Using Adobe® Illustrator® CS4
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Tool galleries
Illustrator provides many tools for creating and manipulating your artwork. These galleries provide a quick visual
overview for each tool.
Selection tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following selection tools:
The Selection tool (V) selects
entire objects.
The Direct Selection tool (A)
selects points or path
segments within objects.
The Lasso tool (Q) selects
points or path segments
within objects.
The Artboard tool creates
separate artboards for
printing or export.
See also
“Keys for selecting” on page 467
Drawing tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following drawing tools:
The Group Selection tool
selects objects and groups
within groups.
The Magic Wand tool (Y)
selects objects with similar
attributes.
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The Pen tool (P) draws
straight and curved lines to
create objects.
The Add Anchor Point tool
(+) adds anchor points to
paths.
The Delete Anchor Point tool
(-) deletes anchor points
from paths.
The Convert Anchor Point
tool (Shift+C) changes
smooth points to corner
points and vice versa.
The Line Segment tool (\)
draws individual straight
line segments.
The Arc tool draws
individual concave or convex
curve segments.
The Spiral tool draws
clockwise and
counterclockwise spirals.
The Rectangular Grid tool
draws rectangular grids.
The Polar Grid tool draws
circular chart grids.
The Rectangle tool (M)
draws squares and
rectangles.
The Rounded Rectangle tool
draws squares and rectangles
with rounded corners.
The Ellipse tool (L) draws
circles and ovals.
The Polygon tool draws
regular, multi-sided shapes.
The Star tool draws stars.
The Flare tool creates lensflare or solar-flare-like
effects.
The Pencil tool (N) draws
and edits freehand lines.
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The Smooth tool smooths
Bezier paths.
The Path Eraser tool erases
paths and anchor points
from the object.
Type tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following type tools:
The Type tool (T) creates
individual type and type
containers and lets you enter
and edit type.
The Area Type tool changes
closed paths to type
containers and lets you enter
and edit type within them.
The Vertical Area Type tool
changes closed paths to
vertical type containers and
lets you enter and edit type
within them.
The Vertical Type On A Path
tool changes paths to vertical
type paths and lets you enter
and edit type on them.
Painting tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following painting tools:
The Type On A Path tool
changes paths to type paths,
and lets you enter and edit
type on them.
The Vertical Type tool
creates vertical type and
vertical type containers and
lets you enter and edit
vertical type.
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The Paintbrush tool (B)
draws freehand and
calligraphic lines, as well as
art and patterns on paths.
The Mesh tool (U) creates
and edits meshes and mesh
envelopes.
The Gradient tool (G)
adjusts the beginning and
ending points and angle of
gradients within objects, or
applies a gradient to objects.
The Eyedropper tool (I)
samples and applies color,
type, and appearance
attributes, including effects,
from objects.
The Live Paint Bucket tool
(K) paints faces and edges of
Live Paint groups with the
current paint attributes.
The Live Paint Selection
(Shift-L)tool selects faces
and edges within Live Paint
groups.
The Measure tool measures
the distance between two
points.
The Blob Brush tool (ShiftB)draws paths that
automatically expand and
merge calligraphic brush
paths that share the same
color and are adjacent in
stacking order.
Reshaping tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following tools for reshaping objects:
The Rotate tool (R) rotates
objects around a fixed point.
The Reflect tool (O) flips
objects over a fixed axis.
The Scale tool (S) resizes
objects around a fixed point.
The Shear tool skews objects
around a fixed point.
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The Reshape tool adjusts
selected anchor points while
keeping the overall detail of
the path intact.
The Free Transform tool (E)
scales, rotates, or skews a
selection.
The Blend tool (W) creates a
series of objects blended
between the color and shape
of multiple objects.
The Warp tool (Shift+R)
molds objects with the
movement of the cursor (like
molding clay, for example).
The Twirl tool creates
swirling distortions within
an object.
The Pucker tool deflates an
object by moving control
points towards the cursor.
The Scallop tool adds
random curved details to the
outline of an object.
The Crystallize tool adds
random spiked details to the
outline of an object.
The Wrinkle tool adds
wrinkle-like details to the
outline of an object.
The Bloat tool inflates an
object by moving control
points away from the cursor.
Symbolism tool gallery
The symbolism tools let you create and modify sets of symbol instances. You create a symbol set using the Symbol
Sprayer tool. You can then use the other symbolism tools to change the density, color, location, size, rotation,
transparency, and style of the instances in the set.
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The Symbol Sprayer tool
(Shift+S) places multiple
symbol instances as a set on
the artboard.
The Symbol Shifter tool
moves symbol instances
The Symbol Scruncher tool
moves symbol instances
closer together or farther
apart.
The Symbol Sizer tool resizes
symbol instances.
The Symbol Spinner tool
rotates symbol instances.
The Symbol Stainer tool
colorizes symbol instances.
The Symbol Screener tool
applies opacity to symbol
instances.
The Symbol Styler tool
applies the selected style to
symbol instances.
Graph tool gallery
Illustrator provides nine graph tools, each one for creating a different type of graph. The type of graph you choose
depends on the information you want to communicate.
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The Column Graph tool (J)
creates graphs that compare
values using vertical
columns.
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B
The Stacked Column Graph
tool creates graphs that are
similar to column graphs,
but stacks the columns on
top of one another, instead of
side by side. This graph type
is useful for showing the
relationship of parts to the
total.
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The Bar Graph tool creates
graphs that are similar to
column graphs, but positions
the bars horizontally instead
of vertically.
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The Stacked Bar Graph tool
creates graphs that are
similar to stacked column
graphs, but stacks the bars
horizontally instead of
vertically.
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The Line Graph tool creates
graphs that use points to
represent one or more sets of
values, with a different line
joining the points in each set.
This type of graph is often
used to show the trend of one
or more subjects over a
period of time.
10 20 30 40 50
The Area Graph tool creates
graphs that are similar to
line graphs, but emphasizes
totals as well as changes in
values.
The Scatter Graph tool
creates graphs that plot data
points as paired sets of
coordinates along the x and y
axes. Scatter graphs are
useful for identifying
patterns or trends in data.
They also can indicate
whether variables affect one
another.
The Pie Graph tool creates
circular graphs whose
wedges represent the relative
percentages of the values
compared.
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The Radar Graph tool
creates graphs that compare
sets of values at given points
in time or in particular
categories, and is displayed
in a circular format. This
type of graph is also called a
web graph.
Slicing and cutting tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following tools for slicing and cutting objects:
The Slice tool divides
artwork into separate web
images.
The Slice Selection tool
(Shift-K) selects web slices.
The Eraser tool (Shift-E)
erases any area of the object
over which you drag.
The Scissors tool (C) cuts
paths at specified points.
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The Knife tool cuts objects
and paths.
Moving and zooming tool gallery
Illustrator provides the following tools for moving around in and controlling the view of the artboard:
The Hand tool (H) moves the
Illustrator artboard within
the illustration window.
The Print Tiling tool adjusts
the page grid to control
where artwork appears on
the printed page.
The Zoom tool (Z) increases
and decreases the view
magnification in the
illustration window.
Files and templates
About new document profiles
A document is the space in which you create artwork. In Illustrator, you can create documents destined for many
different types of output. (For information on creating Illustrator documents for video production, see the Enhancing
Video Production PDF at www.adobe.com/go/learn_ai_video.
You start a new document by choosing a new document profile based on your intended output. Each profile includes
preset values for size, color mode, units, orientation, transparency, and resolution. All use one artboard, by default. For
example, the Video And Film Document profile uses pixels instead of points, and you can choose a device-specific crop
area, such as NTSC DV Widescreen, to create a document in the exact dimensions required, with video-safe guides in
place to help you lay out your design for optimal viewing.
If you plan to output your file to a high-end printer, for example if you’re sending it to a service bureau, specify the
Print profile to ensure your artwork and any effects applied to the artwork are set to the proper resolution.
You can choose from the following profiles:
Print Document Uses a default letter size artboard, and provides a variety of other preset print sizes to choose from.
Use this profile if you plan to send this file to a service bureau for output to a high-end printer.
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Web Document Provides preset options optimized for output to the web.
Mobile And Devices Document Creates a small file size that is preset for a specific mobile device. You can choose your
device from the Size menu. Click Device Central to open Adobe Device Central and view the document layout in a
specified device interface.
Video And Film Document Provides several preset video- and film-specific crop area sizes (note that the Artboard
option changes to Crop Size for this profile). Illustrator creates only square pixel files, so to ensure that the sizes are
interpreted correctly in video applications, Illustrator adjusts the Width and Height values. For example, if you choose
NTSC DV Standard, Illustrator uses a pixel size of 654 x 480, which translates to 740 x 480 pixels in video-based
applications.
Basic CMYK Document Uses a default letter size artboard, and provides a variety of other sizes to choose from. Use this
profile if you plan to send a document to multiple types of media. If one of the media types is a service bureau, you’ll
want to manually increase the Raster Effects setting to High.
Basic RGB Document Uses a default 800 x 600 size artboard, and provides a variety of other print-, video-, and web-
specific sizes to choose from. Do not use this option if you plan to send a document to a service bureau or output to a
high-end printer. Use this profile for documents that will be output to mid-level printers, to the web, or multiple types
of media.
For a video on setting up new documents, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0031.
See also
New document video
Video production
Create new documents
You can create new Illustrator documents from a new document profile or from a template. Creating a document from
a new document profile gives you a blank document with the selected profile’s default fill and stroke colors, graphic
styles, brushes, symbols, actions, viewing preferences, and other settings. Creating a document from a template gives
you a document with preset design elements and settings, as well as content, such as cropmarks and guides, for specific
document types, such as brochures or CD covers.
You create a new document from the Welcome screen, or by using File > New or File > Device Central (for mobile
device output). The Welcome screen appears whenever a document is not currently open.
For a video on setting up new documents, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0031.
See also
“About new document profiles” on page 30
“About templates” on page 33
“About transparency” on page 177
“Using Adobe Device Central with Illustrator” on page 372
Create a new document
You can start a new document from the Welcome screen or from the File menu.
1 Do one of the following:
• If Illustrator is already open, choose File > New and choose a New Document Profile in the New Document menu.
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• If the Welcome screen is open, click a document profile from the Create New list.
• If Illustrator is not open, open it and click a document profile from the Create New list in the Welcome screen.
Note: In the Welcome screen, you can Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) to open the new document directly
and skip the New Document dialog box.
2 Type a name for your document.
3 Specify the number of artboards for your document, and the order you’d like them laid out on screen:
Grid By Row Arranges multiple artboards in the specified number of rows. Choose the number of rows from the Rows
menu. The default value creates the most square appearance possible with the specified number of artboards.
Grid By Column Arranges multiple artboards in the specified number of columns. Choose the number of columns
from the Columns menu. The default value creates the most square appearance possible with the specified number of
artboards.
Arrange By Row Arranges artboards in one straight row.
Arrange By Column Arranges artboards in one straight column.
Change To Right-To-Left Layout Arranges multiple artboards in the specified row or column format, but displays
them from right to left.
4 Specify the default spacing between artboards. This setting applies to both horizontal and vertical spacing.
5 Specify the default size, units of measure, and layout for all artboards.
Note: Once your document opens, you can customize your artboards by moving and resizing them as desired.
6 Specify the position of the bleed along each side of the artboard. To use different values for different sides, click the
Lock icon
.
7 Click Advanced to specify the following additional options:
Note: You can change these settings after you create the document by choosing File > Document Setup and specifying new
settings.
Color Mode Specifies the color mode for the new document. Changing the color mode converts the default contents
(swatches, brushes, symbols, graphic styles) of the selected new document profile to a new color mode, resulting in a
color change. Watch for a warning icon when making changes.
Raster Effects Specifies the resolution for raster effects in the document. It is especially important to set this at High
when you plan to output to a high-end printer at high resolution. The Print profile sets this at High by default.
Transparency Grid Specifies the options for the transparency grid for documents that use the Video And Film profile.
Preview Mode Sets the default preview mode for the document (you can change this at any time by using the View
menu):
• Default displays artwork created in the document in vector view with full color. Zoom in/out retains smoothness
in the curves.
• Pixel displays artwork with a rasterized (pixilated) appearance. It does not actually rasterize the content, but
displays a simulated preview, as if the contents were rasters.
• Overprint provides an “ink preview” that approximates how blending, transparency, and overprinting will appear
in color-separated output. (See “About overprinting” on page 428.)
Device Central If you’ve created a document using the Mobile and Devices profile, you can click Device Central to
preview your new document in the mobile device interface.
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Create a new document from a template
1 Do one of the following:
• Choose File > New From Template.
• Choose File > New. In the New Document dialog box, click Templates.
• In the Welcome screen, click From Template in the Create New list.
2 In the New From Template dialog box, locate and select a template, and click New.
About templates
Templates let you create new documents that share common settings and design elements. For example, if you need to
design a series of business cards with a similar look and feel, you can create a template with the desired artboard size,
view settings (such as guides), and print options. The template can also contain symbols for common design elements
(such as logos) and specific sets of color swatches, brushes, and graphic styles.
Illustrator comes with a variety of templates, including templates for letterhead, business cards, envelopes, brochures,
labels, certificates, postcards, greeting cards, and websites.
When a template is selected via the New From Template command, Illustrator creates a new document with identical
content and document settings as the template, but leaves the original template file untouched.
See also
“Create new documents” on page 31
Create a new template
1 Open a new or existing document.
2 Customize the document in any of the following ways:
• Set up the document window as you want it to appear in new documents you create from the template. This
includes the magnification level, scroll position, ruler origin, guides, grids, crop areas, and options in the View
menu.
• Draw or import any artwork you want to appear in new documents you create from the template.
• Delete any existing swatches, styles, brushes, or symbols, you don’t want to retain.
• Create any new swatches, styles, brushes, and symbols, you want in the corresponding panels. You can also import
preset swatches, styles, brushes, symbols, and actions from a variety of libraries that come with Illustrator.
• Create any graph designs you want and add them to the Graph Design dialog box. You can also import preset graph
designs.
• Set the desired options in the Document Setup dialog box and Print Options dialog box.
3 Choose File > Save As Template.
4 In the Save As dialog box, select a location for the file, enter a filename, and click Save.
Illustrator saves the file in AIT (Adobe Illustrator Template) format.
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Specify document setup options
At any point you can change your document’s default setup options for units of measure, transparency grid display,
background color, and type settings such as language, quote style, superscript and subscript size, and exportability. The
Edit Artboards button closes this dialog box and activates the Artboard tool. Use this button if you want to modify
your artboards.
1 Choose File > Document Setup or click the Document Setup button in the Control panel (this button is visible when
nothing is selected).
2 Specify options as desired.
Note: The Simulate Colored Paper option is useful if you plan to print the document on colored paper. For example, if
you draw a blue object on a yellow background, the object appears green. The simulation is performed only when the
transparency grid is not shown.
For specific information on these options, see related topics.
See also
“Change the unit of measurement” on page 47
“View transparency in artwork” on page 177
“Specify curly or straight quotes” on page 314
“Creating superscripts or subscripts” on page 315
Open a file
You can open files that were created in Illustrator as well as files that were created in other applications.
• To open an existing file, choose File > Open. Locate the file, and click Open.
• To open a recently saved file, choose the file from the Open A Recent Item list in the Welcome screen, or choose
File > Open Recent Files, and choose a file from the list.
• To open and preview a file using Adobe Bridge, choose File > Browse In Bridge to open Adobe Bridge. Locate the
file and choose File > Open With > Adobe Illustrator CS4.
See also
“Adobe Version Cue” on page 35
“Importing Adobe PDF files” on page 263
“Importing EPS files” on page 264
“Importing artwork from Photoshop” on page 266
Browse for files using Adobe Bridge
Adobe® Bridge is a cross-platform application included with Adobe® Creative Suite® 4 components that helps you
locate, organize, and browse the assets you need to create print, web, video, and audio content. You can start Bridge
from any Creative Suite component, and use it to access both Adobe and non-Adobe asset types.
❖ To open Adobe Bridge, do one of the following from within Illustrator:
• Choose File > Browse In Bridge.
• Click the Adobe Bridge icon
in the Control panel.
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Chapter 7: Selecting and arranging objects
Organizing and laying out your artwork in Adobe Illustrator is made easy with tools that enable you to select, position,
and stack objects precisely. Tools are available that let you measure and align objects; group objects so that they are
treated as a single unit; and selectively isolate, lock, or hide objects.
Selecting objects
Options for selecting objects
Before you can modify an object, you need to distinguish it from the objects around it. You do that by selecting the
object. Once you’ve selected an object, or a part of an object, you can edit it.
Illustrator provides the following selection methods and tools:
Isolation mode Lets you quickly isolate a layer, sublayer, path, or group of objects, from all other art in your document.
When in isolation mode, all nonisolated objects in the document appear dimmed and are not selectable or editable.
Layers panel Lets you quickly and precisely select individual or multiple objects. You can select a single object (even
if it’s in a group), all objects within a layer, and entire groups.
Lets you select objects and groups by clicking or dragging over them. You can also select groups
within groups and objects within groups.
Selection tool
Lets you select individual anchor points or path segments by clicking on them, or select an
entire path or group by selecting any other spot on the item. You can also select one or more objects in a group of
objects.
Direct Selection tool
Note: When in outline mode, the Direct Selection tool may select imported graphics that are near the tool’s pointer. To
avoid selecting unwanted graphics, lock or hide the graphics before making the selection.
Lets you select an object within a group, a single group within multiple groups, or a set of
groups within the artwork. Each additional click adds all objects from the next group in the hierarchy.
Group Selection tool
Lasso tool
Lets you select objects, anchor points, or path segments by dragging around all or part of the object.
Magic Wand tool
Lets you select objects of the same color, stroke weight, stroke color, opacity, or blending mode
by clicking the object.
Lets you select faces (areas enclosed by paths) and edges (portions of paths between
intersections) of Live Paint groups.
Live Paint Selection tool
Selection commands (located in the Select menu) Let you quickly select or deselect all objects, and select objects based
on their position relative to other objects. You can select all objects of a specific type or that share specific attributes,
and save or load selections. You can also select all objects in the active artboard.
To temporarily activate the last-used selection tool (Selection tool, Direct-Selection tool, or Group Selection tool) when
using another type of tool, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS).
For a video on selecting and manipulating objects, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0034.
See also
“Select paths, segments, and anchor points” on page 67
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Specify selection preferences
Selecting paths and points in complex images can be challenging. Using the Selection and Anchor Display preferences,
you can specify the tolerance for pixel selection and choose other options that can make selection easier for a particular
document.
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Selection & Anchor Display (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Selection &
Anchor Display (Mac OS).
2 Specify any of the following Selection options:
Tolerance Specifies the pixel range for selecting anchor points. Higher values increase the width of the area around
an anchor point that you can click to select it.
Object Selection By Path Only Specifies whether you can select a filled object by clicking anywhere in the object or
whether you have to click a path.
Snap To Point Snaps objects to anchor points and guides. Specify the distance between the object and anchor point
or guide when the snap occurs.
See also
“Select filled objects” on page 202
“Specify anchor point size preferences” on page 56
Isolate artwork for editing
Isolation mode isolates objects so that you can easily select and edit particular objects or parts of objects. You can
isolate any of the following: layers, sublayers, groups, symbols, clipping masks, compound paths, gradient meshes,
paths, and brushes (for editing brush definitions).
In Isolation mode, you can delete, replace, and add new art relative to the isolated art. As soon as you exit isolation
mode, replaced or new art is added at the same location as the original isolated art. Isolation mode automatically locks
all other objects so that only the objects in isolation mode are affected by the edits you make— you don’t need to worry
about what layer an object is on, nor do you need to manually lock or hide the objects you don’t want affected by your
edits.
Note: When you edit a symbol’s definition, the symbol appears in isolation mode. (See “Edit or redefine a symbol” on
page 86.)
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Isolating the pear group.
When isolation mode is active, the isolated object appears in full color, while the rest of the artwork appears dimmed.
The isolated object’s name and location (sometimes referred to as bread crumbs) appears in the isolation mode border,
and the Layers panel displays only the artwork in the isolated sublayer or group. When you exit isolation mode, the
other layers and groups reappear in the Layers panel.
You can view isolated objects in outline mode or preview mode.
For a video on using layers and isolation mode, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0041.
Isolate a path, object, or group
❖ Do one of the following:
• Double-click the path or group using the Selection tool.
• Select the group, object, or path and click the Isolate Selected Object button
in the Control panel.
• Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) the group and choose Isolate Selected Group.
• Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) the path and choose Isolate Selected Path.
• Select the group, object, or path in the Layers panel and choose Enter Isolation Mode from the Layers panel
menu or click the Isolate Selected Object button in the Control panel.
Isolate a path inside a group
1 Select the path by using the Direct-Selection tool or by targeting it in the Layers panel.
2 Click the Isolate Selected Object button
in the Control panel.
Isolate a layer or sublayer
❖ Select the layer or sublayer in the Layers panel, and choose Enter Isolation Mode from the Layers panel menu.
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Exit isolation mode
❖ Do one of the following:
• Press Esc.
• Click the Exit Isolation Mode button
one or more times (if you’ve isolated a sublayer, one click takes you
back a level, two clicks exits isolation mode).
• Click anywhere in the isolation mode bar.
• Click the Exit Isolation Mode button
in the Control panel.
• Using the Selection tool, double-click outside of the isolated group.
• Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) and choose Exit Isolation Mode.
Select objects using the Layers panel
1 In the Layers panel, locate the object you want to select. You may have to click a toggle arrow to expand a layer or
group, or scroll up or down in the panel to locate the object.
2 Do any of the following:
• To select individual objects, click in the object’s selection column (between the target button and the scroll bar).
Shift-click to add or to remove objects from the selection.
• To select all artwork in a layer or group, click in the layer’s or group’s selection column.
• To select all artwork in a layer based on the currently selected artwork, choose Select > Object > All On Same
Layers.
Selection color boxes appear next to each selected item in the panel.
For a video on working with layers, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0041.
See also
“Layers panel overview” on page 215
Select objects with the Selection tool
1 Select the Selection tool
.
2 Do either of the following:
• Click an object.
• Drag a marquee around part or all of one or more objects.
3 To add or remove objects from the selection, hold down Shift and click or drag around the objects you want to add
or remove.
Dragging over objects to select them
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When the Selection tool is over an unselected object or group, it changes to . When it is over a selected object or
group, the tool changes to . When it is over an anchor point on an unselected object, a hollow square appears
next to the arrow
.
For a video on selecting objects, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0034.
See also
“Keys for selecting” on page 467
Select objects with the Lasso tool
1 Select the Lasso tool
.
2 Drag around or across the objects.
Select objects with the Magic Wand tool
Use the Magic Wand tool to select all objects in a document with the same or similar fill attributes (such as color and
pattern).
You can customize the Magic Wand tool to select objects based on stroke weight, stroke color, opacity, or blending
mode. You can also change the tolerances used by the Magic Wand tool to identify similar objects.
See also
“Workspace overview” on page 10
Select objects based on fill color with the Magic Wand tool
1 Select the Magic Wand tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• To create a new selection, click the object containing the attributes you want to select. All objects with the same
attributes that were clicked are selected.
• To add to the current selection, press Shift and click another object containing the attributes you want to add.
All objects with the same attributes that were clicked are also selected.
• To subtract from the current selection, press Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) and click the object containing
the attributes you want to subtract. All objects with the same attributes are removed from the selection.
Customize the Magic Wand tool
1 Do one of the following to open the Magic Wand panel:
• Double-click the Magic Wand tool in the Tools panel.
• Choose Window > Magic Wand.
2 To select objects according to their fill color, select Fill Color, and then enter a Tolerance value between 0 and 255
pixels for RGB or 0 and 100 pixels for CMYK.
Low tolerance values select objects that are very similar to the object you click; higher tolerance values select objects
with a broader range of the selected property.
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Selecting and arranging objects
3 Choose Show Stroke Options from the Magic Wand panel menu, and do any of the following:
• To select objects according to their stroke color, select Stroke Color, and then enter a Tolerance value between
0 and 255 pixels for RGB or 0 and 100 pixels for CMYK.
• To select objects according to their stroke weight, select Stroke Weight, and then enter a Tolerance value
between 0 and 1000 points.
4 Choose Show Transparency Options from the Magic Wand panel menu and do any of the following:
• To select objects according to their transparency or blending mode, select Opacity, and then enter a Tolerance
value between 0 and 100%.
• To select objects according to their blending mode, select Blending Mode.
Select filled objects
The Object Selection By Path Only preference determines whether you can select a filled object by clicking anywhere
within the object’s area with the Selection or Direct Selection tools, or whether you must click a path segment or anchor
point with these tools. By default, this preference is off. In some cases, you may want to turn the preference on—for
example, when you work with overlapping filled objects and you want to easily select underlying objects.
Note: The Object Selection By Path Only preference is not applicable when selecting unfilled objects or when viewing
artwork as outlines. In these cases, you can never select an object by clicking inside the object’s path. (See “View artwork
as outlines” on page 44.)
With Object Selection By Path Only deselected, clicking inside the object and dragging selects and moves an object.
With Object Selection By Path Only selected, dragging with the Direct Selection tool selects points and segments within a marquee.
❖ Choose Edit > Preferences > Selection & Anchor Display (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Selection &
Anchor Display (Mac OS), and select Object Selection By Path Only.
Select groups and objects in a group
Once objects are grouped, selecting any part of the group with the Selection tool or the Lasso tool selects the entire
group. If you are unsure whether an object is a part of a group, select it with the Selection tool.
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Selecting and arranging objects
The Direct-Selection tool and Lasso tool let you select a single path or object that is part of one group or several groups.
If you have groups of objects within other groups, you can select the next group in the grouping hierarchy by using the
Group-Selection tool. Each successive click adds another subset of grouped objects to the selection.
See also
“Group or ungroup objects” on page 206
Select one or more groups with the Selection tool
1 Select the Selection tool
.
2 Do one of the following to any object that’s within the group:
• Click the object.
• Drag around part or all of the object.
3 To add or remove a group to the selection, hold down Shift while clicking the group to add or remove.
Select objects and groups within groups with the Selection tool
1 Select the Selection tool
.
2 Double-click a group. The group appears in isolation mode.
3 Do any of the following:
• Double-click to select further down into the group structure.
Double-clicking is a handy way to select objects (as opposed to faces and edges) within a Live Paint group.
• Click to select an object within the selected group.
• Draw to add an object to the selected group.
4 Double-click outside the group to deselect the group.
Select a single object within a group
1 Do one of the following:
• Select the Group Selection tool
• Select the Lasso tool
, and click the object.
, and drag around or across the object’s path.
• Select the Direct Selection tool
, and click within the object, or drag a marquee around part or all of the object’s path.
2 To add or remove an object or group to or from the selection (with any selection tool), hold down Shift and select
the object to add or remove.
Select objects and groups with the Group Selection tool
1 Select the Group Selection tool
, and click an object that’s within the group you want to select. The object is
selected.
2 To select the object’s parent group, click the same object again.
3 Click the same object again to select additional groups that are grouped with the selected group until you have
selected everything you want to include in your selection.
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Selecting and arranging objects
The first click with the Group Selection tool selects an object in a group (left); the second click selects the object’s group (right).
The third click adds the next group to the selection (left); the fourth click adds the third group (right).
Select faces and edges in a Live Paint group
You select faces and edges of a Live Paint tool using the Live Paint Selection tool. If you want to select the entire Live
Paint group, simply click it with the Selection tool.
1 Select the Live Paint Selection tool
.
2 Move the tool over the Live Paint group until the face or edge you want to select is highlighted. (When the Live
Paint Selection tool is over an edge, the tool changes to
.)
3 Do any of the following:
• Click to select the highlighted face or edge.
• Drag a marquee around multiple faces or edges. Any face or edge that is fully or partially enclosed by the
marquee is included in the selection.
• Double-click a face or edge to select all connected faces/edges of the same color (flood select).
• Triple-click a face or edge to select all faces/edges of the same color (select same).
If you have difficulty selecting a small face or edge, magnify the view or set the Live Paint Selection tool options
to select only fills or strokes.
4 To add or remove faces and edges from the selection, hold down Shift and click the faces/edges you want to add or
remove.
To switch to the Eyedropper tool and sample fills and strokes, Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the
fill and stroke you want.
See also
“About Live Paint” on page 161
“Keys for working with Live Paint groups” on page 469
224
Chapter 8: Reshaping objects
You can easily modify an object’s size or shape in Adobe Illustrator by using tools and commands, or by applying
effects and masks. You can also easily create 3D objects.
Transforming objects
Transforming
Transforming encompasses moving, rotating, reflecting, scaling, and shearing objects. You can transform objects using
the Transform panel, Object > Transform commands, and specialized tools. You can also perform many types of
transformations by dragging the bounding box for a selection.
Sometimes you may want to repeat the same transformation several times, especially when you are copying objects.
The Transform Again command in the Object menu lets you repeat a move, scale, rotate, reflect, or shear operation as
many times as you want, until you perform a different transform operation.
Use the Info panel to view the current dimensions and position of your selection as you transform it.
For a video on scaling, skewing, and rotating objects, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0040.
See also
“Transform panel overview” on page 224
“Scale objects” on page 226
“Shear objects” on page 228
“Move objects” on page 207
“Rotate objects” on page 211
“Reflect or flip objects” on page 213
Transform panel overview
The Transform panel (Window > Transform) displays information about the location, size, and orientation of one or
more selected objects. By typing new values, you can modify the selected objects, their pattern fills, or both. You can
also change the transformation reference point and lock the object’s proportions.
All values in the panel refer to the bounding boxes of the objects except for the X and Y values, which refer to the
selected reference point.
Note: The reference point locator in the Transform panel specifies an object’s reference point only when you transform
the object by changing the values in the panel. Other methods of transforming (such as using the Scale tool) use the object’s
center point or the pointer location as the reference point.
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Reshaping objects
A
B
C
Transform panel
A. Reference point locator B. Panel menu C. Lock proportions icon
Transform an object’s patterns
When you move, rotate, reflect (flip), scale, or shear an object that is filled with a pattern, you can transform just the
object, just the pattern, or both the object and pattern. Once you transform an object’s fill pattern, all patterns that you
subsequently apply to that object are transformed the same way.
• To specify how you want to transform patterns when using the Transform panel, select an option from the panel
menu: Transform Object Only, Transform Pattern Only, or Transform Both.
• To specify how you want to transform patterns when using a transform command, set the Objects and Patterns
options in the corresponding dialog box. For example, select Patterns and deselect Objects if you want to transform
the pattern but not the object.
• To transform patterns but not objects when using a transform tool, hold down the tilde key (~) while dragging. The
borders of the object appear to be transformed, but when you release the mouse button, the borders snap back to
their original configuration, leaving only the pattern transformed.
• To prevent patterns from transforming when using transform tools, choose Edit > Preferences > General
(Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > General (Mac OS) and deselect Transform Pattern Tiles.
• To return an object’s fill pattern to its original state, fill the object with a solid color, and then reselect the desired
pattern.
Transform using the bounding box
When you select one or more objects with the Selection tool, a bounding box displays around them. Use the bounding
box to easily move, rotate, duplicate, and scale objects by dragging the object or a handle (one of the hollow squares
along the bounding box).
• To hide the bounding box, choose View > Hide Bounding Box.
• To show the bounding box, choose View > Show Bounding Box.
• To reorient the bounding box after you rotate it, choose Object > Transform > Reset Bounding Box.
Selected objects before (left) compared to after (right) scaling using the bounding box
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Reshaping objects
Scaling, shearing, and distorting objects
Scale objects
Scaling an object enlarges or reduces it horizontally (along the x axis), vertically (along the y axis), or both. Objects
scale relative to a reference point which varies depending on the scaling method you choose. You can change the
default reference point for most scaling methods, and you can also lock the proportions of an object.
By default, strokes and effects are not scaled along with objects. To scale strokes and effects, choose Edit >
Preferences > General (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > General (Mac OS), and select Scale Strokes & Effects.
If you want to choose whether to scale strokes and effects on a case-by-case basis, use the Transform panel or the Scale
command to scale objects.
The Scale Strokes & Effects option scales the object, the drop shadow effect, and the stroke (left); only the object scales when this option is off
(right).
See also
“Reshaping tool gallery” on page 26
“Transform using the bounding box” on page 225
“Transform panel overview” on page 224
Scale objects with the Scale tool
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Select the Scale tool
.
3 Do any of the following:
• To scale relative to the object’s center point, drag anywhere in the document window until the object is the desired size.
• To scale relative to a different reference point
, click where you want the reference point to be in the document
window, move the pointer away from the reference point, and then drag until the object is the desired size.
• To maintain the object’s proportions as it scales, hold down Shift as you drag diagonally.
• To scale the object along a single axis, hold down Shift as you drag vertically or horizontally.
For finer control over scaling, start dragging farther from the reference point.
Scale objects with the bounding box
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Select the Selection tool or the Free Transform tool
.
3 Drag a bounding box handle until the object is the desired size.
Objects scale relative to the opposite handle of the bounding box.
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Reshaping objects
4 Do any of the following to control the scaling behavior:
• To maintain the object’s proportions, hold down Shift as you drag.
• To scale relative to the object’s center point, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) as you drag.
Scale objects to a specific width and height
1 Select one or more objects.
2 In the Transform panel, enter a new value in the Width (W) or Height (H) box, or both.
You can do any of the following before you enter a value to control the scaling behavior:
• To maintain the objects’ proportions, click the lock proportions button
.
• To change the reference point for scaling, click a white square on the reference point locator
.
• To scale stroked paths and any size-related effects along with the object, select Scale Strokes & Effects from the panel
menu.
You can also maintain proportions by entering a value in the W or H box, and then pressing Ctrl (Windows) or
Command (Mac OS) while you press Enter.
Scale objects by a specific percentage
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Do one of the following:
• To scale from the center, choose Object > Transform > Scale or double-click the Scale tool
.
• To scale relative to a different reference point, select the Scale tool and Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click
(Mac OS) where you want the reference point to be in the document window.
3 In the Scale dialog box, do one of the following:
• To maintain the object’s proportions as it scales, select Uniform, and enter a percentage in the Scale text box.
• To scale the height and width separately, select Non-Uniform, and enter a percentage in the Horizontal and Vertical
text boxes.
The scale factors are relative to the reference point and can be negative or positive.
4 To scale stroked paths and any size-related effects along with the object, select Scale Strokes & Effects.
5 If the objects contain a pattern fill, select Patterns to scale the pattern. Deselect Objects if you want to scale the
pattern but not the objects.
6 Click OK, or click Copy to scale a copy of the objects.
Scale multiple objects
1 Select the objects.
2 Choose Object > Transform > Transform Each.
3 Set percentages for horizontal and vertical scaling in the Scale section of the dialog box.
4 To change the reference point, click a white square on the reference point locator
5 Click OK, or click Copy to scale a copy of each object.
.
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Reshaping objects
Shear objects
Shearing an object slants, or skews, the object along the horizontal or vertical axis, or a specified angle that’s relative
to a specified axis. Objects shear relative to a reference point which varies depending on the shearing method you
choose and can be changed for most shearing methods. You can lock one dimension of an object as you shear it, and
you can shear one object or multiple objects simultaneously.
Shearing is useful for creating cast shadows.
Shearing relative to the center (left) compared to shearing relative to a user-defined reference point (right)
See also
“Reshaping tool gallery” on page 26
“Transform panel overview” on page 224
Shear objects with the Shear tool
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Select the Shear tool
.
3 Do one of the following:
• To shear relative to the object’s center, drag anywhere in the document window.
• To shear relative to a different reference point
, click anywhere in the document window to move the reference
point, move the pointer away from the reference point, and then drag until the object is at the desired slant.
• To shear along the object’s vertical axis, drag anywhere in the document window in an up or down direction. To
constrain the object to its original width, hold down Shift.
• To shear along the object’s horizontal axis, drag anywhere in the document window in a left or right direction. To
constrain the object to its original height, hold down Shift.
Shear objects with the Shear command
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Do one of the following:
• To shear from the center, choose Object > Transform > Shear or double-click the Shear tool
.
• To shear from a different reference point, select the Shear tool and Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS)
where you want the reference point to be in the document window.
3 In the Shear dialog box, enter a shear angle from -359 to 359. The shear angle is the amount of slant applied to the
object in a clockwise direction and is relative to a line that’s perpendicular to the shear axis.
4 Select the axis along which to shear the object.
If you chose an angled axis, enter a value between –359 and 359, relative to the horizontal axis.
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Reshaping objects
5 If the objects contain a pattern fill, select Patterns to move the pattern. Deselect Objects if you want to move the
pattern but not the objects.
6 Click OK, or click Copy to shear a copy of the objects.
Shear objects with the Free Transform tool
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Select the Free Transform tool
.
3 Do one of the following:
• To shear along the object’s vertical axis, start dragging the middle-left or middle-right bounding-box handle, and
then hold down Ctrl+Alt (Windows) or Option+Command (Mac OS) as you drag up or down. You can also hold
down Shift to constrain the object to its original width.
• To shear along the object’s horizontal axis, start dragging the top-middle or bottom-middle bounding-box handle
and then hold down Ctrl+Alt (Windows) or Option+Command (Mac OS) as you drag right or left. You can also
hold down Shift to constrain the object to its original height.
Shear objects with the Transform panel
1 Select one or more objects.
2 In the Transform panel, enter a value in the Shear text box.
To change the reference point, click a white square on the reference point locator
before you enter the value.
You can also call up the Transform panel by clicking X, Y, W, or H in the Control panel.
Distort objects
You can distort objects by using the Free Transform tool or a liquify tool. Use the Free Transform tool when you want
to distort freely; use a liquify tool if you want to take advantage of specific preset distortions such as twirls, puckers, or
wrinkles.
See also
“Transform using the bounding box” on page 225
“Reshaping objects with effects” on page 248
“Reshaping tool gallery” on page 26
Distort objects with the Free Transform tool
1 Select one or more objects.
2 Select the Free Transform tool
.
3 Start dragging a corner handle on the bounding box (not a side handle), and then do one of the following:
• Hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) until the selection is at the desired level of distortion.
• Hold down Shift+Alt+Ctrl (Windows) or Shift+Option+Command (Mac OS) to distort in perspective.
53
Chapter 3: Drawing
You draw and modify paths using a set of drawing tools and techniques common to Adobe Illustrator, Adobe®
InDesign®, and Adobe® Photoshop®. Use these applications to draw paths, and freely copy and paste them between
programs. You can also create symbols for use in both Adobe Illustrator and Adobe® Flash® Professional.
Drawing basics
About vector graphics
Vector graphics (sometimes called vector shapes or vector objects) are made up of lines and curves defined by
mathematical objects called vectors, which describe an image according to its geometric characteristics.
You can freely move or modify vector graphics without losing detail or clarity, because they are resolutionindependent—they maintain crisp edges when resized, printed to a PostScript printer, saved in a PDF file, or imported
into a vector-based graphics application. As a result, vector graphics are the best choice for artwork, such as logos, that
will be used at various sizes and in various output media.
The vector objects you create using the drawing and shape tools in Adobe Creative Suite are examples of vector
graphics. You can use the Copy and Paste commands to duplicate vector graphics between Creative Suite components.
See also
“About bitmap images” on page 261
About paths
As you draw, you create a line called a path. A path is made up of one or more straight or curved segments. The
beginning and end of each segment are marked by anchor points, which work like pins holding a wire in place. A path
can be closed (for example, a circle), or open, with distinct endpoints (for example, a wavy line).
You change the shape of a path by dragging its anchor points, the direction points at the end of direction lines that
appear at anchor points, or the path segment itself.
A
C
B
F
D
E
Components of a path
A. Selected (solid) endpoint B. Selected anchor point C. Unselected anchor point D. Curved path segment E. Direction line F. Direction point
Paths can have two kinds of anchor points: corner points and smooth points. At a corner point, a path abruptly changes
direction. At a smooth point, path segments are connected as a continuous curve. You can draw a path using any
combination of corner and smooth points. If you draw the wrong kind of point, you can always change it.
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Drawing
A
B
C
Points on a path
A. Four corner points B. Four smooth points C. Combination of corner and smooth points
A corner point can connect any two straight or curved segments, while a smooth point always connects two curved
segments.
A corner point can connect both straight segments and curved segments.
Note: Don’t confuse corner and smooth points with straight and curved segments.
A path’s outline is called a stroke. A color or gradient applied to an open or closed path’s interior area is called a fill. A
stroke can have weight (thickness), color, and a dash pattern (Illustrator and InDesign) or a stylized line pattern
(InDesign). After you create a path or shape, you can change the characteristics of its stroke and fill.
In InDesign, each path also displays a center point, which marks the center of the shape but is not part of the actual
path. You can use this point to drag the path, to align the path with other elements, or to select all anchor points on
the path. The center point is always visible; it can’t be hidden or deleted.
About direction lines and direction points
When you select an anchor point that connects curved segments (or select the segment itself), the anchor points of the
connecting segments display direction handles, which consist of direction lines that end in direction points. The angle
and length of the direction lines determine the shape and size of the curved segments. Moving the direction points
reshapes the curves. Direction lines don’t appear in the final output.
After selecting an anchor point (left), direction lines appear on any curved segments connected by the anchor point (right).
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Drawing
A smooth point always has two direction lines, which move together as a single, straight unit. When you move a
direction line on a smooth point, the curved segments on both sides of the point are adjusted simultaneously,
maintaining a continuous curve at that anchor point.
In comparison, a corner point can have two, one, or no direction lines, depending on whether it joins two, one, or no
curved segments, respectively. Corner point direction lines maintain the corner by using different angles. When you
move a direction line on a corner point, only the curve on the same side of the point as that direction line is adjusted.
Adjusting direction lines on a smooth point (left) and a corner point (right)
Direction lines are always tangent to (perpendicular to the radius of) the curve at the anchor points. The angle of each
direction line determines the slope of the curve, and the length of each direction line determines the height, or depth,
of the curve.
Moving and resizing direction lines changes the slope of curves.
Note: In Illustrator, you can show or hide anchor points, direction lines, and direction points by choosing View > Show
Edges or View > Hide Edges.
Specify direction line and direction point appearance
When working with anchor points and paths, you may sometimes need to see direction lines (handles), while at other
times they may get in the way. You can show or hide direction lines for multiple selected anchor points. For a single
anchor point, the lines always appear.
You can choose to show or hide direction lines on a per-selection basis, or you can set a preference for direction line
display.
For a video on setting direction lines and points, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0037.
See also
“Specify selection preferences” on page 198
Show or hide direction lines for selected anchor points
1 Use the Direct Selection tool to select the desired anchor points.
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Drawing
2 In the Control panel, click Show Handles For Multiple Selected Anchor Points
Selected Anchor Points
> or Hide Handles For Multiple
.
Note: You can also set a preference to always show or always hide handles when multiple anchor points are selected.
Set direction point and direction line display preferences
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Selection & Anchor Display (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Selection &
Anchor Display (Mac OS).
2 In the Anchor Point And Handle Display area, specify any of the following:
Handles Specifies the display of handle end points (direction points):
•
Displays direction points as small solid circles.
•
Displays direction points as large solid circles.
•
Displays direction points as open crosses.
Show Handles When Multiple Anchors Are Selected Displays direction lines on all selected anchor points when you
use the Direct Selection tool or Group Selection tool to select an object. If you don’t select this option, direction
lines are displayed for an anchor point if it is the only anchor point selected on that path, or if the Bezier segment
for the direction line is selected and the anchor point from which the direction line extends is not selected.
Specify anchor point size preferences
1 Choose Edit > Preferences > Selection & Anchor Display (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Selection &
Anchor Display (Mac OS).
2 In the Anchor Point And Handle Display area, specify any of the following:
Anchors Specifies the display of anchor points:
•
Displays both selected and unselected anchor points as small points.
•
Displays selected anchor points as large points and unselected anchor points as small points.
•
Displays both selected and unselected anchor points as large points.
Highlight Anchors On Mouse Over Highlights the anchor point located directly below the mouse cursor.
Drawing simple lines and shapes
Draw straight lines with the Line Segment tool
Use the Line Segment tool when you want to draw one straight line segment at a time. For a video on using the Line
Segment tool, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036.
1 Select the Line Segment tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Position the pointer where you want the line to begin, and drag to where you want the line to end.
• Click where you want the line to begin, and specify the length and angle of the line. If you want to fill the line
with the current fill color, select Fill Line. Then click OK.
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Drawing
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Draw rectangles and squares
1 Select the Rectangle tool
or the Rounded Rectangle tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• To draw a rectangle, drag diagonally until the rectangle is the desired size.
• To draw a square, hold down the Shift key while you drag diagonally until the square is the desired size.
• To create a square or rectangle using values, click where you want the top-left corner to be. Specify a width and
height (and a corner radius for a rounded rectangle), and click OK.
For a video on using shape tools, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036. For an example of using shape tools to draw
buildings, see www.adobe.com/go/learn_ai_tutorials_shapes_en.
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Specify the corner radius of a rounded rectangle
The corner radius determines the roundness of the rectangle’s corners. You can change the default radius for all new
rectangles, and you can change the radius for individual rectangles as you draw them.
• To change the default corner radius, choose Edit> Preferences > General (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences >
General (Mac OS), and enter a new value for Corner Radius. Alternatively, select the Rounded Rectangle tool, click
in the document window, and enter a new value for Corner Radius. The default radius applies only to new rounded
rectangles you draw, not to existing rounded rectangles.
• To change the corner radius while dragging with the Rounded Rectangle tool, press the Up Arrow key or Down
Arrow key. When the corners are the desired roundness, release the key.
• To create square corners while dragging with the Rounded Rectangle tool, press the Left Arrow key.
• To create the most rounded corners while dragging with the Rounded Rectangle tool, press the Right Arrow key.
Draw ellipses
1 Select the Ellipse tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Drag diagonally until the ellipse is the desired size.
• Click where you want the top-left corner of the ellipse’s bounding box to be. Specify a width and height for the
ellipse, and click OK.
Note: To create a circle, hold down the Shift key while dragging, or if you are specifying dimensions, once you’ve
entered a Width value you can click on the word Height to copy that value into the Height box.
For a video on using shape tools, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036.
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Drawing
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Draw polygons
1 Select the Polygon tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Drag until the polygon is the desired size. Drag the pointer in an arc to rotate the polygon. Press the Up Arrow
and Down Arrow keys to add and remove sides from the polygon.
• Click where you want the center of the polygon to be. Specify a radius and number of sides for the polygon, and
click OK.
Triangles are polygons too! You can draw one just as you would any other polygon.
For a video on using shape tools, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036.
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Draw stars
1 Select the Star tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Drag until the star is the desired size. Drag the pointer in an arc to rotate the star. Press the Up Arrow and Down
Arrow to add and remove points from the star.
• Click where you want the center of the star to be. For Radius 1, specify the distance from the center of the star
to the star’s innermost points. For Radius 2, specify the distance from the center of the star to the star’s
outermost points. For Points, specify how many points you want the star to have. Then click OK.
For a video on using shape tools, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036.
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Draw arcs
1 Select the Arc tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Position the pointer where you want the arc to begin, and drag to where you want the arc to end.
• Click where you want the arc to begin. In the dialog box, click a square on the reference point locator
determine the point from which the arc is drawn. Then set any of the following options, and click OK.
Length X-Axis Specifies the width of the arc.
to
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Drawing
Length Y-Axis Specifies the height of the arc.
Type Specifies whether you want the object to be an open path or a closed path.
Base Along Specifies the direction of the arc. Choose X Axis or Y Axis depending on whether you want to draw
the base of the arc along the horizontal (x) axis or vertical (y) axis.
Slope Specifies the direction of the arc’s slope. Enter a negative value for a concave (inward) slope. Enter a
positive value for a convex (outward) slope. A slope of 0 creates a straight line.
Fill Arc Fills the arc with the current fill color.
Note: To see a dynamic preview of the arc as you set options, double-click the arc tool in the Tools panel.
For a video on using shape tools, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036.
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Draw spirals
1 Select the Spiral tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Drag until the spiral is the desired size. Drag the pointer in an arc to rotate the spiral.
• Click where you want the spiral to begin. In the dialog box, set any of the following options, and click OK.
Radius Specifies the distance from the center to the outermost point in the spiral.
Decay Specifies the amount by which each wind of the spiral should decrease relative to the previous wind.
Segments Specifies how many segments the spiral has. Each full wind of the spiral consists of four segments.
Style Specifies the direction of the spiral.
For a video on using shape tools, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0036.
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
Draw grids
Use the grid tools to quickly draw rectangular and polar grids. The Rectangular Grid tool creates rectangular grids of
a specified size with a specified number of dividers. The Polar Grid tool creates concentric circles of a specified size
and a specified number of dividers.
See also
“Drawing tool gallery” on page 23
“Keys for drawing” on page 466
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Draw rectangular grids
1 Select the Rectangular Grid tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Drag until the grid is the desired size.
• Click to set the grid’s reference point. In the dialog box, click a square on the reference point locator
to
determine the point from which the grid is drawn. Then set any of the following options, and click OK.
Default Size Specifies the width and height of the entire grid.
Horizontal Dividers Specifies the number of horizontal dividers you want to appear between the top and bottom
of the grid. The Skew value determines how the horizontal dividers are weighted toward the top or bottom of
the grid.
Vertical Dividers Specifies the number of dividers you want to appear between the left and right sides of the grid.
The Skew value determines how the vertical dividers are weighted to the left or right side.
Use Outside Rectangle As Frame Replaces the top, bottom, left, and right segments with a separate rectangular
object.
Fill Grid Fills the grid with the current fill color (otherwise, the fill is set to none).
Draw circular (polar) grids
1 Select the Polar Grid tool
.
2 Do one of the following:
• Drag until the grid is the desired size.
• Click to set the grid’s reference point. In the dialog box, click a square on the reference point locator
to
determine the point from which the grid is drawn. Then set any of the following options, and click OK.
Default Size Specifies the width and height of the entire grid.
Concentric Dividers Specifies the number of circular concentric dividers you want to appear in the grid. The
Skew value determines how the concentric dividers are weighted toward the inside or outside of the grid.
Radial Dividers Specifies the number of radial dividers you want to appear between the center and the
circumference of the grid. The Skew value determines how the radial dividers are weighted counterclockwise or
clockwise on the grid.
Create Compound Path From Ellipses Converts the concentric circles into separate compound paths and fill
every other circle.
Fill Grid Fills the grid with the current fill color (otherwise, the fill is set to none).
Drawing with the Pencil tool
Draw with the Pencil tool
The Pencil tool works primarily the same way in Adobe Illustrator and InDesign. It lets you draw open and closed
paths as if you were drawing with a pencil on paper. It is most useful for fast sketching or creating a hand-drawn look.
Once you draw a path, you can immediately change it if needed.
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Anchor points are set down as you draw with the Pencil tool; you do not determine where they are positioned.
However, you can adjust them once the path is complete. The number of anchor points set down is determined by the
length and complexity of the path and by tolerance settings in the Pencil Tool Preferences dialog box. These settings
control how sensitive the Pencil tool is to the movement of your mouse or graphics-tablet stylus.
For a video on drawing with the Pencil tool in Illustrator, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0039.
See also
Pencil tool in Illustrator video
Draw freeform paths with the Pencil tool
1 Select the Pencil tool
.
2 Position the tool where you want the path to begin, and drag to draw a path. The Pencil tool
displays a small x
to indicate drawing a freeform path.
As you drag, a dotted line follows the pointer. Anchor points appear at both ends of the path and at various points
along it. The path takes on the current stroke and fill attributes, and remains selected by default.
Draw closed paths with the Pencil tool
1 Select the Pencil tool.
2 Position the tool where you want the path to begin, and start dragging to draw a path.
3 After you’ve begun dragging, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS). The Pencil tool displays a small circle
(and, in InDesign, a solid eraser) to indicate that you’re creating a closed path.
4 When the path is the size and shape you want, release the mouse button (but not the Alt or Option key). After the
path closes, release the Alt or Option key.
You don’t have to position the cursor over the starting point of the path in order to create a closed path; if you release
the mouse button in some other location, the Pencil tool will close the shape by creating the shortest possible line back
to the original point.
Edit paths with the Pencil tool
You can edit any path using the Pencil tool and add freeform lines and shapes to any shape.
Add to a path with the Pencil tool
1 Select an existing path.
2 Select the Pencil tool.
3 Position the pencil tip on an endpoint of the path.
You can tell you’re close enough to the endpoint when the small x next to the pencil tip disappears.
4 Drag to continue the path.
Connect two paths with the Pencil tool
1 Select both paths (Shift-click or drag around the two with the Selection tool).
2 Select the Pencil tool.
3 Position the pointer where you want to begin from one path, and start dragging toward the other path.
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4 After you begin dragging, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS). The Pencil tool displays a small
merge symbol to indicate you’re adding to the existing path.
5 Drag onto the endpoint of the other path, release the mouse button, and then release the Ctrl or Command key.
Note: For best results, drag from one path to the other as if you were simply continuing the paths in the direction they
were created.
Reshape paths with the Pencil tool
1 Select the path you want to change.
2 Position the Pencil tool on or near the path to redraw.
You can tell you’re close enough to the path when the small x disappears from the tool.
3 Drag the tool until the path is the desired shape.
Using the Pencil tool to edit a closed shape
Note: Depending on where you begin to redraw the path and in which direction you drag, you may get unexpected results.
For example, you may unintentionally change a closed path to an open path, change an open path to a closed path, or
lose a portion of a shape.
Pencil tool options
Double-click the Pencil tool to set any of the following options:
Fidelity Controls how far you have to move your mouse or stylus before a new anchor point is added to the path. The
higher the value, the smoother and less complex the path. The lower the value, the more the curves will match the
pointer’s movement, resulting in sharper angles. Fidelity can range from 0.5 to 20 pixels.
Smoothness Controls the amount of smoothing applied when you use the tool. Smoothness can range from 0% to
100%. The higher the value, the smoother the path. The lower the value, the more anchor points are created, and the
more the line’s irregularities are preserved.
Fill New Pencil Strokes (Illustrator only) Applies a fill to pencil strokes you draw after selecting this option, but not to
existing pencil strokes. Remember to select a fill before you draw the pencil strokes.
Keep Selected Determines whether to keep the path selected after you draw it. This option is selected by default.
Edit Selected Paths Determines whether or not you can change or merge a selected path when you are within a certain
distance of it (specified with the next option).
Within: _ pixels Determines how close your mouse or stylus must be to an existing path in order to edit the path with
the Pencil tool. This option is only available when the Edit Selected Paths option is selected.
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Drawing with the Pen tool
Draw straight line segments with the Pen tool
The simplest path you can draw with the Pen tool is a straight line, made by clicking the Pen tool to create two anchor
points. By continuing to click, you create a path made of straight line segments connected by corner points.
Clicking Pen tool creates straight segments.
1 Select the Pen tool.
2 Position the Pen tool where you want the straight segment to begin, and click to define the first anchor point (do
not drag).
Note: The first segment you draw will not be visible until you click a second anchor point. (Select the Rubber Band option
in Photoshop to preview path segments.) Also, if direction lines appear, you’ve accidentally dragged the Pen tool; choose
Edit > Undo, and click again.
3 Click again where you want the segment to end (Shift-click to constrain the angle of the segment to a multiple of
45°).
4 Continue clicking to set anchor points for additional straight segments.
The last anchor point you add always appears as a solid square, indicating that it is selected. Previously defined anchor
points become hollow, and deselected, as you add more anchor points.
5 Complete the path by doing one of the following:
• To close the path, position the Pen tool over the first (hollow) anchor point. A small circle appears next to the Pen
tool pointer
when it is positioned correctly. Click or drag to close the path.
Note: To close a path in InDesign, you can also select the object and choose Object > Paths > Close Path.
• To leave the path open, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) anywhere away from all objects.
To leave the path open, you can also select a different tool, or choose Select > Deselect in Illustrator or Edit > Deselect
All in InDesign.
Draw curves with the Pen tool
You create a curve by adding an anchor point where a curve changes direction, and dragging the direction lines that
shape the curve. The length and slope of the direction lines determine the shape of the curve.
Curves are easier to edit and your system can display and print them faster if you draw them using as few anchor points
as possible. Using too many points can also introduce unwanted bumps in a curve. Instead, draw widely spaced anchor
points, and practice shaping curves by adjusting the length and angles of the direction lines.
1 Select the Pen tool.
2 Position the Pen tool where you want the curve to begin, and hold down the mouse button.
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The first anchor point appears, and the Pen tool pointer changes to an arrowhead. (In Photoshop, the pointer changes
only after you’ve started dragging.)
3 Drag to set the slope of the curve segment you’re creating, and then release the mouse button.
In general, extend the direction line about one third of the distance to the next anchor point you plan to draw. (You
can adjust one or both sides of the direction line later.)
Hold down the Shift key to constrain the tool to multiples of 45°.
A
B
C
Drawing the first point in a curve
A. Positioning Pen tool B. Starting to drag (mouse button pressed) C. Dragging to extend direction lines
4 Position the Pen tool where you want the curve segment to end, and do one of the following:
• To create a C-shaped curve, drag in a direction opposite to the previous direction line. Then release the mouse
button.
A
B
C
Drawing the second point in a curve
A. Starting to drag second smooth point B. Dragging away from previous direction line, creating a C curve C. Result after releasing mouse
button
• To create an S-shaped curve, drag in the same direction as the previous direction line. Then release the mouse
button.
A
B
C
Drawing an S curve
A. Starting to drag new smooth point B. Dragging in same direction as previous direction line, creating an S curve C. Result after releasing
mouse button
(Photoshop only) To change the direction of the curve sharply, release the mouse button, and then Alt-drag
(Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) the direction point in the direction of the curve. Release the Alt (Windows) or
Option (Mac OS) key and the mouse button, reposition the pointer where you want the segment to end, and drag in the
opposite direction to complete the curve segment.
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5 Continue dragging the Pen tool from different locations to create a series of smooth curves. Note that you are
placing anchor points at the beginning and end of each curve, not at the tip of the curve.
Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) direction lines to break out the direction lines of an anchor point.
6 Complete the path by doing one of the following:
• To close the path, position the Pen tool over the first (hollow) anchor point. A small circle appears next to the Pen
tool pointer
when it is positioned correctly. Click or drag to close the path.
Note: To close a path in InDesign, you can also select the object and choose Object > Paths > Close Path.
• To leave the path open, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) anywhere away from all objects.
To leave the path open, you can also select a different tool, or choose Select > Deselect in Illustrator or Edit > Deselect
All in InDesign.
For a video on using the Pen tool in Illustrator, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0037.
See also
Pen tool in Illustrator video
Reposition anchor points as you draw
❖ After you click to create an anchor point, keep the mouse button pressed down, hold down the spacebar, and drag
to reposition the anchor point.
Finish drawing a path
❖ Complete a path in one of the following ways:
• To close a path, position the Pen tool over the first (hollow) anchor point. A small circle appears next to the Pen
tool pointer
when it is positioned correctly. Click or drag to close the path.
Note: To close a path in InDesign, you can also select the object and choose Object > Paths > Close Path.
• To leave a path open, Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) anywhere away from all objects.
To leave the path open, you can also select a different tool, or choose Select > Deselect in Illustrator or Edit > Deselect
All in InDesign.
Draw straight lines followed by curves
1 Using the Pen tool, click corner points in two locations to create a straight segment.
2 Position the Pen tool over the selected endpoint. In Illustrator and InDesign, a convert-point icon appears next to
the Pen tool when it is positioned correctly (In Photoshop, a small diagonal line, or slash, appears next to the Pen
tool). To set the slope of the curved segment you’ll create next, click the anchor point, and drag the direction line
that appears.
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A
B
C
Drawing a straight segment followed by a curved segment (part 1)
A. Straight segment completed B. Positioning Pen tool over endpoint (the Convert Point icon appears only in Illustrator and InDesign)
C. Dragging direction point
3 Position the pen where you want the next anchor point; then click (and drag, if desired) the new anchor point to
complete the curve.
A
B
C
Drawing a straight segment followed by a curved segment (part 2)
A. Positioning Pen tool B. Dragging direction line C. New curve segment completed
Draw curves followed by straight lines
1 Using the Pen tool, drag to create the first smooth point of the curved segment, and release the mouse button.
2 Reposition the Pen tool where you want the curved segment to end, drag to complete the curve, and release the
mouse button.
A
B
Drawing a curved segment followed by a straight segment (part 1)
A. First smooth point of curved segment completed and Pen tool positioned over endpoint B. Dragging to complete the curve
3 Position the Pen tool over the selected endpoint. A convert-point icon appears next to the Pen tool when it is
positioned correctly. Click the anchor point to convert the smooth point to a corner point.
4 Reposition the Pen tool where you want the straight segment to end, and click to complete the straight segment.
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D
C
E
Drawing a curved segment followed by a straight segment (part 2)
C. Positioning Pen tool over existing endpoint D. Clicking endpoint E. Clicking next corner point
Draw two curved segments connected by a corner
1 Using the Pen tool, drag to create the first smooth point of a curved segment.
2 Reposition the Pen tool and drag to create a curve with a second smooth point; then press and hold Alt (Windows)
or Option (Mac OS) and drag the direction line toward its opposing end to set the slope of the next curve. Release
the key and the mouse button.
This process converts the smooth point to a corner point by splitting the direction lines.
3 Reposition the Pen tool where you want the second curved segment to end, and drag a new smooth point to
complete the second curved segment.
A
B
C
Drawing two curves
A. Dragging a new smooth point B. Pressing Alt/Option to split direction lines while dragging, and swinging direction line up C. Result after
repositioning and dragging a third time
Editing paths
Select paths, segments, and anchor points
Before you can reshape or edit a path, you need to select the path’s anchor points, segments, or a combination of both.
Select anchor points
• If you can see the points, you can click them with the Direct Selection tool
to select them. Shift-click to select
multiple points.
• Select the Direct Selection tool and drag a boundary around the anchor points. Shift-drag around additional anchor
points to select them.
• Make sure the path that contains the anchor points is not selected. Move the Direct Selection tool over the anchor
point until the pointer displays a hollow square, and then click the anchor point. Shift-click additional anchor
points to select them.
153
Chapter 6: Painting
To help you add visual interest to your artwork, Adobe Illustrator provides calligraphic, scatter, art, and pattern
brushes. In addition, you can use the Live Paint feature, to paint different path segments and fill enclosed paths with
different colors, patterns, or gradients. Using opacity, masks, gradients, blends, meshes, and patterns provides limitless
opportunities for creativity.
Painting with fills and strokes
Painting methods
Illustrator provides two methods of painting: assigning a fill, stroke, or both to an entire object, and converting the
object to a Live Paint group and assigning fills or strokes to the separate edges and faces of paths within it.
Paint an object
After you draw an object, you assign a fill, stroke, or both to it. You can then draw other objects that you can paint
similarly, layering each new object on top of the previous ones. The result is something like a collage made out of
shapes cut from colored paper, with the look of the artwork depending on which objects are on top in the stack of
layered objects.
For a video on using brushes, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0044.
Paint a Live Paint group
With the Live Paint method, you paint more like you would with a traditional coloring tool, without regard to layers
or stacking order, which can make for a more natural workflow. All objects in a Live Paint group are treated as if they
are part of the same flat surface. This means you can draw several paths and then color separately each area enclosed
by these paths (called a face). You can also assign different stroke colors and weights to portions of a path between
intersections (called an edge). The result is that, much like a coloring book, you can fill each face and stroke each edge
with a different color. As you move and reshape paths in a Live Paint group, the faces and edges automatically adjust
in response.
An object consisting of a single path painted with the existing method has a single fill and a single stroke (left). The same object converted to a
Live Paint group can be painted with a different fill for each face and a different stroke for each edge (right).
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Painting an object the traditional way leaves some areas that cannot be filled (left). Painting a Live Paint group with gap detection (center) lets
you avoid gaps and overprinting (right).
For a video on using Live Paint, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0042. For a video on painting techniques with the
Paintbrush tool, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0038.
See also
“About Live Paint” on page 161
About fills and strokes
A fill is a color, pattern, or gradient inside an object. You can apply fills to open and closed objects and to faces of Live
Paint groups.
A stroke can be the visible outline of an object, a path, or the edge of a Live Paint group. You can control the width and
color a stroke. You can also create dashed strokes using Path options, and paint stylized strokes using brushes.
Note: When working with Live Paint groups, you can apply a brush to an edge only if you add a stroke to the group using
the Appearance panel.
The current fill and stroke colors are displayed in the Tools panel.
Fill and Stroke controls
See also
“Keys for painting objects” on page 468
“Select colors using the Color Picker” on page 101
Fill and Stroke controls
Controls for setting the fill and stroke are available in the Tools panel, the Control panel, and the Color panel.
You can use any of the following controls in the Tools panel to specify color:
Fill button
Stroke button
Double-click to select a fill color using the Color Picker.
Double-click to select a stroke color using the Color Picker.
Swap Fill And Stroke button
Click to swap colors between the fill and stroke.
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Default Fill And Stroke button
Color button
Click to apply the last-selected solid color to an object with a gradient fill or no stroke or fill.
Click to change the currently selected fill to the last-selected gradient.
Gradient button
None button
Click to return to the default color settings (white fill and black stroke).
Click to remove the selected object’s fill or stroke.
You can also specify color and stroke for a selected object by using the following controls in the Control panel:
Fill color Click to open the Swatches panel or Shift-click to open an alternate color mode panel, and choose a color.
Stroke color Click to open the Swatches panel or Shift-click to open an alternate color mode panel, and choose a color.
Stroke panel Click the word Stroke to open the Stroke panel and specify options.
Stroke weight Choose a stroke weight from the pop-up menu.
Apply a fill color to an object
You can apply one color, pattern, or gradient to an entire object, or you can use Live Paint groups and apply different
colors to different faces within the object.
1 Select the object.
2 Click the Fill box in the Tools panel or the Color panel. Doing so indicates that you want to apply a fill rather than
a stroke.
Fill box
3 Select a fill color by doing one of the following:
• Click a color in the Control panel, Color panel, Swatches panel, Gradient panel, or a swatch library.
• Double-click the Fill box and select a color from the Color Picker.
• Select the Eyedropper tool and Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) an object to apply the current
attributes, including the current fill and stroke.
• Click the None button
to remove the object’s current fill.
You can quickly apply color to an unselected object by dragging a color from the Fill box, Color panel, Gradient panel,
or Swatches panel onto the object. Dragging does not work on Live Paint groups.
See also
“Select items in Live Paint groups” on page 164
“Paint with the Live Paint Bucket tool” on page 167
Stroke an object
You use the Stroke panel (Window > Stroke) to specify whether a line is solid or dashed, the dash sequence if it is
dashed, the stroke weight, the stroke alignment, the miter limit, and the styles of line joins and line caps.
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Stroke panel with options showing
You can apply stroke options to an entire object, or you can use Live Paint groups and apply different strokes to
different edges within the object.
See also
“Workspace overview” on page 10
“Select items in Live Paint groups” on page 164
“Paint with the Live Paint Bucket tool” on page 167
Apply a stroke color, width, or alignment
1 Select the object. (To select an edge in a Live Paint group, use the Live Paint Selection tool.)
2 Click the Stroke box in the Tools panel, the Color panel, or the Control panel. Doing so indicates that you want to
apply a stroke rather than a fill.
Stroke box
3 Select a color from the Color panel, or a swatch from the Swatches panel or Control panel. Alternatively, double-
click the Stroke box to select a color using the Color Picker.
If you want to use the current color in the Stroke box, you can simply drag the color from the Stroke box onto the object.
Dragging does not work on Live Paint groups.
4 Select a weight in the Strokes panel or Control panel.
5 If the object is a closed path (and not a Live Paint group), choose an option from the Stroke panel to align the stroke
along the path:
•
Align Stroke To Center
•
Align Stroke To Inside
•
Align Stroke To Outside
Note: If you try to align paths that use different stroke alignments, the paths may not exactly align. Make sure the path
alignment settings are the same if you need the edges to match up exactly when aligned.
Create dotted or dashed lines
You can create a dotted or dashed line by editing an object’s stroke attributes.
1 Select the object.
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2 In the Stroke panel, select Dashed Line. If the Dashed Line option isn’t showing, choose Show Options from the
Stroke panel menu.
3 Specify a dash sequence by entering the lengths of dashes and the gaps between them.
The numbers entered are repeated in sequence so that once you have established the pattern, you don’t need to fill in
all the text boxes.
4 Select a cap option to change the ends of the dashes. The Butt Cap
Round Cap
A
B
option creates square-ended dashes; the
option creates rounded dashes or dots; the Projecting Cap
option extends the ends of dashes.
C
6-point dashed lines with dash gaps of 2, 12, 16, 12
A. Butt cap B. Round cap C. Projecting cap
Change the caps or joins of a line
A cap is the end of an open line; a join is where a straight line changes direction (turns a corner). You can change the
caps and joins of a line by changing the object’s stroke attributes.
1 Select the object.
2 In the Stroke panel, select a cap option and a join option.
If the options aren’t showing, choose Show Options from the panel menu.
Butt Cap
Creates stroked lines with squared ends.
Round Cap
Creates stroked lines with semicircular ends.
Creates stroked lines with squared ends that extend half the line width beyond the end of the line.
This option makes the weight of the line extend equally in all directions around the line.
Projecting Cap
Miter Join
Creates stroked lines with pointed corners. Enter a miter limit between 1 and 500. The miter limit
controls when the program switches from a mitered (pointed) join to a beveled (squared-off) join. The default miter
limit is 4, which means that when the length of the point reaches four times the stroke weight, the program switches
from a miter join to a bevel join. A miter limit of 1 results in a bevel join.
Round Join
Bevel Join
Creates stroked lines with rounded corners.
Creates stroked lines with squared corners.
Draw and merge paths with the Blob Brush tool
Use the Blob Brush tool to paint filled shapes that you can intersect and merge with other shapes of the same color.
The Blob Brush tool uses the same default brush options as calligraphic brushes. (See “Calligraphic brush options” on
page 173.)
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Path created with a Calligraphy brush (left); path created with the Blob Brush tool (right)
To see a video on using the Blob Brush tool, see www.adobe.com/go/lrvid4018_ai. To see an example of using the Blob
Brush to create a complex drawing, see www.adobe.com/go/learn_ai_tutorials_blob_brush_en.
See also
“Paintbrush tool options” on page 171
Blob Brush tool guidelines
When using the Blob Brush tool, keep the following guidelines in mind:
• To merge paths, they must be adjacent in stacking order.
• The Blob Brush tool creates paths with a fill and no stroke. If you want your Blob Brush paths to merge with existing
artwork, make sure that the artwork has the same fill color and no stroke.
• When drawing paths with the Blob Brush tool, new paths merge with the topmost matching path encountered. If
the new path touches more than one matching path within the same group or layer, all of the intersecting paths are
merged together.
• To apply paint attributes (such as effects or transparency) to the Blob Brush tool, select the brush and set the
attributes in the Appearances panel before you start drawing.
• You can use the Blob Brush tool to merge paths created by other tools. To do this make sure that the existing
artwork does not have a stroke; then set up the Blob Brush tool to have the same fill color, and draw a new path that
intersects all of the paths that you want to merge together.
Create merged paths
Remember that paths with strokes cannot be merged.
1 Select the path into which you want to merge a new path.
2 In the Appearances panel, deselect New Art Has Basic Appearance. When this option is deselected, the Blob Brush
tool uses the attributes of the selected artwork.
3 Select the Blob Brush tool
, and make sure it uses the same appearances as the selected artwork.
4 Draw paths that intersect with the artwork. If the paths don’t merge, check to make sure that the Blob Brush tool’s
attributes exactly match the existing path attributes, and that neither uses a stroke.
Blob Brush tool options
Double-click the Blob Brush tool in the Tools panel and set any of the following options:
Keep Selected Specifies that when you draw a merged path, all paths are selected and remain selected as you continue
to draw. This option is useful for viewing all paths that are included in the merged path. When you select this option,
the Selection Limits Merge option is disabled.
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Selection Limits Merge Specifies that if artwork is selected, the Blob Brush merges only with the selected artwork. If
nothing is selected, the Blob Brush merges with any matching artwork.
Fidelity Controls how far you have to move your mouse or stylus before Illustrator adds a new anchor point to the
path. For example, a Fidelity value of 2.5 means that tool movements of less than 2.5 pixels aren’t registered. Fidelity
can range from 0.5 to 20 pixels; the higher the value, the smoother and less complex the path.
Smoothness Controls the amount of smoothing that Illustrator applies when you use the tool. Smoothness can range
from 0% to 100%; the higher the percentage, the smoother the path.
Size Determines the size of the brush.
Angle Determines the angle of rotation for the brush. Drag the arrowhead in the preview, or enter a value in the Angle
text box.
Roundness Determines roundness of the brush. Drag a black dot in the preview away from or toward the center,
or enter a value in the Roundness text box. The higher the value, the greater the roundness.
Convert strokes to compound paths
Converting a stroke to a compound path lets you modify the outline of the stroke. For example, you can create a stroke
with a varied width or divide the stroke into pieces.
1 Select the object.
2 Choose Object > Path > Outline Stroke.
The resulting compound path is grouped with the filled object. To modify the compound path, first ungroup it from
the fill or select it with the Group Selection tool.
Use the Layers panel to identify the contents of a group.
See also
“About compound paths” on page 238
“Group or ungroup objects” on page 206
Add arrowheads to lines
Arrows are similar to brush strokes; that is, the arrows change location, direction, and color along with the line, but
they cannot be edited separately.
1 Select an object or group (or target a layer in the Layers panel).
Note: You can add arrowheads to a Live Paint group as a whole, but not to individual paths within Live Paint groups.
2 Choose Effect > Stylize > Add Arrowheads.
3 Choose from various arrowhead designs for the start and end of the line by clicking the forward and back buttons
below the Start and End arrow boxes. The start and end of the line refer to the order in which the line was drawn.
4 To rescale the size of an arrowhead, enter the percentage you want in the Scale text box. This scales the arrowhead
relative to the stroke weight of the line.
5 Click OK.
Note: To remove an arrowhead, select the object, click the Add Arrowheads effect in the Appearance panel, and set the
effect to None; then click OK.
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See also
“Targeting items for appearance attributes” on page 350
“About effects” on page 354
Remove the fill or stroke from an object
1 Select the object.
2 Click the Fill box or the Stroke box in the Tools panel. Doing so indicates whether you want to remove the object’s
fill or its stroke.
3 Click the None button in the Tools panel, the Color panel, or the Swatches panel.
Note: You can also click the None icon in the Fill menu or the Stroke Color menu in the Control panel.
A
B
C
Fill and Stroke boxes
A. Fill box B. Stroke box C. None button
Select objects with the same fill and stroke
You can select objects that have the same attributes, including fill color, stroke color, and stroke weight.
Note: The Select > Same > Fill Color, Stroke Color, and Stroke Weight commands work within a Live Paint group when
you select a face or edge with the Live Paint Selection tool; other Select > Same commands do not work. You cannot select
same objects both inside and outside a Live Paint group at the same time.
• To select objects with the same fill and stroke, select one of the objects, click the Select Similar Objects button
in the Control panel and choose what you want to base your selection on in the menu that appears.
• To select all objects with the same fill or stroke color, select an object with that fill or stroke color, or choose the
color from the Color panel or Swatches panel. Then choose Select > Same and click Fill Color, Stroke Color, or Fill
& Stroke on the submenu.
• To select all objects with the same stroke weight, select an object with that stroke weight or choose the stroke weight
from the Stroke panel. Then choose Select > Same > Stroke Weight.
• To apply the same selection options using a different object (for example, if you have already selected all red objects
using the Select > Same > Fill Color command and now you want to search for all green objects), select a new object
and then choose Select > Reselect.
To consider the tint of an object when selecting based on color, choose Edit > Preferences > General (Windows) or
Illustrator > Preferences > General (Mac OS), and then choose Select Same Tint %. With this option selected, if you
select an object filled with a 50% tint of PANTONE Yellow C and choose Select > Same > Fill Color, Illustrator selects
only those objects filled with a 50% tint of that color. With this option deselected, objects with any tint of PANTONE
Yellow C are selected.
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Create multiple fills and strokes
You use the Appearance panel to create multiple fills and strokes for the same object. Adding multiple fills and strokes
to an object is the basis for creating many interesting effects. For example, you can create a second, narrower stroke on
top of a wide stroke, or you can apply an effect to one fill but not the other.
1 Select one or more objects or groups (or target a layer in the Layers panel).
2 Select Add New Fill or Add New Stroke from the Appearance panel menu. Alternatively, select a fill or stroke in the
Appearance panel, and click the Duplicate Selected Item button
.
3 Set the color and other properties for the new fill or stroke.
Note: It may be necessary to adjust the position of the new fill or stroke in the Appearance panel. For example, if you
create two strokes of different widths, make sure that the narrower stroke is above the wider stroke in the Appearance
panel.
See also
“Targeting items for appearance attributes” on page 350
“Appearance panel overview” on page 349
Live Paint groups
About Live Paint
Converting your artwork to Live Paint groups allows you to color them freely, as you would a drawing on canvas or
paper. You can stroke each path segment with a different color and fill each enclosed path (note, not just closed paths)
with a different color, pattern, or gradient.
Live Paint is an intuitive way to create colored drawings. It lets you use the full range of Illustrator’s vector drawing
tools, but treats all the paths you draw as though they are on the same flat surface. That is, none of the paths is behind
or in front of any other. Instead, the paths divide the drawing surface up into areas, any of which can be colored,
regardless of whether the area is bounded by a single path or by segments of multiple paths. The result is that painting
objects is like filling in a coloring book or using watercolors to paint a pencil sketch.
Once you’ve made a Live Paint group, each path remains fully editable. When you move or adjust a path’s shape, the
colors that had been previously applied don’t just stay where they were, like they do in natural media paintings or
image editing programs. Instead, Illustrator automatically reapplies them to the new regions that are formed by the
edited paths.
A
B
C
Adjusting Live Paint paths
A. Original B. Live Paint group C. Paths adjusted, Live Painting reflows
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The paintable parts of Live Paint groups are called edges and faces. An edge is the portion of a path between where it
intersects with other paths. A face is the area enclosed by one or more edges. You can stroke edges and fill faces.
Take, for example, a circle with a line drawn across it. As a Live Paint group, the line (edge) dividing the circle creates
two faces in the circle. You can fill each face and stroke each edge with a different color using the Live Paint Bucket tool.
Circle and line (left) compared to circle and line after conversion to a Live Paint group and filling faces and stroking edges (right).
Note: Live Paint takes advantage of multiprocessors, which help Illustrator perform the operations more quickly.
For a video on using Live Paint, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0042.
See also
“Painting methods” on page 153
“About fills and strokes” on page 154
Live Paint limitations
Fill and paint attributes are attached to faces and edges of a Live Paint group—not to the actual paths that define them,
as in other Illustrator objects. Because of this, some features and commands either work differently or are not
applicable to paths inside a Live Paint group.
Features and commands that work on an entire Live Paint group, but not on individual faces and edges
• Transparency
• Effects
• Multiple fills and strokes from the Appearance panel
• Object > Envelope Distort
• Object > Hide
• Object > Rasterize
• Object > Slice > Make
• Make Opacity Mask (in the Transparency panel menu)
• Brushes (You can apply brushes to an entire Live Paint group if you add a new stroke to the group using the
Appearance panel.)
Features that don’t work on Live Paint groups
• Gradient meshes
• Graphs
• Symbols from the Symbols panel
• Flares
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• Align Stroke options from the Stroke panel
• The Magic Wand tool
Object commands that don’t work on Live Paint groups
• Outline Stroke
• Expand (You can use the Object > Live Paint > Expand command instead.)
• Blend
• Slice
• Clipping Mask > Make
• Create Gradient Mesh
Other commands that don’t work on Live Paint groups
• Pathfinder commands
• File > Place
• View > Guides > Make
• Select > Same >Blending Mode, Fill & Stroke, Opacity, Style, Symbol Instance, or Link Block Series
• Object > Text Wrap > Make
Create Live Paint groups
When you want to color objects using different colors for each edge, or intersection, convert the artwork into a Live
Paint Group.
Certain types of objects, such as type, bitmap images, and brushes, cannot be directly made into Live Paint groups. You
first need to convert these objects into paths. For example, if you try to convert an object that uses brushes or effects,
the complex visual appearance is lost in the conversion to Live Paint. However, you can retain much of the appearance
by first converting the objects to regular paths and then converting the resulting paths to Live Paint.
Note: When you convert artwork to a Live Paint group, you cannot return the artwork to its original state. You can
expand the group into its individual components, or release the group back to its original paths with no fill and a .5 black
stroke.
For a video on using Live Paint, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0042.
See also
“Keys for working with Live Paint groups” on page 469
Create a Live Paint group
1 Select one or more paths, compound paths, or both.
2 Do one of the following:
• Choose Object > Live Paint > Make.
• Select the Live Paint Bucket tool
and click the selected object.
Note: Certain properties may be lost in the conversion to a Live Paint group, such as transparency and effects, while other
objects cannot be converted (such as type, bitmap images, and brushes).
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Convert objects to Live Paint groups
❖ Do any of the following for objects that do not directly convert to Live Paint groups:
• For type objects, choose Type > Create Outlines. Then make the resulting paths into a Live Paint group.
• For bitmap images, choose Object > Live Trace > Make And Convert To Live Paint.
• For other objects, choose Object > Expand. Then make the resulting paths into a Live Paint group.
Expand or release a Live Paint group
Releasing a Live Paint group changes it to one or more ordinary paths with no fill and a .5-point black stroke.
Expanding a Live Paint group changes it to one or more ordinary paths that are visually similar to the Live Paint group,
but are now separate filled and stroked paths. You can use the Group Selection tool to select and modify these paths
separately.
Live Paint group before (left) and after expanding and dragging to separate faces and edges (right)
Live Paint group before (left) and after Release command applied (right)
1 Select the Live Paint group.
2 Do one of the following:
• Choose Object > Live Paint > Expand.
• Choose Object > Live Paint > Release.
Select items in Live Paint groups
Use the Live Paint Selection tool
to select individual faces and edges in a Live Paint group. Use the Selection tool
to select the entire Live Paint group, and the Direct Selection tool to select paths inside a Live Paint group. When
you’re working in a complex document, you can isolate a Live Paint group so that it is easy to select the exact face or
edge you want.
Choose a selection tool depending on what you want to affect in a Live Paint group. For example, use the Live Paint
Selection tool to apply different gradients across different faces in a Live Paint group, and use the Selection tool to
apply the same gradient across the entire Live Paint group.
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See also
“Isolate artwork for editing” on page 198
Select faces and edges
The Live Paint Selection tool pointer changes to the face pointer
when it’s positioned over a face, the edge
pointer when it’s positioned over an edge, or the x pointer when it’s positioned outside of a Live Paint group.
❖ Select the Live Paint Selection tool, and then:
• To select an individual face or edge, click a face or edge.
• To select multiple faces and edges, drag a marquee around the items you want to select. Partial selections are
included.
• To select all contiguous faces that are not separated by a painted edge, double-click a face.
• To select faces or edges with the same fill or stroke, triple-click an item. Or click once, choose Select > Same, and
then choose Fill Color, Stroke Color, or Stroke Weight on the submenu.
• To add items to, or remove items from, the current selection, Shift-click or Shift-drag a marquee around the items.
Select a Live Paint group
❖ Using the Selection tool, click the group.
Select an original path within a Live Paint group
❖ Using the Direct Selection tool, click a path inside the Live Paint group.
Isolate a Live Paint group from the rest of the artwork
❖ Using the Selection tool, do one of the following:
• Double-click the group.
• Select the group, and then click the Isolate Selected Group button
in the Control panel.
Modify Live Paint groups
When you modify a path in a Live Paint group, Illustrator colors the modified or new faces and edges using fills and
strokes from the existing group. If the results are not what you expect, you can reapply the colors you want using the
Live Paint Bucket tool.
Live Paint group before (left) and after adjusting paths (right)
When you delete edges, the fill floods across any newly expanded face. For example, if you delete a path that divides a
circle in half, the circle is filled with one of the fills previously in the circle. You can sometimes help guide the results.
For instance, before deleting a path that divides a circle, first move it so that the fill you want to keep is larger than the
fill you want to remove.
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Live Paint group before (left) and after selecting and deleting a path (right)
Save the fill and stroke colors used in Live Paint groups in the Swatches panel. That way, if a change loses a color you
want to keep, you can select its swatch and use the Live Paint Bucket tool to reapply the fill or stroke.
See also
“Isolate artwork for editing” on page 198
Add paths to a Live Paint group
As you add more paths to the Live Paint group, you can fill and stroke the new faces and edges that are created.
Live Paint group before (left) and after adding a new path and painting the new faces and edges created by it (right)
❖ Do any of the following:
• Using the Selection tool, double-click a Live Paint group (or click the Isolate Selected Group button in the Control
panel) to put the group into isolation mode. Then draw another path. Illustrator adds the new path to the Live Paint
when you’re done adding new paths.
group. Click the Exit Isolation Mode button
• Select a Live Paint group and the paths you want to add to it. Then choose Object > Live Paint > Merge, or click
Merge Live Paint in the Control panel.
• In the Layers panel, drag one or more paths into a Live Paint group.
Note: Paths inside a Live Paint group may not exactly align with similar or identical paths outside the Live Paint group.
Resize an individual object or path
❖ Do one of the following:
• Using the Direct Selection tool, click the path or object to select it. Then choose the Selection tool and click the path
or object again to edit it.
• Using the Selection tool, double-click the Live Paint Group to put it into isolation mode. Then click a path or object
to edit it.
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Paint with the Live Paint Bucket tool
The Live Paint Bucket tool lets you paint faces and edges of Live Paint groups with the current fill and stroke attributes.
The tool pointer displays as either one or three color squares, which represent the selected fill or stroke color and, if
you’re using colors from a swatch library, the two colors adjacent to the selected color in the library. You can access
the adjacent colors, as well as the colors next to those, and so on, by pressing the left or right arrow key.
1 Select the Live Paint Bucket tool
.
2 Specify the fill color or stroke color and size you want.
Note: If you select a color from a the Swatches panel, the pointer changes to display three colors . The selected color is
in the middle, and the two adjacent colors are on either side. To use an adjacent color, click the left or right arrow key.
3 To paint a face, do any of the following:
• Click a face to fill it. (When the pointer is over a face, it changes to a half-filled paint bucket
and highlight lines
surround the inside of the fill.)
• Drag across multiple faces to paint more than one face at a time.
• Double-click a face to fill across unstroked edges into adjacent faces (flood fill).
• Triple-click a face to fill all faces that currently have the same fill.
To switch to the Eyedropper tool and sample fills or strokes, Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the fill or
stroke you want.
4 To paint an edge, double-click the Live Paint Bucket tool and select Paint Strokes, or temporarily toggle to the Paint
Strokes option, by pressing Shift; and then do any of the following:
• Click an edge to stroke it. (When the pointer is over an edge, it changes to a paint brush
and the edge is
highlighted.)
• Drag across multiple edges to stroke more than one edge at a time.
• Double-click an edge to stroke all connected edges of the same color (flood stroke).
• Triple-click an edge to stroke all edges of the same stroke.
Note: Pressing Shift lets you quickly toggle between painting only strokes and only fills. You can also specify these changes
in the Live Paint Bucket Options dialog box. If you currently have both the Paint Fills option and the Paint Strokes option
selected, pressing Shift switches to Paint Fills only. (This can be helpful when you are trying to fill a small face surrounded
by stroked edges.)
See also
“Fill and Stroke controls” on page 154
“Apply a fill color to an object” on page 155
“Stroke an object” on page 155
Live Paint Bucket options
The Live Paint Bucket options let you specify how the Live Paint Bucket tool works, choosing whether to paint just
fills, just strokes, or both, as well as how to highlight faces and edges as you move the tool over them. You can see these
options by double-clicking the Live Paint Bucket tool.
Paint Fills Paints the faces of Live Paint groups.
Paint Strokes Paints the edges of Live Paint groups.
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Cursor Swatch Preview Displays when you choose a color from the Swatches panel. The Live Paint Bucket tool pointer
appears as three color swatches: the selected fill or stroke color plus the color directly to the left and right of it in the
Swatches panel.
Highlight Outlines the face or edge the cursor is currently over. Faces are highlighted with a thick line and edges are
highlighted with a thin line.
Color Sets the color for the highlight. You can choose a color from the menu or click the paint swatch to specify a
custom color.
Width Specifies how thick to make the highlight.
Close gaps in Live Paint groups
Gaps are small spaces between paths. If paint leaks through and paints faces you did not intend, you probably have a
gap in your artwork. You can create a new path that closes the gap, edit existing paths to close the gap, or adjust the
gap options in the Live Paint group.
You can avoid gaps in your Live Paint artwork by overdrawing paths (that is, extending them past each other). You
can then select and delete the excess edges that result, or apply a stroke of “None” to them.
Highlight gaps in a Live Paint group
❖ Choose View > Show Live Paint Gaps.
This command highlights any gaps found on the currently selected Live Paint group, based on your gap options
settings for that group.
Set Live Paint gap options
❖ Choose Object > Live Paint > Gap Options and specify any of the following:
Gap Detection When selected, Illustrator recognizes gaps in Live Paint paths and prevents paint from flowing through
them. Note that this may slow Illustrator when working on large, complex Live Paint groups. In this case, you can
choose Close Gaps With Paths to help speed Illustrator up again.
Paint Stops At Sets the size of the gap paint can’t flow through.
Custom Specifies a custom Paint Stops At gap size.
Gap Preview Color Sets the color for previewing gaps in Live Paint groups. You can choose a color from the menu, or
click the color well next to the Gap Preview Color menu to specify a custom color.
Close Gaps With Paths When selected, inserts unpainted paths into your Live Paint group to close gaps (rather than
simply preventing paint from flowing though the gaps). Note that since these paths are unpainted, it may appear gaps
are still there even though they have been closed.
Preview Displays currently detected gaps in Live Paint groups as colored lines, based on the preview color you chose.
Gap rules for merged Live Paint groups
When you merge Live Paint groups that have different gap settings, Illustrator uses the following rules to handle the gaps:
• If gap detection is off in all groups in the selection, gaps are closed and gap detection is turned on with Paint Stops
At set to Small Gaps.
• If gap detection is on and the same for all groups in the selection, gaps are closed and the gap setting is preserved.
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• If gap detection is mixed for the selection, gaps are closed and the gap settings of the bottommost Live Paint group
are preserved (if gap detection is on for that group). If the bottommost group has gap detection turned off, gap
detection is turned on and Paint Stops At is set to Small Gaps.
Brushes
About brushes
Brushes let you stylize the appearance of paths. You can apply brush strokes to existing paths, or you can use the
Paintbrush tool to draw a path and apply a brush stroke simultaneously.
There are four types of brushes in Illustrator—calligraphic, scatter, art, and pattern. You can achieve the following
effects using these brushes:
Calligraphic brushes Create strokes that resemble those drawn with the angled point of a calligraphic pen and are
drawn along the center of the path. When you use the Blob Brush tool, you can paint with a calligraphic brush and
automatically expand the brush stroke into a fill shape that merges with other filled objects of the same color that
intersect or are adjacent in stacking order.
Scatter brushes Disperse copies of an object (such as a ladybug or a leaf) along the path.
Art brushes Stretch a brush shape (such as Rough Charcoal) or object shape evenly along the length of the path.
Pattern brushes Paint a pattern—made of individual tiles—that repeats along the path. Pattern brushes can include
up to five tiles, for the sides, inner corner, outer corner, beginning, and end of the pattern.
A
B
C
D
Sample brushes
A. Calligraphic brush B. Scatter brush C. Art brush D. Pattern brush
Scatter brushes and Pattern brushes can often achieve the same effect. However, one way in which they differ is that
Pattern brushes follow the path exactly, while Scatter brushes do not.
Arrows in a Pattern brush bend to follow the path (left), but arrows remain straight in a Scatter brush (right).
For a video on using brushes, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0044.
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See also
“Draw and merge paths with the Blob Brush tool” on page 157
Brushes panel overview
The Brushes panel (Window > Brushes) displays brushes for the current file. Whenever you select a brush in a brush
library, it is automatically added to the Brushes panel. Brushes that you create and store in the Brushes panel are
associated only with the current file, which means that each Illustrator file can have a different set of brushes in its
Brushes panel.
See also
“Keys for the Brushes panel” on page 472
Show or hide a type of brush
❖ Choose any of the following from the panel menu: Show Calligraphic Brushes, Show Scatter Brushes, Show Art
Brushes, Show Pattern Brushes.
Change the view of brushes
❖ Choose Thumbnail View or List View from the panel menu.
Change the order of brushes in the Brushes panel
❖ Drag a brush to a new location. You can move brushes only within their type. For example, you cannot move a
Calligraphic brush to the Scatter brush area.
Duplicate a brush in the Brushes panel
❖ Drag the brush onto the New Brush button
or choose Duplicate Brush from the Brushes panel menu.
Delete the brushes from the Brushes panel
❖ Select the brushes and click the Delete Brush button
. You can select brushes that aren’t used in a document by
choosing Select All Unused from the Brushes panel menu.
Work with brush libraries
Brush libraries (Window > Brush Libraries > [library]) are collections of preset brushes that come with Illustrator. You
can open multiple brush libraries to browse through their contents and select brushes. You can also open brush
libraries using the Brushes panel menu.
To automatically open a brush library when you start Illustrator, choose Persistent from the brush library’s panel
menu.
Copy brushes from a brush library to the Brushes panel
❖ Drag the brushes to the Brushes panel or choose Add To Brushes from the brush library’s panel menu.
Import brushes into the Brushes panel from another file
❖ Choose Window > Brushes Libraries > Other Library and select the file.
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Create new brush libraries
1 Add the brushes you want to the Brushes panel, and delete any brushes you don’t want.
2 Choose Save Brush Library from the Brushes panel menu, and place the new library file in one of the following
folders so that it will appear in the Brush Libraries menu when you restart Illustrator:
• (Windows XP) Documents and Settings/User/Application Data/Adobe/Adobe IllustratorCS4 Settings/Brush
• (Windows Vista) User/AppData/Roaming/Adobe/Adobe Illustrator CS4 Settings/Brush
• (Mac OS) Library/Application Support/Adobe/Adobe Illustrator CS4/Brush
Note: If you place the file in a different folder, you can open the library by choosing Window > Brush Libraries > Other
Library and selecting the library file.
Apply brush strokes
You can apply brush strokes to a path created with any drawing tool, including the Pen tool, Pencil tool, or basic shape
tools.
❖ Do one of the following:
• Select the path, and then select a brush in a brush library, the Brushes panel, or the Control panel.
• Drag a brush onto the path. If the path already has brush strokes applied to it, then the new brush replaces the old
brush.
If you want to apply a different brush to the path and want to use the brush stroke settings used with the original brush,
hold down Alt (Win) or Option (Mac OS) when clicking the new brush you want to apply.
Draw paths and apply brush strokes simultaneously
1 Select a brush in a brush library or the Brushes panel.
2 Select the Paintbrush tool
.
3 Position the pointer where you want the brush stroke to begin, and drag to draw a path. A dotted line follows the
pointer as you drag.
4 Do one of the following:
• To draw an open path, release the mouse button when the path is the desired shape.
• To draw a closed shape, hold down Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) as you drag. The Paintbrush tool displays
a small loop
. Release the mouse button (but not the Alt or Option key) when you are ready to close the shape.
Illustrator sets down anchor points as you draw. The number of anchor points is determined by the length and
complexity of the path and by the Paintbrush tolerance settings.
To adjust the shape of a brushed path after you finish drawing it, first select the path. Then position the Paintbrush
tool on the path, and drag until the path is the desired shape. You can use the technique to extend a brushed path as
well as change the shape of the path between the existing end points.
Paintbrush tool options
Double-click the Paintbrush tool to set the following options:
Fidelity Controls how far you have to move your mouse or stylus before Illustrator adds a new anchor point to the
path. For example, a Fidelity value of 2.5 means that tool movements of less than 2.5 pixels aren’t registered. Fidelity
can range from 0.5 to 20 pixels; the higher the value, the smoother and less complex the path.
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Smoothness Controls the amount of smoothing that Illustrator applies when you use the tool. Smoothness can range
from 0% to 100%; the higher the percentage, the smoother the path.
Fill New Brush Strokes Applies a fill to the path. This option is most useful when drawing closed paths.
Keep Selected Determines whether Illustrator keeps the path selected after you draw it.
Edit Selected Paths Determines whether you can change an existing path with the Paintbrush tool.
Within: _ pixels Determines how close your mouse or stylus must be to an existing path to edit the path with the
Paintbrush tool. This option is only available when the Edit Selected Paths option is selected.
Remove brush strokes
1 Select a brushed path.
2 In the Brushes panel, choose Remove Brush Stroke from the panel menu or click the Remove Brush Stroke
button
.
Convert brush strokes to outlines
You can convert brush strokes into outlined paths to edit the individual components of a brushed path.
1 Select a brushed path.
2 Choose Object > Expand Appearance.
Illustrator places the components of the expanded path in a group. Within the group are a path and a subgroup
containing the brush stoke outlines.
Create or modify brushes
You can create new calligraphic, scatter, art, and pattern brushes based on your own settings. For scatter, art, and
pattern brushes, you must first create the artwork you want to use. Follow these guidelines when creating artwork for
brushes:
• The artwork cannot contain gradients, blends, other brush strokes, mesh objects, bitmap images, graphs, placed
files, or masks.
• For art and pattern brushes, the artwork cannot contain type. To achieve a brush-stroke effect with type, create an
outline of the type and then create a brush with the outline.
• For pattern brushes, create up to five pattern tiles (depending on the brush configuration), and add the tiles to the
Swatches panel.
See also
“About patterns” on page 191
“Create corner tiles for brush patterns” on page 195
Create a brush
1 For scatter and art brushes, select the artwork you want to use. For pattern brushes, you can select the artwork for
the side tile, but it isn’t necessary.
2 Click the New Brush button
in the Brushes panel. Alternatively, drag the selected artwork to the Brushes panel.
3 Select the type of brush you want to create, and click OK.
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4 In the Brush Options dialog box, enter a name for the brush, set brush options, and click OK.
Modify a brush
• To change the options for a brush, double-click the brush in the Brushes panel. Set the brush options and click OK.
If the current document contains brushed paths that use the modified brush, a message appears. Click Apply To
Strokes to change pre-existing strokes. Click Leave Strokes to leave pre-existing strokes unchanged, and apply the
modified brush to new strokes only.
• To change the artwork used by a scatter, art, or pattern brush, drag the brush into your artwork and make the
changes you want. Then Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) the modified brush onto the original brush
in the Brushes panel.
• To modify a brushed path without updating the corresponding brush, select the path and click the Options Of
Selected Object button
in the Brushes panel.
Brush options
You can specify different options for the different types of brushes. To change the options for a brush, double-click the
brush in the Brushes panel.
Scatter, Art, and Pattern brushes all have identical options for colorization.
Calligraphic brush options
Angle Determines the angle of rotation for the brush. Drag the arrowhead in the preview, or enter a value in the Angle box.
Roundness Determines roundness of the brush. Drag a black dot in the preview away from or toward the center,
or enter a value in the Roundness box. The higher the value, the greater the roundness.
Diameter Determines the diameter of the brush. Use the Diameter slider, or enter a value in the Diameter box.
The pop-up list to the right of each option lets you control variations in the shape of the brush. Select one of the
following options:
• Fixed Creates a brush with a fixed angle, roundness, or diameter.
• Random Creates a brush with random variations in angle, roundness, or diameter. Enter a value in the Variation
box to specify the range within which the brush characteristic can vary. For example, when the Diameter value is 15
and the Variation value is 5, the diameter can be 10, or 20, or any value in between.
• Pressure Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on the pressure of a drawing stylus.
This option is most useful when used with Diameter. It is available only if you have a graphics tablet. Enter a value in
the Variation box to specify how much more or less than the original value the brush characteristic will vary.
For example, when the Roundness value is 75% and the Variation value is 25%, the lightest stroke is 50% and the
heaviest stroke is 100%. The lighter the pressure, the more angular the brush stroke.
• Stylus Wheel Creates a brush that varies in diameter based on manipulation of the stylus wheel. This option is
intended to be used with an airbrush pen that has a stylus wheel on its barrel and with a graphics tablet that can detect
that pen.
• Tilt Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on the tilt of a drawing stylus. This option is
most useful when used with Roundness. It is available only if you have a graphics tablet that can detect how close to
vertical the pen is.
• Bearing Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on the bearing of the pen. This option
is most useful when used to control the angle of calligraphic brushes, especially when you’re using the brush like a
paintbrush. It is available only if you have a graphics tablet that can detect the direction in which the pen is tilted.
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• Rotation Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on how the drawing stylus pen tip is
rotated. This option is most useful when used to control the angle of calligraphic brushes, especially when you’re using
the brush like a flat pen. It is available only if you have a graphics tablet that can detect this type of rotation.
Colorization options for scatter, art, and pattern brushes
The colors that a scatter, art, or pattern brush paints depend on the current stroke color and the colorization method
of the brush. To set the colorization method, select one of the following options in the Brush Options dialog box:
None Displays colors as they appear in the brush in the Brushes panel. Choose None to keep a brush the same colors
as in the Brushes panel.
Tints Displays the brush stroke in tints of the stroke color. Portions of the art that are black become the stroke color,
portions that aren’t black become tints of the stroke color, and white remains white. If you use a spot color as the
stroke, Tints generates tints of the spot color. Choose Tints for brushes that are in black and white, or when you want
to paint a brush stroke with a spot color.
Tints And Shades Displays the brush stroke in tints and shades of the stroke color. Tints and Shades maintains black
and white, and everything between becomes a blend from black to white through the stroke color. Because black is
added you may not be able to print to a single plate when using Tints and Shades with a spot color. Choose Tints and
Shades for brushes that are in grayscale.
Hue Shift Uses the key color in the brush artwork, as shown in the Key Color box. (By default, the key color is the most
prominent color in the art.) Everything in the brush artwork that is the key color becomes the stroke color. Other
colors in the brush artwork become colors related to the stroke color. Hue Shift maintains black, white, and gray.
Choose Hue Shift for brushes that use multiple colors. To change the key color, click the Key Color eyedropper, move
the eyedropper to the preview in the dialog box, and click the color you want to use as the key color. The color in the
Key Color box changes. Click the eyedropper again to deselect it.
For information and samples about each choice, click Tips.
Scatter brush options
Size Controls the size of the objects.
Spacing Controls the amount of space between objects.
Scatter Controls how closely objects follow the path independently on each side of the path. The higher the value, the
farther the objects are from the path.
Rotation Controls the angle of rotation of the objects.
Rotation Relative To Sets the angle of rotation for scattered objects relative to the page or the path. For example, if you
select Page, at 0° of rotation, objects point to the top of the page. If you select Path, at 0° of rotation, objects are tangent
to the path.
The pop-up list to the right of each option lets you control variations in the shape of the brush. Select one of the
following options:
• Fixed Creates a brush with a fixed size, spacing, scattering, and rotation.
• Random Creates a brush with random variations in size, spacing, scattering, and rotation. Enter a value in the
Variation box to specify the range within which the brush characteristic can vary. For example, when the Diameter
value is 15 and the Variation value is 5, the diameter can be 10, or 20, or any value in between.
• Pressure Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on the pressure of a drawing stylus.
This option is available only if you have a graphics tablet. Enter a value in the rightmost box, or use the Maximum
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slider. Pressure uses the Minimum value for the lightest tablet pressure and the Maximum value for the heaviest
pressure. When you choose this setting for Diameter, the heavier the stroke, the larger the objects.
• Stylus Wheel Creates a brush that varies in diameter based on manipulation of the stylus wheel. This option is
available only if you have a graphics tablet that has a stylus wheel on its barrel and can detect input from that pen.
• Tilt Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on the tilt of a drawing stylus. It is available
only if you have a graphics tablet that can detect how close to vertical the pen is.
• Bearing Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on the pressure of a drawing stylus. This
option is most useful when used to control the angle of brushes. It is available only if you have a graphics tablet that
can detect the direction in which the pen is tilted.
• Rotation Creates a brush that varies in angle, roundness, or diameter based on how the drawing stylus pen tip is
rotated. This option is most useful when used to control the angle of brushes. It is available only if you have a graphics
tablet that can detect this type of rotation.
Art brush options
Width Adjusts the width of the art relative to its original width.
Proportional Preserves proportions in scaled art.
Direction Determines the direction of the artwork in relation to the line. Click an arrow to set the direction:
place the left side of the art is the end of the stroke;
to place the right side of the art is the end of the stroke;
place the top of the art is the end of the stroke;
to place the bottom of the art is the end of the stroke.
to
to
Flip Along or Flip Across Change the orientation of the art in relation to the line.
Pattern brush options
Scale Adjusts the size of tiles relative to their original size.
Spacing Adjusts the space between tiles.
Tile buttons Let you apply different patterns to different parts of the path. Click a tile button for the tile you want to
define, and select a pattern swatch from the scroll list. Repeat to apply pattern swatches to other tiles as needed.
Note: You must add the pattern tiles you want to use to the Swatches panel before you set pattern brush options. After
you create a pattern brush, you can delete the pattern tiles from the Swatches panel if you don’t plan to use them for
additional artwork.
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D
C
A
B
C
B
A
D
E
E
Tiles in a pattern brush
A. Side tile B. Outer Corner tile C. Inner Corner tile D. Start tile E. End tile
Flip Along or Flip Across Changes the orientation of the pattern in relation to the line.
Fit Determines how the pattern fits on the path: Stretch To Fit lengthens or shortens the pattern tile to fit the object.
This option can result in uneven tiling. Add Space To Fit adds blank space between each pattern tile to apply the
pattern proportionally to the path. Approximate Path fits tiles to the closest approximate path without changing the
tiles. This option applies the pattern slightly inside or outside the path, rather than centered on the path, to maintain
even tiling.
A
B
C
Fit options
A. Stretch To Fit B. Add Space To Fit C. Approximate Path
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5 Do one of the following:
• To reflect the object, click OK.
• To reflect a copy of the object, click Copy.
Using layers
About layers
When creating complex artwork, it’s a challenge to keep track of all the items in your document window. Small items
get hidden under larger items, and selecting artwork becomes difficult. Layers provide a way to manage all the items
that make up your artwork. Think of layers as clear folders that contain artwork. If you reshuffle the folders, you
change the stacking order of the items in your artwork. You can move items between folders and create subfolders
within folders.
The structure of layers in your document can be as simple or complex as you want it to be. By default, all items are
organized in a single, parent layer. However, you can create new layers and move items into them, or move elements
from one layer to another at any time. The Layers panel provides an easy way to select, hide, lock, and change the
appearance attributes of artwork. You can even create template layers, which you can use to trace artwork, and
exchange layers with Photoshop.
For a video on using layers and groups, see www.adobe.com/go/vid0041. For information on using layers to create
animations, see www.adobe.com/go/learn_ai_tutorials_layers_en.
See also
Using layers to create animations
Layers panel overview
You use the Layers panel (Window > Layers) to list, organize, and edit the objects in a document. By default, every new
document contains one layer, and each object you create is listed under that layer. However, you can create new layers
and rearrange items to best suit your needs.
By default, Illustrator assigns a unique color (up to nine colors) to each layer in the Layers panel. The color displays
next to the layer name in the panel. The same color displays in the illustration window in the bounding box, path,
anchor points, and center point of a selected object. You can use this color to quickly locate an object’s corresponding
layer in the Layers panel, and you can change the layer color to suit your needs.
When an item in the Layers panel contains other items, a triangle appears to the left of the item’s name. Click the
triangle to show or hide the contents. If no triangle appears, the item contains no additional items.
A B
C D
Layers panel
A. Visibility column B. Edit column C. Target column D. Selection column
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The Layers panel provides columns to the left and right of the listings. Click in a column to control the following
characteristics:
Visibility column Indicates whether items in the layers are visible
template
layers or outline
or hidden (blank space), or whether they are
layers.
Edit column Indicates whether items are locked or unlocked. The lock icon
indicates that the item is locked and
cannot be edited; a blank space indicates that the item is unlocked and can be edited.
Target column Indicates whether items are targeted for application of effects and edit attributes in the Appearance
panel. When the target button appears as a double ring icon (either
indicates that the item is not targeted.
or
), the item is targeted; a single ring icon
Selection column Indicates whether items are selected. A color box appears when an item is selected. If an item, such
as a layer or group, contains some objects that are selected and other objects that are unselected, a smaller selection
color box appears next to the parent item. If all of the objects within the parent item are selected, the selection color
boxes are the same size as the marks that appear next to selected objects.
You can use the Layers panel to display some items as outlines and other items as they will appear in the final artwork.
You also can dim linked images and bitmap objects to make it easier to edit artwork on top of the image. This is
especially useful when tracing a bitmap image.
A
B
C
Display options for layered artwork
A. Object displayed in Outline view B. Bitmap object dimmed to 50% C. Selected object displayed in Preview view
See also
“Workspace overview” on page 10
“View artwork as outlines” on page 44
“Trace artwork” on page 77
Change the display of the Layers panel
1 Choose panel Options from the Layers panel menu.
2 Select Show Layers Only to hide paths, groups, and collective elements in the Layers panel.
3 For Row Size, select an option to specify the height of rows. (To specify a custom size, enter a value between 12 and
100.)
4 For Thumbnails, select a combination of layers, groups, and objects for which to display thumbnail previews.
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Note: Displaying thumbnails in the Layers panel may result in slow performance when you are working with complex
files. Turn off layer thumbnails to improve performance.
Set layer and sublayer options
1 Do one of the following:
• Double-click the item name in the Layers panel.
• Click the item name and choose Options For <item name> from the Layers panel menu.
• Choose New Layer or New Sublayer from the Layers panel menu.
2 Specify any of the following:
Name Specifies the name of the item as it appears in the Layers panel.
Color Specifies the layer’s color setting. You can either choose a color from the menu or double-click the color
swatch to select a color.
Template Makes the layer a template layer.
Lock Prevents changes to the item.
Show Displays all artwork contained in the layer on the artboard.
Print Makes the artwork contained in the layer printable.
Preview Displays the artwork contained in the layer in color instead of as outlines.
Dim Images Reduces the intensity of linked images and bitmap images contained in the layer to the specified
percentage.
Create a new layer
1 In the Layers panel, click the name of the layer above which (or in which) you want to add the new layer.
2 Do one of the following:
• To add a new layer above the selected layer, click the Create New Layer button
in the Layers panel.
• To create a new sublayer inside the selected layer, click the Create New Sublayer button
in the Layers panel.
To set options when you create a new layer, choose New Layer or New Sublayer from the Layers panel menu.
Move an object to a different layer
1 Select the object.
2 Do one of the following:
• Click the name of the desired layer in the Layers panel. Then choose Object > Arrange > Send To Current Layer.
• Drag the selected-art indicator
, located at the right of the layer in the Layers panel, to the layer you want.
You can move objects or layers into a new layer by selecting them and choosing Collect In New Layer from the
Layers panel menu. Hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) to select nonadjacent items; hold down
Shift to select adjacent items.
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Release items to separate layers
The Release To Layers command redistributes all of the items in a layer into individual layers and can build new objects
in each layer based on the object’s stacking order. You can use this feature to prepare files for web animation work.
1 In the Layers panel, click the name of a layer or group.
2 Do one of the following:
• To release each item to a new layer, choose Release To Layers (Sequence) from the Layers panel menu.
• To release items into layers and duplicate objects to create a cumulative sequence, choose Release To Layers
(Build) from the Layers panel menu. The bottommost object appears in each of the new layers, and the topmost
object only appears in the topmost layer. For example, assume Layer 1 contains a circle (bottommost object), a
square, and a triangle (topmost object). This command creates three layers—one with a circle, square, and
triangle; one with a circle and square; and one with just a circle. This is useful for creating cumulative animation
sequences.
Release To Layers (Build) command creates new layers.
Consolidate layers and groups
Merging and flattening layers are similar in that they both let you consolidate objects, groups, and sublayers into a
single layer or group. With merging, you can select which items you want to consolidate; with flattening, all visible
items in the artwork are consolidated in a single layer. With either option, the stacking order of the artwork remains
the same, but other layer-level attributes, such as clipping masks, aren’t preserved.
• To merge items into a single layer or group, hold down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) and click the
names of the layers or groups that you want to merge. Alternatively, hold down Shift to select all listings in between
the layer or group names you click. Then, select Merge Selected from the Layers panel menu. Note that items will
be merged into the layer or group that you selected last.
Layers can only merge with other layers that are on the same hierarchical level in the Layers panel. Likewise,
sublayers can only merge with other sublayers that are within the same layer and at the same hierarchical level.
Objects can’t be merged with other objects.
• To flatten layers, click the name of the layer into which you want to consolidate the artwork. Then select Flatten
Artwork from the Layers panel menu.
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