NCPSB MEMBERS - National Child Passenger Safety Board

NCPSB MEMBERS - National Child Passenger Safety Board
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) revision of the program was made
possible with the assistance of a substantial number of talented child passenger safety experts
from across the country. We are grateful to everyone who gave so much time, attention, and
expertise to help bring you this revised program.
Past and present members of the National Child Passenger Safety Board (NCPSB)
conceptualized the revised program and guided the redesign with dedication, expertise, and
passion. Without their commitment, the National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training
Program would not be the first class program that it is today.
NCPSB MEMBERS
Following are the names of NCPSB members, past and present, who provided direction and
technical assistance.
Marian Adams
Stacy Dawkins
Jennifer Huebner-Davidson
Helen Arbogast
Audrey Eagle
Carol Meidinger
J. Kevin Behrens
Suzanne Grace
John Merchant
Jennifer Booge
Carole S. Guzzetta
Sarah Tilton
Allan Buchanan
Barbi Harris
Lorrie Walker
Marilyn Bull
Sarah Haverstick
Narinder Dhaliwal
Sherri Cannon
Amy Heinzen
Bob Wall
Kerry Chausmer
Carol Helminski
Norraine Wingfield
FIELD REVIEWERS
Additional CPS Technicians and Instructors from the field reviewed the course and provided
valuable technical feedback.
Katrina Altenhofen
Kecia Healy
Kevin Poore
Ronald A. Atkins
Stephanie Heitsch
Marissa Ann Rodriguez
Jeffrey Baker
Susan A. Helms
Jennifer Rubin
Dawn Batman
Nichole Hodges
Amy Schultz
Margaret Beers
Jim Hoflund
Jennifer Ann Shea
Jennifer Belyeu
Amy Horn
Deborah June Scruggs
Amy Suzanne Borg
Amanda M. Horner
Terriann Shell
Janet Brooks
Mike James
Raymond Shew
Angela Brown
Steven D. Jensen
Thomas Sholty
Ann Brunzell
Woody Johnston
Jackie Stackhouse Leach
Jennie Burton
Francine Jones
Deborah Stewart
Deana Carson
Lisa A. Jones
John J. Stubbs
Suzanne Cash LeDoyen
Beth Kindschi
Andrea Marie Swanson
Jimmy Cassidy
Kathryn Kruger
Holly M. Terry
Lori Cawley
Dana Landy
Anna Louise Thompson
Emilie Crown
Jeannine Lange
Sandra Tomiyama
Kristi Davis
Phyllis Larimore
Joseph Boyd Tong
Page Intro-1
FIELD REVIEWERS (CONTINUED)
Narinder Dhaliwal
Marnita Louzon
Andrew Turnage
Gary Lyn Dill
Ronda Lusk
Mark Van Horn
Denise Donaldson
Chengyeng Ly
Wanda Vazquez
Susan Marie Douglass
Karen Macauley
Eleanor J. Walters
Donald D. Dupray
Deborah A McCabe
Mike D. Warren
Suzanne E. Emery
Angela McFall
Heather Watson
Wendi Felgner
Katie D. Mueller
Kathy White
Victoria Fisher
M. Claire Myer
Tracy Whitman
Tamara Franks
Sarah Nielsen
Kim Wittig
Lisa B. Gardner
Emma Olenberger
Donald Wood
Beth Guzzetta
Jennifer Pavey
Richard Youngs
Bill Hall
Justin Phillips
Carol Ann Hancock
Lisa A. Phy
Lester Haynes
Allana Pinkerton
PILOT SITE
The course was pilot tested with a group of Technician Candidates. Feedback from the pilot was
used to fine-tune the materials. Child Passenger Safety Technician (CPST) Instructor Emilie
Crown hosted the pilot session and provided organizational and logistics support. The rest of the
instructor team included:
•
•
•
•
Jessica Butterfield
Dale Crown
Marcelo Ramos
Kristin Rosenthal
MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
The National Safety Council (NSC) provided overall project management and instructional
design and development expertise. NSC engaged a curriculum design specialist to redesign the
course according to current adult learning principles.
Page Intro-2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Module 1: Program Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1-1
Module 2: The CPS Technician Role ............................................................................................. 2-1
Module 3: Injury Prevention & Crash Dynamics ............................................................................. 3-1
Module 4: Seat Belt Systems ......................................................................................................... 4-1
Module 5: Air Bags ......................................................................................................................... 5-1
Module 6: Lower Anchors & Tethers for CHildren .......................................................................... 6-1
Module 7: Introduction to Car Seats & Booster Seats .................................................................... 7-1
Module 8: Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats ................................................................................ 8-1
Module 9: Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats .......................................................................... 9-1
Module 10: Children in Booster Seats & Seat Belts ..................................................................... 10-1
Module 11: CPS in Other Vehicles ............................................................................................... 11-1
Module 12: Installation & Communication .................................................................................... 12-1
Module 13: Closing & Checkup Event .......................................................................................... 13-1
NOTE: All statistics noted in the program are based on data available at the time of printing.
Page Intro-3
Page Intro-4
MODULE
1
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Program Introduction
OBJECTIVES
• Become acquainted with the purpose, goals, and successful completion requirements of the
•
•
National CPS Training Certification Program.
Identify the personal costs of incorrect use and installation of car seats, booster seats, and seat belts.
Identify national statistics on the use of car seats, booster seats, and seat belts.
WELCOME …
… to the National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program!
The National Child Passenger
Safety (CPS) Certification Training
Program is a partnership between
three organizations:
•
The National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration
(NHTSA) developed the original
curriculum in the mid-1990s and
regularly updates the content.
Representatives of the
National Child Passenger Safety Board (NCPSB)
NHTSA’s mission is to save lives,
prevent injuries, and reduce traffic
crash costs through education, research, safety standards, and enforcement activities.
•
The National Child Passenger Safety Board (NCPSB) oversees the quality and integrity
of the training and certification requirements.
•
Safe Kids Worldwide is the certifying body responsible for administering all aspects
of certification.
OVERALL PURPOSE OF THIS PROGRAM: WHY ARE WE HERE?
Traffic crashes can happen to anyone at any time. Statistically,
you have about a nine percent chance of being involved in a
vehicle collision every year. That is about five collisions in a
lifetime (National Safety Council [NSC] Injury Facts, 2012).
While traffic crashes affect people of all ages, it is especially
concerning that crashes are the leading cause of death of
children in the United States. Just as concerning is that in most
cases, child passenger injuries and deaths can be prevented.
Many injuries and deaths occur as a result of the high misuse
rate of car seats, booster seats, and seat belts.
Imagine(if(a(car(seat(or(
booster(seat(saves(the(life(
of(a(64year4old(child.(
Given(mortality(rates,(it(
could(result(in(72(
productive(years(for(just(
one(person((Centers(for(
Disease(Control([CDC],(
2011).(
Education and proper use of air bags, car seats, booster seats, and seat belts helps save lives
and can prevent injuries and deaths every day. When used correctly, the risk of hospitalization,
injury, and death for children is greatly reduced.
Nationally)certified)CPS)Technicians)make)a)difference)in)the)lives)of)families!
Page 1-1
TRAINING PROGRAM GOALS
1. Certify you as a CPS Technician.
2. Provide you with the opportunity to apply basic technical skills and knowledge to the correct
installation and use of car seats, booster seats, and seat belts.
3. Equip you to educate caregivers in the proper selection, installation, and use of car seats
and booster seats and to know when to move to seat belts once booster seats are outgrown.
4. Equip you to educate caregivers so they can confidently install and reinstall car seats and
booster seats.
5. Enable you to be a resource in your communities.
!
“The%National%Child%Passenger%Safety%Certification%Training%Program%was%a%
transformational%experience%for%me,%not%only%from%a%policy%standpoint,%but%also%from%
an%interpersonal%perspective.%I%understand%why%CPS%Technicians%are%so%passionate,%
because%I%have%been%swept%up%by%the%same%passion.”%
(
David(L.(Strickland(
NHTSA(Administrator
TERMS USED IN THIS TRAINING PROGRAM
There are many different names used for what caregivers tend to refer to as car seats such as
child safety seats, child restraints, CRs, and baby seats.
Child restraint is the common, and sometimes required, term used by the government and
manufacturers in formal and official writings, including labeling and manuals. Child restraints
refer to rear-facing car seats, forward-facing car seats, and booster seats.
Since our purpose with this program is to help you work directly with caregivers, we have
chosen to use the more familiar term that is used on many websites, in public service
announcements, and is one of the most common search terms – car seats.
We will use:
•
Car seats as the term when referring to rear-facing and forward-facing seats with
harnesses.
•
Booster seats as the term for referring to restraints that secure a child with the use of a
seat belt.
Rear-facing car seat
Forward-facing car seat
Page 1-2
Booster seat
TRAINING PROGRAM
COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS
Attend the entire training
program.
!
Participate in class discussions
and practice activities.
!
Pass three written quizzes with
a total of 42/50 correct.
!
!
Pass three skills assessments.
Participate in the end-of-class
checkup event.
Training program completion requirements
NOTE: In taking the quizzes and skills assessments, you may use all available resources. Your
Technician Guide (TG) is your #1 resource. If you do not pass – retests are NOT allowed.
VIDEO • Flashback
IMPORTANT-TO-KNOW STATISTICS ON THE USE OF CAR SEATS, BOOSTER SEATS, AND SEAT BELTS
Here are some key statistics you can share with others to support your efforts in child
passenger safety. Protecting children when they ride in vehicles is the responsibility of all
community members.
!
!
About 90 people died each day in vehicle crashes (NHTSA, 2010).
!
Restraint use among young children often depends upon the
driver’s seat belt use. When the driver is buckled, children
are restrained (car seats/booster seats/seat belts) 95
percent of the time. When the driver is unbuckled, children
are restrained 67 percent of the time (National Occupant
Protection Use Survey Controlled Intersection Survey, 2011).
!
Child restraints, or car seats, reduce the risk of injury by 71 to 82 percent and reduce the
risk of death by 28 percent in comparison to children in seat belts alone. Booster seats
reduce the risk of nonfatal injuries by 45 percent among 4 to 8-year-olds (AAA, 2012).
Vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death for children in
the United States (NHTSA, 2012).
Page 1-3
Drivers)who)buckle)up)
are)more)likely)to)
have)child)passengers)
who)buckle)up.)
MODULE 1 • Program Introduction
!
IMPORTANT-TO-KNOW FACTS:
STATISTICS ON THE USE OF CAR SEATS, BOOSTER SEATS, AND SEAT BELTS (CONTINUED)
!
Child restraints are often used incorrectly. One study found that 72 percent of nearly 3,500
observed car seats and booster seats were misused in a way that could be expected to
increase a child’s risk of injury during a crash (NHTSA, 2006).
!
In 2010, it is estimated that 303 children under 5 were saved as a result of restraint use.
Over the period 1975 through 2010, an estimated 9,611 lives were saved by child restraints
(car seats/booster seats or seat belts) for children under the age of five in passenger
vehicles (NHTSA, 2010).
NOTE: Refer to the NHTSA website at www.nhtsa.gov and the CPS Board website at
www.cpsboard.org for the latest statistics and details about effectiveness of correctly using car
seats, booster seats, and seat belts and their misuse.
The)best)way)to)protect)children)in)the)car)is)to)put)them)in)
the)right)seat)at)the)right)time)–)
and)use)it)the)right)way!)
Buckle up for safety!
Page 1-4
Progress Check and Summary
1. What is a leading cause of death for children in the United States?
3. What are the five main goals of this program?
NOTE: There is a glossary of terms on the NCPSB website (www.cpsboard.org) that you can
refer to as needed after the course.
Page 1-5
MODULE 1 • Program Introduction
2. What is the best way to protect children in the car?
Page 1-6
MODULE
2
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
The CPS Technician Role
OBJECTIVES
• Describe the CPS Technician role.
• Discuss best practices and caregiver choices.
THE CPS TECHNICIAN ROLE
What Expectations Do You Have About This Course?
1.
2.
3.
VIDEO • The CPS Technician Role
RESOURCES TO KEEP
YOUR SKILLS CURRENT
Take notes on the CPS Technician role and what you could be
doing on the job below.
• NHTSA’s Tech Update
newsletter
• Safe Kids Worldwide
CPS Express
• Manufacturer websites
• NHTSA websites:
www.safercar.gov and
www.nhtsa.dot.gov
• Recall lists
www.safercar/gov
Fielding questions
Page 2-1
CPS TECHNICIAN ROLE (CONTINUED)
Car seat checkup event
Health and safety fairs,
community events, and educational presentations
The primary role of the CPS Technician is to educate caregivers on the correct selection,
installation, and use of car seats, booster seats, and seat belts by:
!
Teaching caregivers about the proper selection, installation, and use of car seats and
booster seats and proper use of seat belts.
!
!
Teaching caregivers when to move the child to seat belts once booster seats are outgrown.
Providing caregiver education through:
– Checkup events or by individual appointments that might be held at locations such as
fire stations, car dealerships, hospitals, and retail stores.
– Health and safety fairs and community events where information and materials are
provided.
– Educational presentations to professional groups, parent groups, and community
organizations.
– Answering caregivers’ child passenger safety questions and supporting other CPS
Technicians whether in person, by phone, or even by email.
CPS Technicians carry out this role with caregivers by demonstrating and explaining about:
!
Selection: Ensuring the car seat, booster seat, or seat belt is in good condition and
appropriate for the child’s age, height, weight, and developmental levels, as well as ensuring
that the seat is not recalled.
!
Direction: Facing the car seat in the correct direction for the age, height, weight, and
developmental levels of the child.
!
!
!
Location: Placing the car seat or booster seat in an appropriate location in the vehicle.
Installation: Installing the car seat or booster seat in the vehicle correctly.
Harnessing: Securing the child in the car seat, booster seat, or seat belt.
NOTE: Ensure that the caregiver can secure the child in their car seat in the vehicle.
Page 2-2
THE LEARN, PRACTICE, EXPLAIN MODEL
Emphasis in this course is placed on ensuring that your learning experience will successfully
prepare you to achieve the main purpose – to help caregivers safely transport their families.
To ensure you are equipped to educate caregivers so they can confidently use and install car
seats, booster seats, and seat belts, this course has been designed using the Learn, Practice,
Explain (LPE) Model.
Practice your new skills and share information.
Explain (teach) what you have learned to caregivers.
!
LPE!principles!apply!to!CPS!Technicians,!instructors,!and!caregivers!–!!
beginning!today!and!continuing!once!you!are!certified.!
BEST PRACTICES AND CAREGIVER CHOICES
In your role as a CPS Technician, you will:
!
!
Identify the best way to transport a child safely.
Explain best practices to the caregiver.
Best practice is the gold standard of protection (while following manufacturer instructions). It is
the safest way to transport a child based on the child’s:
!
!
!
!
Age
Weight
Height
Development levels
Often, when caregivers do not understand the reason for it, they do not choose the best
practice. As a CPS Technician, it is your job to know the reason and explain it to the caregiver in
simple, clear terms.
You may not always have a clear and definitive answer to provide and may have to give more
than one option. This can result in a choice for a caregiver.
Caregiver choices are related to issues that may not have a clear answer on the safest way to
transport a child. Caregivers will then have the final decision based on best practices you
provide.
In many cases, there will be best practices related to the choices. A CPS Technician must
provide caregivers with available options, making them better able to make choices about how
to best secure their child in the appropriate car seat or booster seat.
As!a!CPS!Technician,!you!can!never!support!a!caregiver!in!either!breaking!the!
law!or!going!against!manufacturer!instructions.!In!cases!where!the!caregiver!
does!not!make!the!safe!choice,!document!it!on!your!Check!Form.
Page 2-3
MODULE 2 • The CPS Technician Role
Learn the facts/skills/information. Seek ways to stay updated. Then …
BEST PRACTICES AND CAREGIVER CHOICES (CONTINUED)
Some%states%provide%CPS%Technicians%with%protection%from%liability.%But%the%best%
protection%is%the%consistent%application%of%best%practices%and%thorough%documentation.%
!
J.!Kevin!Behrens!
Former!Governors!Highway!Safety!Association!(GHSA)!Representative!
National!Child!Passenger!Safety!Board!
CPS Technician explaining best practice to caregiver
EXAMPLE!OF!BEST!PRACTICE:!Children!should!ride!in!a!booster!seat!until!the!adult!
lapJandJshoulder!belt!fits!properly.!
CAREGIVER!CHOICES!
• The$law$where$you$live$does$not$require$children$to$ride$in$booster$seats$until$they$are$
between$8$to$12.$Instead,$the$law$requires$only$that$children$ride$in$booster$seats$until$the$
age$of$6.$$
• A$caregiver$wants$to$follow$the$law$rather$than$follow$best$practice.$$
• As$a$CPS$Technician,$it$is$your$job$to$help$the$caregiver$understand$the$reason$for$the$
best$practice.$$
• If$the$caregiver$chooses$to$let$the$child$ride$without$a$booster$seat,$you$cannot$stop$the$
caregiver$from$doing$so.$In$this$situation,$you$should$help$the$caregiver$understand$the$
reason$behind$the$best$practice$standard.$$
• Document$the$caregiver’s$choice$not$to$follow$best$practice$on$the$Check$Form$your$
organization$uses$to$document$seat$checks.$
Page 2-4
Progress Check and Summary
1. How do CPS Technicians provide caregiver education?
3. What is a best practice?
4. Who is responsible for making final choices?
Page 2-5
MODULE 2 • The CPS Technician Role
2. What do CPS Technicians explain (teach) when they work with a caregiver?
Page 2-6
MODULE
3
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Injury Prevention & Crash Dynamics
OBJECTIVES
• Describe challenges to crash survival.
• Explain the concept of crash forces.
• Describe five ways that car seats, booster seats, and seat belts prevent injury.
CHALLENGES TO CRASH SURVIVAL
Motor%vehicle%crashes%are%a%leading%cause%of%death%in%the%U.S.%(CDC,%2013)%
(Based'on'latest'mortality'data'available'from'CDC’s'National'Center'for'Health'Statistics)'
!
Car seat, booster seat, and seat belt use decrease as
children get older. Most children are restrained during the
first year of life because they appear to be more fragile and
need more protection (NHTSA, 2010).
!
According to various reports from NHTSA and the field, car
seat, booster seat, and seat belt misuse rates vary from 74
to 90 percent.
!
Misuse and nonuse are important issues to address with
caregivers.
!
Correct selection, installation, and use of a car seat can be
challenging.
!
Caregivers may have outdated or incorrect information about
car seats, booster seats, and seat belts.
!
Caregivers may not choose best practice over personal
preferences or actual safety over perceived safety. For
example, caregivers might prioritize wanting to see the child
more easily and move the child to a forward-facing car seat
over best practice recommendations.
INJURY'PREVENTION'is'a'
process'used'to'decrease'
injuries'or'death'due'to'
an'injury.'However,'it'
does'not'work'100'
percent'of'the'time.''
Many'factors'in'a'crash'
determine'outcomes'such'
as'vehicle'size,'speed,'and'
point'of'impact.'
Because the heads of young children are
disproportionately large compared to their bodies
and their pelvic bones and spines are
underdeveloped, when installed and used correctly,
car seats, booster seats, and seat belts help to
protect children in vehicles.
Fatalities are just the tip of the iceberg. Many more
injuries occur than deaths each year. Some injuries
have lifelong effects and can be costly.
Vehicle crashes can result in injuries and deaths
By%understanding%the%correct%use%of%car%seats,%booster%seats,%and%seat%belts,%
it%is%easy%to%see%errors%and%misuse%–%and%offer%information%and%resources%
to%caregivers%to%correct%the%errors%and%misuse.
Page 3-1
Resources for Current Injury and Misuse Data
Examples of resources for current injury, misuse, and error rates in your community and across
the nation are listed below. Resources for current data are also available at www.cpsboard.org.
•
•
•
•
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) at http://www.aap.org
•
•
Governors Highway Safety Administration (GHSA) at www.ghsa.org
•
•
•
•
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) at www.safercar.gov
Car seat, booster seat, and vehicle manufacturer websites
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at www.cdc.gov/injury/WISQARS
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) at http://www.chop.edu/service/car-seat-safetyfor-kids/index.html
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) at www.highwaysafety.org or
http://www.iihs.org
NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA) at www.nhtsa.gov
Safe Kids Worldwide at http://www.safekids.org
State and local health departments
NOTE: Review educational materials (articles, websites, videos, brochures, handouts, etc.)
every year to be sure you are providing accurate and current information. Go to NHTSA’s
http://www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov for up-to-date consumer information.
“CPS%Technicians%play%such%a%critical%role%in%explaining%the%engineering%of%crash%
dynamics%in%lay%terms%so%parents%understand%the%reasons%behind%best%practice%
recommendations.”%
Kristy'Arbogast,'PhD'
Center'for'Injury'Research'and'Prevention'
Children’s'Hospital'of'Philadelphia'
THE CONCEPT OF CRASH FORCES
There are many factors related to injury prevention that must be considered before, during, and
after a crash to prevent or minimize injuries from occurring. Here are a few examples:
•
•
•
•
Road conditions before the crash
Car seat use during the crash
Seat belt use (such as using lap belt correctly or incorrectly) during the crash
Emergency response time after the crash
You might do everything correctly when driving safely and still get into a collision. One way to
understand the value of occupant protection and how it helps you survive a collision is to look at
the dynamics of a collision. Every vehicle collision includes three crashes.
•
•
•
The vehicle crash
The human crash
The internal crash
Page 3-2
THE CONCEPT OF CRASH FORCES (CONTINUED)
VIDEO • 3 Stages of a Collision
!
!
The Vehicle Crash. The first stage involves the vehicle. A
crash causes the vehicle to buckle and bend as it hits
something and comes to an abrupt stop. This occurs in
approximately 1/10 of a second in a front-end collision. The
crushing of the front end absorbs some crash forces and
cushions the rest of the vehicle. As a result, the passenger
compartment comes to a more gradual stop than the front of
the vehicle.
The Human Crash. The second stage occurs as the
vehicle stops. In a crash, occupants move toward the point
of impact, at the vehicle's original speed. Just after the
vehicle comes to a complete stop, occupants collide with
the steering wheel, windshield, seat belt, or some other
part of the vehicle interior. This is the human crash.
NOTE: All objects in the vehicle move with the same
speed upon impact whether belted or not.
Another form of the human crash is the person-to-person
impact:
•
Unbelted occupants colliding with each other or an
unbelted occupant colliding with a belted occupant can
cause many serious or fatal injuries.
•
Unbelted rear-seat occupants become high-speed
projectiles striking people in the front seat.
Page 3-3
The vehicle crash
The human crash
Some'crashes'are'so'
violent'that'even'
properly'restrained'
occupants'are'injured'or'
killed.'If'the'occupant'
compartment'is'crushed,'
car'seats'and'seat'belts'
may'be'unable'to'prevent'
injury'or'death.'
MODULE 3 • Injury Prevention & Crash Dynamics
Watch carefully for and take notes about the characteristics of the three stages (crashes) of a
collision below.
THE CONCEPT OF CRASH FORCES (CONTINUED)
!
The Internal Crash. The third stage occurs after an
occupant’s body comes to a complete stop. The internal
organs are still moving forward until the organs hit
something. Suddenly, organs hit other organs or the
skeletal system. This third crash is the internal crash, often
causing serious or fatal injuries.
The internal crash
Crash Forces: Weight X Speed = Restraining Force
In any crash, even a minor one, occupants in the vehicle can be seriously injured. Most people
are unaware of the force a vehicle has when moving. Consider:
•
A vehicle going 40 mph would hit a tree with the same force
as hitting the ground after falling off a 50-foot cliff. A person
inside the vehicle would hit the windshield with the same
force as hitting the ground after a fall from a 5-story building.
•
It is important for caregivers to understand that the forces
involved in a crash can kill or cause serious injuries to
themselves and their child.
•
One way to help caregivers understand such forces is to explain that the force needed to
restrain an occupant approximately equals the weight of the occupant multiplied by the
vehicle speed.
It'is'important'for'
caregivers'to'understand'
that'holding'a'child'in'
their'lap'or'unrestrained'
presents'great'risk'to'the'
unbelted'child.'
Example: A 10-pound infant in a vehicle moving at 30 miles per hour could require at least
300 pounds (10 x 30 = 300) of restraining force to keep from moving forward.
Progress Check: Estimating Restraining Force
Estimate restraining force using your weight and a crash at 30 mph.
Rollovers, Rotations, and Ejection
Dangerous crash events can occur in almost any type of collision or chain of crash events. Here
are the most common types of crashes and their related injuries.
•
Frontal crashes are the most frequent and can result in neck, head, upper body, and lower
body injuries.
•
•
•
Rear-end crashes are also common and can result in back and neck injuries.
Lateral and side impact crashes can result in torso, head, hip, and leg injuries.
A rollover crash occurs when the vehicle rolls over onto its side or top (upside down) one or
more times. A vault is similar, but the vehicle flips end over end. A rollover/vault is often
responsible for occupants being thrown from vehicles.
Page 3-4
Rollovers, Rotations, and Ejection (continued)
In a rotation (or spin), unrestrained occupants are more likely to be injured as they hit the
vehicle interior repeatedly and are much more likely to be thrown from the vehicle than
restrained occupants.
•
In an ejection, vehicle occupants are thrown out a window or door, skid along the
pavement, and may be pinned or crushed under a vehicle. Landing gently on a soft surface
is highly unlikely.
•
A common myth about car seat, booster seat, and seat belt use is that occupants are better
off being thrown clear of a crash. People thrown from a vehicle are four times more likely to
be killed than those who remain inside (NHTSA, 2009).
!
!
Even%in%the%very%rare%chance%of%a%vehicle%fire%or%
landing%in%the%water,%a%properly%belted%occupant%is%
more%likely%to%be%uninjured%and%conscious,%thus%able%
to%exit%from%the%vehicle.%%
!
!
HOW CAR SEATS, BOOSTER SEATS, AND SEAT BELTS
PREVENT INJURY
2-year-old correctly restrained
The use of car seats, booster seats, and seat belts is one of the
most important actions that can be taken to prevent injury in a
vehicle crash. While car seats, booster seats, and seat belts do
not prevent crashes from taking place, they play a major role in
reducing the severity of injury to vehicle occupants involved in a
collision. An occupant’s chance of survival increases
dramatically when appropriately restrained.
What are the ways in which car seats, booster seats, and seat
belts can prevent injury?
!
!
!
!
!
4-year-old correctly restrained
Keep people in the vehicle.
Contact the strongest parts of the body.
Spread forces over a wide area of the body.
Help the body to slow or "ride down" the crash forces.
Protect the head, brain, and spinal cord.
6-year-old correctly restrained
Page 3-5
MODULE 3 • Injury Prevention & Crash Dynamics
•
HOW CAR SEATS, BOOSTER SEATS, AND SEAT BELTS PREVENT INJURY (CONTINUED)
Here are additional points to understand and emphasize when talking with caregivers or others.
•
Car seats, booster seats, and seat belts are designed to
contact the body at the strongest parts of its structure. For
an older child and adult, these parts are the hips and
shoulders.
•
Car seats, booster seats, and seat belts are designed to
spread crash forces over a wide area of the body, putting
less stress on any one part.
•
•
–
Lap-and-shoulder belts and car seat harnesses spread
the force across a large area of the body.
–
A rear-facing car seat spreads the crash force across the
shell of the seat, protecting the child's head, neck and
spinal cord.
8-year-old
correctly restrained
A quick change in speed is what causes injury.
–
During a motor vehicle crash, the vehicle crush zones
help to extend the time it takes for the vehicle and its
occupants to slow down.
–
Car seats, booster seats, and seat belts allow the body
to slow down with the crash. This extends the time when
the occupant experiences the forces during a crash.
A shoulder belt or harness helps to keep the head and upper
body away from the hard interior surface of the vehicle.
!
!
15-year-old
correctly restrained
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
%
%
An occupant’s chance of survival increases!
dramatically when appropriately restrained
%
Page 3-6
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
INJURY PREVENTION
• Make sure children are
safe in and around
vehicles – even when
not on the road.
• Caregivers must be
educated on avoiding a
vehicle backover,
ensuring children are
not accidentally locked
in vehicle trunks, and
preventing children
from being caught in a
power window.
• Injury prevention
requires education,
supervision, and
attention.
%
Wearing%a%seat%belt%enables%a%person%to%receive%the%full%benefit%%
of%the%air%bag%and%other%safety%features%in%the vehicle.%
Car%Seats,%Booster%Seats,%Seat%Belts,%and%Air%Bags%=%The%Best%Chance%of%Survival%
Answer the following questions to prepare for conversations you will have with caregivers to
educate them about injury prevention and crash dynamics.
1. What are two challenges related to children, crash survival and car seat, booster seat, and
seat belt use?
2. What are the three crashes involved in every vehicle collision?
3. What is the equation for estimating restraining force?
4. How much force would a 10-pound infant in a vehicle moving at 40 mph require to keep from
moving forward?
5. What are the five ways car seats, booster seats, and seat belts help prevent or reduce
injuries?
!
!
Page 3-7
MODULE 3 • Injury Prevention & Crash Dynamics
Progress Check and Summary
!
Page 3-8
MODULE
4
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Seat Belt Systems
Objectives
• Identify federal standards related to seat belts.
• Name types of seat belts and seat belt parts.
• Describe types of latchplates.
• Describe types of retractors.
• Locate latchplates and retractors.
• Identify approved additional locking steps.
• Explain best practices about seat belt systems to caregivers.
FEDERAL STANDARDS FOR SEAT BELTS
NHTSA sets Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for seat belts and other safety
features.
FMVSS 208 regulates seat belts and frontal air bags.
•
Beginning with 1996 vehicle models, all passenger seat belt
systems must lock to secure car seats. Driver seat belt
systems do not lock because car seats are NOT installed in
this position.
•
Since 2008, lap-and-shoulder belts are required in all seating
positions, except some front center seating positions.
RESOURCE ON FEDERAL
STANDARDS
Quick Reference Guide to
Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards and
Regulations is located on
the NCPSB website.
Types of Seat Belts
There are two types of seat belt systems found in vehicles – lap
belts and lap-and-shoulder belts.
A lap belt:
•
Offers 2-point protection because it connects with the body
in two places – at each hip.
•
Does not provide upper body protection.
Lap belt
A lap-and-shoulder belt:
•
Offers 3-point protection because it connects with the body
in three places – at each hip and at the shoulder.
•
Provides upper body protection.
A"lap"belt"is"better"than"no"seat"belt"at"all,"but"a""
lap1and1shoulder"belt"provides"better"protection."
Lap-and-shoulder belt
Page 4-1
Seat Belt Parts
Seat belts have five main parts.
!
!
Buckles accept the latchplate and hold the seat belt in place.
!
!
Anchors attach the seat belts to a strong location in the vehicle.
!
Latchplates connect the seat belt webbing to a buckle in the vehicle.
Retractors gather and store extra webbing in the vehicle. Most lap-and-shoulder seat belts
have one retractor that holds the webbing for both the lap and shoulder webbing. Some lapand-shoulder belts have two retractors – one for the lap belt and one for the shoulder belt.
Retractors are usually covered in a vehicle and not easy to see.
Webbing is the fabric part of the seat belt that crosses the person or holds the car seat or
booster seat.
Buckle
Retractor
Anchor
Webbing
Latchplate
All"vehicles"have"been"required"to"have"a"locking"seat"belt"feature,"
either"at"the"retractor"or"the"latchplate"since"1996."
This"is"called"the"lockability"standard."
TYPES OF LATCHPLATES
There are different types of
latchplates that you will encounter
while checking car seats.
•
•
•
•
•
Locking
Switchable
Sliding
Sewn-on
Dynamic locking
Locking latchplate
Page 4-2
Locking Latchplate
A locking latchplate on the seat belt can be found in older vehicles and in the center seat
of some newer vehicles.
!
Some have a locking bar found on the bottom or back. The bar moves back and forth, as
well as up and down. It can be made of metal or plastic.
!
Not all locking latchplates look the same. Some have a bar while others have a sliding metal
or plastic piece.
!
!
!
If the seat belt webbing and latchplate lie flat, the latchplate will lock.
If the latchplate is tilted, the latchplate will remain unlocked.
The steps to test if the latchplate locks are:
1. Buckle the seat belt.
2. Give a firm tug on the lap portion of the seat belt while pulling up on it. If the webbing
does not slide through the latchplate, it is locked.
Locking latchplate with sliding metal piece – front and back
Locking latchplate with plastic piece
Switchable Latchplate
Some vehicles have a
switchable latchplate that
uses a button to move from
the unlocked position for adults
to the locked position for car
seats (children).
Locking parts from a switchable latchplate – front and back
Sliding and Sewn-on Latchplates
While all seat belts will lock in a
crash, not all seat belts have a
latchplate that will lock to
secure a car seat.
•
Sliding and sewn-on
latchplates have no locking
feature or moving parts.
Sliding latchplate found only on lap-and-shoulder systems
Page 4-3
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
!
Sliding and Sewn-on Latchplates (continued)
•
Sliding latchplates are found
on lap-and-shoulder belts.
Sewn-on latchplates can be
on lap belts and lap-andshoulder seat belts.
•
To test if these latchplates
have a locking feature, buckle
the seat belt and pull up on
the lap portion of the seat belt.
The webbing will slip through
a sliding latchplate and will
NOT lock.
•
Sewn-on latchplates can be
found on both lap-belt-only
and lap-and-shoulder seat
belts.
•
Sewn-on latchplate found on
lap-only and lap-and-shoulder seat belts
With a sewn-on latchplate, test the seat belt – NOT the
latchplate. Buckle the seat belt and test to see if it locks by
firmly pulling up on the lap portion of the seat belt. The
seat belt webbing will not lengthen if some type of locking
mechanism has been engaged.
Dynamic Locking Latchplate
New technology can be introduced at any time. These new
products may look similar to current hardware available in
vehicles, but may function differently. To ensure you are using
a new product correctly, you MUST refer to the vehicle
owner’s manual.
Dynamic locking latchplates are currently located in the front
seat of some vehicles and lock the lap-and-shoulder belt when
loaded by an occupant during a crash. This latchplate is NOT
intended to lock the seat belt for a car seat.
•
Some dynamic locking latchplates may seem to lock the
seat belt when you buckle it across an empty seat and pull
upward on the lap portion. The caregiver could believe that
it is safe since it seems to lock.
•
The caregiver should move the car seat to a different
position or take additional steps as recommended in the
vehicle owner’s manual to lock the seat belt that has a
dynamic locking latchplate.
•
Even if you see moving parts on a latchplate, do NOT
assume it is a locking latchplate. Test for lockability and
check the vehicle owner’s manual.
Page 4-4
TIP FOR DISCUSSING
UNUSUAL LOCKING
PROCEDURES
Always check the vehicle
owner's manual to learn
about unusual seat belt
locking features when you
cannot find a way to lock
the seat belt.
Dynamic locking latchplate
Progress Check: Latchplates
1. What are the two types of latchplates that can be locked?
2. What is the step to put a locking latchplate into the locking mode?
4. What is one way to determine if a latchplate can be locked for car seats?
5. What types of latchplates cannot be locked?
Differences Between Types of Latchplates
Types of
Latchplates
Locking
Description
• Found in older vehicles and in some newer vehicles.
• Moving parts lock the lap belt webbing.
• Locking bar found on the bottom or back moves back and forth in a horizontal
slot
• If seat belt webbing and latchplate lie flat, latchplate locks. If tilted, latchplate
remains unlocked. To test for a locking feature, buckle seat belt and pull up on
lap portion of seat belt. The lap belt webbing will not lengthen as you pull up on
it if the latchplate is locked.
Switchable
Button moves from unlocked position for adults to locked position for car seats
(children). Use the same test to confirm the latchplate is locked.
Sliding and
Sewn-On
• Typically found on lap-and-shoulder belts.
• May have no locking feature or moving parts. To test for a locking feature,
buckle seat belt and pull up on lap portion of seat belt. The lap belt webbing will
lengthen as you pull up on it if there is no locking feature.
• Sewn-on latchplates are found in center rear and front seating positions of some
cars, school buses, and many older vans.
• With a sewn-on latchplate, test seat belt, not the latchplate. Buckle the seat belt
and test to see if it is locked by firmly pulling the lap portion of seat belt up. Seat
belt webbing will not lengthen if some type of locking mechanism has been
engaged.
Dynamic
Locking
• Located in front seat of some vehicles and will lock the lap-and-shoulder belt in
a crash. Not intended to provide locking of seat belt for a car seat.
• May look like a locking latchplate. Test for lockability and check the vehicle
owner’s manual.
• To use with a car seat, caregiver MUST take additional steps described in the
vehicle owner’s manual.
Page 4-5
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
3. What is the step to put a switchable latchplate into the locking mode?
TYPES OF RETRACTORS
In some vehicles the retractor – not the latchplate – provides the locking part needed to keep a
car seat in place at all times. The purpose of the retractor is to store the excess webbing. These
retractors are usually present when a non-locking latchplate (sliding, sewn-on, or dynamic
locking) is present.
When talking to caregivers, try not to use technical terms and abbreviations to explain how a
part works. First, explain and demonstrate how a part works. Then, make sure caregivers
practice what to do and are able to explain how it works.
Emergency Locking Retractor
You are most familiar with an
emergency locking retractor
(ELR) since you probably use it
every day as a driver. As the name
implies, an emergency locking
retractor locks only in a sudden
stop, acceleration, turn, or crash.
This retractor type, along with one
of the non-locking latchplates –
sliding, sewn-on, or dynamic
locking – cannot secure a car seat
without an extra, approved step.
Emergency locking retractor (ELR)
Seat belts with emergency locking retractors can be found in
lap-only, shoulder-only, or lap-and-shoulder belts. You cannot
identify an emergency locking retractor just by looking at the
seat belt. You MUST test the seat belt to determine if there is a
locking feature.
•
FMVSS required a lockability feature on vehicles made after
1996.
•
If the vehicle is older than 1996, you might have a locking
latchplate, but it is more likely that the seat belt retractor is
an emergency locking retractor with a sliding latchplate and
without locking ability. In that case, you will have to use an
approved step to put the seat belt into a locked mode
(locking clip or car seat lock-off).
Automatic Locking Retractors
Automatic locking retractors (ALR) are generally easy to use
with car seats, but are almost never found in newer vehicles.
•
Some seat belts with automatic locking retractors may
appear to have no locking ability if tested when the seat belt
is pulled out a very short distance (less than 12 to 18 inches)
from the retractor. That 12 to 18-inch space is known as the
dead-zone and may fool you into thinking the seat belt has
no locking ability.
Page 4-6
STEPS TO TEST FOR AN
EMERGENCY LOCKING
RETRACTOR
1. Pull all the webbing
slowly and gently out of
the retractor.
2. Allow some of the
webbing to go back into
the retractor.
3. Try to pull the webbing
out again very slowly. If
the webbing goes freely
in and out of the
retractor after you have
pulled out all of the
webbing, you have an
emergency locking
retractor.
NOTE: When you do this
test, do not pull quickly or
jerk the webbing because
this might trigger the
emergency locking
features of the retractor.
Automatic Locking Retractors (continued)
•
STEPS TO TEST FOR AN
AUTOMATIC LOCKING
RETRACTOR
1. Pull 24 to 36 inches of
webbing slowly and
gently out of the
retractor.
2. Allow some of the
webbing (3 to 6 inches)
to spool back in the
retractor.
3. Gently pull the webbing.
If no webbing comes
out, then the retractor is
an automatic locking
retractor.
Automatic locking retractor (ALR)
Switchable Retractors
Switchable retractors start out in an unlocked “comfortable”
mode for adult occupants and switch to a locked mode for use
with a car seat. A switchable retractor with a sliding latchplate is
the most common system you will encounter in the field.
•
Just like the switchable latchplate, you manually have to
change this retractor from an emergency mode to the always
or automatic locking mode.
•
Once switched to the automatic locking retractor mode, this
belt will only shorten and cannot be lengthened. To return to
the emergency locking mode, this belt must be unbuckled
and then all of the webbing fed back into the retractor.
Switchable retractors can be found in vehicles with:
•
•
Lap-belt-only
Lap-and-shoulder belt
Switchable retractor
Page 4-7
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
The true test of seat belt system locking is to pull firmly up on
the lap part of the buckled seat belt. The belt should not
lengthen. You can also put the belt around yourself and if it
locks in place and continues to get smaller and cannot
lengthen, you have identified an automatic locking retractor.
Switchable Retractors (continued)
Seat belts with switchable retractors switch to a tight, locked
seat belt to install a car seat. A switchable retractor switches to
an automatic locking retractor by pulling the belt all the way out
slowly.
•
You may find instructions on the seat belt webbing for how to
use the seat belt with a car seat but many switchable
retractors do not come with a label. Test the retractor to be
certain.
•
A seat belt with a switchable retractor fits the adult
comfortably and will lock only in an emergency such as a
crash, acceleration, sudden stop, or turn. It should only be
switched to the locking position to install a car seat or, in
some cases, a booster seat.
Remember,"correct"installation"of"a"car"seat"requires"
the"seat"belt"to"be"locked"at"all"times."
NO RETRACTOR
Some lap belts have no retractor and the webbing lies freely on
the seat.
STEPS TO TEST FOR A
SWITCHABLE
RETRACTOR
1. Slowly pull out all of the
webbing from the
retractor. Be careful not
to pull too quickly on
the webbing because
this might trigger the
emergency locking
mechanism.
2. When you have pulled
all the webbing out of
the retractor, let a few
inches go back in. You
probably will hear a
clicking sound as the
webbing goes back into
the retractor.
3. Pull on webbing. If the
webbing will not pull out
again, the belt is locked
you have confirmed the
seat belt has a
switchable retractor.
Progress Check: Retractors
1. What are the two types of retractors that can lock in a car seat?
2. How can an emergency locking retractor be identified?
3. What are the steps to identify a switchable retractor?
Page 4-8
Practice Activity: Locate Latchplates and Retractors
The goal of this practice activity is to correctly identify seat belt latchplates and retractors.
1. For each vehicle, write the vehicle number and mark the seating location in the column on
the left side of each table.
First Assigned Vehicle
Vehicle #
Seating Position
D
Second Assigned Vehicle
Latchplate:
Vehicle #
 Locking
 Locking
 Switchable
 Switchable
 Sliding
 Sliding
 Sewn-on
 Sewn-on
Seating Position
Retractor:
D
 ALR
Driver
Seating Position
D
Driver
Retractor:
 ALR
Driver
 Switchable
 Switchable
 ELR
 ELR
 None
 None
Third Assigned Vehicle
Vehicle #
Latchplate:
Fourth Assigned Vehicle
Latchplate:
Vehicle #
Latchplate:
 Locking
 Locking
 Switchable
 Switchable
 Sliding
 Sliding
 Sewn-on
 Sewn-on
Seating Position
Retractor:
D
 ALR
Driver
Retractor:
 ALR
 Switchable
 Switchable
 ELR
 ELR
 None
 None
Page 4-9
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
2. Locate the seat belt latchplate and retractor for each vehicle and seating location and enter
it in the column on the right side of each table.
APPROVED ADDITIONAL LOCKING STEPS
In vehicles made before 1996, seat belts were not federally required to provide a locking
feature. Some vehicles did have the locking feature, but it was voluntary on the part of the
manufacturer.
Vehicle manufacturers approved two additional steps to secure a car seat in vehicles where
neither the retractor nor the latchplate can be locked at all times.
•
•
With a lap-and-shoulder belt, a locking clip/lock-off is one of the approved additional steps.
•
You should NEVER use a belt-shortening clip with a lap belt that has a locking latchplate.
With a lap belt with a sewn-on latchplate, belt-shortening clips are the approved additional
step.
Locking Clip/Lock-Off
Three conditions must be present to use a locking clip.
•
•
•
Retractor = emergency locking
Latchplate = sliding
Lap-and-shoulder belt is one piece of webbing
Locking clips (lock-offs) come on the car seats from the
factory.
Locking clip stored on car seat for
removal and use
•
A locking clip clamps the tightened lap-and-shoulder belt
together within 1 inch of the latchplate to make the lap belt a
fixed length.
•
A lock-off can be on either side of the car seat and must be
used according to the car seat manufacturer. This also locks
to make the lap belt a fixed length. It is the fixed length lap
belt that locks a car seat in place.
•
They can be permanently attached to the car seat (lock-off)
or can be separately stored on the car seat for removal and
use by the consumer. Either a lock-off or locking clip is safe
to use. They perform the same function. Do NOT use a
locking clip if a lock-off is present on the seat.
•
A locking clip locks the lap-and-shoulder belts together so
the car seat does not move more than 1 inch side-to-side or
front-to-back at the belt path.
•
Locking clips MUST be placed according to the manufacturer
instructions. Unless instructed otherwise, place the locking
clip no more than 1 inch from the latchplate.
•
Incorrect placement of the locking clip can lead to too much
slack in the seat belt in a crash and can result in serious
injury to the child.
•
The locking clip (lock-off) is a temporary fix until the retractor
engages in a crash. The locking clip can come off in a crash.
Page 4-10
Lock-off
VIDEO • Install a Locking Clip
RESOURCES FOR
LOCKING CLIPS
Record steps you observe to install a locking clip.
Belt-Shortening Clip
Three conditions must be present to use a belt-shortening clip:
•
•
•
Retractor = emergency locking
Latchplate = sewn-on
No locking feature (there may or may not be a separate shoulder belt)
Belt-shortening clips are another approved additional step to use if you are educating
caregivers who have an older vehicle that has no locking features in the seat belt system. The
belt-shortening clip takes the place of the retractor as all the webbing is pulled out of the
retractor and shortened with the belt-shortening clip.
Belt-shortening clip
•
Frequently, this type of seat belt is found in the front seat
of an older car with a motorized shoulder belt and a
separate lap belt.
•
You can often move a car seat to a back seat location, but
in some vans and school buses there will be no other
seating position.
•
There are times when only a belt-shortening clip will
provide the locking feature on a lap belt because neither
the retractor nor the latchplate locks.
•
While the stronger belt-shortening clip could be used in place of a locking clip (that comes
free with a car seat), the locking clip NEVER takes the place of the belt-shortening clip to
shorten a seat belt.
•
Use belt-shortening clips as a last resort. Carefully assess all other alternatives before using
this clip.
•
Belt-shortening clips are considered vehicle parts (have a part number) and can be
purchased at the parts department of an auto dealership.
Page 4-11
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
• The Install a Locking Clip
video is located on the
NCPSB website. View it
periodically to keep your
skills fresh.
• A job aid with
photographs and
installation steps is also
located on the NCPSB
website and in the
Appendix of your TG. Be
sure to have it available
when educating
caregivers.
Belt-Shortening Clip (continued)
Belt1shortening"clips"are"made"
of"heavier"metal."A"belt1
shortening"clip"can"be"used"as"
a"locking"clip,"but"a"locking"
clip"can"NEVER"be"used"to"
perform"belt1shortening."
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
Belt-shortening clip vs. locking clip
VIDEO • Install a Belt-Shortening Clip
RESOURCES FOR BELTSHORTENING
Record steps you observe to install a belt-shortening clip.
• The Install a BeltShortening Clip video is
located on the NCPSB
website. View it
periodically to keep your
skills fresh.
• A job aid with
photographs and
installation steps is also
located on the NCPSB
website and in the
Appendix of your TG. Be
sure to have it available
when educating
caregivers.
Whether"new"or"experienced,"knowing"when"you"must"use"a"belt1shortening"
clip"can"be"a"challenge."Do"not"hesitate"to"call"on"others"with"more"experience"
to"help."
When to Use a Locking Clip/Lock-off Vs. a Belt-Shortening Clip
Locking Clip/Lock-Off
Belt-Shortening Clip
Found on every car seat with a harness
Purchased from auto dealer
Used with lap-shoulder belt with emergency
locking retractor and sliding latchplate
Used on lap portion of seat belt with
emergency locking retractor and sewn-on
latchplate
Used only on seat belt with retractor as
backup
Used in place of retractor: no retractor
backup available
NEVER used to replace belt-shortening clip
or to shorten a seat belt
Can be used in place of locking clip
Page 4-12
Flip Latchplate and/or
Twist Buckle Stalk
Sometimes, even seat belts that
are designed to lock cannot
because of the car seat belt path.
•
Check the vehicle owner’s
manual to see if the
manufacturer does not allow
twisting a seat belt to shorten
the webbing.
•
Not all latchplates allow for flipping.
Flipped latchplate
Twisting the buckle stalk is helpful when the buckle does not lie
flat, is in the car seat belt path, or does not allow the belt to be
locked with an additional part. This will make the buckle webbing
shorter and buckle lower.
•
Check the vehicle owner’s manual to see if buckle twisting is
allowed.
•
Be sure the buckle release is accessible after twisting.
Twisted buckle stalk
Additional Reasons to Flip a Latchplate or Twist a Buckle Stalk
Sometimes when a seat belt passes through the car seat belt path as directed by the
manufacturer, the latchplate will be positioned so that the locking mechanism is tilted and does
not hold the car seat tightly.
The seat belt is probably out of position and cannot lock. Remember that the webbing and
latchplate must be flat to stay locked.
Follow these approved steps:
1. Flip the latchplate over one time to engage the latchplate’s locking feature. This changes the
locking angle. Always test the seat belt to be certain it remains locked tightly.
2. Twist the buckle stalk if it is made of webbing.
•
•
Best practice is to twist as little as is necessary to obtain a tight seat belt fit.
ALWAYS use a minimum number of twists, with a maximum of three. The Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE) Child Restraint Subcommittee, based on IMMI (seat belt
webbing company) data, agreed upon this number.
It is approved to use a locking clip on a lap-and-shoulder seat belt with a locking latchplate as a
last resort. If flipping the latchplate and twisting the buckle webbing do not keep the seat belt
from pulling out, you can use a locking clip.
Page 4-13
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
Unbuckling and flipping the
latchplate over is a step that has
been crash-tested and is approved
for use in most vehicles if the
locking latchplate is tilted and
stays in an unlocked position.
Additional Reasons to Flip a Latchplate or Twist a Buckle Stalk (continued)
It is important to remember to check the manufacturer’s
instructions for both steps, as some buckles cannot be twisted
and some latchplates cannot be flipped. Most manuals,
however, will not mention or prohibit flipping latchplates or
twisting buckle stalks.
RESOURCE ON TWISTING
SEAT BELTS
IMMI Memorandum on
Twisting Seat Belts can be
found on the NCPSB Board
website.
Explain Best Practices About Seat Belt Systems to Caregivers
There are key questions to ask caregivers related to seat belt systems. Explain and
demonstrate best practices to caregivers.
KEY QUESTIONS
!
!
!
!
How many child passengers are you transporting?
!
!
!
Do the seat belts in the vehicle have a locking feature (vehicles since 1996)?
What are their ages and weights?
What types of seat belt systems are in the vehicle?
Are the seat belt systems – buckle, retractor, anchors, webbing, and latchplate – in good
working order?
Does the seat belt lock at the latchplate or the retractor?
What are the latchplate and retractor types?
BEST PRACTICES
Test whether a latchplate provides a locking feature.
1. Buckle the seat belt.
2. Give a firm tug on the lap portion of the seat belt while pulling up on it.
Test whether the retractor provides a locking feature.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pull all the webbing slowly and gently out of the retractor.
Allow some of the webbing to go back into the retractor.
Try to pull the webbing out again very slowly.
If the webbing goes freely in and out of the retractor, you have an emergency locking
retractor. If the webbing stays locked and makes a clicking noise when you let it go back in,
then you have an automatic locking retractor. If it moves freely but then locks when you pull
all of the webbing out, you have a switchable retractor.
Determine when to use a locking clip. You must have the following:
1. Emergency locking retractor
2. Sliding latchplate
3. Lap-and-shoulder belt is all one piece of webbing
Determine when to use a belt-shortening clip. You must have the following:
1. Emergency locking retractor
2. Sewn-on latchplate
3. A separate lap belt with no locking feature. There may or may not be a separate shoulder
belt.
Page 4-14
Progress Check
Fill in the correct answers from the right-hand column for each of the questions.
1. Name the latchplates that do not lock before a crash.
Emergency locking
retractor
________________________, ______________________, and
________________________
Switchable retractor
2. Which retractor has no locking feature under normal driving
conditions?
Dynamic locking
latchplate
_____________________________________________________
Locking latchplate
3. What tool would you use with an emergency locking retractor lap
belt and sewn-on latchplate to secure a car seat?
Sliding latchplate
_____________________________________________________
Sewn-on latchplate
Switchable latchplate
4. What retractor is always locked when it is buckled under normal
driving conditions?
Locking clip
_____________________________________________________
Lock-off
Belt-shortening clip
5. What retractor changes from one mode to another?
Flipping the latchplate
_____________________________________________________
VIDEO • Install a Car Seat with a Locking Latchplate
Record steps you observe to install a car seat with a locking
latchplate.
Page 4-15
RESOURCES FOR
VEHICLES
WITH
LOCKING
Locking
latchplate
LATCHPLATES
• The Install a Car Seat
with a Locking
Latchplate video is
located on the NCPSB
website. View it
periodically to keep your
skills fresh.
• A job aid with
photographs and
installation steps is also
located on the NCPSB
website and in the
Appendix of your TG. Be
sure to have it available
when educating
caregivers.
MODULE 4 • Seat Belt Systems
Automatic locking
retractor
VIDEO • Install Car Seat w/Automatic Locking Retractor
Record steps you observe to install a car seat with an
automatic locking retractor.
RESOURCES ON
VEHICLES WITH AN
AUTOMATIC LOCKING
RETRACTOR
• This Install a Car Seat
with an Automatic
Locking Retractor video
is located on the NCPSB
website. View it
periodically to keep
your skills fresh.
• A job aid with
photographs and
installation steps is also
located on the NCPSB
website and in the
Appendix of your TG. Be
sure to have it available
when educating
caregivers.
Page 4-16
MODULE
5
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Air Bags
OBJECTIVES
• Describe the purpose and function of air bags.
• Identify features, warnings, and markings related to air bags for frontal and side impacts.
• Identify features of inflatable seat belts.
• Locate air bag information in owner’s manuals and vehicles.
• Explain best practices about air bags to caregivers.
INTRODUCTION TO AIR BAGS: AUTOMATIC CRASH PROTECTION
Automatic crash protection includes many safety features that are built into the vehicle that
do NOT require occupants to do anything to be protected. In other words, NO occupant action is
required. Many people are unaware of the automatic systems in a vehicle, particularly all of the
air bags that are designed to protect them in a crash.
Examples: Laminated windshields, instrument panel padding, door trim padding, and air bags
that open (deploy) when the vehicle determines there has been a crash.
PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF AIR BAGS
An air bag is a vehicle safety device made up of a flexible fabric envelope designed to rapidly
deploy (open) when the vehicle determines there has been a crash.
The$purpose$of$an$air$bag$is$to$help$reduce$the$occupant’s$speed$
during$a$collision$and$reduce$the$possibility$of$injury.$
Air bags can be:
•
Found in most vehicles on the road today. Every vehicle should be checked for air bags. The
owner’s manual should be reviewed for locations and specific instructions for the air bags in
that vehicle.
•
Almost anywhere in a vehicle. Proper positioning and use of car seats, booster seats, and
seat belts are needed to prevent injury when a crash occurs and an air bag suddenly opens.
How Do Air Bags Work?
An air bag can only deploy once
and MUST be replaced after a
crash.
Using the air bag with the seat
belt allows the crash forces to
spread over a large part of the
occupant’s body instead of
concentrating the crash forces
on a smaller part of the body.
Air bags are found in most vehicles on the road today
Page 5-1
How Do Air Bags Work? (continued)
•
Air bags do NOT deploy in every crash.
•
Seat belts also provide protection in crashes that do NOT deploy air bags, such as rear
impacts, some rollovers, sudden stops, or less severe crashes. Use your seat belt whether
or not there is an active air bag.
Important considerations related to air bags include:
•
Never put a rear-facing car
seat in front of an active
frontal air bag.
•
Avoid leaning against an air
bag’s opening or putting
other objects in front of an air
bag’s opening.
•
Always sit in an upright
position, correctly buckled
into the seat belt.
•
Read the owner’s manual
carefully. It has information
about air bags and
instructions for their use.
•
Assume all air bags are fully
active unless the owner’s
manual says differently.
Each$vehicle$
manufacturer$places$
labels$in$different$
positions$and$may$call$
their$air$bag$systems$
something$different.$
Seat belts & air bags work together to
provide protection to vehicle occupants
AIR BAGS FOR FRONTAL IMPACT
Driver and front passenger air bags offer powerful protection to front seat occupants who are
correctly seated and restrained. Frontal crash air bags work with seat belts to protect front seat
occupants. The air bags add extra protection to the adult head and chest in a crash.
There are several kinds of air bags for frontal crashes:
!
!
Driver air bags are found in the steering wheel.
!
Knee air bags may be present in the vehicle.
Front seat passenger air bags are found in the instrument panel, over the glove box. While
some passenger air bags cover both the middle and right front passenger seating positions,
others only cover the right front seating position.
Page 5-2
Classifications of Front Passenger Air Bags
Passenger air bags can be classified as one of three types:
1. Air bags that are always on or active in the vehicle
2. Air bags that can be turned on and off using a manual switch
3. Air bags that are automatically turned on and off by the vehicle based on the occupant
seated in the front passenger seat
Each of the three types has unique features and characteristics.
Many vehicles, especially those made before the 2004 model year, have passenger air bags
that are always on or active in the vehicle. The passenger air bag in these vehicles CANNOT
be turned off in the presence of a car seat or booster seat.
!
NEVER place a rear-facing car seat in the front passenger seat. If the passenger air bag
deploys in a crash, the child may be severely injured or killed by the force of the air bag.
!
If a forward-facing child must sit in the front passenger seat, move the vehicle seat as far
back from the air bag as possible and make sure the child is seated in an appropriate car
seat or booster seat. Instruct the child NOT to lean forward in the seat toward the air bag.
2. Air Bags that Turn On and Off Using a Manual Switch
Some vehicles, especially those without a back seat such as
some pickup trucks, or with a very small back seat, may be
equipped with a manual switch to turn the passenger air bag on
and off. In these vehicles:
!
Caregivers must check the owner’s manual to understand
the proper operation of the on/off switch in their vehicle. Most
are operated by the vehicle’s ignition key.
!
If a forward-facing child must sit in the front passenger seat,
the switch must be in the “off” position. A light near the on/off
switch will be lit whenever the passenger air bag has been
turned off. If the indicator is NOT lit, a child should NOT
be allowed to ride in the front seat.
Statistics$show$that$
children$are$safer$in$the$
rear$seat.$It$is$strongly$
recommended$that$all$
children$under$13$travel$
in$the$rear$seat$$
(AAP,$2007).$
NOTE: Forgetting to turn the switch back “on” for adult
passengers is a common error made by drivers of these
vehicles.
Typical on/off switch
Page 5-3
MODULE 5 • Air Bags
1. Air Bags that are Always On or Active in the Vehicle
Classifications of Front Passenger Air Bags (continued)
3. Air Bags that Automatically Turn On and Off with An Occupant in Front
Passenger Seat
Since the 2004 model year, most vehicles have been equipped
with systems that automatically turn the passenger air bag on
and off. Vehicle manufacturers use a variety of methods to
detect the front occupant, but the following applies for every
vehicle with an automatic on/off system:
!
Caregivers need to understand the specific systems and
indicators in their vehicle. Remind them to check their
owner’s manual.
!
Caregivers should always assume the air bag is on if they
are not sure. NEVER place a rear-facing car seat in a
seating position with an active front air bag unless the
vehicle owner’s manual allows it.
!
Since not all vehicles have the same system, it is important
that the caregiver understands what the indicators in their
vehicle mean. Caregivers must ensure that the air bag is
“off” for the child sizes and conditions listed in the owner’s
manual. For all other occupants, the air bag should be turned
“on.”
!
Just because a vehicle is new, do NOT assume the
passenger air bag will have an automatic on/off system.
Some newer vehicles have air bags that are always “on,”
just like in older vehicles.
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
AUTOMATIC ON/OFF
SYSTEMS
• Remind caregivers to
use the back seat for
children, even if there is
an automatic on/off
system for a passenger
air bag.
• Automatic on/off
systems can misclassify
occupants in the front
seat under certain
conditions – carefully
check all warnings in
the owner’s manual.
Indicator lights
“Never&install&a&rear-facing&child&restraint&in&the&front&seat&unless&it&is&allowed&by&the&
vehicle&manufacturer&and&there&is&no&other&alternative.&When&allowed&by&the&vehicle&
manufacturer,&make&sure&the&passenger&air&bag&is&off&and&stays&off&for&the&entire&trip.&
Refer&to&the&vehicle&owner’s&manual.”&
!
The!Alliance!of!Automobile!Manufacturers
Front Air Bag Warnings and Markings
It is important to be knowledgeable about the typical locations of air bag warnings and markings
in the vehicle.
!
For air bags that deploy in frontal crashes, the warning label will always be located on the
sun visor and you will typically find additional markings on or near the cover of the air bag.
!
Always check the vehicle owner’s manual to find more information about air bags for front
crashes, as each vehicle manufacturer places labels in different positions and may use
different terms.
Page 5-4
Front Air Bag Warnings and Markings (continued)
Examples of acronyms for front air bags are:
•
•
SRS = Supplemental Restraint System
SIR = Supplemental Inflatable Restraint
MODULE 5 • Air Bags
Example of front air bag label
Example of front air bag marking
AIR BAGS FOR SIDE IMPACT
Air bags that deploy for side crashes or rollovers are designed to fill the space between the
occupant and the door and/or window. Side air bags:
!
!
May be found in both the front and rear rows of vehicles.
!
Are generally smaller than front air bags.
Are NOT required in all vehicles, unlike front air bags. Owner’s manuals refer to optional
equipment by saying “if equipped.” Check the vehicle to be sure if it has a side air bag in
this case.
When side air bags are present, they can be found in various places such as in the door, inside
the vehicle seat (seat back or under the seat) or in the roof (“inflatable curtains” or “canopies”).
The front center air bag is found in the right (inside) side of the driver’s seat. Front center air
bags:
•
Open from the right side of the driver’s seat and deploy forward, between the seat and the
center console.
•
Are labeled on the right side of the seat.
Many vehicle manufacturers follow industry standards to minimize the risk of injury from all
types of side air bags.
•
•
Usually, children may sit near side air bags without risk of injury.
•
•
The owner’s manual for the car seat or booster seat must also allow use near a side air bag.
Check the vehicle owner’s manual to be sure. The owner’s manual will always warn if a car
seat or booster seat CANNOT be installed next to a side air bag.
If either of the owner’s manuals forbids using a car seat or booster seat next to the side air
bag, put it in a different seating position in the vehicle.
Page 5-5
Side Air Bag Warnings and Markings
Warning labels for air bags that deploy in side crashes may be
found almost anywhere in the vehicle, including:
•
•
•
In the door opening.
On the end of the instrument panel.
Near the air bag.
Caregivers should be shown any warning labels in the vehicle
and should be familiar with the specific warnings. These labels
are NOT regulated by NHTSA, so they all look different.
Like front air bags, side impact air bags usually have a label or
marking to show where the air bag comes out in a crash.
Example of side
air bag warning
These can be found:
•
•
•
On the side of the seat
Near the edge of the roof
On the opening or the side of
the door
Always check the vehicle
owner’s manual to find more
information about air bags for
side crashes.
Examples of acronyms for side
air bags are:
•
SABIC = Side Air Bag
Inflatable Curtain.
•
SAB = Side Air Bag.
Example of side air bag marking
Example of seat-mounted
air bag marking
INFLATABLE SEAT BELTS
Another type of air bag system is an inflatable seat belt. An inflatable seat belt:
•
•
Generally opens in frontal, side, and rollover crashes.
•
Has two retractors and a sewn-on latchplate. The lap belt
has a switchable retractor to secure a car seat.
•
Spreads belt loads over a greater area of the chest than
standard seat belts and provides additional head and
neck support during a crash.
Is located in the shoulder portion of the lap-and-shoulder
seat belt. The lap portion of the belt is separate webbing
that does NOT inflate in a crash.
Check the car seat owner’s manual to determine if the car
seat or booster seat can be used with an inflatable seat belt.
Inflatable seat belt
Page 5-6
Practice Activity: Locate Front and Side Air Bag Information in Owner’s Manuals & Vehicles
Locate air bag information in two different owner’s manuals and vehicles.
1. Work in small groups.
2. Using the owner’s manuals provided, document the vehicle’s air bag information.
3. In addition to information you find in the owner’s manuals, locate and document missing or
additional information from inside the vehicle.
Vehicle 1
Vehicle 2
"
"
Yes
"
"
Yes
"
"
Always on
Manually switched on
and off
Automatically switched
on and off
"
"
Always on
Manually switched on
and off
Automatically switched
on and off
1. What is the vehicle make
and model?
2. Describe the location of all
labels/markings for frontal
air bags.
3. Can a rear-facing car seat
be installed in the front
passenger seat?
No
No
4. What pages in the owner’s
manual discuss the frontal
air bag system?
5. Which type of passenger
air bag system does the
vehicle have?
"
6. Describe the location of all
labels/markings for side
impact air bags.
7. What pages in the owner’s
manual discuss the side
air bag system?
Page 5-7
"
MODULE 5 • Air Bags
Question/Instruction
Explain Best Practices About Air Bags to Caregivers
There are key questions to answer related to air bags. Explain and demonstrate best practices
to caregivers.
Key Questions Pertaining to Air Bags
!
!
!
What types of air bags are in the vehicle?
Where are air bags found in the vehicle?
Is the passenger air bag automatically switched on and off in the vehicle?
–
–
!
If the feature is present, where is the indicator light or lights?
Under what conditions does the vehicle automatically switch the passenger air bag on
and off?
How do the vehicle’s air bags affect the car seat or booster seat?
Best Practices
Caregivers need to understand how air bags protect them, and how car seats and booster seats
work when used near air bags.
!
Follow both vehicle and car seat manufacturer instructions for proper installation and use of
car seats and booster seats in the presence of air bags.
!
Remind caregivers to look in each vehicle they use to transport children to know where all
the air bags are located – even in rented vehicles. Air bags may work differently in different
vehicles.
Progress Check and Summary
1. What is the purpose of air bags?
2. What are the crash types in which air bags are designed to deploy?
3. What are three types of passenger air bags?
4. What must you do with air bags after a crash?
Page 5-8
MODULE
6
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Lower Anchors & Tethers for CHildren
OBJECTIVES
• Describe lower anchors and tether anchors.
• Recognize lower anchor and tether anchor symbols and locations.
• Explain lower anchor and tether anchor best practices to caregivers.
DESCRIPTION OF LATCH SYSTEM
LATCH stands for Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren.
•
LATCH is an alternative system to install car seats in vehicles using two lower anchors and
one tether. For rear-facing car seats, only the two lower anchors are used unless the
manufacturer allows rear-facing tethering.
•
•
If you are referring to the lower anchors and tether it is a LATCH system.
•
Each LATCH set in the vehicle is made up of two lower
anchor bars and one tether anchor. If there are lower
anchors in a vehicle seating position, there is usually a
tether anchor for that seating position. Use a tether when
forward-facing.
In LATCH use, the car seat must have a set of lower anchor connectors that attach to the
vehicle’s set of lower anchors.
LATCH symbol
•
LATCH attaches the car seat to the vehicle through anchor points installed in the vehicle
and connectors on the seat. Most vehicles made after 2002 have at least two complete
LATCH systems (lower and tether anchors) and one additional tether anchor.
•
Only seating positions that have a standard LATCH system, as defined in the vehicle
owner’s manual, should be used for lower anchor installation unless otherwise specified in
both the manufacturer and car seat or booster seat owner’s manuals. Many caregivers
install their seat with lower connectors in the rear-center seating position when the vehicle
manufacturer may not allow it.
•
Some vehicles offer standard LATCH in the center, and some vehicle and child restraints
manufacturers allow LATCH in the center, even if it is not a standard LATCH position.
Remember, two lower connectors should never be attached to one lower anchor.
•
NEVER install a car seat using lower anchors and the seat belt at the same time unless
specifically allowed by both the seat and vehicle manufacturers. It should be one system or
the other because that is how the car seat was crash tested.
•
ALWAYS look in the owner’s manual to determine if a vehicle has lower anchors and tether
anchors, and to see which seating positions have a LATCH system or only a tether anchor.
A"seating"position"with"a"tether"anchor"only"and"no"lower"anchors"is"NOT""
called"LATCH."That"seating"position"would"use"the"tether"and"seat"belt"to"secure"
a"car"seat."
"
"
Page 6-1
Tethers
A tether connector holds the back of the car seat and some booster seats against the vehicle
seat to reduce the amount of forward and side movement.
A tether connector can reduce the
distance that the child’s head
moves forward in a crash by
4 to 6 inches. This lessens the
risk of head injuries in a crash.
•
Tether anchors have upper
weight limits that vary by
vehicle manufacturer.
•
Tethers may be used with
lower anchors or seat belts.
•
Contact the vehicle
manufacturer customer
service help line to determine
the actual tether and lower
anchor weight limits approved
for that particular vehicle.
Car seat held in place by tether
•
Tether anchors have been required in three vehicle positions since September 2000, but
many vehicle manufacturers provided them or marked the tether anchor location in older
vehicles so that tether anchors could be installed at a later date.
•
Tether anchors are sometimes listed under straps in owner’s manuals and are frequently the
last item discussed under the car seat or booster seat section.
•
Tether anchors may look very different in pickup trucks. Refer to the vehicle owner’s manual
to ensure correct use.
•
Encourage caregivers to use tether connectors for forward-facing children whenever
possible. Also, encourage caregivers with young children and older vehicles to have tether
anchors installed in their vehicles.
•
Car seats can be secured using lower anchors and tether or a seat belt and tether.
Exceptions
•
Convertibles, sports cars, school buses, and some heavy trucks (over 10,000 pounds gross
vehicle weight/GVW) are not required to have tether anchors, though some of these vehicles
are still required to have lower anchors.
•
When a vehicle has lower anchors, but there is no tether anchor, consult the car seat
owner’s manual to see if installing the seat with only lower anchors and no tether is allowed.
If the owner’s manual says you must use both lower and upper connectors, or if you do not
know or cannot find out, then use the seat belt to secure the seat.
•
An approved integrated (or built-in) car seat may take the place of one of the LATCH
positions NHTSA requires.
Page 6-2
LATCH Symbols and Locations
If a lower anchor is hidden
behind fabric or a cover in the
vehicle, a symbol near the
anchor location should identify its
position.
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
LATCH SYSTEMS
Tether anchor possible locations include:
!
!
!
!
!
!
"
Ceiling above rear seating positions
Rear window shelf
Back of vehicle seat
Floor of rear cargo area
Under vehicle seat
Under a flap or door
Some vehicle tether anchor locations for forward-facing installations
"
Page 6-3
MODULE 6 • Lower Anchors & Tethers for CHildren
LATCH universal symbol
• Anchor weight limits are
not always stated in the
vehicle or car seat
owner's manual. If the
manufacturer offers no
weight limit, do not use
lower anchors or the
tether anchor if child +
car seat weight is more
than 65 pounds.
• If a caregiver wants to
use the center rear
seating position that
does not have a LATCH
system, they should use
the seat belt to secure
the car seat. They
should also use the
tether anchor if there is
one for the middle seat.
• Whenever possible,
have the caregiver
locate the tether anchor
and lower anchors in
their vehicle.
• Use the current LATCH
Manual (Safe Ride
News) for information
on installing LATCH.
LATCH Symbols and Locations (continued)"
Tether anchor on seat back accessed
through rear cargo area
Routing tether straps in vehicles
with head restraints
Tether on lower
seat back
Lower anchor positions can be
visible or hidden:
!
Labels, buttons, or tags
identify lower anchor
locations when they are
hidden.
!
Most vehicles cannot be
retrofitted with lower anchors.
Visible anchor position
Hidden anchor position
Page 6-4
Practice Activity: Locate Lower Anchors and Tether Anchors in Owner’s Manuals/Vehicles
1. Using the owner’s manual section provided, find the information listed below about LATCH
in the owner’s manual.
Vehicle 1:
____________________________
Vehicle 2:
____________________________
LATCH symbol found? Y N
Lower anchor symbol found? Y N
LATCH locations found? Y N
LATCH locations found? Y N
Tether anchor found? Y N
Tether anchor found? Y N
Tether anchor symbol found? Y N
Tether anchor symbol found? Y N
Page # _____
Page# _____
Now locate LATCH in three different vehicles. Remember, some LATCH parts are easy to use
and find while others are not so obvious.
1. Inspect three vehicles to see some differences in the locations of LATCH systems and the
words/symbols to describe them. Keep in mind that the LATCH system has two lower
anchors and one tether anchor.
2. Document the number of seat belts, number of LATCH seating positions, and tether anchors
in the three vehicles on the table below.
3. At the end of this activity, an instructor will install a car seat using LATCH.
LATCH
Vehicle 1
Vehicle 2
# of seat belts in back seat
# of LATCH seating positions
# of tether anchors
Page 6-5
Vehicle 3
MODULE 6 • Lower Anchors & Tethers for CHildren
2. Locate lower anchor and tether anchor information in two different vehicle owner’s manuals.
COMMON LOWER ANCHOR AND TETHER ANCHOR MISUSE
Any product can be misused. Misuse rates increase when
instructions are not read.
PREVENTING TETHER
ERRORS
•
Your job is to help people use their car seat or booster seat
according to the manufacturer instructions and encourage
caregivers to use the vehicle owner’s manual whenever they
transport children.
•
The only way to know for certain that lower anchors and
tether anchors are being used correctly is to use the vehicle
and car seat owner’s manuals for guidance.
•
Both lower anchors and tether anchors have weight limits set
by the vehicle and car seat/booster seat manufacturers. To
determine the limits of these systems, you must refer to both
the car seat and vehicle owner’s manual.
•
If there are different weight limits listed, the lower limit must
be used. If there is no stated weight limit for the vehicle lower
anchors or tether anchors, and the car seat lower anchors or
tether anchors, you MUST assume that they may be used
until the total weight of the child and car seat equals
65 pounds.
• Head restraints may
make it hard to use
tethers the right way.
• Some head restraints
cannot be removed to
allow for a tether strap
installation.
• Tether straps generally
go straight back from the
seat to the tether anchor
and go under adjustable
head restraints or over
or around non-adjustable
head restraints. Check
the vehicle owner’s
manual for model
specific information.
Common Lower Anchor and Tether Anchor Errors
Lower Anchors
Tether Anchors
•
Lower anchor connectors not firmly
attached to bars
Not using tether when available
•
•
•
Using a non-approved vehicle seating
position
•
Using seat belt and lower connectors at
the same time (unless allowed by
manufacturer)
•
•
•
Connecting to the wrong tether anchor
•
Securing 2 car seats or booster seats on
1 anchor bar
Not attaching tether via the vehicle
manufacturer instructions (routing the strap
incorrectly)
Tether strap too loose
Tether strap used over the vehicle
manufacturer weight limit
Page 6-6
Explain Best Practices About LATCH to Caregivers
There are key questions to answer related to LATCH. Explain and demonstrate best practices
to caregivers.
!
!
!
!
!
!
Does the caregiver’s vehicle have LATCH?
Which seating positions allow the use of LATCH?
What is the importance of tethers?
Where can you find lower anchors in a vehicle?
What might indicate lower anchors in the vehicle?
Which is safe and preferable to use for a car seat – lower anchor connectors or the
seat belt?
Best Practices
Answer the following questions to prepare for conversations you will have with caregivers to
educate them about LATCH.
1. What should you tell caregivers regarding where to find all the tether anchors and lower
anchors in their car, van, SUV, or truck?
2. What can you tell a caregiver who has a 1998 Chrysler 4-door Sebring with no tether anchor
and who wants to have one installed?
3. The vehicle has a lower anchor and tether anchor weight limit of 40 pounds. The car seat is
rated to 65 pounds. At what weight limit would you need to install the seat using a seat belt
instead of lower connectors?
Page 6-7
MODULE 6 • Lower Anchors & Tethers for CHildren
Key Questions
Page 6-8
MODULE
7
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Introduction to Car Seats & Booster Seats
OBJECTIVES
• Identify NHTSA’s Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213.
• Explain NHTSA’s car seat and booster seat recommendations.
• Name car seat and booster seat parts and functions.
• Determine how to select the appropriate car seat or booster seat.
• Identify car seats for children with special needs.
NHTSA’S FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARD 213
NHTSA’s Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213 provides child restraint
performance standards for children up to 80 pounds. Vehicle and car seat/booster seat
manufacturers are required to self-certify their products as meeting NHTSA’s FMVSS 213.
•
•
These are performance standards and NOT design standards.
Performance standards mandate how the product should perform in a crash while the
manufacturer determines design.
The seat must meet federal crash performance standards.
•
FMVSS 213 requires that child restraint systems must pass a 30 miles per hour frontal sled
test that simulates a crash. NHTSA randomly tests these products to verify they meet the
performance standards set forth.
•
Some specifics include:
•
–
Padding requirements around the head of car seats for use by children weighing
22 pounds or less.
–
–
Meeting flammability standards.
Permanent, visible labels on the restraint must include:
–
–
–
–
•
Buckle release pressure.
Verification that it conforms to federal standards.
Basic instructions for correct installation and use.
Name and address of manufacturer/distributor.
Date of manufacture.
LATCH on car seats must have two parts:
–
Tether connectors to reduce forward movement or excursion (not required on
rear-facing-only seats)
–
Lower anchors connectors to replace seat belts for installation
Manufacturers are required to provide a registration card with the car seat or booster seat and
notify consumers of product recalls.
The publication FMVSS 213: Highlights of the Regulation for Child Restraint Systems provides
more information and can be found on the NCPSB website at www.cpsboard.org.
Page 7-1
NHTSA’S CAR SEAT AND BOOSTER SEAT RECOMMENDATIONS
Car seats and booster seats should be chosen based on the
child’s age and size as well as fit of the seat in the vehicle.
Children should be kept in car seats and booster seats for as
long as the child fits within the manufacturer’s height and weight
requirements.
Birth to 12 Months: A child under the age of 1 should ALWAYS
ride in a rear-facing car seat. There are different types of rearfacing car seats: rear-facing-only, convertible, and 3-in-1.
Rear-facing car seat
1 to 3 Years: Children should ride in rear-facing car seats AS
LONG AS POSSIBLE. It is the best way to keep them safe. The
child should remain in a rear-facing car seat until he or she
reaches the top height or weight limit allowed by the car seat
manufacturer.
Forward-facing car seat
4 to 7 Years: Children should be kept in a forward-facing car
seat with a harness until they reach the top height or weight limit
allowed by the car seat manufacturer.
8 to 12 Years: Children should be kept in booster seats until big
enough to properly fit in a seat belt.
Booster seat
NHTSA’s(Ease,of,Use(Rating(is(a(5,star(ratings(system(that(
allows(caregivers(to(determine(how(easy(certain(car(seat(
and(booster(seat(features(are(to(use(before(they(buy(a(seat.((
(
Go(to(http://www.safercar.gov/parents/carseats(to(
download(NHTSA’s(car(seat(and(booster(seat(
recommendations(flyer.((
Seat belt
A conventional car seat is one that is readily available to the public, usually from a retailer.
The conventional types include: rear-facing seat with or without a base, a convertible seat that
can be used rear-facing for toddlers and forward-facing for older children, forward-facing only
seats, combination seats, high-back, and backless booster seats.
NOTE: Safe transportation for many children with health or behavioral needs can be provided
with a conventional or special needs car seat. Many children with special needs may be able to
ride rear-facing to older ages if they are small and fit in the seat longer.
Page 7-2
CAR SEAT AND BOOSTER SEAT PARTS AND FUNCTIONS
Car Seat and Booster Seat Labels and Registration Cards
•
Manufacturers use this information to contact owners about
safety issues, including recalls, and are NOT allowed to use
owner data for other purposes.
•
If a caregiver has not sent in a registration form, he or she
can submit NHTSA’s Car Seat Registration Form or a
registration form online through the manufacturer website.
Encourage caregivers to register their car seat.
•
A car seat or booster seat that is missing its label may be
dangerous to use, as recalls cannot be determined.
NHTSA’s Recall List includes information on every recalled
seat and is updated on an as-needed basis (when new
recalls are announced). Recall lists and checklists should
be used for every seat check. They can be accessed on a
smart phone to ensure up-to-date accuracy.
Car seat label
Car seat registration card
Car Seat and Booster Seat Testing and Recalls
While NHTSA does not certify car seats or booster seats before they go to market, they do
confirm their standards are being met by randomly testing certain products on the market.
•
NHTSA also tests products reported by the public or manufacturer to have a potential
problem. If a problem is identified, the product may be recalled.
•
A recall may be initiated through compliance testing or through defect monitoring. A seat
that has a recall may be crashworthy and useable until the repair has been made. Follow the
manufacturer’s recall instructions.
•
Manufacturers can identify a need for a recall before involving the government if they are
aware of the problem. This information is made available by NHTSA on the Recall List.
•
Manufacturers may issue a recall and a correction kit if a problem is found with a seat. Many
times the consumer can correct the recall at home.
Car Seat and Booster Seat Parts and Functions
!
!
!
Buckle: Where harness system connects and locks
Harness: Straps that keep the child in the car seat and spreads out crash forces
Two harness types that meet FMVSS 213 requirements:
–
5-Point: Harness has five points of contact that includes one over each shoulder,
one on each side of the pelvis, and one between the legs with all five coming
together at a common buckle
–
3-Point: Harness has three points of contact that includes two shoulder straps
coming together at one buckle in the shell or on a crotch strap
NOTE: NOT to be confused with 3-point (lap-and-shoulder) vehicle belt
Retainer Clip: Plastic buckle or clasp that holds shoulder straps together over the child’s
chest and is positioned at child’s armpit level
Page 7-3
MODULE 7 • Introduction to Car Seats & Booster Seats
All child restraint manufacturers must provide a label on the car
seat or booster seat with their contact information. Caregivers
are encouraged to register the seat with the manufacturer either
online or by mailing in the registration card.
CAR SEAT AND BOOSTER SEAT PARTS AND FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED)
!
Harness Adjuster: Part
used to tighten or loosen the
harness
!
Harness Slots: Parts of car
seat where the harnesses go
through the seat shell
!
Labels: Information affixed
to car seat or booster seat
required by federal standards
!
Shell/Frame: Molded plastic
and/or metal structure of car
seat or booster seat
!
Seat Padding: Covers the
shell and/or frame
!
Level Indicator: Part of car
seat that helps identify
correct rear-facing
installation angles
!
Padding: Additional padding
or inserts some
manufacturers provide that
have been crash tested with
the seat
Parts of a seat
!
Belt Path: Place on car seat
where seat belt or lower
anchor connector is placed to
secure car seat in vehicle
!
Recline Adjuster: Allows car
seats to be reclined for rearfacing and semi-reclined or
upright for forward-facing use
!
Splitter Plate: Metal plate
that connects two ends of the
shoulder harnesses to a
single piece of webbing used
for adjustment
!
Lock-Off: Built-in belt-locking
feature on car seat that works
with certain types of seat belts
based on the same concept
as a locking clip
Belt path, recline adjuster, and splitter plate
Page 7-4
CAR SEAT AND BOOSTER SEAT PARTS AND FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED)
Locking Clip: Holds car seat in the proper position during normal driving when no other
locking mechanism is available
!
Tether Connector: Piece of belt webbing with a hook connector that anchors top of a car
seat or booster seat to vehicle that keeps restraint from tipping forward on impact – can
provide extra protection – most frequently used on forward-facing seats
!
Lower Anchor Connectors: Connectors used in place of vehicle seat belt to secure car
seat or booster seat – can be flexible or rigid
!
Detachable Base: Separate
car seat base that can be
installed in the vehicle –
restraint (car seat) portion can
be removed from base and
used as a carrier or, in some
cases, turned around, and
placed back in base for
forward-facing mode
!
Adjustment Foot: Part of
detachable base that raises or
lowers to allow a rear-facing
car seat to be installed at the
correct recline angle
!
Carry Handle: Plastic handle
attached to rear-facing-only car
seat that can be used to carry
car seat with child in it when
removed from the vehicle
!
Foot Prop/Load Leg: Pole or
leg that extends from base of a
rear-facing car seat or from
front of a forward-facing car
seat – used to prevent or
reduce excessive forward and
downward rotation in a crash
!
Anti-Rebound Bar: Hard bar
on some rear-facing car seats
that help to reduce movement
of car seat towards rear of the
vehicle seat (rebound) in a
crash
!
Instruction Book and
Storage Location:
Both required
Detachable base and adjustment foot
Carry handle and padding
Foot prop/load leg and anti-rebound bar
Page 7-5
MODULE 7 • Introduction to Car Seats & Booster Seats
!
HOW TO SELECT THE APPROPRIATE CAR SEAT OR BOOSTER SEAT
The best seat is one that:
!
!
!
NEVER%offer%any%
personal%opinions%about%
specific%car%seat%or%
booster%seat%products.%
Fits the child’s age, size, and developmental levels.
Fits the vehicle.
The caregiver will use correctly each time.
Caregivers also choose seats based on convenience factors.
Seat Factors
Caregiver Questions
Number and position of harness
strap slots
Is there room for my child to grow?
Automatic or 1-step harness
adjustment mechanisms
Is it easy to tighten and loosen the harness straps?
Rear-facing-only car seat versus
rear-facing convertible car seat
Is it more economical for my family to purchase a
convertible or 3-in-1 car seat?
Detachable base options on rearfacing-only seats
Is it more convenient for my family when extra bases can
be purchased for every person driving my child?
NOTE: Behaviorally immature children may need to stay in a more restrictive restraint for a
longer period of time than they might need based on size.
Used Car Seats and Booster Seats
Sometimes the caregiver has selected a used car seat or
booster seat. In these cases, the CPS Technician should get a
complete history of the seat and find out if it was involved in a
crash.
It is the CPS Technician’s responsibility to work with the owner
of the seat to review it – NOT to “certify” it as safe. It is the
owner’s responsibility to be sure all parts are present and in
good working condition.
•
The Juvenile Products Manufacturer Association (JPMA)
suggests replacing seats after six years if the manufacturer
does not state an expiration date on the seat or in in the
owner’s manual. The reasons for this limit includes:
–
–
–
•
Possible deterioration of the plastic shell and other parts.
Possible loss/breakage of parts.
The fact that older seats will often NOT meet current
government safety standards.
Expiration dates vary by manufacturer. Check the manual for
your specific seat.
NEVER%modify%a%car%seat%or%booster%seat%to%
make%it%fit.%Minor%modifications%can%change%the%
way%a%seat%performs%in%a%crash.%
Page 7-6
TIPS FOR CLEANING AND
MAINTAINING CAR
SEATS AND BOOSTER
SEATS
• Caregivers should
follow the manufacturer
instructions for
cleaning.
• If necessary, harnesses
must be air-dried.
Machine drying is too
hot for the harness
straps and will decrease
their effectiveness.
• Use only mild soap and
water and rinse with
clean water.
• NEVER use any
chemicals such as
starch, bleach, or sprayon fabric care/wrinkle
guard products.
• NEVER iron the harness.
• NEVER lubricate the
buckle.
Car Seats and Booster Seats that Have Been in a Crash
Seat replacement after a minor crash is not always required. Review NHTSA criteria for
assessing minor crash severity. If all criteria are met, it is not always necessary to replace a car
seat or booster seat.
No cracks or deformities (dented or bulging surfaces) can be seen by looking at the seat.
The vehicle with the seat installed can be driven from the scene.
The vehicle door nearest the seat is undamaged.
There were no occupant injuries.
Air bags did not open.
Check with the seat manufacturer for guidelines on when the product should be replaced.
Car Seat and Booster Seat Selection Errors
Caregivers make the following common car seat and booster
seat selection errors:
•
A car seat or booster seat that the child is too small for or
has outgrown
•
A household carrier (or other device that does NOT meet
FMVSS 213) as a car seat
•
A car seat or booster seat beyond its usable life or expiration
date
•
A second-hand car seat or booster seat that is missing
instructions and parts and/or has an unknown history
•
A car seat or booster seat that has been involved in a
moderate or severe crash
•
An unrepaired, recalled car seat or booster seat (NOTE:
Especially dangerous if recall is related to crash-worthiness)
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
CAR SEATS
• Some caregivers who
may have been given
household carriers
resembling a car seat
may not know the
difference.
• A used car seat lacking
a known history/original
owner may be fine, but
there is no guarantee
that it was not involved
in a crash, has been
recalled, may lack parts,
or have other damage.
CAR SEATS FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTHCARE OR MEDICAL NEEDS
Transportation of children with adaptive restraints and special equipment is becoming more
common in our increasingly mobile society. Special consideration is required for a child with:
•
•
•
•
•
A low birth weight or born prematurely
Cerebral Palsy
Breathing problems
A cast
Behavior issues
The approach and criteria for selecting the best car seat remain the same as with any child.
!
The first option is to use a conventional car seat if it meets the child’s needs. Conventional
car seats are easier to find and use and are less expensive.
!
!
Appropriate car seat selection should be made in collaboration with the child’s medical team.
Whenever possible, consult a CPS Technician who has had Safe Travel for All Children
training. Safe Travel for All Children is a two-day enhancement curriculum for CPS
Technicians that addresses serving children with special needs.
Page 7-7
MODULE 7 • Introduction to Car Seats & Booster Seats
!
!
!
!
!
CAR SEATS FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS (CONTINUED)
A special needs car seat is usually prescribed by a therapist and approved by a physician. It
may need to be ordered from a medical supply company. All or part of the cost may be paid for
by the child’s health insurance.
•
These seats may have higher
weight limits for the internal
harness or other special features
to help position the child.
•
Many medical conditions such as
Cerebral Palsy or prematurity
may make using a conventional
car seat difficult. Positioning may
be affected by their muscle tone,
breathing problems, or other lifethreatening situations.
•
Specialty vests allow older
children to ride lying flat when
medically required.
Special needs car seat
Some conditions resulting in special transportation needs may
not be long-term or chronic. Children may have short-term or
acute conditions such as a broken leg.
•
Hip casts can affect children’s ability to sit up. Special
restraints may be necessary.
•
Larger children in hip spica casts or full body casts who are
unable to sit up might need modified vests.
•
Caregivers should NEVER transport a child with special
healthcare/medical needs on a reclined vehicle seat.
CPS%Technicians%must%be%able%to%recognize%the%
general%areas%where%children%may%require%
specially%adapted%restraint%systems,%as%well%as%
the%community,%regional,%or%national%resources%
that%are%available%to%help%meet%their%needs.%%
Page 7-8
SPECIAL NEEDS
RESOURCES ON THE
NCPSB WEBSITE
• AAP Policy Statement,
Safe Transportation of
Premature and Low
Birth Weight Infants
• AAP Policy Statement,
Safe Transportation of
Newborns at Hospital
Discharge
• James Whitcomb Riley
Hospital for Children
Discharge Protocol
Essentials
• AAP Policy Statement,
Transporting Children
with Special Health
Care Needs
• http://www.aap.org or
www.preventinjury.org
for additional
information.
Child’s Behavior Considerations
Caregivers will often request your advice regarding actions they can take when driving a child
with problem behavior.
The behavior may be caused by a child’s medical condition, such as autism or attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These behaviors may distract the driver making proper
restraint use for everyone in the vehicle even more important.
•
When the child’s behavior associated with a medical condition places him/her or others at
risk because of car seat issues during travel, caregivers should be referred to the child’s
physician or a behavioral specialist AND to a CPS Technician with special training in safe
transportation of children with special needs. They can then discuss the problem and
possible options.
•
Caregivers can also be referred to the child’s school or doctor for help with
behavioral issues.
•
Some children with behavior issues may benefit from a car seat with a higher weight
harness, a non-conventional seat, or vest.
Sometimes a child’s behavior may be related to a developmental stage. They may not only
resist a car seat but also temporarily resist going to bed at night or refuse certain foods.
!
“While!many!children!with!special!needs!can!be!safely!transported!in!conventional!car!
seats,!some!require!additional!support.!It!is!important!to!know!the!contacts!in!your!
community!who!have!had!training!in!special!needs!transportation!and!can!help!locate!
the!best!resource!for!a!child!who!requires!a!non>conventional!child!restraint!to!be!
safely!transported!in!vehicles.”!
Marilyn(J.(Bull,(MD,(FAAP(
Morris(Green(Professor(of(Pediatrics(
Riley(Hospital(for(Children(at(Indiana(University(Health(
Resources for Car Seats for Special Needs
Examples of resources and training for car seats and special needs across the nation are
listed below.
•
National Center for the Safe Transportation of Children with Special Healthcare Needs,
based at Automotive Safety Program, Riley Hospital for Children, 800-755-0912 or
www.preventinjury.org. A database of CPS Technicians who have completed the “Safe
Travel for All Children: Transporting Children with Special Healthcare Needs” is noted on
their Safe Kids Worldwide Technician profile at http://cert.safekids.org.
•
CPS Special Needs Listserv “SPECIALNEEDSTRANSPORT-L,” to subscribe, email
[email protected]
•
•
CPS in Healthcare email: [email protected]
Safe Ride News Fact Sheets at www.saferidenews.com or 1-800-403-1424. National Center
for the Safe Transportation of Children with Special Healthcare Needs, 800-755-0912 or
www.preventinjury.org. Includes a database of CPS Technicians who have completed the
"Safe Travel for All Children: Transporting Children with Special Healthcare Needs" noted on
their Safe Kids Worldwide technician profile.
Page 7-9
MODULE 7 • Introduction to Car Seats & Booster Seats
•
Explain Best Practices About Car Seats and Booster Seats to Caregivers
There are key questions to answer related to car seats and booster seats. Explain and
demonstrate best practices to caregivers.
Key Questions
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
What is the age, height, and weight of the child?
Should the child be rear-facing or forward-facing?
Does the child have any special needs?
What type of seat is it?
Which type of seat should the child be using?
Is it a used seat?
Has the seat ever been in a crash?
Are all seat parts and pieces in good working order?
Are there any missing parts or labels?
Who else rides in the vehicle?
Best Practices
1. What is the best car seat or booster seat for a child?
2.
How long should children ride in rear-facing car seats?
3. Why might a car seat or booster seat that is missing its product information label be
dangerous to use?
4. Should a car seat or booster seat be replaced after a crash?
5. What are some situations or conditions that may require the selection of specialized
adaptive car seats?
Page 7-10
MODULE
8
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
• Describe why children should travel rear-facing.
• Identify types of rear-facing car seats.
• Apply 5 steps for rear-facing car seat use.
• Explain best practices and caregiver choices about rear-facing car seats.
• Identify rear-facing car seat errors and consequences.
WHY CHILDREN SHOULD TRAVEL REAR-FACING
Children’s bodies change as they
grow. Different types of car seats
and booster seats are made to
support the child’s growth.
Remember&that&NHTSA&
recommends&children&
remain&in&rear6facing&car&
seats&for&AS&LONG&AS&
POSSIBLE&and&until&they&
reach&the&top&height&or&
weight&limit&allowed&by&the&
car&seat&manufacturer.&
How a child’s body changes
VIDEO • Why Children Should Travel Rear-Facing
Record reasons why children should travel rear-facing.
TIPS FOR DICUSSING
WHY CHILDREN SHOULD
TRAVEL REAR-FACING
Review Rear-Facing
Quotables: Guiding
Parents to Keep Children
Rear-Facing Longer
located on the NCPSB
website. It contains
information CPS
Technicians can use in
the field to communicate
with caregivers about
keeping children rearfacing longer.
Page 8-1
WHY CHILDREN SHOULD TRAVEL REAR-FACING (CONTINUED)
•
While great strides have been made in reducing child fatalities and injuries since the 1970s,
over half of children killed are either improperly restrained or unrestrained (FARS: Fatality
Analysis Reporting System, NHTSA, 2007).
•
Rear-facing-only seats are engineered to distribute the forces of a crash across the entire
head and body of an infant and young child. The harnesses are attached snugly to keep the
child from sliding up the back of the seat and from flying out of the seat in a crash.
•
A rear-facing car seat supports the entire head, neck, and back of a child in a frontal crash.
A young child’s head is larger and heavier in proportion to his body than that of an older
child. In a frontal crash, the head moves abruptly forward placing increased forces on the
neck but when a child is properly restrained rear-facing, the head moves with the seat
reducing the risk for a neck and spine injury.
•
It’s a common myth that when a child’s feet or legs reach the back of the vehicle seat, he or
she is at increased risk for a lower-extremity injury. Lower extremity injuries are rare for
children who ride rear-facing. Children can easily sit with their legs crossed or on the back of
the seat. Lower extremity injuries heal more easily and completely than injuries to the brain
and spinal cord.
•
In a frontal crash, the rear-facing car seat cradles and moves with the child. It is the shell of
the car seat itself that absorbs the forces.
•
Children in the second year of life
are five times less likely to die or
be seriously injured in a crash if
restrained rear-facing compared
to forward-facing (Henary B,
Sherwood C, Crandall J, et al. Car
Safety Seats for Children: RearFacing for Best Protection. Injury
Prevention, 2007). The forces of
the crash are completely
distributed throughout the torso
and head and the seat appears to
provide a cocoon effect for the
child.
•
Keep children rear-facing as long as possible
Remind parents that they do not watch their child every minute while sleeping, and that, if
there is great concern about not being able to see their child when rear-facing, they can
arrange for another adult to sit beside the child in the back seat. Drivers should drive and
they cannot simultaneously perform child care.
When%working%with%caregivers,%it%is%critical%that%they%understand%the%reasons%
why%children%are%safer%when%traveling%rear7facing%in%vehicles.%While%we%can%
understand%that%a%caregiver%would%like%to%see%their%child%while%driving,%we%must%
emphasize%that%the%statistics%are%compelling%and%risks%are%too%great.%
Page 8-2
TYPES OF REAR-FACING CAR SEATS
There are two main types of rear-facing car seats:
Rear-facing-only car seat that may have a 3-point harness or 5-point harness. Many models
have a detachable base. Some models require using the base.
•
Rear-facing convertible car seats have a 5-point harness.
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
•
Rear-facing-only car seat
Rear-facing-convertible car seat
Practice Activity: Identify Rear-Facing Car Seats
Practice identifying the types of rear-facing car seats
1. Work with your small group to examine your assigned car seat.
2. Answer the following questions about your assigned car seat.
Questions
1. What type of car seat is it?
2. What type of harness is attached?
3. What are the minimum and maximum height and weight limits for a child using this
car seat?
Page 8-3
Rear-Facing-Only Car Seats
•
Always check the car seat label for the starting weight. Some car seats are labeled as “birth”
and others are labeled for a specific weight.
•
In general, the top of the child’s head should be well
contained within the shell and at least 1 inch from top of
shell. Some manufacturer instructions state otherwise so be
sure to check the car seat manual.
•
The harness needs to be snug and hold the child down in the
seat so he/she does not slide up in a crash and suffer
ejection from the car. Harness straps should emerge from
the shell at or below the child’s shoulders unless the
manufacturer instructions state otherwise.
•
Caregivers should NEVER use the rear-facing seat above
the height or weight limits designated by the manufacturer.
Once a child outgrows the rear-facing-only car seat, he or
she should move to a rear-facing convertible seat with rearfacing height and weight limits. This information may be
difficult to determine by simply checking labels. Check the
manual for more complete information.
Rear-Facing Convertible Car Seat
•
Many new convertible car seats are approved for rear-facing
use up to 40+ pound children. Some seats exceed these
weights and should be considered for children whose weight
and/or height have exceeded the limits of the rear-facingonly car seat.
•
Children commonly sit with their legs crossed or resting on
the back of the vehicle seat. Risk of injury to legs in a crash
is low and injuries to the lower extremities are usually less
severe with fewer long-term complications (AAP Technical
Report, March 2011).
•
Although older children with poor head control and other
children with special needs are within height and weight
requirements of a car seat, they benefit from staying rearfacing as long as possible. In a crash, all children are safer
rear-facing as long as their car seat allows.
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
REAR-FACING CAR
SEATS
• Encourage caregivers to
use the rear-facing car
seat to the highest
weight or height allowed
by the car seat
manufacturer.
• Suggest ways to ease
caregivers’ need to see
the child during driving.
For example, children
sleep through the night
without being under the
parents’ watchful eye. If
the car seat is installed
correctly, the child
should be fine.
• Emphasize that
caregivers must check
the car seat
manufacturer
instructions for upper
and lower weight and
height limits.
• Remind parents that car
seats should be used
for transportation in the
vehicle only and not
recommended for use
as carriers or long term
use at home.
5 STEPS FOR REAR-FACING CAR SEAT USE
The following is an application of the 5 steps to rear-facing car seats.
1. Selection: Choose the Right Car Seat
•
Select the one that is right for the child’s height, weight, developmental levels, AND that a
caregiver can use correctly.
•
Select a car seat with an adjustable harness height to offer options for a rapidly growing
infant.
•
Some seats have multiple positions for crotch straps for better fit as a child grows.
Caregivers should refer to the manufacturer instructions for proper placement.
Page 8-4
2. Direction: Face the Car Seat the Right Way
An infant under the age of 1 should ALWAYS ride in a
rear-facing car seat.
•
A child should remain in a rear-facing car seat AS LONG
AS POSSIBLE. The child should remain in a rear-facing
car seat until he or she reaches the top height or weight
limit allowed by the car seat manufacturer. Once a child
outgrows a rear-facing only seat, they can transfer to a
rear-facing convertible until they reach the maximum
height or weight for that seat.
3. Location: Install the Car Seat in the Right Spot in the Vehicle
•
Although there may be many seating positions in a
vehicle, not all may be suitable for installing a car seat.
The car seat manufacturer instructions and/or the vehicle
owner’s manual may not allow the use of the center rear
seating position.
•
NEVER place a rear-facing car seat in the front vehicle
seat if the passenger frontal air bag is turned on in the
vehicle. If it is necessary to place a forward-facing child
in the front seat, be sure the air bag is turned off in the
vehicle.
Always%ask,%“Who%rides%in%this%vehicle?%%
Where%will%each%person%sit?”%
4. Installation: Secure the Car Seat to the Vehicle in the
Right Way
•
The rear-facing car seat spreads crash forces along the
entire head, neck, and back. The correct angle helps
keep the airway open. If the car seat is installed too
upright, the child’s head may flop forward and cut off
his/her air supply.
•
Know the car seat recline angle, use the recline indicator
and adjuster, and adjust to accommodate the seat and
vehicle slope.
Recline Angle
•
Caregivers should recline the rear-facing car seat
according to manufacturer instructions.
•
If permitted by the manufacturer, as the child ages and
gains better head control, he or she may sit more upright.
Page 8-5
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
CAR SEATS AND SAFE
SLEEPING PRACTICES
• CPS Technicians are in
a great position to talk
to caregivers about safe
sleep practices children.
• Sleeping children
should be removed from
car seats in the home
and at childcare and
placed in a crib free
from items like pillows,
blankets, and stuffed
animals.
• Some caregivers may
think it is safe to leave
the child in the car seat
(when inside the home)
with a loose harness
and/or unsecured crotch
strap. Children can:
− Slide down on the seat
and be strangled by
the chest clip pressing
against the throat.
− Also strangle in
unsecured harness
straps or in loose
straps or they can roll
over into a prone
position, resulting in
asphyxia.
• For more information go
to http://www.cpsc.gov.
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
•
Recline Angle Indicator
The recline angle indicator is
part of the car seat and should
be used as indicated by the
manufacturer.
Recline Adjuster
•
The vehicle must be on a
level surface when
checking the car seat
angle.
•
Many rear-facing car seats
have an adjustable base or
foot that is used to correct
the angle.
•
For car seats that do not
have an adjustable base, a
firm, lightweight object such
as a tightly rolled towel or
pool noodle can be placed
at the vehicle seat crack or
bight if permitted by the car
seat manufacturer.
Rear-facing recline angle
•
This is helpful when car seats are used on vehicle seats
that are not as flat as those used in the testing
laboratory. This installation method may be useful when
using a carrier without the base.
•
Unless the car seat manufacturer indicates otherwise, a
rule of thumb is to use either the adjustable base or foot
or firm lightweight object – but NOT both. The car seat
has most likely NOT been tested this way.
Check recline angle
Seat Slope
A steep angle may cause the child to ride too upright.
Maintain the correct recline angle.
Seat Belt or Lower Anchors
•
Car seats can be installed with a seat belt or with lower
anchor connectors – usually NOT both. While the
systems are different, they are equally safe.
•
Most car seats have NOT been tested with both systems
used together. Some manufacturers allow this now, so
always be sure to read both the vehicle and car seat
instructions for help.
Car seat installed with
lower anchor connectors
Page 8-6
VIDEO • Install a Rear-Facing Car Seat
Record steps you observe to install a rear-facing car seat with
a seat belt.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
• A rear-facing car seat
can be installed so that it
rests against the back of
the vehicle seat in front
if this is not against the
car seat manufacturer
instructions.
• CPS Technicians may
need to instruct
caregivers to switch to
an emergency locking
retractor and use a
locking clip if the tension
on the shoulder belt tilts
the car seat to 1 side.
• Tilting may be due to
over-tightening or
pulling up on the
shoulder belt. Another
option is for the
caregiver to try another
seating position.
TETHERS AND REARFACING CAR SEATS
VIDEO • Install a Rear-Facing Car Seat
Record the steps that are different when installing a rearfacing car seat with lower connectors instead of a seat belt.
Page 8-7
• The use of tethers on a
rear-facing car seat is
uncommon in the United
States.
• A rear-facing car seat
should NEVER be
tethered unless
recommended and
specifically allowed by
the car seat
manufacturer. Several
products have optional
tethers in the rear-facing
position.
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
1.
SPECIAL
CONSIDERATIONS FOR
REAR-FACING CAR SEATS
General Methods to Obtain a Tight Installation Include:
1. Place car seat on vehicle seat in the proper direction and
at the correct recline angle in the back seat of the
vehicle.
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
HOW TO INSTALL REARFACING CAR SEATS
2. Carefully thread the seat belt or lower connectors
through the correct belt path as directed by the
manufacturer. Be careful not to have any twists.
• Tell caregivers that
since not every car seat
will fit into every
vehicle, they can ask
the retail store to allow
trying out a car seat in
their vehicle in the store
parking lot.
• Many caregivers who
mistakenly test their
rear-facing car seat near
the child’s head (instead
of near the belt path)
think the car seat is not
installed properly
because it moves more
when tested at this
point.
• To reduce risk of
entanglement from
unused seat belts,
educate caregivers to
evaluate and note
unused seat belts that
may be within reach of a
child.
• If possible, switch the
retractor to automatic
locking mode to lock the
unused seat belt against
the back seat. Refer to
vehicle and car seat
owner’s manuals for
guidance.
3. Buckle and lock the seat belt or connect the lower
connectors to the anchors in the vehicle.
4. Press down firmly on the base or car seat and tighten.
The base or car seat should NOT move side-to-side or
front-to-back more than 1 inch when tested at the belt
path.
Space Requirements
Check the following to see if the car seat fits in the vehicle.
!
Do the contours of the vehicle seat permit the car seat
to stay level?
!
Is there enough space for the car seat to allow for the
correct angle?
!
Does at least 80 percent of the car seat base (footprint)
fit on the vehicle seat? Many manufacturers say that no
more than 20 percent of the car seat can hang over the
front edge of the vehicle seat. Some models require
that 100 percent of the footprint fit on the vehicle seat.
Use the 80/20 as a rule of thumb UNLESS the car seat
manufacturer says differently.
!
Does the seat belt/lower anchor connector allow for a
tight installation?
Page 8-8
1
Common Rear-Facing Installation Errors
Caregivers make the following common rear-facing installation
errors:
!
!
!
!
!
• To test installation, grip
the car seat at or near
the belt path and pull on
the car seat. There
should be no more than
1 inch of side-to-side or
forward movement at
the belt path.
• Pull the slack out of the
hip straps before pulling
the shoulder straps and
harness snug.
5. Harnessing: Place the Child Correctly in the Car Seat
There are four steps to correctly place a child in a car seat.
1. Place the child all the way back in the car seat.
2. Place the harness straps at or below the child’s
shoulders, according to manufacturer instructions, and
buckle at the crotch.
•
The harness holds the child down low in the car seat
so he/she does not slide up and out of the car seat in
a crash.
•
The crotch strap keeps the child from moving
forward. Adjust the crotch strap if needed to get it as
close to the child as possible.
3. Tighten harness straps snugly.
•
•
NHTSA requires car seat manufacturers to state in
the instructions: “A snug strap should NOT allow
any slack. It lies in a relatively straight line
without sagging. It does not press on the
child’s flesh or push the child’s body into an
unnatural position.”
You should NOT be able to pinch excess webbing at
the shoulder or hips once the harness is buckled.
This is called the pinch test.
4. Place the harness retainer clip at armpit level.
Page 8-9
Do a pinch test to ensure the
harness is snug
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
!
!
!
!
A seat belt or lower anchor connector that is too loose
or not locked
A rear-facing-only car seat that is facing forward
Seat belt or lower anchor connectors routed incorrectly
Incorrect recline angle especially for an infant
Using two seat belts or using a seat belt and lower
anchor connectors together (must be allowed by BOTH
the vehicle and car seat manufacturer)
Incorrect use of lower anchor connectors and tethers
Not using the appropriate tether anchor or using a
tether when it should not be used (most convertible car
seats do not tether when rear-facing)
The locking clip installed incorrectly
The carrying handle not used in the approved position
for vehicle travel
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
CORRECT REAR-FACING
CAR SEAT USE
2
5. Harnessing: Place the Child Correctly in the Car Seat (continued)
In addition:
•
Only place blankets around the child after the harness is snug and secure. Unapproved
padding placed behind or under the child or under harnesses can compress in a crash
and create slack in the harness. Only items approved or manufactured by the car seat
company for a particular model car seat are acceptable.
•
Nothing should be placed under the child or between the child and the harness except for
the use of a rolled towel or blanket at the crotch strap, if allowed by the manufacturer.
•
Use only harness comfort covers or head padding the manufacturer has included with the
car seat or the manufacturer sells separately for the specific car seat.
•
Harness hardware can include manual adjusters, “A-locks” (adjuster device on front of
many seats), or metal harness adjusters.
•
Make sure to follow manufacturer recommendations on approved positions for carry
handles on rear-facing-only seats.
Various types of rear-facing harness adjusters
!
“JPMA&is&dedicated&to&enhancing&children's&product&safety&and&our&members&work&hard&
to&provide&the&latest&information&on&how&to&use&their&products.&If&anyone&has&questions&
about&a&product,&they&should&start&by&contacting&the&manufacturer.&Our&members&are&
here&to&help&CPS&technicians&and&caregivers&as&they&use&our&products&in&the&field.”&
!
Juvenile&Products&Manufacturers&Association&(JPMA)&
!
Page 8-10
Common Rear-Facing Harnessing Errors
Caregivers make the following common rear-facing harnessing errors:
!
!
!
!
Harness not used and the child is just sitting in the car seat
!
Harness that is not doubled-back through buckle type metal adjuster, if it requires the
double-back to secure the harness
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Harness that is twisted
Harness straps that are too loose
Harness routed through the wrong slots
NOTE: Harness may look as though it is properly routed through the padding, but it may
not be routed correctly through the shell. Both areas must be checked.
Harness not placed on the child correctly
Harness that is frayed or damaged
Metal adjuster not flush with a slot or out of position
Crotch strap that is adjusted too long
Harness not at or below shoulder
Crotch strap that is not through the slot closest to the child
Harness that is incorrectly routed
Seats for Children With Special Needs
The American Academy of
Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that
all children born before 37 weeks
(more than three weeks early) be
monitored before they leave the
hospital for possible breathing
problems or slowing of the heart
rate when sitting in a semi-reclined
position.
The physician will determine if the
child can use a rear-facing-only car
seat or should ride lying on their
stomach or on their back in a car
bed.
Car bed
NOTE: Some very small children
do not have respiratory problems,
but still may require special
consideration.
Page 8-11
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
Retainer clip is not at armpit level
Seats for Children With Special Needs (continued)
How to Fit Children with Special Needs in Car Seats
Small and
prematurely
born infants
Car beds
Special car seats may be needed for children who are very small or have
special physical or developmental needs
•
•
•
Use a car seat designed for the child’s low weight.
Center the child in a car seat with rolled receiving blankets and a crotch roll, if
necessary.
Car beds are used for children who are small, premature, or medically fragile
and need to ride flat as directed by a doctor.
•
•
•
Breathing
problems
Use a rear-facing car seat with small internal harness dimensions.
Secure the child in the car bed with the internal harness or bunting.
Place the child’s head toward the center of the vehicle – NOT next to the door.
Use the seat belt to anchor the car bed lengthwise on the vehicle seat.
Breathing problems and other medical conditions may require the child to lie flat
or use a non-conventional car seat.
•
•
A semi-reclined position of the car seat could make breathing problems worse.
Children may need to travel with secured special medical equipment such as
apnea monitors, ventilators, and oxygen tanks which must be safely restrained
during transport. To secure equipment:
–
–
–
Place it on the vehicle floor and wedge it with pillows or foam.
–
Carriers for restraining monitors, ventilators, and oxygen are also
available.
Hold it in place by seat belts not in use, if possible.
Monitors and oxygen tanks may be stored under the front seat in
some vehicles. Check the vehicle manufacturer instructions.
Page 8-12
Practice Activity: Select and Install Rear-Facing Car Seats
In small groups, select and install car seats by a child’s age/height/weight. A child (card with
age, height, and weight) will be assigned to your team.
2. Using a doll, adjust harness to fit your child.
3. Install a rear-facing-only car seat with and without a base and a rear-facing convertible car
seat in a vehicle using a lap-belt-only, lap-and-shoulder belt, and lower anchors, where
applicable. Make your car seat selections based on the child’s age, height, and weight.
4. Repeat the car seat selection, harness adjustment, and three installations for the type of car
seat (rear-facing-only or rear-facing convertible) not chosen the first time.
5. Document how the belt locks in the following chart.
Seat to Install
How Does the Belt Lock?
Rear-facingonly without a
base
Retractor:
Instructor Initials
Latchplate:
How does it lock?
Rear-facingonly with a
base
Retractor:
Latchplate:
How does it lock?
Rear-facing
convertible
Retractor:
Latchplate:
How does it lock?
Page 8-13
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
1. Select an appropriate car seat for your child.
Explain Best Practices About Rear-Facing Car Seats
There are key questions to answer related to rear-facing car seats. Explain and demonstrate
best practices to caregivers.
Key Questions
!
!
What are the age, height, and weight of the child?
!
What does the car seat owner’s manual or label say about the minimum and maximum
heights and weights for the child using this car seat?
!
!
!
!
Is the car seat a rear-facing-only or convertible type?
!
!
!
!
Is the car seat installed tightly?
Does the child have any special needs such as being very small, premature, or any physical,
or developmental needs?
Does the rear-facing-only car seat have a base? Can it be installed without a base?
Is the car seat facing the correct direction in the vehicle?
Is the car seat in an appropriate seating position in the vehicle according to the vehicle and
car seat manufacturers?
Is the car seat secured by a seat belt or with lower anchor connectors?
Is the car seat at the correct recline angle?
Is the harness being used correctly?
Best Practices
Answer the following questions to prepare for conversations you will have with caregivers to
educate them about rear-facing car seats.
1. I have two children. Which child should go in the middle of the back seat?
2. Can I leave the carry handle up and dangle toys from the car seat to keep my child happy?
3. Should I use the lower anchors or the seat belt? Which is safer?
4. Should I use a tether on my rear-facing convertible seat?
5. I want to see my child. When can I turn him around?
Page 8-14
Progress Check: Identify Rear-Facing Car Seat Errors and Consequences
1. Examine each photograph to determine if the rear-facing car seat is fitted properly.
2. If not fitted properly, identify the error along with the consequences for the child.
Error:
Consequences:
2.
Error:
Consequences:
3.
Error:
Consequences:
Page 8-15
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
1.
Progress Check: Identify Rear-Facing Car Seat Errors and Consequences (continued)
4.
Error:
Consequences:
5.
Error:
Consequences:
Page 8-16
Progress Check and Summary
1. How do you determine which harness slot or slots may be used for a rear-facing child?
3. What are the two places where you will find accurate information regarding correct seat belt
placement?
4. How do you test the tightness of a rear-facing car seat?
Page 8-17
MODULE 8 • Children in Rear-Facing Car Seats
2. What factors do you check to be sure a child is properly secured with a rear-facing car
seat?
Page 8-18
MODULE
9
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
OBJECTIVES
• Describe when children should travel forward-facing.
• Identify types of forward-facing car seats.
• Apply 5 steps for forward-facing car seat use.
• Explain best practices about forward-facing car seats to caregivers.
• Identify forward-facing car seat errors and consequences.
WHEN CHILDREN SHOULD TRAVEL FORWARD-FACING
Children should:
•
Remain in a rear-facing car seat until reaching the top height or weight limit allowed by the
car seat manufacturer.
•
Ride in a forward-facing car seat with a harness until they reach the top height or weight limit
allowed by the car seat manufacturer – usually until they are between ages 4 to 7.
•
It is dangerous to exceed height or weight limits.
There are five types of forward-facing car seats: convertible, combination, forward-facing-only,
large medical seats or vests, and integrated seats.
NOTE: There are always car seats that do not fit into these categories. For example, there are
car seats that rear-face, forward-face, and then become booster seats.
FORWARD-FACING CONVERTIBLE CAR SEAT
•
Manufacturer instructions for many car seats
recommend they be in the upright position
when used forward-facing.
•
Some manufacturers meet testing standards
with their seat in a forward-facing, semireclined position, as well as fully upright.
Consider this position if the child has special
needs or if seat belts cannot be made tight
when the car seat is upright.
•
Some harness systems are approved for use
to 40 pounds, but the marketplace is
changing and now includes more seats with
higher weight limit harnesses.
•
A 5-point harness provides more protection
for a child than a booster seat with a lap-andshoulder seat belt.
•
Read the owner's manual to ensure correct
use of the belt path and harness slots.
Page 9-1
Forward-facing convertible car seat
FORWARD-FACING COMBINATION CAR SEAT
The forward-facing combination car seat is used with a
harness until a certain height or weight limit specified by the
manufacturer is reached. The harness must then be removed
or stored.
•
Make sure the mid-point of the back of head or top of ears
are NOT above the top of the shell or as directed by the
car seat manufacturer.
•
The backs of all combination seats are reinforced. Any
harness slot can be used as long as it is at or above the
child’s shoulders.
•
This car seat does not have air bag warning labels because
combination car seats are forward-facing-only and most
have a lower weight limit of 20 pounds.
•
Once the harness is removed, this seat can then be used
as a belt-positioning booster seat.
Forward-facing
combination car seat
FORWARD-FACING-ONLY CAR SEATS
Forward-facing-only car seats are sometimes used for children
with special health needs or for heavier children who are not
behaviorally mature enough for a booster seat.
•
•
With forward-facing-only car seats, the weight limits can
vary. Some have higher harness weight limits than other
forward-facing car seats.
Forward-facing-only car seat
It is important to research and remain aware of currently
available car seats with higher weight harnesses.
LARGE MEDICAL SEATS AND VESTS
Large medical seats, vests, and harnesses may help children
with behavioral issues, weak muscles, excess weight, or other
situations when a conventional car seat cannot be used.
•
Large medical seats are designed for occupants who require
supplemental positioning support from a car seat beyond
that offered by a conventional restraint. Typically, large
medical seats will fit occupants weighing up to 102 to 135
pounds (a few go higher).
•
There are different vests available in different sizes for use
as restraints. In order to use a vest, a child must have good
head control. Some products are made just for school bus
use.
•
It is important for families to work with an occupational
therapist (OT) or physical therapist (PT) to evaluate a child’s
positioning needs and determine which restraint provides the
best positioning options for the child.
•
•
Heavy-duty tethers are sometimes required.
Always follow the manufacturer instructions.
Page 9-2
Large medical seat
Vest
INTEGRATED SEATS
Some vehicles have seats/restraints built into the vehicle.
Check the vehicle owner’s manual for instructions and
weight limits.
•
Many integrated seats face forward. Some can be used as
a booster seat. They CANNOT be moved.
•
•
Some have a 5-point harness.
•
Caregivers should call the service department of the vehicle
dealership and ask to be given information in the repair
section of the service manual about replacing car seat parts.
Integrated seats, as with other car seats, may need to be
replaced after a vehicle collision, if webbing is frayed, or
parts are missing or broken. Check the vehicle owner’s
manual for instructions.
Integrated seat
HARNESS FIT
Tighten harness straps snugly. A snug harness lies flat and
passes the pinch test. Bulky clothing can interfere with proper
harness fit.
•
Avoid bulky clothing or padding behind the child’s head,
back, or under buttocks.
•
Bulky jackets can be put on backwards (over child’s arms
and torso) after the harness is secured.
•
Place blankets over and around the child after the harness is
snug.
Children should sit with:
!
!
Their back and bottom flat against the car seat back.
!
The harness straps placed over the shoulders and buckled
at the crotch.
!
The retainer clip at armpit level.
The harness placed through proper slots, usually at or
above the child’s shoulders. Refer to the car seat
manufacturer instructions.
Page 9-3
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
HARNESS FIT
• Some car seats have
unusual belt paths or
routing instructions.
• Harness slot
reinforcement and
structures that look like
reinforcement may not
be visible.
• The only way to know
for certain is to read the
manufacturer
instructions.
MODULE 9 • Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
•
Practice Activity: Adjust a Harness and Locate the Belt Path
In small groups, adjust a harness for height and weight limits. A child (doll and card with age,
weight, and height) will be assigned to your group.
1. Working with a forward-facing car seat and doll, move the harness to a different harness
slot. Adjust the harness to loosen and tighten.
2. Adjust the car seat harness so it fits the doll.
3. Identify the location of the harness adjustments.
4. Identify the forward-facing seat belt path, lower anchor attachment belt path, and tether
strap on the car seat.
5. Adjust the car seat to either the upright or forward-facing recline position (if allowed by the
manufacturer.
6. Answer the following questions.
Questions
1. Is the harness adjustment in the front or on the back of the car seat?
2. Is it easy to read labels and instruction manual, locate and identify harness adjustment
lock-offs, etc.?
3. Where are the lower anchors and tether stored when not in use?
5 STEPS FOR FORWARD-FACING CAR SEAT USE
The following is an application of 5 steps to forward-facing car seat use.
1. Selection: Choose the Right Car Seat
As with all car seats, select the one that is right for the child’s height, weight, developmental
levels, AND that a caregiver can use correctly.
2. Direction: Face the Car Seat the Right Way
A child should be kept in a forward-facing car seat with a harness until reaching the top
height or weight limit allowed by the car seat manufacturer. This is generally between the
ages of 4 to 7.
3. Location: Install the Car Seat in an Appropriate Location in the Vehicle
•
As with rear-facing car seats, while there may be many seating positions in a vehicle, not
all may be suitable for installing a car seat.
•
As long as the car seat fits, the rear center seating position may be safer because it is
furthest from impact and intrusion from any direction. However, some rear center
positions are not usable and many families transport more than one child.
•
Weight limits on lower anchors and tether anchors can affect the seating position choice.
Each vehicle manufacturer sets these weight limits. Check the vehicle owner’s manual or
most current LATCH Manual (if available) for individual vehicle limits.
Page 9-4
4. Installation: Secure the Car Seat to the Vehicle in the Right Way
•
•
A tether increases safety by limiting forward movement
and rotation of the car seat. Using the tether strap can
stabilize a car seat and limit head movement.
•
NEVER place noodles or towels behind or under a
forward-facing car seat unless allowed by the
manufacturer.
General methods to obtain a tight installation include:
1. Place the car seat on the selected vehicle seat in the
proper direction, ensuring that the angle adjustment is in
the correct position for the child.
2. Place the seat belt or lower anchor webbing through the
car seat belt path as directed by the manufacturer.
3. Buckle and lock the seat belt or secure lower anchors.
4. Place your hand in the car seat and use leverage to
compress the car seat into the vehicle seat cushion while
tightening the seat belt or lower anchors.
5. Tighten to ensure the seat does not move more than
1 inch when testing at the belt path.
6. Identify the vehicle tether anchor. Attach and tighten the
tether strap.
7. Test again for a tight installation.
Page 9-5
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
FORWARD-FACING CAR
SEATS
• Always discuss the
transportation needs of
the family.
• Unused seat belts may
be within reach of a
child when a car seat is
installed with lower
connectors. Technicians
should educate the
caregiver to evaluate
the risk of entanglement
from unused seat belts.
Secure unused seat
belts as directed by the
vehicle manufacturer.
• Encourage caregivers to
use the tether with a
forward-facing car seat
whenever possible,
whether installing with
the seat belt or lower
anchors.
• Show caregivers how to
place lower anchors
through a forwardfacing belt path.
• Explain the importance
of storing the LATCH
attachments.
MODULE 9 • Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
Consider seating positions with seat belts that can be
locked (locking latchplate, switchable, or automatic
locking retractors) or approved lower anchor positions for
car seat use.
VIDEO • Install a Forward-Facing Car Seat
Record steps you observe to install a forward-facing car seat
with a harness using a seat belt.
1.
2.
3.
4.
HOW TO TEST THE
INSTALLATION
• To test the installation,
grip the car seat at or
near the belt path and
pull on the car seat.
• There should be no more
than 1 inch of side-toside or forward
movement at the belt
path.
• Tighten the harness
straps snugly. You
should NOT be able to
pinch excess webbing at
the shoulders once the
harness is buckled and
tightened.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What do you need to take into account when using the lower anchors to secure the car seat?
Page 9-6
Common Forward-Facing Installation Errors
Caregivers make the following common forward-facing installation errors:
A seat belt or lower anchor attachment that is too loose or not locked
•
Incorrect use of lower anchors and tether, not installing lower anchor attachments to the
correct designated lower anchor bars or attaching the connectors upside down
•
•
•
Not using the appropriate tether anchor or using it when it should not be used
•
Installing a seat with LATCH when the child weighs more than the vehicle and/or car
seat LATCH weight limits
A rear-facing-only car seat that is forward-facing
Seat belt or lower anchor attachments routed incorrectly through the wrong belt path
Recline angle not adjusted appropriately for forward-facing direction
Using two seat belts, or using a seat belt and lower anchor attachments together (unless
allowed by the car seat and the vehicle manufacturers)
Locking clip installed incorrectly
Installing a car seat with lower anchors in a seating position that is not a designated
LATCH position
5. Harnessing: Place the Child Correctly in the Car Seat
There are four steps for correctly harnessing a child in a car seat.
1. Place the child all the way back in the car seat.
2. Put the harness straps over the shoulders and buckle at the crotch. The harness holds
the child back against the car seat so he or she does not slide out in a crash. The crotch
strap keeps the child from moving forward.
3. Tighten the harness straps snugly. You should NOT be able to pinch excess webbing at
the shoulders once the harness is buckled.
4. Secure and place the harness retainer clip at armpit level.
Common Forward-Facing Harnessing Errors
Caregivers make the following common forward-facing harnessing errors:
•
•
•
•
Harness not used (child just sitting in the car seat)
•
•
•
•
•
Harness is twisted or incorrectly routed
Harness straps are too loose
Retainer clip not at armpit level
Harness routed through the wrong slots. (NOTE: Harness may look as though it is
properly routed through the pad, but it may not be routed correctly through the shell.)
Harness not placed on the child correctly
Harness is frayed or damaged
Metal adjuster not flush with a slot or out of position
Crotch strap is adjusted too long, or not through slot closest to the child
Page 9-7
MODULE 9 • Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
•
•
•
•
•
Practice Activity: Select and Install Forward-Facing Car Seats
Select and install car seats by a child’s age, height, and weight. A child (card with age, weight,
height) will be assigned.
1. Your group becomes the caregivers of a child with a specific age, height, and weight.
2. Select the correct car seat for the child, adjust the harness straps and angle, and determine
the belt path.
3. Work together to install your car seat.
4. Document retractor and latchplate types and how your vehicle seat belt locks.
5. If you identify any errors, document them in the second and third charts.
Seat to Install
How Does the Vehicle Seat Belt Lock?
Forwardfacing
convertible
Retractor:
Instructor Initials
Latchplate:
How does it lock?
Combination
seat with
harness
Retractor:
Latchplate:
How does it lock?
Your choice
Retractor:
Latchplate:
How does it lock?
Car Seat Harnessing
Harness slots used are best for child’s age and size
Parts present and in good condition
Straps around frame/shell and through slots correctly
Straps and harness fit correctly
Retainer clip positioned correctly
Harness snug enough
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
N
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Car Seat Installation
Installed in seating position with active front or side air bag
Best seating position being used
Correct forward or rear-facing position
Correct recline angle used
Seat belt routed correctly
Seat belt locked
Lower attachments used correctly
Tether installed and used correctly
Installation tight enough
Page 9-8
Explain Best Practices About Forward-Facing Car Seats
Key Questions
!
!
What are the age, weight, and height of the child?
!
!
!
!
!
!
What type of forward-facing car seat is this?
What does the car seat owner’s manual (or label) say about the minimum and maximum
weights and heights for the child using this car seat?
Is the car seat facing the right way in the vehicle?
Considering everyone who rides in this vehicle, is the car seat in the best seating position?
Is the car seat secured by a seat belt or with lower anchor attachments?
Is the car seat installed tightly?
Is the tether used if present/able?
Best Practices
Answer the following questions to prepare for conversations you will have with caregivers to
educate them about forward-facing car seats.
1. My child is two years old and weighs 39 pounds. Which car seat should I buy?
2. May I use this car seat with a side air bag in a back seat?
3. My child fits in the harness, but weighs 43 pounds. Can I keep using this car seat?
4. Should I use LATCH or the seat belt?
5. Do I have to use the tether?
6. My child climbs out of the car seat. What should I do?
Page 9-9
MODULE 9 • Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
There are key questions to answer related to forward-facing car seats. Explain and demonstrate
best practices to caregivers.
Progress Check: Identify Forward-Facing Car Seat Errors and Consequences
1. Examine each photograph to determine if the forward-facing car seat is fitted properly.
2. If not fitted properly, identify the errors and consequences to the child.
1.
Error:
Consequences:
2.
Error:
Consequences:
3.
Error:
Consequences:
Page 9-10
Progress Check: Identify Forward-Facing Car Seat Errors and Consequences (continued)
4.
Error:
5.
Error:
Consequences:
Page 9-11
MODULE 9 • Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
Consequences:
Practice Activity: Identify Misuse with Car Seats
Identify misuse with several car seats.
1. In small groups, carefully examine the information about the child’s age, height, and weight.
Also, check car seat labels that have been set up in the classroom.
2. Take notes on what you discover regarding car seat misuse for each scenario.
3. Use the sample checklists provided below to record your answers for at least one of the
scenarios.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Car Seat Selection
Car Seat Used
" Rear-facing-only
" Harness vest
Car seat type best for age/size?
Car seat manufacturer:
Model #:
" Convertible
" Forward-facing with harness
" High-back booster
" Backless booster
Y
N
NA
Car seat model name:
Mfg date:
Under recall? Y
N NA
Car Seat Use
Type of harness best for age and size?
Parts present and good condition?
Straps around frame/shell and through slots correctly?
Straps and harness fit correctly?
Retainer clip positioned correctly?
Harness adjustment mechanism locked?
Harness snug enough?
Correct front-facing position?
Correct recline angle used?
Page 9-12
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Progress Check and Summary
1. How do you determine which harness slots to use for a forward-facing child?
3. How do you find the correct belt path?
4. How tightly should a forward-facing car seat be installed?
5. What is the benefit of using a tether?
Page 9-13
MODULE 9 • Children in Forward-Facing Car Seats
2. What is the correct way to secure a child in a forward-facing car seat?
Page 9-14
MODULE
10
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Children in Booster Seats & Seat Belts
OBJECTIVES
• Identify how booster seats protect children.
• Differentiate between types of booster seats.
• Install a booster seat.
• Explain recommendations for children in seat belts.
• Explain best practices about booster seats and seat belts to caregivers.
HOW BOOSTER SEATS PROTECT CHILDREN
Children should be in belt-positioning booster seats until they are big enough to fit properly in
a seat belt.
•
This is best practice, however, you
will see children being moved into
a seat belt at much younger ages
because the caregivers believe the
children are ready.
•
Some booster seats are not tightly
installed (locked in place) in the
vehicle as with car seats.
•
Booster seats are held in place by
the child’s weight and the vehicle’s
lap-and-shoulder belt.
•
–
These seats boost children up
for correct seat belt fit.
–
Some new booster seats have
lower anchor connectors to
hold the seat in place when the
child is not present.
Skipping the booster seat step or
“graduating” to a booster seat too
early is common and unsafe.
Booster seats protect children
Booster'seats'protect'children'by'increasing'crash'protection'from'injuries.'
Booster seats:
•
Are a middle step between a car seat with a harness and a
seat belt to protect children who are too large for a car seat
and too small for just the seat belt.
•
Raise and position a child so the vehicle’s lap-and-shoulder
belt fit properly over the stronger parts of a child’s body.
Booster'seats'are'more'
than'twice'as'effective'in'
reducing'risk'of'injury'
when'compared'with'seat'
belts'alone.'
CHOP'Study,'2003'
Page 10-1
VIDEO • Booster Seat Vs. Lap Belt
Video'courtesy'of'Children’s'Hospital'of'Philadelphia'(CHOP)'
VIDEO • Booster Seat Vs. Lap-and-Shoulder Belt
Video'courtesy'of'Children’s'Hospital'of'Philadelphia'(CHOP)'
BOOSTER'SEAT'FACTS'
• Booster'seats'and'seat'
belts'continue'to'
protect'children'in'the'
back'seat'of'vehicles.'
Children'should'be'in'
the'back'seat'when'
under'13'because'it'is'
safer.'
• The'booster'seat'keeps'
the'lap'belt'from'
causing'injury'to'a'
child's'abdomen'and'
keeps'the'shoulder'belt'
in'proper'position'to'
give'the'child'upper'
body'protection.'
• Children'should'be'
moved'to'a'beltF
positioning'booster'seat'
only'when'they'have'
outgrown'the'height'or'
weight'limit'of'their'
forwardFfacing'car'seat.'
Many'booster'seats'
have'weight'ranges'
starting'at'40'pounds'
and'ending'at'much'
higher'limits.'
Booster'seats'must'NOT'be'used'with'lapHbeltHonly'
seat'belts.'Serious'head'and/or'internal'injuries'can'
result'from'excessive'head'movement'and'jackknifing'
over'the'lap'belt.'
Booster seats:
!
!
!
Must NEVER be used with just a lap belt.
Are NEVER used on airplanes.
May fit children up to 80 or 100+ pounds or more depending on specific models.
NOTE: ALWAYS consult the booster seat owner’s manual for the weight ranges and correct
use of booster seats.
Page 10-2
TYPES OF BOOSTER SEATS
There are two types of booster seats: high-back and backless booster seats.
High-Back Booster Seats
•
High-back booster seats provide head, neck, and back
support for the child.
•
When correctly positioned on a booster seat, vehicle seat
belts fit over the shoulder and hips like an adult in a seat
belt.
•
Use only shoulder belt positioners provided with the booster
seat.
•
Some high-back booster seats can only be used with vehicle
head restraints behind them.
•
Some high-back booster seats can be used as backless
booster seats by removing the back.
High-back booster seat
When'a'child'has'outgrown'the'height'or'weight'
limits'of'the'internal'harness'of'a'combination'car'
seat,'the'harness'can'be'stored'after'removal'and'the'
seat'can'be'used'as'a'highFback'booster.'
'
Caregivers'must'carefully'follow'the'manufacturer'
instructions'for'changing'the'combination'car'seat'to'
a'booster'seat.'Some'seats'have'bases'that'also'need'
to'be'removed'to'use'as'a'booster'seat.'
Converted combination car seat
to a high-back booster seat
Backless Booster Seats
With a backless booster seat, the child uses the vehicle’s
seat back or built-in head restraint for head, neck, and back
support.
!
Use only with a lap-and-shoulder belt in a vehicle seating
position with head restraints.
!
Most backless booster seats come with a shoulder belt
positioner to adjust the shoulder belt height on the child.
!
The child’s ears should NOT be above the back of the
vehicle seat or top of the head restraint.
Page 10-3
Backless booster seat
MODULE 10 • Children in Booster Seats & Seat Belts
High-back booster seats are recommended for vehicles that
have a low seat back or do not have a head restraint. A low seat
back does not offer any support for a child’s head.
Booster Seats in the Front Seat
If a child must ride in the front seat:
!
The child must be correctly restrained in a booster seat using the vehicle’s
lap-and-shoulder belt.
!
The vehicle seat must be moved back as far as possible from the dashboard.
INSTALL A BOOSTER SEAT
VIDEO • Install a Booster Seat
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
BOOSTER SEATS
Record steps you observe to install a booster seat.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Even'if'the'child'is'not'present,'booster'seats'should'be'
secured'in'the'vehicle'at'all'times.'When'not'buckled,'the'
booster'seat'may'become'a'projectile'or'object'that'can'
be'tossed'around'the'vehicle'causing'injury'to'vehicle'
occupants'during'a'crash'or'sudden'stop.'
Booster'seat'use'may'be'a'hard'sell'to'the'child,'
especially'if'the'child'was'moved'to'a'seat'belt'too'early!'
Page 10-4
• Use the term “beltpositioning booster
seat” when working with
caregivers. This helps to
emphasize how lap-andshoulder belts keep the
booster seats in place
and keep children safe.
• Share benefits of
booster seats with
caregivers. For
example, they help
children see out the
window better (since
they are “boosted up”).
This may help when
caregivers talk to
children about why they
might like riding in a
booster seat.
• Some forward-facing
combination seats may
allow for connecting the
child restraint to the
vehicle using LATCH
even when used as a
booster seat. However,
some high-back
boosters can only be
used with a seat belt.
Practice Activity: Install a Booster Seat
Practice training caregivers how to correctly install booster seats.
2. Focus on the following questions as you practice your installations.
!
!
!
!
Is the booster seat flat on the back seat of the vehicle?
Are there vehicle seat shoulder belt guides?
Might the vehicle head restraint need to be adjusted?
Is the booster seat height adjustable?
INSTALL A BOOSTER SEAT
Follow these steps to correctly install a booster seat.
1. Place the booster seat flat in the back seat.
2. Have the child sit and buckle the seat belt.
3. Make sure the seat belt fits properly with the lap belt low across the upper thighs and
shoulder belt across the chest.
4. Adjust the vehicle’s seat belt or booster seat guides, if available and be sure to position
according to booster seat manufacturer instructions.
5. With a backless booster seat, adjust the head restraint, if needed.
Explain Best Practices About Booster Seats to Caregivers
There are key questions to answer related to booster seats. Explain and demonstrate best
practices to caregivers.
Key Questions
!
!
!
!
What are the height and weight of the child?
!
Do the child’s knees bend comfortably so the child does not slouch?
What are the height and weight limits of the booster seat?
Should the booster seat be used with a vehicle head restraint?
Are the child’s ears above the back of the vehicle seat (in a backless booster seat) or top of
the head restraint (in a high-back booster seat)?
Best Practices
Answer the following questions to prepare for conversations you will have with caregivers to
educate them about booster seats.
1. Why is it important to use booster seats?
2. When should a child move to a booster seat?
Page 10-5
MODULE 10 • Children in Booster Seats & Seat Belts
1. Read the manufacturer’s instructions to see how lap-and-shoulder belts are supposed to be
positioned over and around the child and booster seat.
Best Practices (continued)
3. Is there a weight and/or height requirement for a booster seat?
4. What is the proper placement of the lap-and-shoulder belt?
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHILDREN IN SEAT BELTS
Seat belts can be used to safely secure a child in a vehicle when he or she is:
!
Tall enough to sit without
slouching.
!
Able to keep his or her back
against the vehicle seat.
!
Able to keep his or her knees
naturally bent over the edge of
the vehicle seat.
!
Able to keep his or her feet flat
on the floor.
The lap belt must lie snugly across
the upper thighs – NOT the
stomach. The shoulder belt should
lie snug across the shoulder and
chest and NOT cross the neck
or face.
Proper fit in seat belts
Children:
!
!
Must stay in position for the entire ride.
!
Under 13 should ride in the back seat. If a child is in the front seat, the vehicle seat must be
moved back as far as possible from the dashboard.
!
Should NOT lean or rest against air bags, including side air bags.
Should NEVER have the shoulder belt under their arm or behind their back. This can cause
severe injuries in a crash. If the seat belt does not fit properly, a child should use a
booster seat.
Page 10-6
VIDEO • Beyond Booster Seats
Record steps you observe to secure a seat belt.
TIPS FOR DISCUSSING
BOOSTER SEATS AND
SEAT BELTS
!
“When&I&tell&people&that&I&have&completed&the&child&passenger&safety&certification&
training&program&and&that&it&was&an&intensive&experience,&I&usually&hear,&“Really?”&Yes,&
and&every&minute&is&worth&it.&Hats&off&to&all&the&CPS&Technicians&out&there&who&provide&
much&needed&education&to&help&keep&kids&safe.&It’s&an&honor&to&have&joined&your&ranks."&!
!
Kate'Carr,'Safe'Kids'Worldwide'
CEO'and'President'
Page 10-7
MODULE 10 • Children in Booster Seats & Seat Belts
• Emphasize to
caregivers that they are
important role models
for the safe behavior of
children.
• With car pools,
emphasize that
caregivers should make
certain booster seats
and seat belts are used
correctly every time
children ride in a
vehicle.
• While lap belts are not
ideal, they are better
than no protection at all!
Progress Check: Identify Seat Belt Errors and Consequences
1. Examine each photograph to determine if the seat belt is fitted properly.
2. If not fitted properly, identify the errors along with the consequences for the child.
1.
Error:
Consequences:
2.
Error:
Consequences:
3.
Error:
Consequences:
Page 10-8
Progress Check: Identify Seat Belt Errors and Consequences (continued)
4.
Consequences:
5.
Error:
Consequences:
SEAT BELT SYNDROME
Seat Belt Syndrome (SBS) describes injuries that doctors see as a result of occupants wearing
only a lap belt in collisions involving only the front of a vehicle. These injuries usually result
when the occupant’s body folds in half over the lap belt during a collision.
•
When this happens, the lap belt
applies extreme force along the
occupant’s pelvis to the
mid-section.
•
Securing only the waist without
restraining the upper body can
cause serious head and neck
injuries after a head strike.
Injuries typically include:
•
•
•
Severe stomach injuries.
Fractures of the lumbar spine.
Serious head and facial injuries.
SBS can cause serious head and neck injuries
Page 10-9
MODULE 10 • Children in Booster Seats & Seat Belts
Error:
Explain Best Practices About Seat Belts to Caregivers
There are key questions to answer related to seat belts. Explain and demonstrate best practices
to caregivers.
Key Questions
Is the child:
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Tall enough to sit without slouching?
Able to keep his or her knees naturally bent over the edge of the vehicle seat?
Able to sit all the way back against the vehicle seat?
Able to keep his or her feet flat on the floor?
Sitting with the shoulder belt crossing the shoulder between the neck and the arm?
Sitting with the lap belt as low as possible, touching his or her thighs?
Able to stay seated this way for the whole trip?
Best Practices
Follow these guidelines for a proper seat belt fit.
1. The lap belt must lie snugly across the upper thighs – NOT the stomach.
2. The shoulder belt should lie snug across the shoulder and chest and NOT cross the neck or
face.
Progress Check: Seat Belt Use
Scenario: My child has used a seat belt since he was 4 years old. What should I do now that
he is 6 years old?
1. What is the proper seat belt use for this situation?
2. When can a child move to a seat belt?
Page 10-10
MODULE
11
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
CPS in Other Vehicles
OBJECTIVES
• Identify appropriate car seats and booster seats by vehicle type.
• Explain current recommendations for car seats and booster seats in other vehicles.
APPROPRIATE CAR SEATS AND BOOSTER SEATS BY VEHICLE TYPE
Vehicle design affects the correct selection and use of car seats and booster seats. CPS
Technicians must understand how vehicle design impacts the correct use of car seats and
booster seats in all modes of transportation.
Pickup Trucks
Occupant restraint standards are the same for pickup trucks as
for passenger cars.
Some%regular+cab%and%
extended+cab%pickup%
trucks%with%frontal%
passenger%air%bags%have%
on+off%switches%for%the%
frontal%passenger%air%bag.%
!
Car seats and booster seats are crash tested on forwardfacing vehicle seats and cannot be secured on a pickup
truck’s side-facing jump seat.
!
Undersized (or small) rear bench seats may not allow
enough space between front and rear-seating areas to
achieve the correct recline angle for a rear-facing car seat.
!
As with car seats and booster seats in passenger cars, according to most manufacturers, a
car seat in a pickup truck must have 80 percent of the base supported by the vehicle seat
with no more than a 20 percent overhang on the front edge of the vehicle seat. Some
models require 100 percent of the car seat to be on the vehicle seat and some have
indicators (lines) on the seat to show how much must be placed on it.
!
Cargo areas are NOT designed for passenger seating under any circumstances. Children
and adults can be easily thrown from cargo areas at relatively slow speeds as a result of a
sharp turn.
!
Only manufacturer approved seating positions can be used (check the owner’s manual for
recommendations on cargo areas and also center seating positions).
15-Passenger Vans
!
Many childcare providers or schools use 15-passenger
vans to transport multiple children. At times, they overload
the vehicle. Fully loaded, 15-passenger vans cause the
center of gravity to shift rearward and upward, increasing
the likelihood of a rollover.
!
NEVER load the roof. This cargo will be above the center of
gravity of the vehicle and will increase the likelihood of a
rollover.
Page 11-1
15-passenger vans can
pose dangers
15-Passenger Vans (continued)
!
!
It is important that the van be operated by experienced
drivers who should:
–
Understand and be familiar with the handling
characteristics of their vans, especially when fully loaded.
–
Load the van front to back in order to balance and
distribute the weight.
To reduce the risk of 15-passenger van rollovers,
manufacturers:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Widen the vehicle and/or reduce its height.
WEBSITE RESOURCES ON
CAR SEATS AND
BOOSTER SEATS IN
OTHER VEHICLES
• http://www.nhtsa.gov
• www.ntsb.gov/publictn/1
999/sir9904.pdf
• www.aap.org
• www.nasdpts.org
• www.headstartinfo.org
Impose structural standards for school buses.
Equip them with laminated side windows.
Provide emergency exits.
Equip them with extra signs and signals.
Require a commercial driver’s license.
Equip them with dual rear wheels.
School Buses
School bus transportation is the safest form of ground
transportation. School buses are nearly eight times safer
than passenger vehicles.
!
Buses are larger and heavier than most other vehicles.
Crash forces are distributed throughout the vehicle
differently and are also experienced by the occupants
differently.
!
Passenger seating and crash protection, known as
“compartmentalization,” is required on school buses.
!
!
!
!
–
Seats on school buses must have flexible, energyabsorbent, high seat backs (a minimum of 24 inches
from the hip reference point).
–
The combination of energy-absorbent seat backs and
narrow spacing creates a compartment within which
each occupant is confined in a crash.
LATCH on a school bus
Small school buses (weighing less than 10,000 pounds) are
required to have seat belts. Lower anchors are also required
in at least two seating positions. Tether anchors are NOT
required in school buses.
Compartmentalization on
a school bus
Getting!to!and!from!the!bus!is!more!dangerous!than!riding!the!bus!!
!
Page 11-2
NHTSA School Bus Safety Recommendations
NHTSA recommendations for infants and preschool age children
on buses are as follows:
Preschool age children should be properly restrained in car
seats meeting FMVSS 213 when they ride on a school bus.
!
Retrofitting seat belts on existing school bus seats is
possible only when manufacturer instructions are followed.
!
!
Tethers are NOT commonly used on school buses.
MODULE 11 • CPS in Other Vehicles
!
For more information, go to http://www.nhtsa.gov/SchoolBuses
Child Passenger Safety Options
for School Buses
An Individual Education Plan (IEP) is for children between the
ages of 3 and 21 and is developed to support each child’s
special needs. The transportation needs of the child are a
related service that should be included in the IEP.
Children under age 3 who have special health care needs
receive the same kind of services through an Individual Family
Service Plan (IFSP) that considers the family needs of the child
as they receive early intervention services and therapy.
Options for children who need car seats on a school bus include:
!
!
!
!
Integrated car seats
Conventional car seats
Harnesses and vests
Wheeled transportation
devices
In addition, safety vests are options for children 20 pounds or
more when other car seats will not meet the child’s needs.
School bus car seat options
Page 11-3
“As$Chairman$of$the$National$Transportation$Safety$Board,$I've$seen$firsthand$how$
proper$child$restraint$use$has$saved$lives.$As$a$CPS$Technician,$I$know$that$it$is$
imperative$to$teach$parents$about$the$importance$of$properly$restraining$their$
children$at$all$times.$When$it$comes$to$flying,$that$means$buying$a$seat$for$every$child$
and$using$a$child$safety$seat$for$infants$and$toddlers.”$
Deborah%A.P.%Hersman%
NTSB%
Car Seats on Airplanes
The Department of Transportation’s Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) encourages, but
does NOT require, the use of car seats on airplanes for children under the age of 2.
•
Airlines currently allow children under the age of 2 to fly free
of charge as lap children.
– Some airlines offer discounts so caregivers can be
guaranteed their children can travel in a car seat.
– Caregivers should always verify car seat policies with the
airline on which they are traveling.
•
Turbulence (rough flying) can happen with little or no
warning. The safest place for children during turbulence or
in an emergency is in an approved car seat.
Car seats are the safest place
for children on airplanes
Any car seat used on an airplane must have a label stating it is
certified for aircraft use.
!
!
!
Use a rear-facing car seat for infants younger than 1 and less than 20 pounds.
Use a forward-facing car seat for children weighing 20 to 40 pounds.
Use the airplane seat belt for children over 40 pounds.
The FAA has approved the AmSafe Aviation CARES device. The FAA recently established
guidelines for the use of this restraint system on planes only – NOT in vehicles.
•
CARES uses an additional belt and shoulder harness that goes around the seat back and
attaches to the passenger lap belt.
•
It is designed for children weighing between 22 and 44 pounds who are less than 40 inches
and can sit unassisted.
For%FAA%CPS%requirements,%see%http://www.faa.gov/passengers/fly_children. %For%a%Safe%
Ride%News%Fact%Sheet%on%Airplane%Travel%With%Babies,%see%http://www.saferidenews.com.%
Page 11-4
Car Seats and Booster Seats in Emergency Vehicles
Emergency vehicles may have side or rear-facing vehicle seats. There are no standards for
crash testing a car seat or booster seat on a side-facing or rear-facing vehicle seat. A car seat
or booster seat should NOT be used in these seating positions.
Rear-facing car seats are made to face backward on a forward-facing vehicle seat. They
CANNOT be safely installed on a rear-facing ambulance seat.
•
If possible, non-patient children in an emergency situation should be transported in another
vehicle. Car seats and booster seats should be secured with seat belts anchored only in
locations considered safe in a crash.
•
•
Emergency services should develop and follow guidelines to transport children safely.
•
In cases where police equipment is present and correct installation is not possible, police
officers will need to find another way to transport the child.
A car seat or booster seat should NOT be installed in police vehicles if a prisoner screen is
present. This screen does not allow enough space for the forward movement of the child’s
head. Plastic or prisoner seats are also not compatible with car seats and booster seats and
CANNOT be used.
NOTE: It is important to secure the EMS provider and equipment. Children are only as
safe as the environment around them. Flying unrestrained medics and equipment can be
extremely hazardous.
Resources for Car Seats and Booster Seats in Other Vehicles
Resources you can find on the NCPSB website related to car seats and booster seats in other
vehicles include:
•
•
•
•
Guidelines for the Safe Transportation of Pre-school Age Children in School Buses
AAP School Transportation Safety
AAP Restraint Use on Aircraft
Crash Protection for Children in Ambulances
An additional resource is:
Recommendations for the Safe Transport of Children in Emergency Ground Ambulances
(National Association of State EMS Officials at http://www.nasemso.org and Pediatric
Emergency Care Council at http://www.nasemso.org/Councils/PEDS/index.asp).
Page 11-5
MODULE 11 • CPS in Other Vehicles
•
Progress Check and Summary
1. What are some factors to consider when selecting a car seat or booster seat for a pickup
truck?
2. What are some factors to consider when selecting a car seat or booster seat for a school
bus?
3. What are some factors to consider when selecting a car seat to use on an airplane?
4. What are some factors to consider when selecting a car seat or booster seat for an
emergency vehicle?
!
Page 11-6
MODULE
12
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Installation & Communication
OBJECTIVES
• Determine the safest seating positions and appropriate restraints for all occupants.
• Communicate effectively with caregivers.
SAFE SEATING POSITIONS AND RESTRAINTS
The safest vehicle seating position varies by many factors such as the occupant’s age, weight,
height, type of car seat, type of vehicle seat, and seat belt system.
Seating Position
Safety Considerations
Front seat
•
•
•
Near the windshield and front air bag
Closest to front impact crash
More safety features
Second row driver side
outboard seat
•
•
•
•
•
Passenger on closest side to oncoming traffic
Typically on traffic side when parking on a street
Near side air bags, if present
Not easy to glance at a child from this seat
Side impact crash could affect this seat
Second row passenger
side outboard seat
•
•
•
•
Typically on curbside when parking on a street
Near side air bags, if present
Second row center seat
Furthest from impact
Away from air bags
Additional Seating Considerations
•
When there are multiple
children, typically putting the
child needing the most
protection (such as youngest,
and special needs) in the
center seat is favored.
•
Caregivers may want to keep
children away from the doors
and windows.
•
The rear-facing child may fit
better in the rear center seat if
the recline of the car seat
pushes the front seats too far
forward.
Consider the needs of all family members
when discussing seating positions
Page 12-1
!
“Above'all'other'documentation,'always'follow'the'car'seat'and'vehicle'instruction'
manuals.'If'you'need'further'assistance,'call'the'car'seat'manufacturer'directly.'Many'
of'them'are'car'seat'technicians'like'you.”!'!
!
Manufacturers+Alliance+for+Child+Passenger+Safety+(MACPS)+
Practice Activity: Identify Safe Seating Arrangements, Part 1
Review the needs of a family and identify possible safe seating arrangements.
1. Identify the appropriate and best seating position in the vehicle for the four family members
using the appropriate child/vehicle restraint systems.
2. Review the information about the family members and vehicle restraints. Determine where
each of the following family members can sit safely and write your seating position and
vehicle restraint selections in the spaces provided.
•
•
•
•
•
Driver (Parent #1)
Parent #2
2-month-old, 11 pounds
3-year-old, 30 pounds
8-year-old, 72 pounds
Front Seat of Vehicle
Driver seat (Parent #1)
Air bag and lap-and-shoulder
Air bag and lap-and-shoulder
Back Seat of Vehicle
Lap-and-shoulder
Lap only
Lap-and-shoulder
Page 12-2
Practice Activity: Identify Safe Seating Arrangements, Part 2
Review the needs of a second family and identify possible safe seating arrangements.
1. Identify the appropriate and best seating position in the vehicle for the 4 family members
using the appropriate child/vehicle restraint systems.
•
Driver (Parent #1)
•
Parent #2
•
7-month-old, 24 pounds
•
2-year-old, 27 pounds
•
4-year-old, 41 pounds
•
12-year-old, 85 pounds
Front Seat of Vehicle
Driver seat (Parent #1)
Air bag and lap-only belt
Air bag and lap-and-shoulder
Back Seat of Vehicle
Lap-and-shoulder
Lap only
Lap-and-shoulder
Page 12-3
MODULE 12 • Installation & Communication
2. Review the information about the family members and vehicle restraints. Determine where
each of the following family members can sit safely and write your seating position and
vehicle restraint selections in the spaces provided.
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH CAREGIVERS
Words that CPS technicians use may be confusing to caregivers.
•
Use simple and correct terms. Do NOT use shortened versions of terms (such as ALR, ELR)
or slang. CPS means child protective services to some and child passenger safety to others.
•
Define technical terms or words before you use them.
– For example, convertible car seat may mean baby seat to the caregiver or rear-facingonly seat may mean infant carrier to the caregiver.
– Consider what will make more sense to the caregiver – retractor or the part that winds up
and stores the seat belt?
•
When possible, use the caregiver’s primary language, an interpreter, or
photographs/illustrations from the vehicle/car seat owner’s manuals, NHTSA website, etc.
Engage the caregiver and family members.
•
Involve caregivers as active
participants from the beginning
to the end of the educational
process.
•
Ask follow-up questions to
determine what caregivers
need. Sometimes caregivers
ask a question about one
aspect, but upon further
questioning they really want
help or information about
something else.
Involve the family when discussing car seats,
booster seats, seat belts, and safety
What are caregivers or family members really asking?
When they ask…
They may really mean…
Which car seat is escape-proof?
My child can get out of the car seat by
himself.
When can I turn her around?
I want to see my child.
Is it really safer to face the back?
I don’t feel comfortable not being able to see
my child.
Does my youngest child really need to be in
the center of the back seat next to her
brother?
My son may bother or poke her causing a
disruption in the car.
Can I move him to a seat belt yet?
He is pressuring me to move to a seat belt
like all of his friends.
I need the booster seat for my other child.
Page 12-4
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION WITH CAREGIVERS (CONTINUED)
Look for information about the vehicle and family members that can help you understand
their needs.
Is the vehicle or car seat/booster seat old or recalled?
Is English their primary language?
Are there multiple young children in the family?
Are there cultural differences that could affect the caregiver’s knowledge or attitude
about safety?
Additional Considerations When Working with Caregivers
Becoming a good CPS Technician takes time and practice.
•
Remember that the caregiver should be a full partner from beginning to end. Adults learn
best by practicing the skill being taught.
•
Your job is to educate – NOT to install the car seat or booster seat for the caregiver. CPS
Technicians should be able to talk a caregiver through correct installation and harnessing
without even getting into the vehicle. CPS Technicians should never simply install the car
seat or booster seat for the caregiver.
•
As the caregiver demonstrates correct installation, have him/her explain what he/she is
doing. This provides a better learning experience.
•
Some caregivers will need more time than others to learn proper use and correct installation
of car seats. Do NOT rush them through the process. Allow enough time when you make
appointments for families.
•
•
Be positive and encouraging. Point out what they have done correctly.
•
It is OK to tell the caregiver that you do not know an answer to a question, but that you will
find it for them. It is a good idea to always have a phone available to contact another CPS
Technician, Instructor, or manufacturer, if needed. Make sure to have the caregiver’s contact
information.
•
Remind caregivers of the importance of using vehicle safety features such as child locks that
disable power locks on the rear door and automatic window locks that disable rear windows
to help keep children safe.
Make sure your information is up-to-date and correct before sharing it with caregivers. Even
the most experienced CPS Technicians do not know all of the answers. The field is always
changing because of new technology.
Your%goal%should%be%for%the%child%to%leave%safer%than%when%they%arrived%–%
and%to%equip%the%caregiver%with%correct%information%and%a%
working%knowledge%of%their%car%seat%or%booster%seat.%
!
!
Page 12-5
MODULE 12 • Installation & Communication
!
!
!
!
Practice Activity: Conduct a Seat Check
Work with your team to apply the information you have learned and skills you have developed to
conduct a seat check.
1. Assign roles within your team:
•
•
Lead directly interacts with the caregiver (Instructor).
•
Assistant ensures that nothing has been omitted and all appropriate sections are
completed.
Scribe records the findings and works with the caregiver to complete the sample CPS
Check Form (located in the TG Appendix).
2. Approach each seat check as you would if you were working with a caregiver.
•
•
•
Introduce the team members.
•
•
Identify any misuse and discuss with the caregiver.
Complete the paperwork requirements.
Inspect the car seat or booster seat. Remember to take it out of the vehicle and look it
over thoroughly inside and out.
Teach the caregiver how to use the car seat correctly.
3. Remember the 5 steps to conduct a seat check.
!
•
•
•
•
•
Selection: Did the caregiver choose the right seat for their child?
Direction: Is the seat facing the right way in the vehicle?
Location: Is the seat installed in an appropriate location in the vehicle?
Installation: Is the seat secured to the vehicle in the right way?
Harnessing: Is the child placed correctly in the seat with the harness?
Progress Check and Summary
1. Which seat location is the safest in a vehicle for an occupant?
2. What is the main goal for the CPS Technician who is working with a caregiver?
3. Why is it so important for caregivers to practice installing their car seats and booster seats?
!
Page 12-6
MODULE
13
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Closing & Checkup Event
OBJECTIVES
• Identify requirements for CPS Technician recertification.
• Prepare for a checkup event.
• Conduct a checkup event.
• Close and debrief a checkup event.
RECERTIFICATION PROCESS
The certification cycle for both CPS Technicians and Instructors
is two years. To retain your certification, you must meet all of the
requirements and successfully complete the recertification
process.
There are two general steps to successful CPS Technician
recertification:
1. Meet all pre-registration requirements, including:
!
Verified seat check activities – must be observed by an
Instructor or proxy to count for certification
!
A community event
!
Continuing education
!
If an Instructor, teaching hours
Recertification%
information%and%
clarification%will%be%sent%
out%through%CPS%Express,%
a%monthly%newsletter%
sent%to%all%CPS%
Technicians%and%
Instructors%via%email.%%
CPS%Technicians%must%
have%a%current%and%valid%
email%address%entered%
into%their%online%
individual%profiles%to%
take%advantage%of%this%
service.%
2. Register and pay for recertification (may be done up to
four months prior to your certification cycle end date.)
See www.cert.safekids.org for recertification and other information.
“As$a$certified$CPS$Technician$myself,$I$know$that$this$has$been$a$tough$class,$but$
worth$it.$It$changed$how$I$look$at$kids$in$cars!$Safe$Kids$is$proud$to$be$a$partner$and$to$
support$your$efforts$as$the$Certifying$Body.$We$hope$you$enjoy$your$work$in$the$field$
and$recertify$in$two$years!”$
Kerry%Chausmer,%Director%
Safe%Kids%Worldwide%Certification%Program
PREPARE FOR A CHECKUP EVENT
•
At checkup events, CPS Technician teams work with and teach caregivers the basics of
correct selection, direction, location, installation, and harnessing of car seats, booster seats,
and seat belts.
•
Checkup events provide opportunities to detect unsafe car seats and booster seats (such as
recalled, damaged, missing parts/labels). Always remove and inspect all checked seats.
•
Many details for setting up and operating an inspection station are similar to those for a
parking lot event.
Page 13-1
PREPARE FOR A CHECKUP EVENT (CONTINUED)
The Map It Out worksheet on the NCPSB website includes a sample diagram to sketch the
traffic flow of your checkup event.
The following are key considerations for planning an event or setting up an inspection station.
Additional details may be found on the NCPSB website under Using Your New Skills and CPS
Inspections and Checkup Events.
!
!
!
!
!
!
Do NOT wait until the last minute to plan your event!
!
!
Determine a safe location and conduct a site visit.
Gather necessary equipment, supplies, and materials.
Determine your target audience.
Estimate the number of families expected to attend.
Estimate the number of CPS Technicians and volunteers needed.
Determine the amount of time to allocate per car seat or booster seat.
Determine who the Checkup Event Coordinator will be at the event. Each event needs a
designated Checkup Event Coordinator.
CONDUCT A CHECKUP EVENT
When conducting the event, remember that the safety of all participants is a top priority.
!
Always use a Check Form. Be sure the caregiver signs the form before you begin
your check.
!
!
!
Fully involve the caregiver in the check.
!
!
Read instructions and labels.
Team up with a partner and work together.
Remember to use the Learn, Practice, Explain teaching
method.
Document, document, document:
–
–
–
Due%to%the%sensitive%
nature%of%adjusting%a%
child’s%harness%at%the%
crotch,%it%is%advisable%to%
have%the%caregiver%adjust%
the%child’s%harness%under%
the%supervision%of%the%
CPS%Technician.%
Everything you do.
Advice you give the caregiver.
Choices the caregiver makes – especially advice the caregiver chooses not to follow.
!
Follow any policies or guidelines set by the Checkup Event Coordinator such as which form
is being used, replacement of car seats, who will be the lead checker to sign off, etc.
!
!
!
!
Promote 1-way traffic flow.
!
Control ALL vehicles moving into and from the event. Announce “vehicle moving” when
vehicles enter or exit the inspection. Always guide vehicles to the inspection location
and exit.
Turn off all vehicle motors.
Watch small children, as caregivers may be distracted.
Walk around every vehicle before starting the engine to be certain there are no children or
materials around, near, or under the vehicle.
By the end of the checkup event, the caregiver should feel confident and competent in
their abilities.
Page 13-2
CONDUCT CLOSING ACTIVITIES
Always debrief the checkup event with other Instructors and volunteers. Discuss:
!
!
!
Prepare for, conduct, and evaluate each checkup event
Page 13-3
MODULE 13 • Closing & Checkup Event
What you learned (safety issues, new products, special situations).
How to improve for the next event.
Following the event, the Checkup Event Coordinator or Lead Instructor should review all
forms and follow up with any questions or concerns.
Page 13-4
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Install a Locking Clip
1. While applying your weight on the seat
with your arm, buckle and tighten the
lap-shoulder seat belt.
4. Place the locking clip no more
than 1 inch away from the
latchplate as noted in the car
seat and vehicle owner’s
instruction manuals.
2. Pinch and hold the lap and shoulder
belts together.
5. Apply pressure on the seat and
re-buckle the seat belt.
3. Unbuckle the belt.
6. Test the car seat to make sure it moves no more
than 1 inch side-to-side or front-to-back when testing
at the belt path.
 You can remove the locking clip by pinching the
webbing in half so the locking clip falls off.
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Install a Belt-Shortening Clip
1. Place the lap belt through the car seat.
2. Buckle it.
3. Pull on belt to gather the excess
webbing to be locked off or shortened
near the retractor side.
4. Test for a tight installation of the car
seat:
 Grab the seat at the belt path.
 Push and pull it with moderate force
– front to back and side-to-side. It
should NOT move more than 1 inch.
5. Place the belt-shortening clip near the
retractor as noted in the vehicle
owner’s manual.
6. Double-back the top portion of the loop
and thread it through the prongs of the
clip.
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Install a Car Seat With a Locking Latchplate
1. Route the vehicle seat belt through the
correct car seat belt path.
2. Buckle it.
4. Notice the tilt and how the seat belt moves freely. It will hold the webbing locked
when NOT tilted.
 Make sure webbing pieces lay flat and do NOT slip.
 Remember, the seat belt should NOT slide through the latchplate with a
moderate tug.
3. Place your hand in the car seat to
apply pressure and tighten the seat
belt by pulling out the excess slack.
5. Test for a tight installation of the car
seat.
 Grab the seat at the belt path.
 Push and pull it with moderate force
– front to back and side-to-side. It
should NOT move more than 1 inch.
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
Install a Car Seat With an Automatic Locking Retractor
1. Pull webbing fully out of the retractor
and hold.
2. Pull the belt through the correct car
seat belt path.
3. Buckle it.
4. Apply weight on the car seat and let go
of extra webbing.
5. Feed extra webbing back into the
retractor.
6. Test for a tight installation of the car
seat.
 Grab the seat at the belt path.
 Push and pull it with moderate
force – front to back and side-toside. It should NOT move more
than 1 inch.
Chrysler
www.chrysler.ca
MY – Model year
CR – Child restraint
N/A – Vehicle has no seating position here
© 2013, Safe Ride News Publications; reprinted with permission.
KEY: LATCH – Factory-installed lower and tether anchors TA – Factory-installed tether anchor
LA – Lower anchor
None – No factory-installed or retrofit TA available TA point – Designated retrofit anchor location OM – Owner’s manual
Digital owner's manual: Chrysler Group, LLC
provides owners with a printed User Guide
(which includes only the most important points
of the owner's manual, including CR info) and
a DVD (which includes the complete,
searchable owner's manual). Those requiring
a printed version of the complete owner's
manual may contact a dealer or call customer
service.
User guides: CR information accidentally left
out of printed user guides dated JanuaryMarch, 2010. Contact customer service for an
updated version.
Tether anchor installation program: Chrysler
Group, LLC dealers will install tether anchors in
certain older model year Chrysler vehicles free
of charge. Please have the dealer refer to
Technical Service Bulletin 23-029-08 for details
on this policy.
The dealer can also find
additional information in the Warranty
Information Center (WIC) in article #1339.
(See Service Bulletin, Appendix C.)
Recall: Chrysler cars, light trucks, and SUVs
from June 1999-October 2000. Some vehicles
owner’s manuals do not have TA usage
instructions as required by FMVSS 225. All
owners on record were mailed an addendum to
their owner’s manual. Contact Chrysler Group,
LLC for more information.
Canada: English 800-465-2001
French 800-387-9983
Center position installation using LAs with
nonstandard spacing: Use of inner LAs from
standard outboard LATCH positions to install a
CR in the center with flexible LATCH is allowed
in some models, if allowed by CR
manufacturer; see notes for model listings.
Seating positions with limitations noted in
vehicle owner’s manual: Depending on the
CR placement/size, sometimes adjacent seat
belts or LAs may not be accessible to properly
secure additional passengers or CRs; in these
cases adjacent seating positions should not be
used.
Seat belt used as a TA: A seat belt from the
row behind CAN be used as a TA in three-row
vehicles; vehicle manufacturer has no specific
recommendation on how to connect the tether
hook to the seat belt (See Chapter 5 for
suggestions).
"Rear Seat Delete" option: For certain
vehicles, such as the Voyager, there is a “rear
seat delete” option for commercial purchasers
that prefer to have no rear seating. These
owner's manuals state that rear-facing CRs are
not to be used because the only seating is in
the front. In other cases, when rear seating is
present, all CR modes can be used in all rear
seating positions according to vehicle and CR
manufacturer's instructions.
www.chrysler.com
Maximum weight limit—LATCH system: May
be used for child-plus-CR weights up to 65
pounds (29.5 kg).
Maximum weight limit—lower anchors: LAs
alone may be used for child-plus-CR weights
up to 65 pounds (29.5 kg).
Maximum weight limit—factory-installed TAs:
When used with a seat belt, TAs may be used
for child-plus-CR weights up to 65 pounds
(29.5 kg) unless otherwise noted in the model
listings.
Maximum weight limit—retrofitted TAs: When
used with a seat belt, TAs may be used for
child-plus-CR weights up to 65 pounds (29.5
kg).
Use of LATCH with belt-positioning boosters:
Use of LAs and/or TA is allowed if it does not
interfere with proper seat belt use and is also
allowed by CR manufacturer.
Shoulder
belt
entanglement:
Vehicle
manufacturer has no general recommendation
regarding steps to reduce this risk; see owner’s
manual for specific model information.
Advanced air bag (AAB) suppression
system:
Vehicle
manufacturer's
AAB
technology in specific models CAN be affected
by pressure/force against the seatback or
upward from under the front seat. See owner's
manual for details. Affects passenger and/or
driver side, depending on the model.
U.S. 800-247-9753
Reprint from the 2013 edition of the LATCH Manual,
Safe Ride News Publications, www.saferidenews.com
CHRYSLER
SEBRING
PT CRUISER
PROWLER
MODEL
2D
Convert.
4D
2D
Convert.
4D
02
2D
Convert.
03-06
01-02
96-00
07-10
04-06
01-03
N/A
TA
LATCH
TA
TA point
95-99
00
N/A
TA
LATCH
N/A
(2) LATCH
(2) TAs
None
(2) LATCH
(2) TAs
(2) TA points
(2) LATCH
(2) LATCH
N/A
OUTBOARD
SECOND ROW
CENTER
05-08
05-10
01-04
YEAR
BODY
Vehicles with one or two rows of seats—Chrysler
NOTES
Reprint from the 2013 edition of the LATCH Manual,
Safe Ride News Publications, www.saferidenews.com
© 2013, Safe Ride News Publications; reprinted with permission.
(2) TAs on body structure behind seat
(3) TAs on rear filler panel
Maximum Weight Limit—TAs: When a seat belt is used to install CR, tether may be
attached to TA up to the CR manufacturer’s weight limit.
Center: CAN use inner LAs from outboard LATCH positions to install a CR, if allowed by
CR manufacturer. If LAs are used for center, LAs may not be used for either outboard
position. Spacing between center anchors is 15.4 inches (392 mm).
(3) TAs on rear filler panel
Center: CAN use inner LAs from outboard LATCH positions to install a CR, if allowed by
CR manufacturer. If LAs are used for center, LAs may not be used for either outboard
position. Spacing between center anchors is 15.4 inches (392 mm).
(3) TAs on rear filler panel
Center: See “Seating positions with limitations…” bullet.
(3) TAs on rear filler panel
(3) TA points on rear filler panel
TA Retrofit Part: MB597261 (center), MB612814 (outboard)
(2) TAs behind seat
(3) TAs on backs of seats
Center: CAN use inner LAs from outboard LATCH positions to install a CR, if allowed by
CR manufacturer. If LAs are used for center, LAs may not be used for either outboard
position. Spacing between center anchors is 15.4 inches (390 mm).
(3) TAs on backs of seats
Center: See “Seating positions with limitations…” bullet.
Front Seat: TA on floor behind seat
Passenger-side air bag on-off switch; see owner's manual for more information.
Note: For MY01 and prior, see Plymouth brand table in this appendix.
B-44
National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program
CPS Check Form
Caregiver Name:
Address:
Vehicle Year:
Make:
Child’s Name:
Model:
Age:
Weight:
Height:
I understand and agree that:
! The purpose of this program is to help reduce improper use of car seats, booster seats, and seat
!
!
belts and that this inspection is provided as a free service to me.
This program cannot fully evaluate the quality, safety, or condition of my child restraint or any
component of my vehicle, including the seats, seat belt, or LATCH.
This program cannot guarantee my child’s safety in a crash and it is important to read both the vehicle
and child restraint instruction manuals.
For these reasons, I release all program sponsors, volunteers, and Instructors from any present or future
liability for any injuries or dangers that may result from a vehicle collision or otherwise.
Caregiver Signature
Date
VEHICLE ON ARRIVAL
D
Driver
1. Mark an X on vehicle grid where car seat or booster seat was located.
2. Mark an M if car seat or booster seat was moved.
3. Mark an N for new car seat or booster seat installation.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Child present?
Child seated near active front passenger air bag?
Child in restraint?
Seat installed?
 YES
 NO
 YES
 NO
 Unborn
 YES
 NO (proceed to summary)
 YES
 NO
 NA
SEAT INFORMATION
Manufacturer:
Model Name:
Model Number:
Date of Manufacture:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
 YES
 NO
 UNSURE
 YES
 NO
 UNSURE
 YES
 NO
 UNSURE
 YES
 NO
 UNSURE
 YES
 NO
 UNSURE
 YES
 NO
 UNSURE
Seat recalled?
If recalled, has defect been repaired?
Original owner/history known?
Seat been in a crash?
Seat expired?
Caregiver registered car seat?
CHILD ARRIVES REAR-FACING (CHECK ONE)
 Rear-Facing with Base
 Rear-Facing w/o Base
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Seat appropriate for height and weight of child?
Seat appropriate for child’s age?
Harness straps at or below shoulders?
Harness retainer clip used correctly?
Harness straps snug (pinch test-no slack)?
Harness straps threaded and attached correctly?

Convertible
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
(continued on page 2)
Page 1
CPS Check Form (continued)
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Recline appropriate?
Carrying handle in correct position for travel?
Belt path correct?
Seat installed with (check all that apply):
Seat belt or lower anchors used correctly?
Tether used correctly?
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 Seat Belt
 Lower anchors
 Tether
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 Seat Belt
 Lower anchors
 Tether
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 NA
 YES
 NO
 YES
 NO
 YES
 YES
 NO
 NO
CHILD ARRIVES FORWARD-FACING WITH HARNESS
 Convertible
 Forward-Facing Only
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Seat appropriate for height and weight of child?
Seat appropriate for child’s age?
Harness straps at or below shoulders?
Harness retainer clip used correctly?
Harness straps snug (pinch test-no slack)?
Harness straps threaded and attached correctly?
Seat adjusted in appropriate position (upright
unless otherwise allowed by instructions)
Belt path correct?
Seat installed with (check all that apply):
Seat belt or lower anchors used correctly?
Tether used correctly?
LATCH weight limits observed?
CHILD ARRIVES IN BELT-POSITIONING BOOSTER SEAT
 Backless
 High Back
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Seat appropriate for height and weight of child?
Seat appropriate for child’s age?
Is lap-shoulder belt positioned correctly?
For backless boosters, is there head protection?
Seat belt or lower anchors used correctly?
CHILD ARRIVES IN SEAT BELT
1. Is seat belt appropriate for height of child?
2. With child’s back against vehicle seat, do legs
bend naturally at edge of vehicle seat?
3. Is shoulder belt over center of chest?
4. Does lap belt fit low on hips?
SUMMARY (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY)
Upon departure, how was car seat, booster seat, or child restrained?
 Seat belt







 Lower anchors
 Tether
 Rear-facing
 Forward-facing
 NA
All corrections made
Not all corrections made (explain in comments)
No misuse observed
New car seat or booster seat recommended
New car seat or booster seat provided (manufacturer/model/date) _____________________________
Caregiver installed or assisted
Educational materials given
Removed non-regulated products? (explain in comments)
Page 2
 YES
 NO
 NA
CPS Check Form (continued)
SEAT INFORMATION UPON DEPARTURE
Manufacturer:
Model Name:
Model Number:
Date of Manufacture:
Seat Provided by:
Donation Collected:
Comments:
Technician Name
Date of Inspection
Technician Name
Date of Inspection
Page 3
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