - suppresses activity of bacteria is
hydroscopic - attracts moisture

Improves crust colour.
Yeast
Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is manufactured specially for the production of
Yeast Goods.
It is a unicellular organism yet each microscopic cell
contains a multitude of enzymes capable of carrying
out the most intricate series of chemical reactions.
Because it is a living organism, baker’s yeast is very
perishable and must have optimum storage conditions.
Compressed yeast should be stored in dark and cool
conditions; it is best used for up to two weeks after
manufacture, as it slowly loses it strengths.
Yeast produces carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol, by changing sugars.
The activity of yeast is destroyed at temperatures above 55ºC and may be severely
impaired at temperatures over 45ºC.
Production of gas (CO2)
During fermentation it increases dough volume and produces a porous inflated structure
so that the loaf can be baked quickly (heat penetration is facilitated).
Production of flavour
Imparts flavours during fermentation through flavour substances such as organic acids,
esters, alcohols and ketones.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Structure and texture
This takes place more so in fermented doughs than in A.D.D. systems (chemicals make
the changes in A.D.D. doughs).
It is brought about by the mechanical stretching
and moulding during fermentation.
Nutrition
Yeast is rich in protein and B Vitamins. It must
not come into direct contact with salt, sugar or
fat.
Varieties

Compressed

Dried

Creamed or liquid.
Yeast activity and rate of fermentation
These are controlled by the following:




Sugar quantity:

Up to 5.0% speeds up fermentation

Over 5.0% slows down or retards fermentation
Water added to the dough:

Softer doughs – faster rate

Tighter doughs – slower rate
Dough temperature:

Warmer – faster rate

Cooler – slower rate
Acidity:


4 – 6pH range. Outside these, activity is slower
Yeast Quantity:

Lower quantities of yeast will result in longer proof.
Amounts of salt and fat also inhibit the rate for fermentation or the activity of yeast.
Remember: yeast is a living thing. It needs to be cared for and used properly.
Water

Hydrates gluten forming proteins (Gliadin and Glutenin)

Dissolves and disperses salt and sugars and carries sugars to the yeast which it can
only use in liquid form

Provides moisture for yeast to grow

Hydrates dry yeast and disperses both dry and compressed
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products

Controls dough temperature

Controls dough consistency

Wets and swells starch during baking (gelatinisation) –
makes it available to analyse enzymes

Controls enzyme activity (enzymes are active only in liquid
or semi liquid mediums

Increases shelf life

Contributes to eating qualities.
Bread improvers

Ensures additional food supply for yeast

Contains malt which is changed into maltose and changes starch into simple sugar
easily fermentable by yeast

Contains chemical stimulants ensuring adequate source of nitrogen – essential for
building up protein in newly forming yeast cells

Modifies gluten so that the dough is mature as it comes from the mixer. This is
required to hold increase CO2 Gas produced by the fermenting yeast.
Bread Improvers basically assist in 2 areas

Gas production

Gas retention.
This is what makes a yeast dough rise.
Optional ingredients and their functions
(as permitted under the Australian Food Standard Code)

Milk powder

Malt products

Soya flour

Emulsified fats

Margarine

Shortening

Currants

Bran

Nuts

Gluten (dry/wet )

Bacon

Mould inhibitors

Jams

Egg

Honey

Seeds

Sultanas

Coconut

Cheese

Mixed peel

Spices

Crumb softeners

Various grains

Sugar.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
These extra ingredients may be added to a basic Yeast good formula to improve product
qualities in the following areas:

Enrichment

Eating qualities

Nutritional value

Visual appeal

Keeping qualities

Flavour.
Fats
Fats are added in varying proportions to bread and yeast
goods. The percentages below are just an indicative amount.
Asian type breads are higher than Australian.
Fat is a generic term; it can mean oil, butter, margarine,
shortening. Each has their own advantages and
disadvantages, and cost and flavour benefits. Storage
requirements also are important.
Level:

Bread, normal
2%

Buns
5 – 7%

Fruit Loaves
9 – 15%

Croissants
45%

Brioche up to
50%.
The addition of fat to Yeast Goods will improve bread quality and although fat is not an
essential ingredient. It is important assisting in the slicing of the product especially when
slicing bread by lubricating the slicer blades.
Fat contributes to the volume, softer texture, brighter crumb colour and better keeping
qualities. There are many fats available to the baking industry and some are specially
manufactured to contain other compounds such as emulsifiers (TEM and SSL) some fats
contain sugar and others may contain water.
It should always be remembered that butter provides better flavour to the product when
deciding upon what type of fat to use.
Effects of fat

Improves slicing

Softer crumb

Shorter eating crumb

Softer crust

Better keeping qualities

Increases volume

Shorter eating crust
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
Emulsified fats retard crumb

Enhances firmness.
Sugar
Level:

Up to 5% increases fermentation

Over 5% retards fermentation.
Effects of sugar

Softens crumb

Sweetens

Increase crust and whiter crumb colour

Increased levels slacken or weaken the dough

Greater water retention (stays moist, therefore better shelf-life)

Better eating qualities, but high quantities result in bread flavour loss.
Milk powder
Level:

“Food Standards” stipulate that milk bread must contain 4% non fat milk solids on the
dry crumb, the purpose of this regulation is:

To increase the food value in protein and mineral content, therefore Skim Milk
Powder (reduced fat) is mostly used.
Effects of milk powder in the baked products

Brighter and softer crumb

Reddish brown (foxy) crust colour, due to lactose (milk sugar), which cannot be used
by yeast as food

Increased nutritional value and flavour

Greater volume (due strengthening of gluten strands by the
casein protein)

Slight sweetness (due to lactose).
Eggs
Eggs can be purchased as follows:

Shell Egg

Liquid Egg or Egg Pulp

Frozen Egg.
Effects of eggs

Moistening

Enriching due to fat in the yolk
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products

Increased nutritional value

Emulsifying, due to lecithin in the yolk, therefore better keeping qualities

Aids structure, due to the proteins, which coagulate at 65ºC to 70ºC

Better colour and appearance to baked product

Better eating qualities

Better keeping.
As egg is added to a formula, water has to decrease (in re-formulations).
Bran
Bran is the by-product of the brake system after all the available endosperm has been
removed. Bran can vary in particle size and composition, depending on both wheat type
and the efficiency of the milling system. Some bran is sold for Human Consumption as it
is a good source of insoluble dietary fibre.
Effects of bran

Darker crumb colour

Lower volume, due to the non gluten forming proteins

Increased water levels

Shorter mixing times

Higher fibre intake, assisting in bowel function.
Dried fruit/nuts
Almost any dried fruit or nut can be added to bread.
Most commonly dried fruit used are sultanas, currants, raisins, mixed peel and dates.
All fruit should be washed prior to use and then thoroughly dried, to avoid discolouration
of the dough.
Most commonly used nuts are hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds and peanuts.
Nuts have a very high fat content. Large amounts used in bread making need the addition
of extra yeast and also extra gluten.
Effects of dried fruits and nuts

Eating qualities

Texture

Flavour

Colour

Increased moisture

Increased shelf life

Better visual appeal.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
A Standard bread recipe
%
Ingredient
Weight
100
Flour
1.000
2
Salt
.020
MRU
Bread Improver
.010
2
Fat
.020
4
Yeast
.040
60
Water
.600
Total weight
1.690
Ingredients are expressed in % so the formula never changes. The weight changes,
depending on how much product is needed.
During the baking process the weight loss can be as much as 15% depending on how
much the product is baked out.
To maintain consistency strict adherence to recipe is needed.
The bread making process using the ‘Rapid dough process’.
Stages of dough making
Shows the typical bread making process for a normal Bulk Fermented Dough
This schedule can be applied to any bread making process, in ADD and MDD doughs
Fermentation and Knock back is replaced with a short relaxation time:

Dough mixing and development

Fermentation

Knock back

Scaling/dividing

Handing up

Intermediate proof

Final moulding

Panning, traying and boards

Final proof

Baking and Steam used in baking

Cooling

Slicing/bagging/labelling.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Dough mixing and development
Mixing time is dependent on type of dough and energy input.
Energy input refers to the type of mixing equipment used, one or two arm mixer are
classified as slow speed mixing machines. Spiral, planetary or horizontal mixers are
medium speed mixing machines, or a Tweedy, which is a high speed mixer.
Stage 1: Dough formation

Dispersion and incorporation of ingredients

Equalisation of dough temperature

Hydration of gluten forming proteins

Gluten formation

Commencement of yeast activity

Enzymic activity on flour sugars

Dissolving of sugars (yeast food)

Fermentation commences

Production of CO /alcohol.
2
Stage 2: Dough development

Commencement of yeast reproduction

Further mixing and kneading

Continued hydration of dry ingredients

Gluten strands forming

Gluten stretches and toughens

Gluten matrix forming

Gas retaining structure forming

Fermentation process continues

Yeast reproduction continues.
Stage 3: Dough clearing

Gluten reaches maximum extensibility and film
forming nature

Dough fully hydrated

Smooth fully developed dough

High level yeast activity.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Fermentation

Production of CO

Conditioning of dough
2
–
aerating dough
–
through enzymic activity.
Fermentation follows two courses

Starches changed into:


Sugars and natural sugars used by yeast to produce CO2 and alcohol
Change proteins into nitrogenous material used for yeast growth and development.
The rate of fermentation (enzymic activity) is controlled by:

Yeast content

Temperature

Salt

Acidity in the dough (formed from the alcohol)
causes softening of gluten and gives flavour.
Knock back

Equalises dough temperature (outside can be
cooler, therefore fermentation is slower)

Expels CO gas from the dough

Develops the gluten which has been softened
by proteolytic enzymes, which weaken and
reduce its gas holding properties in the
dough

Takes place between ½ – 2/3’s through
B.F.T

Improves fermentation rate

Ensures thorough mixing

Brings yeast into contact with more food
(CO2 pushes the yeast away from its food)

Dough reaches optimum ripeness.
2
Scaling/dividing

Scaling
–
is portioning the dough by weight

Dividing
–
is portioning the dough by volume.
Check weight of dough pieces to ensure correct weight when dividing.
B.F.P. produces dough pieces with large portion of gas, this results in inaccurate dividing.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Handing up
First moulding:

Shapes the dough

Re-forms the gluten strands

Provides a shape, for easy handling to the
next stage.
Brings the dough to the correct condition for the
final stages of fermentation.
Over-machining can irreparably damage the
gluten structure and this can prevent the
dough recovering.
Intermediate proof

Allows the gluten to mellow down again.

Yeast recovers to produce CO2 gas.
Final moulding

Gas is expelled

Gluten tightened.
Vital for the symmetrical shape of the final
product.
Panning, traying and boards
Final product shape and size needs to be
determined prior to commencing production.
Tins and trays should be warmed, to avoid
dough chilling.
Grease Tins and Trays only lightly to prevent product sticking, excessive grease will fry
the product. This is not required if silicon coated or silicon paper is used.
The baking tin should be a size appropriate to the required loaf. As an approximate guide,
the moulded loaf should occupy approximately one third of the volume of the tin.
When using boards semolina or ground rice is used to prevent dough sticking to the cloth
and to the board. Dough pieces are usually total enclosed in the cloth.
Final proof
Usually takes place in a chamber or cabinet where temperature and humidity can be
controlled.
Dough pieces are in a condition suitable to hold the gas and resilient enough to withstand
the expansion.
As the dough expands the dough’s tension relaxes until the desired maximum volume of
the loaf is ready for the oven.
Humidity must be sufficient to prevent skinning and uneven expansion. It also maintains
even temperature throughout the proofing chamber.
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Excessive humidity causes tough, leathery crusts, wrinkled surface and holes under the
top crust of the bread loaf.
Proofer conditions
Depending on product and formulae:
30ºC – 40ºC
80% – 90% RH
Baking
Is the most important stage in bread making,
reactions during proofing are kept and transferred
into porous food which is readily digestible and
flavoursome for human consumption.
When the dough piece has reached “full proof”, it is almost at its fully expanded state.
On entering the oven activity is very rapid. Yeast continues to produce CO2 until killed at
60ºC.
Gases expand, are trapped in the gluten structure and expand the dough – OVEN
SPRING.
Enzymes are killed at +/-77ºC and until killed continue to produce sugars which sweeten
the crumb of the baked loaf and caramelise on the outside to form the crust colour and
bloom.
At 78ºC the protein coagulates, structure sets and activity in the loaf ceases.
Weight is lost through baking evaporation.
Sugars caramelise on the outside of the loaf at 150ºC.
Loaves are considered baked when centre reaches 98ºC:

Starch gelatinises at 65ºC

Enzymes are killed at 75ºC.
Through the high temperatures in the crumb (up to 100ºC) flavours are formed.
Through increased enzymic activity (50ºC – 75ºC) dextrines, soluble sugars and soluble
proteins.
Heated acids in the dough break down starch into simple sugars (same as glucose
manufacture).
Reactions between acids and alcohol form esters.
Temperature in the oven must be sufficient to allow as fast a bake as possible to retain as
much moisture as possible without over colouration of the crust, depending upon final
product.
Humidity in the oven is introduced in the form of steam and allows the loaf to expand to its
full volume before the crust forms.
Sufficient space in between bread products is vital for an even bake; insufficient spacing
may result in loaves collapsing.
The average loss of weight during baking is 10 to 15% from the dough weight. This
can vary depending on formulae, baking temperature and baking time.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
The functions of steam in bread making
It has been known for many years that bread baked in a moist atmosphere has a better
appearance than that baked in a dry atmosphere. It is also known that steam used in final
proving is beneficial to the product produced. Steam is essential in bread baking, as it
serves to keep the surface of the loaf in a pliable condition, thus allowing it to expand
without tearing.
Steam supplies the necessary moisture to help dextrinize the crust and to produce a shiny
crust.
Bread baked without the use of steam will never produce a fine thin golden brown crust
that is required.
Steam should always be released during the latter stages of baking to prevent the loaves
from having a tough leathery crust.
Steam used in baking must be saturated so that when the dough pieces are set in the
oven, a film of moisture will settle over their surfaces.
This keeps the skin soft, prevents rapid crust formation and allows maximum oven
expansion to take place without a break appearing on the sides of the loaves.
Dextrinization: is produced by the action of heat and steam on the starch. The dextrin is
a carbohydrate smaller in size than starch.
This also referred to as the Malliard Reaction after the French chemist, Louis Camille
Maillard (1876 –1936).
The process is a reaction between reducing sugars such as maltose and glucose,
not sucrose, with amino acids present in the dough on the crust of the loaf.
This is responsible for the glaze and bloom on the crust.
Steam
Steam exists in 3 forms:

Saturated

Wet

Super-heated.
Saturated steam: is necessary for bread baking
because when water is evaporated, the steam is at the
same temperature as the water and is said to be
saturated.
Wet steam: is steam and water mixed, due to partial
condensation of saturated steam by cooling. Wet steam
is not suitable for bread making because the free
moisture can cause blemishes marks or grey streaks
upon the crust of the bread.
Super-heated steam: is produced by heating steam in the absence of free water so that
its temperature is raised to a point above that corresponding to its pressure.
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Steam is used during bread making in order to:

Impart a glaze on the surface of the bread

To ensure an even, symmetrical oven spring

Prevent excessive evaporation of moisture from the dough preventing weight loss

Produce a turbulence which will assist heat distribution

Modify heat at entry to the oven where steam is being applied and so allow a full oven
spring.
How is the glaze produced on a loaf?
The glaze upon the loaf is produced within the first two minutes of baking by the
condensation of the saturated steam on the dough surface.
The hot condensed moisture gelatinises the starch on the dough surface and partly
converts it to dextrin.
After drying out, the dextrin is left as a glaze and
caramelisation of sugars in the dough produces the
characteristic crust colour, along with some browning
of the proteins in the dough (Maillard Reaction).
The use of steam in final proving
The object of steam use in final proof is:

To give adequate volume before baking

To relax strains and stresses imposed during final moulding

To ensure that the dough surface is pliable for the initial oven spring

To maintain an adequate temperature within the dough to ensure adequate gas
production from the yeast.
Temperature of the oven
General rule is:

With hot oven temperature increase steam

Colder oven temperature decrease steam.
Proof of dough pieces:

Little proof
–
increased steam

Full proof
–
decrease steam

Too much proof
–
no steam.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Ovens
Ovens are in general different, so is the steam input and the capacity of the retention of
the steam.
Bread in general produces its own steam, some ovens are designed in a way that no
steam is required, as the moisture comes from the product.
Correct steaming conditions are essential
Ovens with low steam levels or no steam, could bake products which have leathery crust
characteristics, pale crust colour and no gloss as well as poor oven-spring. It is also
possible that the crust is separating from the crumb.
Excessive use of steam causes blistering of the
crust and could result in flat products.
Cooling
All bread products commence cooling on removal
from the oven and must be removed from their
tins/trays.
Steam is still being given off and subsequently loses
weight in the process.
Cool products with sufficient space between them so
that “sweating” does not occur with subsequent
mould growth. Cooling wires are recommended.
Bread should be cooled as quickly as possible to prevent excessive weight loss.
The structure assumes greater rigidity as it cools.
1.2 Prepare a variety of bakery products to
desired product characteristics
Variety of bakery products may include:

Savoury and sweet breakfast items

Specialty breakfast items

Lunch and dinner rolls

Sweet yeast

Festive baking, specific to cultural feasts and celebrations

Health and diet specific items, e.g. Gluten free, fat free.
Bakery products are consumed in many different areas:

Walk in bakeries on the street

Cafes

Dining areas in hotels.
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Different areas may require different elements to be put into the product:

Size

Amount of nuts in a dough

Amount of eggs in a dough

What is the client base?

Budget or affluent.
A bakery selling to the general public might produce
something that is more budget orientated than a five star
hotel.
Restaurants and cafe will have a different price structure
than a patisserie or bakery.
The price charged for product that is taken home to eat will
be different for product that is consumed in-house.
Bread rolls:

Weight of baked product on average is 80 – 100g

A dinner roll for a restaurant might be 50g.
Both will come from the same dough base.
Normal bread in Australia is crusty and not sweet in taste.
But with the Asian style influence there is growth within
Asian style bread. This bread is much softer, formula or
recipe is different.
Breakfast items

Croissants and Danish pastries

Muffins; American and English style

Crumpets

Pancakes

Scones.
Festive baking

Greek Easter bread

Stollen

Baba

Grittibanz

Gingerbread

Hot cross buns.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Bread and bread rolls
Bread rolls are not specifically defined in weights, but are presumably any article of bread
weighing less than 250g.
To produce high quality rolls, great care must be taken when selecting the ingredients, roll
size and shapes, as well as accurate moulding, proving and baking.
Consideration must be taken for the suitability of various types of fillings, the production
difficulty and the shelf life of the product.
Bread rolls
Are consumed at any occasion throughout the day, for breakfast, lunch and dinner and
also for snacks in between meals as complement to other foods.
The baker’s ability and creativity making rolls could satisfy any customer demand and
may result in higher consumption.
Bread
Standard white bread comes either square sliced or as a hit in or un-lidded.
Standard white sliced selling weight is .680g, for sandwich loaf.
Speciality breads enhance and add variety to displays/presentation of the product range.
Loaf varieties to consider in production plan are:

Cobb shapes

Cottage

Rings

Pull-A-Parts

340g panned loaves

Pinwheels (press cut)

Sticks/baguettes

Sole baked ‘Vienna Shapes’.
Rolls
Soft rolls – Hamburger buns, Stotties, Scotch baps, Hot dog rolls.
Crisp crust rolls – French style breads, Baguettes, Ficelle.
Hard crust rolls – Pannini, Pasta Dura.
Ciabatta bread has become popular, this has a very high water content (75%), is very
soft and has an open texture inside as opposed to the more closed even texture of other
breads.
See sample recipes in back of manual.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.3 Produce a variety of bakery products
according to standard recipes and enterprise
standards
Establishment type/style could include:

Hotel

Restaurant

Brasserie

Bistro

Café

Coffee shop

Patisserie, pastry shop

Commercial or industrial catering
operation

Function venue.
Product characteristics are related to:

Colour

Consistency and texture

Moisture content

Mouth feel and eating properties

Appearance.
Enterprise requirements and standards will vary depending on the establishment. There is
a requirement that they are all the same size and weight.
Correct baking and consistent formula will produce consistent quality:

Colour

Consistency

Texture

Moisture

Mouth feel

Appearance.
All of the above will determine the saleability of the product. If it is not what they
purchased last time then the customers will not return for an inferior product.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Classification – Bread rolls
Bread rolls can either be divided into a category where the ingredient is dominant, like
White, Wholemeal, Multigrain or Rye breads or even mixtures of flours.
They can also be divided into categories, which states the main enriching agent, like
Bacon and Cheese roll, Sun-dried Tomato roll, Herb and Garlic, etc.
Bread rolls can also be divided into categories where the production method is
mentioned, like “Wood Fire Oven rolls” or “Sole baked bread rolls”.
The main category of bread rolls is to look at their characteristics, referring to the eating
qualities.
These can be divided into three main groups:
SOFT ROLLS
CRISP CRUST ROLLS
CRUSTY ROLLS
HARD CRUST ROLLS
Soft rolls
Referring to SOFT eating qualities, SOFT
ROLLS are made with increased sugar and
fat levels. They are baked at high
temperatures with short baking times to retain
moisture.
Crisp crust rolls
Referring to CRISP CRUST eating qualities,
they are made with low fat levels, the addition
of 5% semolina of the flour weight has
crisping effect on the crust.
Hard crust rolls
Referring to HARD CRUST eating qualities, they are made with a “lean” formulae, the
addition of 5% semolina of the flour weight has crisping effect on the crust. Increased
baking times at lower temperatures are required to harden the crust.
Soft rolls
Burger buns and baps:

Size- up to 12cm diameter

Weight- from 50 to 100g.

Shape- round or oval.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Common practice is:

To bake in special trays which have ‘dished’ (hollow) sections providing shape for the
final product

Using the two tray method, where a baking tray is placed on top of the buns, providing
enough space for the bun to reach certain height, also known as lidded method

To pin the dough pieces out to required diameter and bake on normal baking trays,
this method is very time-consuming.
Finish
Traditionally with flour topping which should
not colour during baking.
Left plain or dressed with sesame seeds.
Scotch baps:

As above, traditional shape is oval and
dusted with flour.
Common practice is:

To divide dough in the bun divider moulder without rounding, after full proof to sift with
flour and bake without colour.
Hot dog rolls/finger rolls

Size
–
up to 24cm long

Weight
–
from 50 to 100g

Shape
–
fingers.
Common practice is:

To bake in special “dished” trays with long indentation

Traditionally baked on normal baking trays, close together so that they batch, thus
providing bigger volume and reduce staling

Using stick trays.
Finish
Left plain, egg washed or seeded.
Stotties
Is a larger style of the English muffin:

Size
–
up to 28cm diameter

Weight
–
from 200 – 350g

Shape
–
round with indent in the centre, similar to donuts with smaller hole.
Common practice is:

To bake product on the sole of the oven, turning it over after 2/3 of the baking time
(oven bottom)

Using pre-heated trays following the above.
Finish
Left plain; rice-flour from dusting usually visible.
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Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
35
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Crusty rolls and bread
Vienna
Originated in Austria and is mainly made into pointed or baton shapes. Viennas are
originally well known for their fine flavour and taste and a thin brown, crisp crust.
The name ‘Vienna’ is associated with shape but the name also denotes a type of dough
enriched with milk powder and malt flour.
Viennas are generally cut 4 or 5 times across the top, and can be finished with seeds
such as poppy or sesame or have a tiger skin paste topping applied.
Bloomers are similar to Viennas, but not tapered on the ends.
They are usually larger and bolder in shape, and can be finished as for Viennas, often
having a larger number of closely placed cuts across the top.
Low pressure steam should be injected into the oven for best results during loading and
for the first few minutes of baking.
Bread loaf weight: from 350 to 600g.
Rolls weight: from 50 to 100g.
Shape: round, oval and knots.
Moulded varieties
Splits and creased
Use a stick and press roll in half or into quarters.
Snails and pipes
Mould as for a finger roll, and then roll up into a snail, by
leaving one end a little long the shape represents a pipe.
Kaiser rolls
Use a Kaiser-tool, or flatten dough piece and fold 5 times into the centre.
Crescents
Mould into a flat triangle and roll up, like a croissant.
Petit foods
Traditionally French, the same as for the Italian people applies to the French, who also
eat fresh bread with most of their meals:

Weight
–
from 70 to 100g

Shape
–
moulded oval and cut in the centre after proof.
Common practice is

To add semolina into the dough to enhance the crust

Bake with plenty of steam, and dry out after

Products are usually baked in stick trays.
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© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Pannini/Cannon/Italianni /Shells

Weight
–
from 60 to 100g

Shape
–
refer to below explanation
Common practice is

To add semolina into the dough to enhance
the crust

Bake with plenty of steam, and dry out after

Products are usually “sole” baked, if not baked
in stick trays.
Mould Pannini, Cannons and Italianni by using a round piece of dough and rolling it with
the side of the hand to split it into two even balls, while keeping it still attached to each
other.
After resting time, knock out the gas and mould (roll) each side back into the centre, this
shape is called “Italianni”.
By twisting one side and placing it on top of the other, the “Cannon” is made.
For the Pannini, use a small stick and press into the middle of the “Italianni”, then fold one
side up and bring the two ends to the outside of the other two ends, so that all four ends
point in one direction.
Shells are moulded by rolling the dough piece into a baton. Flatten it down after resting
and rolling it up into a shell.
Some bakers split it lengthwise with a sharp knife after moulding. Shells are usually baked
in stick trays.
Pasta dura
Traditional Italian, which is normally bulk fermented for up to 15 hours to develop flavours.
This is Ideal to serve with pasta, risotto, soups and other Italian dishes.
“Panne”(bread) is served with most meals and traditionally very flavoursome and crusty:

Weight:
from 70 to 120g for rolls. Up to 600g for bread.
For loaves:

Scale 15% – 20% higher than net weight due to moisture loss during baking e.g.:
580g

Shape – twisted, 2 strand plait and cut lengthwise through the centre.
Common practice is:

To add semolina into the dough to enhance the crust

Bake on lower temperatures to increase the crust

Bake without steam, lightly dusted with flour

Products are usually “sole” baked.
Aside from the bread varieties there are also speciality breads.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Panettone
This delicate and porous rich festive bread is studded
with sultanas and flavoured with candied citrus peel.
It is baked in tall cylindrical moulds and can be served
with cream or fresh mascarpone.
To develop rich yeasty flavours, the dough is sometimes
prepared in several stages with prolonged maturing times
in between.
Gingerbread doughs
This dough is a multipurpose dough and can be used for
a variety of products. By adding different spices and/or
fruit, different shapes can be given or cut out and after
baking coated with icings or chocolate. The dough is also
suited for making gingerbread houses.
It is important not to overheat the honey at the initial stage, as it may crystallise, rendering
it useless for the dough. The honey is best heated to 65ºC, then allowed to cool to 35ºC –
40ºC, to avoid burning the flour.
The flavour of the gingerbread will improve if the dough is prepared well ahead of use,
adding the raising (lifting) agents only just prior to using the dough.
Always use quality spices in order to achieve optimum flavour.
Gingerbread dough is baked at 180ºC.
Honey cake (Israel)
This cake is traditionally served on the Sabbath and at festivals, particularly at the
beginning of the New Year, in order to sweeten the hope for a happy year ahead.
Tsoureki (Greece)
This traditional sweet bread can be found during any major religious festival.
Its flavouring components can be many, as each family or baking professional have their
own favourite.
Most popular are orange, lemon, vanilla, cinnamon, allspice, aniseed, cloves and mace,
either singly or in any combination.
The traditional shape is a round or braided loaf.
To simplify cutting and storing (keeps for up to one week), the dough can also be formed
into long loaves. Cut into slices and toasted is a popular way of serving this bread.
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© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Stollen (Germany)
A product popular in many European countries
around Christmas time and originating from
Germany, Stollen is made from a heavy (rich in
fat) yeast dough.
Some varieties contain mainly sultanas (and
some candied peel) and almonds, others
almonds only or a poppyseed or nut filling.
The cleaned sultanas are usually steeped in
rum for enhanced flavour. So as not to break or
damage the fruit, they are worked under the
dough last.
A somewhat tighter ferment is worked with the other ingredients into a dough, which
should also on the firm side. This hinders the flattening out (losing the intended traditional
shape) of the Stollen during baking.
For uniformity and better control of the shape, special Stollen moulds (tins) can be used.
After resting the dough, it is scaled into intended portion sizes and moulded round, then
worked into a roll with flat ends. Ask your Trainer to demonstrate the shaping of a Stollen.
These are just examples. The list can be overlapping into Sweet yeast products.
Muffins
Muffins come in 2 styles.
English – flat on top and bottom and they ‘peel apart’, made from a yeast raised batter.
American – like a cup cake shape but much larger and come in a wide variety of flavours.
Originating in this form in the United States, they have gained much popularity, as they
are extremely versatile.
They can be adapted to have ingredients like nuts, fruit or vegetables as their main
flavour component or, by using brans and honey, calories can be lowered and fibre
increased, appealing to guests more concerned with nutrition.
When muffins are baked, apart from the crust being coloured brown, they should spring
back when pressed lightly in the centre.
Remove muffins from the tins as soon as possible to prevent sweating and condensation
forming, sticking them to the tin.
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Prepare bakery products for patisserie
39
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Danish pastries
These pastries are made with yeast dough laminated with butter (or other fats), then turns
given similar to puff paste, resulting in light and crisp pastries. They are produced in many
different shapes and sizes with a variety of fillings and toppings.
Fillings used may be custard, jam, cheese, fruit, poppyseed, marzipan and nuts with the
possible addition of dried fruit and candied peel.
Croissants
Crescent shaped pastries of delicate, flaky structure prepared from laminated yeast
dough.
Croissants are consumed plain or filled (sweet or savoury) or cut open and filled with
meats, cheese and/or salads (snacks, light meals).
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© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Brioche
Yeast dough rich in butter and eggs, traditionally in the shape of a large ball with a smaller
one on top. Its smooth, delicate crumb structure is directly related to the high content of
butter and eggs.
Brioche is very versatile and can be made in a variety of shapes, some versions with
added dried fruit.
Served at breakfast (individuals or toasted slices), as an entree (with a savoury filling or
as an accompaniment), as a dessert (filled with cream, mousse and/or fruit), as a lining
for charlottes or for covering pies and meat and fish dishes.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Recipes
Here you will find a selection of recipes to make a variety of bakery products.
Soft bread roll dough
Hamburger Buns, Hot Dog Rolls, Scotch Baps and Stotties
Rapid Dough, A.D.D. METHOD
Ingredient
%
1kg Dough
Bakers flour
100
1.000
2
.020
MRU
.010
Fat
8
.080
Skim Milk Powder
2
.020
Castor Sugar
5
.050
Compressed yeast
4
.040
+/– 60
.600
Salt
Bread improver (ADD)
Water
Total weight
1.820
Method:

Weigh all ingredients

Place water and yeast into the bowl. Mix to disperse the yeast

Add all dry ingredients into the bowl and mix slowly until the dough comes together

When the dough has combined mix on second speed until the dough develops

Approximately 7 minutes

When dough is mixed, take off machine and place into bowl and cover for 10 minutes

Divide into the size pieces that are required; 50g each or 80g

Round up and leave to rest for a further ten minutes

Give final mould to shape that you require and place onto prepared trays

Allow final proof for approximately 20 minutes or as required 35ºC/80% humidity

Bake in oven 230ºC – 240ºC for 10 – 15 minutes

When baked remove from oven and detray onto cooling racks.
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© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Pasta Dura
Bulk fermentation, B.F.P. method:
1 hour
Ingredient
%
1kg Dough
Bakers flour
95
1.000
Semolina
5
.050
Salt
2
.020
MRU
.010
3
.030
+/ – 60
.600
Bread improver (BFP)
Compressed yeast
Water
Total weight
1.710
Method

Weigh all ingredients

Place water and yeast into the bowl. Mix to disperse the yeast

Add all dry ingredients into the bowl and mix slowly until the dough comes together

When the dough has combined mix on second speed until the dough develops

Approximately 7 minutes

When dough is mixed, take off machine and place into bowl and cover

Allow to ferment, covered to prevent skinning, for 1 hour

Divide into the size pieces that are required; 50g each or 80g

Round up and leave to rest for a further ten minutes

Give final mould to shape that you require and place onto prepared trays

Allow final proof for approximately 20 minutes or as required 35ºC / 80% humidity

Bake in oven 180ºC for 20 – 25 minutes

When baked remove from oven and remove from trays onto cooling racks.
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43
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Ciabatta
Ciabatta is an Italian style bread from the northern regions of the country with variations
found all over the country. Ciabatta literal translation is ‘slipper’ or ‘mule’; this can have
something to do with the shape.
The dough can be difficult to handle due to the high water content. The dough pieces are
cut to size rather than shaped or moulded, so the actual shape can be rather ‘free form’,
just like an old slipper.
The recipe below is a guide
Ingredient
%
1kg Dough
Bakers flour
100
1000
Compressed yeast
1.6
16
Water
50
500
Total weight
1.516
Mix till a clear tight dough is formed; set aside (covered) for up to 24 hours (18
hours)
Ingredient
%
1kg Dough
Salt
2
20
Malt Flour
1
10
Water
24
240
Total Weight
270
Method




Mix in stage 2 and mix until clear
30 minutes bulk proof, then knock back
20 minutes rest, then pour out onto floured bench
Cut to required size and place on floured boards as demonstrated



Rest for 10 – 15 minutes
Place into the oven either by peel or setter
Bake at 210ºC for 45 minutes.
Remember

This dough is very wet and requires careful handling

After the mixing and bulk ferment do not try to shape the dough


Pat flat and cut to size. Normally rectangle
Pick up carefully from bench and place onto greased tray.
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Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Hot plate goods
Crumpets
Note: For this product a hotplate is necessary.
Traditionally a crumpet is a round flat crustless disc, of soft slightly springy texture, which
is characterised by a distinctive top surface broken by a large number of relatively even
holes which permeate through to the base of the product.
It is produced from a yeast leavened batter to which a small amount of sodium
bicarbonate has been added prior to cooking. The soda increase gas production during
cooking, producing the holes on the top surface.
This action takes place at an early stage of cooking, the heat from the hotplate activating
2
the soda which gives off C0 gas. This rises to the surface of the product which at this
time is still very soft allowing the gas to break through the surface, and leaving the
distinctive holes.
Here is the crumpet formula. There are two options to produce. Note the fermentation
times.
Method – Read and Follow
Preparation of Batter – Groups 1 and 2:

Weigh out ingredients

Dissolve yeast and sugar in water

Sieve flour, salt and milk powder

Add flour, and whisk to smooth batter

Set aside to ferment.
Fermentation

Allow to ferment until sign of collapse.
Group 3:

Add Group 3 to ferment. Mix to clear batter.
Baking

Lightly “oil” hot plate

Lightly “oil” crumpet rings

Place rings on hot plate

Pour batter into rings to half full.
The batter will now “rise” and “hole”.
As soon as the “wet” appearance disappears, crumpets are turned over and “dried” on the
top.
They are then removed from the hot plate and placed on cooling wires.
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45
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Function of main components
Bicarbonate of Soda:

To neutralise the acid produced by the yeast.
Extra water:

To adjust the thickness of the batter.
Crumpets – Hot plate method
%
Ingredients
Weight
100
Water @ 40¼C
.500
4
Yeast
.020
1.5
Sugar
.008
80
H.R. Flour
.400
20
Biscuit flour
.100
1
Salt
.050
2
Milk powder
.010
14
Water @ 40¼C
.070
1
Bi carb soda
.005
1.5
Salt
.008
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Total weight
46
1.171
© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Croissants
If butter is used, best results if dough is prepared 1 day in advance.
A
B
%
Ingredients
1kg Dough
100
Bakers Flour
1.000
6
Yeast, compressed
.060
60
Water, cold
.600
6
Castor Sugar
.060
2
Salt
.020
2.5
Dry Gluten
.025
40
Royal Danish or Butter
.400
Total weight
2.165
Method

Calculate sufficient dough to produce croissants 80g. How many?

Allow 10 % scrap pastry from cutting when calculating

Mix "A" into a clear, well developed dough, keep cold

Roll out dough 75 x 50cm

Shape "B" to a rectangle 2/3 of dough size and place onto dough

Same as in English Puff pastry

Give a single turn (fold in 3)

Cover with a cloth or plastic and return to fridge for 15 minutes

Repeat turning two more times

Finished pastry should have 3 x single folds

Keep the dough as chilled as possible, it is easier to work with chilled than at room
temperature.
Different folding techniques can be used by each enterprise
Some will use 1 single and 1 double.
Do not fold to many times, you will lose the flakiness. The dough is soft and the butter will
blend into the dough.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Make up procedure
Plain Croissants:

Roll out prepared dough to 1100mm x 400mm

Cut dough lengthwise to create 2 strips 1100mm x 200mm

Lay strips on top of each other

Cut 20 triangle shapes with a base line of 150mm each

Brush off all excess flour and roll up the croissants

Place onto a clean and lightly greased 2/lGN baking tray

Lightly egg wash and half prove at 36ºC, low humidity

Bake at 230ºC for approximately 12 – 15 minutes

Remove from baking tray and place onto a cooling wire.
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© ASEAN 2013
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Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Danish pastry
Danish pastry is a leavened puff pastry dough with a rich, delicate and flaky texture. It
can be made with a variety of sweet and savoury fillings in different sizes and shapes.
Usually eaten for breakfast or afternoon tea. Danish Pastry with savoury fillings are also
very suitable for snacks (lunch trade).
%
A
B
Ingredients
1Kg Dough
100
Bakers Flour
1.000
5
Yeast, compressed
.050
1.5
Salt
.015
4
Sugar
.040
MRU
Bread Improver
.010
4
Butter, unsalted
.040
37.5
Water
.375
22.5
Egg
.225
4
Milk Powder
.040
55
Butter or
Royal Danish (Margarine)
.550
Total weight
2.345
Method:

Calculate sufficient dough to produce 24 x 11cm square individual Danish pastry (60g)

Allow 10 % scrap pastry from cutting when calculating

Mix "A" into a clear, well developed dough, keep cold

Roll out dough 75 x 50 cm

Shape "B" to a rectangle 2/3 of dough size and place onto dough

Give a single turn (Fold in 3)

Cover with a damp cloth and return to fridge for 15 minutes

Repeat turning two more times

Finished pastry should have 3 x single folds

Roll out pastry to 4 mm thickness

Cut fill and finish as required.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Danish pastry make up procedure:

Roll out prepared dough to 620mm x 420mm

Cut into l00mm x 100mm squares, to produce 24 pieces

Fill and fold into designated shapes. 8 of each variety

Place onto a clean and lightly greased 2/lGlN baking tray

Light egg wash and half prove at 36ºC

Bake at 230ºC for approximately 12 – 15 minutes

After baking, immediately glaze with boiled apricot jam

Remove from baking tray and place onto a cooling wire

When cool, ice with prepared fondant.
YIELD: 24 units.
100
Pipe
100
100
Apricots
100
Custard
100
Apple Mix
100
Fold 4
corners into
centre to
overlap
100
50
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100
Fold 2
opposite
corners in
to overlap
100
100
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Bear Claw Danish
Cut edge 1/5 into dough
Lay filling as shown
Bring ends
together
Fold over filling
Danish Twist
Spread paste filling
Fold in half, press lightly
Cut dough as shown
Twist one end through.
cut and reshape to
original shape
Danish Pastry Dough is very similar to Croissant Dough, it only varies in the egg quantity
for Danish Pastry.
Most bakers and pastry cooks are using the croissant recipe to produce ‘Danish’, this
ensures that there are no mistakes with what dough to use for which pastry.
Danish fillings in chapters further along
Prepare a variety of fillings”

Crème patisserie

Quark filling

Apple filling.
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51
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Muffins
The American muffin is a cake style, high in sugar and is chemically aerated. There are
usually served for Breakfast.
It is either baked in a greased deep cup pan or papered cup. It is baked at a high
temperature, and should spread on the top with a cracked or broken surface.
Relatively high sugar content is normal, and reasonably strong flour is used to create lift
and structure. The mix is relatively low in fat and eggs, and therefore has a short shelf life.
The fat used can be in solid form, such as cake
margarine. Liquid oil may be substituted
because the batter is chemically aerated and
the air retaining properties of the fat are not
required.
Muffins can be plain, or may be flavoured with
spices or fruit flavours. They can also hold
apple, berry fruit or nuts and chocolate:

When making chocolate muffins, replace
some of the flour with cocoa powder (read
Chocolate Genoese)

Chocolate bits may be added to enhance flavour and eating quality.
Fruit and nuts

Fruit may be added in raw or cooked form. For example, grated raw apple, mashed
banana, whole berry fruits OR stewed/canned apple, pineapple etc.

Again, some adjustment to formulae may be necessary due to moisture variations

Care must be exercised when folding in whole berry fruit as excess liquids may cause
discolouration and breakdown of the baking product, and may be forced out. Fruit may
also break up during mixing.
Baking
Muffins should be baked quickly to gain maximum aeration from the baking powder and
quick top crust formation is essential to obtain the broken peak appearance, typical of this
type of product. An oven temperature of 205ºC–210ºC is recommended, with full bottom
heat to allow the heat to penetrate through the tray.
Muffins should be removed from the oven without over-baking to prevent drying and
shrinkage. They are best removed from tins or trays as soon as possible for these
reasons also.
Traditionally, muffins are oven finished, although some may be lightly dusted with icing
sugar. Early packaging will increase the shelf life, although it must be remembered that
muffins are regarded as a same day sale product.
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Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Plain muffins
Yield: 20 x 55g
A
330g
Bakers Flour
290g
Caster Sugar
15g
Baking Powder
30g
Salt
70g
Eggs
200g
Water
B
70g
1.000g
Oil (butter, margarine)
Total batter
Method

Sift all dry ingredients in Group A and place into a mixing bowl. Dry mix to distribute

Mix Group B, add to A and mix until combined

Do not over-mix. Over-mixing toughens the product

Liquid flavours like vanilla and/or lemon may be added to group B, prior to mixing

Other flavours like fruit or nuts maybe added to the mix prior to depositing into the
cups and topped with the particular garnish, or added after the mixture is deposited

Bake at 220ºC with falling temperature to 200ºC

Remove from oven and place onto cooling wires.
Note

The variety of muffins is unlimited, it can be flavoured in many ways

If margarine is used in the recipe, it needs to be rubbed in with the flour, before adding
the liquid

Formula balance is necessary to produce savoury muffins, therefore, when replacing
sugar, flour quantity needs to be adjusted

Caster Sugar may be replaced with Brown Sugar and/or Syrup or Honey. To avoid
discolouration, bake at lower temperatures.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.4 Use appropriate equipment to prepare and
bake bakery products
Bakery goods are baked in special ovens, large flat base.
Sometimes brick for breads but for pastries you need an oven
with more versatile heating elements.
In modern ovens there is much better and wider choice.
There are deck ovens, electric, gas and wood fired.
Rack ovens that will take an entire rack full of trays. These
will pick rack up off the floor and rotate the rack in the oven.
These are fan forced which distributes the heat better
throughout the oven.
Brick floored electric ovens have been notorious with irregular
heat on base with ‘hot spots and cold spots in the ovens.
Proofer and retarders
These are enclosed areas where the moulded dough is
placed to prove.
Prove – meaning; if the dough rises then it has proved to be good.
A warm environment with high humidity will allow the yeast to reproduce and make the
dough rise and increase in size.
Modern proofers will also retard.
Retarders
This is a chilled environment with high humidity that will hold the dough and not allow the
yeast to grow.
Modern proofer/ retarders will work together, hold the raw dough in a chilled environment
and then will turn off the chilling and turn on the heater and allow the yeast to grow,
expand to dough to its full capacity, ready to bake.
Can take trays with built in rack or will take an entire rack as shown in photo above.
Spiral Dough mixer
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Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Planatery mixer
Bun Dividers and roller
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.5 Use correct techniques to produce bakery
products to enterprise standards
When a customer purchases a product from
bakery it is based on 2 reasons:

They like the look of the product; visual
stimulation

They purchased before and want the same
thing again.
If the product is not consistent then the customer
will not be satisfied and will then complain.
Consistency in product manufacture is achieved by
the following:

Correct weighing of Ingredients

Formula balance

Bakery products are consistent when formula
balance is maintained

Scaling weights accurately

Mixing the dough/batter the same every time

Cutting or weighing to correct size

Moulding to correct shape

Baking the same every time.
These are the skills and technique that will return a consistent bakery product every time.
After baking the product might need to be cut again into portions.
Everything must look the same
Then when all is ready for sale then all must be sold the same way.
Either:

By portion, each

By weight, kilogram, gram.
Skills required by the technician: pastrycook/cook/patissier include the following:

can be vigorous combing of butter and sugar to aerate the batter before
adding eggs

is slowly combining ingredients so as to not lose volume or break up
ingredients. This can be done with a spoon or spatula

is using a whisk to aerate; many tynes on a whisk passing through the
cream introduces air into the cream and so aerates the cream

is layering over the product again and again

is done with rolling pin or stick. Roll pastry or dough to make thinner
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
is done to Puff pastry, Danish and Croissants dough. It is layering dough
and fats, rolling and turning. The layered fats in dough causes the dough to split
during baking and it helps to aerates the product leading to more gentle texture and
easier eating

is blending of fat and sugar or just fats to incorporate air to lighten the
texture

is working dough to increase gluten development in bread doughs.
Recipe of good baking

Weigh all ingredients. Do not measure them. What is
the difference?

Weight is measured by scaling ingredients on the
same set of weighing scales

Measuring is done with cups and is by volume. Weigh
is inconsistent each time.
Example

1kg weighs 1kg

200g weighs 200g

1 cup of water measures 250ml, it weighs 250g.
But
1 cup of flour measures 250ml, it weighs 120g – 150g depending on several factors.
Lets deal with the weight difference
Volume measuring by cup is good but the density of each ingredient is different so you
get a different weight from each ingredient.
Water weight is same as volume, 1kg measures 1 litre, 1 litre weighs 1kg.
Dry Ingredients all have a different density so therefore the weight of the same volume is
different. For Example: 1 cup of weighs?
225g
150g
120g
220g
375g
125g
Standard for measure I cup volume: level to top of cup, not packed.
Consistency of results in baking comes with consistent measurements: WEIGH.
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1.6 Bake bakery products to enterprise
requirements and standards
Product characteristics that customers look for come from the following:
when it is finally
removed from the oven is important to the
visual appeal of the product. Colour stimulates
the senses and encourages the customer to
purchase.
is about form and shape. It is
important that all pieces have the same
appearance.
and texture is about how it feels
in the mouth when the customer is consuming
the product.
adds to the shelf life and mouth feel of the product.
and eating properties.
This is achieved by maintaining consistency of production. Nobody is allowed to move
away from the given formula, shape design.
1.7 Select correct oven conditions for baking
bakery product
Bread Baking
Bread is baked in oven at temperatures ranging from 180ºC – 250ºC.
Average baking temperature for bread is 220ºC – 230ºC.
Dryer crust is lower temperature as for pasta dura Italian style bread.
Crisp crust French Style Bread is baked hotter with steam to give crisper crust.
Yeast Goods
Yeast raised doughs contain more sugar than bread. On average more than 5%,
including:

Fruit buns

Scrolls

Cinnamon buns

Danish pastry

Rum babas

Savarins.

Doughnuts.
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Morning Goods

Muffins, American style, Chemical
aeration

Scones, Chemical aeration

Danish pastries, Panary Aeration

Croissants, Panary Aeration.
These are normally consumed in the
morning hours before lunch. Rum Baba and
Savarin would be considered a dessert or
night time treat to finish a meal, or maybe a
high tea item (from 4pm 5pm).
Both yeast goods and morning goods overlap and are all baked in cooler ovens:

180ºC – 200ºC.
This is because they contain sugar. Product baked with sugar will darken on the crust
quicker than bread.
To control the browning of the crust product is baked at lower temperature.
Colour on the outside crust
Colour adds to the appearance.
Too dark and it is burnt:

It will taste bitter.
Under baked it will look pale and uninviting.
A well baked product will have a bold appearance.
Dextrinization: is produced by the action of heat and steam on the starch. The dextrin is
a carbohydrate smaller in size than starch.
This also referred to as the Maillard Reaction after the French chemist, Louis Camille
Maillard (1876 –1936).
The process is a reaction between reducing sugars such as maltose and glucose,
not sucrose, with amino acids present in the dough on the crust of the loaf.
This is responsible for the glaze and bloom on the crust.
How is the glaze produced on a loaf?
The glaze upon the loaf is produced within the first two minutes of baking by the
condensation of the saturated steam on the dough surface.
The hot condensed moisture gelatinises the starch on the dough surface and partly
converts it to dextrin.
After drying out, the dextrin is left as a glaze and caramelisation of sugars in the dough
produces the characteristic crust colour, along with some browning of the proteins in the
dough (Maillard Reaction).
The finished crust colour is determined by the temperature at which the product is baked.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.8 Prepare a variety fillings, coatings/icing and
decorations for bakery products
Introduction
Fillings and coating that might be used to finish or decorate bakery goods.
Crème patisserie
Crème Patisserie is baker’s custard. It is made from a liquid, normally milk, enriched with
eggs and thickened with starch.
It can be flavoured and coloured as required.
Crème patisserie
Ingredients
750ml
Milk
200g
Sugar
100g
Cornflour
420g
Eggs
10ml
Vanilla Essence
250ml
1.730g
Milk
Total weight
Method

Place 750ml milk and sugar into a pot

Heat this almost to the boil

Place sugar and cornflour into bowl and blend together

Add 4 eggs and blend until smooth

Add remainder of the eggs, vanilla essence and milk

Blend until smooth and no lumps

Take the hot milk and pour ½ into the bowl with the cornflour mix

Blend together, pour back into hot milk in pot and return to heat

Bring to the boil, whisking all the time

Whisk until the mixture has boiled

Remove from the heat and place into wide flat tray to cool

Cover with plastic wrap so a skin does not form

When cool place into coolroom

Will keep for up to 3 days.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Fondant
Fondant is boiled sugar that is used to coat or decorate morning goods. It is easy to use
but needs to be tempered correctly to achieve the ‘gloss’ or shine.
Fudge icing
Is a mixture of icing sugar and fat blended together with the addition of some water.
Used to cover cakes, it can be piped and shaped.
Fudge icing
Ingredients
500g
Icing sugar
100g
Butter or white shortening
50ml
Water
Colour as required
650g
Total weight
Method

Sift icing sugar and place into bowl

Add fat, this should be at room temperature, (approximately 20ºC)

Blend until the two ingredients come together

When they have combined whip some air into the mixture to lighten

Slowly add water until extra volume is achieved

There may not be a need to use all the water.
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Ganache
Ganache is a mixture of boiled cream and chocolate. Used to coat cakes like icing or can
be used as a filling.
Ganache
Ingredients
500ml
Cream
1000g
Chocolate
50ml
1.550g
Rum, dark, (optional)
Total weight
Method

Place the chocolate into a stainless steel bowl

Bring the cream to the boil

Pour over the chocolate and allow the chocolate to soften for about 30 seconds

Blend the chocolate and cream together using a whisk

It should come together and have a nice shine

Add the rum or any other flavouring that is preferred.
Some instant coffee blended in small amount of boiling water can be added instead.
Apple filling for Danish
Ingredients
50g
Clear gel, Instant
300g
Sugar
500g
Water
280 g
Apple, diced, canned (1 A10 can)
200g
Sultanas
3850g
Total weight
Method

Blend clear gel and sugar together well

Add water and whisk quickly and thoroughly to form a smooth gel

Fold fruit through gel and mix well

Place into container and keep chilled until needed.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Quark curd cheese filling
Ingredients
600g
40g
1
Curd Cheese
Cornflour
Egg
35g
Sugar
50g
Butter, soft
1
5g
zest of lemon
Salt
20ml
Vanilla Essence
800g
Total weight
Method

Blend all of the ingredients together

Place into container and keep chilled until required

Label and date.
Quark or cottage cheese is used extensively in Danish pastry and yeast goods.
It is versatile and carries flavourings well.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Sour cherry filling
Ingredients
200g
Cherry juice
100g
Sugar
30g
Cornflour
3g
Cinnamon
50g
Cherry juice
175g
Sour Cherries
553g
Total weight
Method

Bring juice to the boil

Blend sugar, cornflour cinnamon together, then add cherry juice

Pour into boiling cherry juice and whisk until it thickens

Remove from the heat and fold in the sour cherries

Place into container and cover

Allow to cool and keep chilled until needed.
Sour cherries are popular in Europe and are used in the classic Black Forest Cake.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Poppyseed filling
Ingredients
75g
Milk
125g
Poppy seeds, crushed
100g
Sugar
40g
Butter
50g
Egg
50g
Marzipan
50g
Cake crumbs
5g
495g
Cinnamon
Total weight
Method

Boil the milk and stir in the poppy seeds

Mix marzipan with butter and eggs

Add remaining ingredients and blend together

Place into a container and cover, chill until required.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer.
You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion
of the project by the date agreed to with your Trainer.
1.1 The student will be required to produce a selection of products agreed to with your
Trainer.
1.2 Students need to produce a work plan.
1.3 Work plan will list all the commodities needed to produce the products listed.
1.4 Equipment needed will also have to be listed.
1.5 Students will highlight any safety requirements that need to be followed when using
the listed equipment.
1.6 A selection of at least six different products must be assessed.
1.7 These products will need to be produced within a nominated timeframe to a specific
timeline.
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Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
Summary
Prepare a variety of bakery products
Select commodities
Product ingredients need to be carefully selected to fit the role required in the formula. Students
will need to understand ingredient function and the effects that their addition into a formula will
have on other ingredients.
Prepare a variety of bakery products
Variety needs to be able to meet the needs of the customer. Product needs to be able to sell.
Product that does not sell is a loss to the enterprise.
Required characteristics
Depending on the product different characteristics are needed:

Thin crisp crust

Hard thick crust

Broken dome

Smooth dome.
Student needs to research product and analyse viewing medium to see what characteristics are
needed for each product.
Enterprise standards
Varies from enterprise to enterprise.
Use correct equipment
Professional grade equipment is required:

Select correct oven conditions

Breads need hot ovens

Muffins need cooler ovens

Skill and attention to detail is required.
Prepare a variety of fillings
Different filling will produce different results.
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Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
Element 2:
Decorate and present/display bakery
products
2.1 Decorate bakery products using coating, icing,
and decorations to according to standard
recipes and/or enterprise standards and/or
customer requests
Decoration of bakery products is varied. It may be as
simple as a sugar syrup glaze to add shine to the
product.
Application of icing in the form of icing sugar:

Dry sweet powder.
Application of Fondant, plain or coloured:

Shiny moist sugar.
Boiled sugar as for Basler leckerli:

Leaves a dry white coating.
Boiled apricot jam on top of Danish:

Adds flavour and sweetness.
Application of roasted and flaked nuts on top of icing or
jam:

Add colour and textural diversity to eating.
Glace fruits might be used in decoration:

Glace cherries are most common, red and green.
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Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
2.2 Present/display bakery products to enterprise
standards using appropriate service
equipment
Presentation of product is dependant on where and how it is to be sold.
From the bakery
Presented on tray laying flat showing filling
if any. The filling will have eye appeal:

Apple Danish should have lots of apple
pieces

Apricots need to be visible

Nut Danish need to see the nuts.
At times they may be stacked to show
abundance but this can cause product on
the bottom to be squashed.
Display in bakery
Most are displayed on trays that contain up to 12 portions. Service is taken from the back
of the tray.
Larger pieces might be presented individually on doyley and cardboard bases.
Doyleys are used extensively in presentation as it is a barrier between the product and
serviceware.
From the restaurant show case or buffet trolley
When purchasing your morning coffee a selection of bakery goods will be displayed for
customer selection.
At the café they will be behind a safety barrier.
In fine dining hotel it can be displayed on a trolley that is wheeled up to the table for the
customer to choose.
This is an old practice and is not used in many places in the modern age.
Serviceware
These are the platters trays and plates that are used to display and serve product in cafes
and dining rooms.
Can also be used in conjunction with doyleys between product and serviceware.
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Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer.
You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion
of the project by the date agreed with your Trainer.
2.1 Make a list of all product produced:

Describe how the products will be decorated.
Now you will need to make a list of all commodities required to decorate the product
as you have described including any consumables that will need to used.
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Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
Summary
Decorate and present/display bakery products
Decorate bakery products

Decoration of bakery products should be simple and easy to implement

The product is not an expensive item so decorations should be kept to a minimum.
Present and display bakery products

Presentation of bakery products should be simple

Present to show of the product at its best.
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Element 3: Store bakery products
Element 3:
Store bakery products
3.1 Store at correct temperature and conditions of
storage
Bakery products tend to be stable at room temperature. No special storage requirements
need to be applied for daily use.
Any product that is to be served after the day of manufacture the product will need to be
covered and protected from outside contamination:

Products with cream filling will need to be kept chilled

Cream patisserie can stand at room temperature for the day but must be discarded
and not.
Most bakery products are sold or used the same day that they are produced.
If they are to be stored at room temperature.
Store at room temperature
Festive product may be stored for a couple of days. Longer storage is best to freeze.
If the baked product does not contain dairy products then it can be stored at room
temperature:

Protected from the environment by being covered.
When food is chilled it can lose essential parts of the flavour.
When storing it is always important to make sure product is labelled and it is stored away
from strong odours like onion or cleaning chemicals.
Freezing
If freezing baked bakery products care must be taken not to squash them when wrapping.
This will cause them to be deformed when thawed out. When freezing be sure to label
with the date of freezing and use the FIFO rule.
Storing in coolroom
Product with dairy ingredients like cream and crème patisserie need to be kept chilled to
stop bacterial activity rising above acceptable limits.
Never store for too long in coolroom:- fresh cream, same day only.
Product degradation will be too great and eating quality diminishes.
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Element 3: Store bakery products
3.2 Maintain maximum eating quality, appearance
and freshness
All bakery products will stale.
Staling is the process where the optimum eating fades.
Staling can be in several forms:

Air passes through the product and dries the product out

Moisture from the air enters the product so it loses some of the eating quality:

Crisp product goes soft.
To maintain the eating quality of bakery items:

Use as soon as possible

Cover to protect from environment

Keep chilled

Keep dry.
Bread – keep in plastic bags to prevent staling. Bread should not be kept in plastic bags
at room temperature too long as mould can grow. Warmth and moisture.
If bread is to be stored for long periods it is best to freeze. Bread stales fastest when in
the coolroom for extended periods. Freezing is best.
Croissants will be considered stale the next day.
When they lose crispness. After baking it is best
to freeze if you wish to store them for any period
of time:

Thawing is quick as they product is light

Thaw best at room temperature.
Danish pastry is best consumed on the day that it
was produced:

Can be stored and re heated at later time, but
eating quality is reduced.
Muffins – American style are best consumed on
the day that they were produced.
Muffins – English style are like bread.
Any Yeast product is best consumed on the day
that it was produced.
Gingerbreads – can be stored for periods if they
are protected from the moisture in the air.
It make the product go soft.
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Element 3: Store bakery products
Work Projects
It is a requirement of this Unit you complete Work Projects as advised by your Trainer.
You must submit documentation, suitable evidence or other relevant proof of completion
of the project by the date agreed with your Trainer.
3.1 Write a report that will outline your requirements for the proper storage of the
finished product while it is being held prior to sale to the consumers:

The report should include any enterprise standards that need to be adhered

Any food safety requirements needing to be met.
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Element 3: Store bakery products
Summary
Store bakery products
Store at correct temperature and conditions of storage
Bakery products store best at room temperature. If they need to be stored for long term then they
are best frozen.
When storing they need to be protected from outside contamination.
Cakes containing fresh dairy products like cream need to be kept in controlled environment, chilled.
Maintain maximum eating quality, appearance and freshness
Bake fresh everyday is the best way to maintain freshness.
Bakery products have a very short shelf-life, 1 – 2 days.
Stollens and gingerbreads may last several months due to the density of the product and the
amount of sugar and moisture contain inside.
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Presentation of written work
Presentation of written work
1. Introduction
It is important for students to present carefully prepared written work. Written presentation
in industry must be professional in appearance and accurate in content. If students
develop good writing skills whilst studying, they are able to easily transfer those skills to
the workplace.
2. Style
Students should write in a style that is simple and concise. Short sentences
and paragraphs are easier to read and understand. It helps to write a plan
and at least one draft of the written work so that the final product will be well
organized. The points presented will then follow a logical sequence and be
relevant. Students should frequently refer to the question asked, to keep ‘on
track’. Teachers recognize and are critical of work that does not answer the
question, or is ‘padded’ with irrelevant material. In summary, remember to:

Plan ahead

Be clear and concise

Answer the question

Proofread the final draft.
3. Presenting Written Work
Types of written work
Students may be asked to write:

Short and long reports

Essays

Records of interviews

Questionnaires

Business letters

Resumes.
Format
All written work should be presented on A4 paper, single-sided with a left-hand margin. If
work is word-processed, one-and-a-half or double spacing should be used. Handwritten
work must be legible and should also be well spaced to allow for ease of reading. New
paragraphs should not be indented but should be separated by a space. Pages must be
numbered. If headings are also to be numbered, students should use a logical and
sequential system of numbering.
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Presentation of written work
Cover Sheet
All written work should be submitted with a cover sheet stapled to the front that contains:

The student’s name and student number

The name of the class/unit

The due date of the work

The title of the work

The teacher’s name

A signed declaration that the work does not involve plagiarism.
Keeping a Copy
Students must keep a copy of the written work in case it is lost. This rarely happens but it
can be disastrous if a copy has not been kept.
Inclusive language
This means language that includes every section of the population. For instance, if a
student were to write ‘A nurse is responsible for the patients in her care at all times’ it
would be implying that all nurses are female and would be excluding male nurses.
Examples of appropriate language are shown on the right:
Mankind
Humankind
Barman/maid
Bar attendant
Host/hostess
Host
Waiter/waitress
Waiter or waiting staff
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Recommended reading
Recommended reading
Bailey, Adrian & Ortiz, Elisabeth Lambert; 2003; The book of ingredients, Michael Joseph
Bertinet, Richard; 2013;Pastry; Chronicle Books
Curly, William; 2014; Patisserie: A Masterclass in Classic and Contemporary Patisserie;
Jacqui Small LLP
Delorme, Hubert; 2013;Fine French Desserts: Essential Recipes and Techniques;
Flammarion
Felder, Christophe; 2013; Patisserie: Mastering the Fundamentals of French Pastry;
Rizzoli
Figoni, Paula; 2004; How baking works: Exploring the fundamentals of baking science;
John Wiley and Sons Inc
Hamelman, Jeffrey; 2012; Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes; Wiley
th
Igoe, Robert S; 2011 (5 edition); Dictionary of food ingredients; Springer
Keller, Thomas; 2012; Bouchon Bakery; Artisan
Mitchell, Karen; 2013; The Model Bakery Cookbook; Chronicle Books
Pfeiffer, Jacquy; 2013; The Art of French Pastry; Knopf
Peterson, James; 2009; Baking; Ten Speed Press
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Recommended reading
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Trainee evaluation sheet
Trainee evaluation sheet
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
The following statements are about the competency you have just completed.
Please tick the appropriate box
Agree
Don’t
Know
Do Not
Agree
Does Not
Apply
There was too much in this competency to cover
without rushing.
Most of the competency seemed relevant to me.
The competency was at the right level for me.
I got enough help from my trainer.
The amount of activities was sufficient.
The competency allowed me to use my own
initiative.
My training was well-organized.
My trainer had time to answer my questions.
I understood how I was going to be assessed.
I was given enough time to practice.
My trainer feedback was useful.
Enough equipment was available and it worked
well.
The activities were too hard for me.
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Trainee evaluation sheet
The best things about this unit were:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
The worst things about this unit were:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
The things you should change in this unit are:
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
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Trainee Self-Assessment Checklist
Trainee Self-Assessment Checklist
As an indicator to your Trainer/Assessor of your readiness for assessment in this unit
please complete the following and hand to your Trainer/Assessor.
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
Yes
No*
Element 1: Prepare a variety of bakery products
1.1
Select required commodities according to establishment type/style,
recipe and production requirements
1.2
Prepare a variety of bakery products to desired product characteristics
1.3
Produce a variety of bakery products according to standard recipes and
enterprise standards
1.4
Use appropriate equipment to prepare and bake bakery products
1.5
Use correct techniques to produce bakery products to enterprise
standards
1.6
Bake bakery products to enterprise requirements and standards
1.7
Select correct oven conditions for baking bakery product
1.8
Prepare a variety fillings, coatings/icing and decorations for bakery
products
Element 2: Decorate and present/display bakery products
2.1
Decorate bakery products using coating, icing, and decorations to
according to standard recipes and/or enterprise standards and/or
customer requests
2.2
Present/display bakery products to enterprise standards using
appropriate service equipment
Element 3: Store bakery products
3.1
Store at correct temperature and conditions of storage
3.2
Maintain maximum eating quality, appearance and freshness
© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
81
Trainee Self-Assessment Checklist
Statement by Trainee:
I believe I am ready to be assessed on the following as indicated above:
Signed:
_____________________________
Date:
______ / ______ / ______
Note:
For all boxes where a No* is ticked, please provide details of the extra steps or work you
need to do to become ready for assessment.
82
© ASEAN 2013
Trainee Manual
Prepare bakery products for patisserie
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