MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide

MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
UG-M10CLKPLL
2017.02.21
Last updated for Quartus Prime Design Suite: 16.0
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Contents
Contents
1 MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL Overview.............................................................................. 4
1.1 Clock Networks Overview.........................................................................................4
1.2 Internal Oscillator Overview..................................................................................... 4
1.3 PLLs Overview........................................................................................................4
2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features........................................................5
2.1 Clock Networks Architecture and Features.................................................................5
2.1.1 Global Clock Networks.................................................................................5
2.1.2 Clock Pins Introduction................................................................................ 5
2.1.3 Clock Resources......................................................................................... 6
2.1.4 Global Clock Network Sources...................................................................... 6
2.1.5 Global Clock Control Block........................................................................... 8
2.1.6 Global Clock Network Power Down.............................................................. 10
2.1.7 Clock Enable Signals................................................................................. 11
2.2 Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features............................................................ 12
2.3 PLLs Architecture and Features.............................................................................. 12
2.3.1 PLL Architecture........................................................................................12
2.3.2 PLL Features............................................................................................ 13
2.3.3 PLL Locations........................................................................................... 14
2.3.4 Clock Pin to PLL Connections...................................................................... 16
2.3.5 PLL Counter to GCLK Connections............................................................... 16
2.3.6 PLL Control Signals................................................................................... 17
2.3.7 Clock Feedback Modes............................................................................... 18
2.3.8 PLL External Clock Output.......................................................................... 22
2.3.9 ADC Clock Input from PLL.......................................................................... 23
2.3.10 Spread-Spectrum Clocking....................................................................... 23
2.3.11 PLL Programmable Parameters.................................................................. 23
2.3.12 Clock Switchover.....................................................................................26
2.3.13 PLL Cascading.........................................................................................30
2.3.14 PLL Reconfiguration................................................................................. 31
3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations........................................................... 33
3.1 Clock Networks Design Considerations..................................................................... 33
3.1.1 Guideline: Clock Enable Signals.................................................................. 33
3.1.2 Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions............................................................. 33
3.2 Internal Oscillator Design Considerations................................................................. 33
3.2.1 Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions............................................................. 33
3.3 PLLs Design Considerations.................................................................................... 34
3.3.1 Guideline: PLL Control Signals.................................................................... 34
3.3.2 Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions............................................................. 34
3.3.3 Guideline: Self-Reset................................................................................. 34
3.3.4 Guideline: Output Clocks............................................................................35
3.3.5 Guideline: PLL Cascading........................................................................... 35
3.3.6 Guideline: Clock Switchover....................................................................... 35
3.3.7 Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration...........................................37
3.3.8 Guideline: scandone Signal for PLL Reconfiguration....................................... 37
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
2
Contents
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides......................................................... 38
4.1 ALTCLKCTRL IP Core..............................................................................................38
4.2 ALTPLL IP Core..................................................................................................... 38
4.2.1 Expanding the PLL Lock Range....................................................................39
4.2.2 Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters.....................................40
4.2.3 PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Implementation............................................... 41
4.2.4 Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation.............................................. 45
4.3 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core.....................................................................................47
4.3.1 Obtaining the Resource Utilization Report.................................................... 48
4.4 Internal Oscillator IP Core...................................................................................... 48
5 ALTCLKCTRL IP Core References................................................................................... 50
5.1 ALTCLKCTRL Parameters........................................................................................ 50
5.2 ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals................................................................................51
6 ALTPLL IP Core References............................................................................................ 52
6.1 ALTPLL Parameters................................................................................................52
6.1.1 Operation Modes Parameter Settings........................................................... 52
6.1.2 PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings........................................................ 52
6.1.3 Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings............................................... 53
6.1.4 Clock Switchover Parameter Settings........................................................... 53
6.1.5 PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings.......................................... 54
6.1.6 Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings.......................................... 54
6.1.7 Output Clocks Parameter Settings............................................................... 55
6.2 ALTPLL Ports and Signals....................................................................................... 56
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References......................................................................... 59
7.1 ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters............................................................................... 59
7.2 ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals....................................................................... 60
7.3 ALTPLL_RECONFIG Counter Settings........................................................................62
8 Internal Oscillator IP Core References........................................................................... 65
8.1 Internal Oscillator Parameters................................................................................ 65
8.2 Internal Oscillator Ports and Signals........................................................................ 65
A MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives...............................................................66
B Document Revision History for MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide............................ 67
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
3
1 MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL Overview
1 MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL Overview
1.1 Clock Networks Overview
MAX® 10 devices support global clock (GCLK) networks.
Clock networks provide clock sources for the core. You can use clock networks in high
fan-out global signal network such as reset and clear.
1.2 Internal Oscillator Overview
MAX 10 devices offer built-in internal oscillator up to 116 MHz.
You can enable or disable the internal oscillator.
1.3 PLLs Overview
Phase-locked loops (PLLs) provide robust clock management and synthesis for device
clock management, external system clock management, and I/O interface clocking.
You can use the PLLs as follows:
•
Zero-delay buffer
•
Jitter attenuator
•
Low-skew fan-out buffer
•
Frequency synthesizer
•
Reduce the number of oscillators required on the board
•
Reduce the clock pins used in the device by synthesizing multiple clock
frequencies from a single reference clock source
•
On-chip clock de-skew
•
Dynamic phase shift
•
Counters reconfiguration
•
Bandwidth reconfiguration
•
Programmable output duty cycle
•
PLL cascading
•
Reference clock switchover
•
Drive the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) clock
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.1 Clock Networks Architecture and Features
2.1.1 Global Clock Networks
GCLKs drive throughout the entire device, feeding all device quadrants. All resources
in the device, such as the I/O elements, logic array blocks (LABs), dedicated multiplier
blocks, and M9K memory blocks can use GCLKs as clock sources. Use these clock
network resources for control signals, such as clock enables and clears fed by an
external pin. Internal logic can also drive GCLKs for internally-generated GCLKs and
asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals with high fan-out.
2.1.2 Clock Pins Introduction
There are two types of external clock pins that can drive the GCLK networks.
Dedicated Clock Input Pins
You can use the dedicated clock input pins (CLK<#>[p,n]) to drive clock and global
signals, such as asynchronous clears, presets, and clock enables for GCLK networks.
If you do not use the dedicated clock input pins for clock input, you can also use them
as general-purpose input or output pins.
The CLK pins can be single-ended or differential inputs. When you use the CLK pins as
single-ended clock inputs, both the CLK<#>p and CLK<#>n pins have dedicated
connection to the GCLK networks. When you use the CLK pins as differential inputs,
pair two clock pins of the same number to receive differential signaling.
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins
You can use the dual-purpose clock (DPCLK) pins for high fan-out control signals, such
as protocol signals, TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI via GCLK networks.
The DPCLK pins are only available on the left and right of the I/O banks.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.1.3 Clock Resources
Table 1.
MAX 10 Clock Resources
Clock Resource
Device
Dedicated clock input pins
Number of Resources
Available
•
•
•
10M02
10M04
10M08
8 single-ended or 4
differential
•
•
•
•
10M16
10M25
10M40
10M50
16 single-ended or 8
differential
All
DPCLK pins
4
Source of Clock Resource
CLK[3..0][p,n] pins on
the left and right of the I/O
banks
CLK[7..0][p,n] pins on
the top, left, bottom, and
right of the I/O banks
DPCLK[3..0] pins on the
left and right of the I/O
banks
For more information about the clock input pins connections, refer to the pin
connection guidelines.
Related Links
MAX 10 FPGA Device Family Pin Connection Guidelines
2.1.4 Global Clock Network Sources
Table 2.
MAX 10 Clock Pins Connectivity to the GCLK Networks
GCLK
CLK Pin
CLK0p
GCLK[0,2,4]
CLK0n
GCLK[1,2]
CLK1p
GCLK[1,3,4]
CLK1n
GCLK[0,3]
CLK2p
GCLK[5,7,9]
CLK2n
GCLK[6,7]
CLK3p
GCLK[6,8,9]
CLK3n
GCLK[5,8]
CLK4p1
GCLK[10,12,14]
CLK4n1
GCLK[11,12]
CLK5p1
GCLK[11,13,14]
CLK5n1
GCLK[10,13]
CLK6p1
GCLK[15,17,19]
CLK6n1
GCLK[16,17]
continued...
1 This only applies to 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
GCLK
CLK Pin
CLK7p1
GCLK[16,18,19]
CLK7n1
GCLK[15,18]
DPCLK0
GCLK[0,2]
DPCLK1
GCLK[1,3,4]
DPCLK2
GCLK[5,7]
DPCLK3
GCLK[6,8,9]
Figure 1.
GCLK Network Sources for 10M02, 10M04, and 10M08 Devices
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
GCLK[0..4]
CLK[0,1][p,n]
GCLK[5..9]
CLK[2,3][p,n]
DPCLK0
DPCLK1
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Figure 2.
GCLK Network Sources for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 Devices
CLK[4,5][p,n]
GCLK[10..14]
DPCLK2
DPCLK3
GCLK[0..4]
CLK[0,1][p,n]
GCLK[5..9]
CLK[2,3][p,n]
DPCLK0
DPCLK1
GCLK[15..19]
CLK[6,7][p,n]
2.1.5 Global Clock Control Block
The clock control block drives GCLKs. The clock control blocks are located on each side
of the device, close to the dedicated clock input pins. GCLKs are optimized for
minimum clock skew and delay.
The clock control block has the following functions:
•
Dynamic GCLK clock source selection (not applicable for DPCLK pins and internal
logic input)
•
GCLK multiplexing
•
GCLK network power down (dynamic enable and disable)
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Table 3.
Clock Control Block Inputs
Input
Description
Dedicated clock input pins
Dedicated clock input pins can drive clocks or global signals,
such as synchronous and asynchronous clears, presets, or
clock enables onto given GCLKs.
DPCLK pins
DPCLK pins are bidirectional dual function pins that are used
for high fan-out control signals, such as protocol signals,
TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI via the GCLK. Clock control
blocks that have inputs driven by DPCLK pins cannot drive
PLL inputs.
PLL counter outputs
PLL counter outputs can drive the GCLK.
Internal logic
You can drive the GCLK through logic array routing to
enable the internal logic elements (LEs) to drive a high fanout, low-skew signal path. Clock control blocks that have
inputs driven by internal logic cannot drive PLL inputs.
Figure 3.
Clock Control Block
Clock Control Block
Static Clock Select (3)
CLK[n + 3]
CLK[n + 2]
CLK[n + 1]
CLK[n]
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
Internal Logic
DPCLK
PLL
C3
C4
clkswitch (1)
inclk1
inclk0
fIN
clkswitch (1)
C0
C1
C2
PLL
C0
C1
C2
Enable/
Disable
Global
Clock
Static Clock
Select (3)
clkselect[1..0] (2)
Internal Logic (4)
C3
C4
Notes:
(1) The clkswitch signal can either be set through the configuration file or dynamically set when using the manual PLL switchover
feature. The output of the multiplexer is the input clock (fIN) for the PLL.
(2) The clkselect[1..0] signals are fed by internal logic. You can use the clkselect[1..0] signals to dynamically select the clock source for
the GCLK when the device is in user mode. Only one PLL (applicable to PLLs on the same side) can be selected as the clock source to
the GCLK.
(3) The static clock select signals are set in the configuration file. Therefore, dynamic control when the device is in user mode is not
feasible.
(4) You can use internal logic to enable or disable the GCLK in user mode.
Each MAX 10 device has a maximum of 20 clock control blocks. There are five clock
control blocks on each side of the device.
Each PLL generates five clock outputs through the c[4..0] counters. Two of these
clocks can drive the GCLK through a clock control block.
From the Clock Control Block Inputs table, only the following inputs can drive into any
given clock control block:
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
•
Two dedicated clock input pins
•
Two PLL counter outputs
•
One DPCLK pin
•
One source from internal logic
The output from the clock control block in turn feeds the corresponding GCLK. The
GCLK can drive the PLL input if the clock control block inputs are outputs of another
PLL or dedicated clock input pins. Normal I/O pins cannot drive the PLL input clock
port.
Figure 4.
Clock Control Block on Each Side of the Device
Clock Input Pins
PLL Outputs
DPCLK
Internal Logic
4
5
Clock
Control
Block
4
5
GCLK
5
Five Clock Control
Blocks on Each Side
of the Device
Out of these five inputs to any clock control block, the two clock input pins and two
PLL outputs are dynamically selected to feed a GCLK. The clock control block supports
static selection of the signal from internal logic.
Related Links
•
ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 50
•
ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 51
2.1.6 Global Clock Network Power Down
You can disable the MAX 10 GCLK (power down) by using both static and dynamic
approaches. In the static approach, configuration bits are set in the configuration file
generated by the Quartus® Prime software, which automatically disables unused
GCLKs. The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows internal logic to control
clock enable or disable of the GCLKs.
When a clock network is disabled, all the logic fed by the clock network is in an offstate, reducing the overall power consumption of the device. This function is
independent of the PLL and is applied directly on the clock network.
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK multiplexers
through the ALTCLKCTRL IP core parameter editor in the Quartus Prime software.
Related Links
•
ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 50
•
ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 51
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.1.7 Clock Enable Signals
The MAX 10 devices support clkena signals at the GCLK network level. This allows
you to gate off the clock even when a PLL is used. After reenabling the output clock,
the PLL does not need a resynchronization or relock period because the circuit gates
off the clock at the clock network level. In addition, the PLL can remain locked
independent of the clkena signals because the loop-related counters are not
affected.
Figure 5.
clkena Implementation
clkena
D
Q
clkena_out
clkin
clk_out
Note:
The clkena circuitry controlling the C0 output of the PLL to an output pin is
implemented with two registers instead of a single register.
Figure 6.
Example Waveform of clkena Implementation with Output Enable
The clkena signal is sampled on the falling edge of the clock (clkin). This feature is
useful for applications that require low power or sleep mode.
clkin
clkena
clk_out
The clkena signal can also disable clock outputs if the system is not tolerant to
frequency overshoot during PLL resynchronization.
Related Links
•
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals on page 33
•
ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 50
•
ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 51
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.2 Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features
MAX 10 devices have built-in internal ring oscillator with clock multiplexers and
dividers. The internal ring oscillator operates up to 232 MHz which is not accessible.
This operating frequency further divides down to slower frequencies.
By default internal oscillator is turned off in user mode. You can turn on the oscillator
by asserting the oscena signal in the Internal Oscillator IP core.
When the oscena input signal is asserted, the oscillator is enabled and the output can
be routed to the logic array through the clkout output signal. When the oscena
signal is set low, the clkout signal is constant high. You can analyze this delay using
the TimeQuest timing analyzer.
2.3 PLLs Architecture and Features
2.3.1 PLL Architecture
The main purpose of a PLL is to synchronize the phase and frequency of the voltagecontrolled oscillator (VCO) to an input reference clock.
Figure 7.
MAX 10 PLL High-Level Block Diagram
Each clock source can come from any of the two or four clock pins located on the
same side of the device as the PLL.
PLL
CLKIN
LOCK
circuit
4:1
Multiplexer
÷n
inclk0
inclk1
4:1
Multiplexer
Clock
Switchover
Block
clkswitch
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
pfdena
PFD
lock
÷C0
CP
LF
VCO
Range
Detector
VCO
8 ÷2 (1)
8
÷C1
÷C2
÷C3
÷C4
PLL
output
mux
GCLKs
ADC clock (2)
External clock output
÷M
No Compensation; ZDB Mode
Source-Synchronous; Normal Mode
GCLK
networks
Notes:
(1) This is the VCO post-scale counter K.
(2) Only counter C0 of PLL1 and PLL3 can drive the ADC clock.
Phase-Frequency Detector (PFD)
The PFD has inputs from the feedback clock, fFB, and the input reference clock, fREF.
The PLL compares the rising edge of the input reference clock to a feedback clock
using a PFD. The PFD produces an up or down signal that determines whether the VCO
needs to operate at a higher or lower frequency.
Charge Pump (CP)
If the charge pump receives a logic high on the up signal, current is driven into the
loop filter. If the charge pump receives a logic high on the down signal, current is
drawn from the loop filter.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Loop Filter (LF)
The loop filter converts the up and down signals from the PFD to a voltage that is used
to bias the VCO. The loop filter filters out glitches from the charge pump and prevents
voltage overshoot, which minimizes jitter on the VCO.
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
The voltage from the charge pump determines how fast the VCO operates. The VCO is
implemented as a four-stage differential ring oscillator. A divide counter, M, is inserted
in the feedback loop to increase the VCO frequency, fVCO, above the input reference
frequency, fREF.
The VCO frequency is determined using the following equation:
fVCO = fREF × M = fIN × M/N ,
where fIN is the input clock frequency to the PLL and N is the pre-scale counter.
The VCO frequency is a critical parameter that must be between 600 and 1,300 MHz
to ensure proper operation of the PLL. The Quartus Prime software automatically sets
the VCO frequency within the recommended range based on the clock output and
phase shift requirements in your design.
Post-Scale Counters (C)
The VCO output can feed up to five post-scale counters (C0, C1, C2, C3, and C4).
These post-scale counters allow the PLL to produce a number of harmonically-related
frequencies.
Internal Delay Elements
The MAX 10 PLLs have internal delay elements to compensate for routing on the GCLK
networks and I/O buffers. These internal delays are fixed.
PLL Outputs
The MAX 10 PLL supports up to 5 GCLK outputs and 1 dedicated external clock output.
The output frequency, fOUT, to the GCLK network or dedicated external clock output is
determined using the following equation:
fREF = fIN/N and
fOUT = fVCO/C = (fREF × M)/C = (fIN × M)/(N × C),
where C is the setting on the C0, C1, C2, C3, or C4 counter.
2.3.2 PLL Features
Table 4.
MAX 10 PLL Features
Feature
C output counters
M, N, C counter sizes
Support
5
1 to 512
2
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Feature
Support
Dedicated clock outputs
1 single-ended or 1 differential
Dedicated clock input pins
4 single-ended or 2 differential
Spread-spectrum input clock tracking
PLL cascading
Yes
3
Through GCLK
Source synchronous compensation
Yes
No compensation mode
Yes
Normal compensation
Yes
Zero-delay buffer compensation
Yes
Phase shift resolution
Down to 96 ps increments
Programmable duty cycle
Yes
Output counter cascading
Yes
Input clock switchover
Yes
User mode reconfiguration
Yes
Loss of lock detection
Yes
4:1 multiplexer CLK input selection
Yes
4
2.3.3 PLL Locations
The following figures show the physical locations of the PLLs. Every index represents
one PLL in the device. The physical locations of the PLLs correspond to the coordinates
in the Quartus Prime Chip Planner.
2 C counters range from 1 through 512 if the output clock uses a 50% duty cycle. For any
output clocks using a non-50% duty cycle, the post-scale counters range from 1 through 256.
3 Only applicable if the input clock jitter is in the input jitter tolerance specifications.
4 The smallest phase shift is determined by the VCO period divided by eight. For degree
increments, the MAX 10 device family can shift all output frequencies in increments of at least
45°. Smaller degree increments are possible depending on the frequency and divide
parameters.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Figure 8.
PLL Locations for 10M02 Device
Bank 8
Bank 6
Bank 5
Bank 2
Bank 1
PLL 2 (2)
PLL 1 (1)
Bank 3
Notes:
(1) Available on all packages except V36 package.
(2) Available on U324 and V36packages only.
PLL Locations for 10M04 and 10M08 Devices
Bank 7
Bank 3
Bank 4
PLL 2 (2)
PLL 1 (1)
Bank 5
Bank 6
Bank 1B Bank 1A
Bank 8
Bank 2
Figure 9.
Notes:
(1) Available on all packages except V81 package.
(2) Available on F256, F484, U324, and V81 packages only.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Figure 10.
PLL Locations for 10M16, 10M25, 10M40 and 10M50 Devices
Bank 8
Bank 7
PLL 2 (1)
Bank 2
Bank 5
Bank 6
Bank 1B Bank 1A
PLL 3 (1)
OCT
PLL 1
Bank 3
Bank 4
PLL 4 (1)
Note:
(1) Available on all packages except E144 and U169 packages.
2.3.4 Clock Pin to PLL Connections
Table 5.
MAX 10 Dedicated Clock Input Pin Connectivity to PLL
Dedicated Clock Pin
PLL
CLK[0,1][p,n]
PLL1, PLL3
CLK[2,3][p,n]
PLL2, PLL4
CLK[4,5][p,n]
PLL2, PLL3
CLK[6,7][p,n]
PLL1, PLL4
2.3.5 PLL Counter to GCLK Connections
Table 6.
MAX 10 PLL Counter Connectivity to the GCLK Networks
PLL Counter Output
GCLK
PLL1_C0
GCLK[0,3,15,18]
PLL1_C1
GCLK[1,4,16,19]
PLL1_C2
GCLK[0,2,15,17]
PLL1_C3
GCLK[1,3,16,18]
PLL1_C4
GCLK[2,4,17,19]
PLL2_C0
GCLK[5,8,10,13]
PLL2_C1
GCLK[6,9,11,14]
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
PLL Counter Output
GCLK
PLL2_C2
GCLK[5,7,10,12]
PLL2_C3
GCLK[6,8,11,13]
PLL2_C4
GCLK[7,9,12,14]
PLL3_C05
GCLK[0,3,10,13]
PLL3_C15
GCLK[1,4,11,14]
PLL3_C25
GCLK[0,2,10,12]
PLL3_C35
GCLK[1,3,11,13]
PLL3_C45
GCLK[2,4,12,14]
PLL4_C05
GCLK[5,8,15,18]
PLL4_C15
GCLK[6,9,16,19]
PLL4_C25
GCLK[5,7,15,17]
PLL4_C35
GCLK[6,8,16,18]
PLL4_C45
GCLK[7,9,17,19]
2.3.6 PLL Control Signals
You can use the following three signals to observe and control the PLL operation and
resynchronization.
pfdena
Use the pfdena signal to maintain the last locked frequency so that your system has
time to store its current settings before shutting down.
The pfdena signal controls the PFD output with a programmable gate. The PFD circuit
is enabled by default. When the PFD circuit is disabled, the PLL output does not
depend on the input clock, and tends to drift outside of the lock window.
areset
The areset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL. The device
input pins or internal logic can drive these input signals.
When you assert the areset signal, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output
and placing the PLL out of lock. The VCO is then set back to its nominal setting. When
the areset signal is deasserted, the PLL resynchronizes to its input as it relocks.
The assertion of the areset signal does not disable the VCO, but instead resets the
VCO to its nominal value. The only time that the VCO is completely disabled is when
you do not have a PLL instantiated in your design.
5 This only applies to 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
locked
The locked output indicates that the PLL has locked onto the reference clock and the
PLL clock outputs are operating at the desired phase and frequency set in the ALTPLL
IP core parameter editor.
Intel recommends using the areset and locked signals in your designs to control
and observe the status of your PLL. This implementation is illustrated in the following
figure.
Figure 11.
locked Signal Implementation
locked
VCC
PLL
DFF
D
Q
locked
areset
Note:
If you use the SignalTap® II tool to probe the locked signal before the D flip-flop, the
locked signal goes low only when areset is deasserted. If the areset signal is not
enabled, the extra logic is not implemented in the ALTPLL IP core.
Related Links
•
Guideline: PLL Control Signals on page 34
•
PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings on page 52
•
ALTPLL Ports and Signals on page 56
2.3.7 Clock Feedback Modes
The MAX 10 PLLs support up to four different clock feedback modes. Each mode allows
clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, and programmable duty cycle.
The PLL fully compensates input and output delays only when you use the dedicated
clock input pins associated with a given PLL as the clock sources.
For example, when using PLL1 in normal mode, the clock delays from one of the
following clock input pins to the PLL and the PLL clock output-to-destination register
are fully compensated:
•
CLK0
•
CLK1
•
CLK2
•
CLK3
When driving the PLL using the GCLK network, the input and output delays might not
be fully compensated in the Quartus Prime software.
Related Links
Operation Modes Parameter Settings on page 52
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.3.7.1 Source Synchronous Mode
If the data and clock arrive at the same time at the input pins, the phase relationship
between the data and clock remains the same at the data and clock ports of any I/O
element input register.
You can use this mode for source synchronous data transfers. Data and clock signals
at the I/O element experience similar buffer delays as long as both signals use the
same I/O standard.
Figure 12.
Example of Phase Relationship Between Clock and Data in Source
Synchronous Mode
Data pin
PLL reference
clock at input pin
Data at register
Clock at register
Source synchronous mode compensates for clock network delay, including any
difference in delay between the following two paths:
•
Data pin to I/O element register input
•
Clock input pin to the PLL PFD input
For all data pins clocked by a source synchronous mode PLL, set the input pin to the
register delay chain in the I/O element to zero in the Quartus Prime software. All data
pins must use the PLL COMPENSATED logic option in the Quartus Prime software.
2.3.7.2 No Compensation Mode
In no compensation mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks. This
mode provides better jitter performance because clock feedback into the PFD does not
pass through as much circuitry. Both the PLL internal and external clock outputs are
phase-shifted with respect to the PLL clock input.
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Figure 13.
Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in No Compensation
Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input Pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
(1), (2)
External PLL Clock
Outputs (2)
Notes:
(1) Internal clocks fed by the PLL are phase-aligned to each other.
(2) The PLL clock outputs can lead or lag the PLL input clocks. The PLL clock outputs lag the
PLL input clocks depending on the routine delays.
2.3.7.3 Normal Mode
In normal mode, the PLL fully compensates the delay introduced by the GCLK
network. An internal clock in normal mode is phase-aligned to the input clock pin. In
this mode, the external clock output pin has a phase delay relative to the input clock
pin. The Quartus Prime software timing analyzer reports any phase difference between
the two.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Figure 14.
Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in Normal
Compensation Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference
Clock at the Input pin
PLL Clock at the
Register Clock Port
External PLL Clock
Outputs (1)
Note:
(1) The external clock output can lead or lag the PLL internal clock signals.
2.3.7.4 Zero-Delay Buffer Mode
In zero-delay buffer (ZDB) mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned with
the clock input pin for zero delay through the device. When using this mode, use the
same I/O standard for the input clock and output clocks to ensure clock alignment at
the input and output pins.
Figure 15.
Example of Phase Relationship Between the PLL Clocks in ZDB Mode
Phase Aligned
PLL Reference Clock
at the Input Pin
PLL Clock
at the Register Clock Port
External PLL Clock Output
at the Output Pin
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.3.8 PLL External Clock Output
Each PLL in the MAX 10 devices supports one single-ended clock output or one
differential clock output. Only the C0 output counter can feed the dedicated external
clock outputs without going through the GCLK. Other output counters can feed other
I/O pins through the GCLK.
Figure 16.
PLL External Clock Output
C0
C1
C2
PLL #
C3
C4
clkena 0 (1)
clkena 1 (1)
PLL #_CLKOUTp (2)
PLL #_CLKOUTn (2)
Notes:
(1) These external clock enable signals are available only when using the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
(2) PLL#_CLKOUTp and PLL#_CLKOUTn pins are dual-purpose I/O pins that you can use as one single-ended
or one differential clock output.
Each pin of a differential output pair is 180° out of phase. To implement the 180° outof-phase pin in a pin pair, the Quartus Prime software places a NOT gate in the design
into the I/O element.
The clock output pin pairs support the following I/O standards:
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
•
Same I/O standard as the standard output pins (in the top and bottom banks)
•
LVDS
•
LVPECL
•
Differential high-speed transceiver logic (HSTL)
•
Differential SSTL
The MAX 10 PLLs can drive out to any regular I/O pin through the GCLK. You can also
use the external clock output pins as general-purpose I/O pins if you do not require
any external PLL clocking.
Related Links
MAX 10 General Purpose I/O User Guide
Provides more information about the I/O standards supported by the PLL clock
output pins.
2.3.9 ADC Clock Input from PLL
Only the C0 output counter from PLL1 and PLL3 can drive the ADC clock.
Counter C0 has dedicated path to the ADC clock input.
2.3.10 Spread-Spectrum Clocking
The MAX 10 devices allow a spread-spectrum input with typical modulation
frequencies. However, the device cannot automatically detect that the input is a
spread-spectrum signal. Instead, the input signal looks like deterministic jitter at the
input of the PLL.
The MAX 10 PLLs can track a spread-spectrum input clock if the input signal meets the
following conditions:
•
The input signal is within the input jitter tolerance specifications.
•
The modulation frequency of the input clock is below the PLL bandwidth as
specified in the Fitter report.
MAX 10 devices cannot generate spread-spectrum signals internally.
2.3.11 PLL Programmable Parameters
2.3.11.1 Programmable Duty Cycle
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with a variable
duty cycle. This feature is supported on the PLL post-scale counters.
The duty cycle setting is achieved by a low and high time-count setting for the postscale counters. To determine the duty cycle choices, the Quartus Prime software uses
the frequency input and the required multiply or divide rate.
The post-scale counter value determines the precision of the duty cycle. The precision
is defined as 50% divided by the post-scale counter value. For example, if the C0
counter is 10, steps of 5% are possible for duty cycle choices between 5 to 90%.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the
generation of precise nonoverlapping clocks.
Related Links
Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4) on page 42
Provides more information about configuring the duty cycle of the post-scale
counters in real time.
2.3.11.2 Programmable Bandwidth
The PLL bandwidth is the measure of the PLL’s ability to track the input clock and its
associated jitter. The MAX 10 PLLs provide advanced control of the PLL bandwidth
using the programmable characteristics of the PLL loop, including loop filter and
charge pump. The 3-dB frequency of the closed-loop gain in the PLL determines the
PLL bandwidth. The bandwidth is approximately the unity gain point for open loop PLL
response.
Related Links
•
Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters on page 40
•
Charge Pump and Loop Filter on page 43
Provides more information about the PLL components to update PLL bandwidth
in real time.
•
Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings on page 53
2.3.11.3 Programmable Phase Shift
The MAX 10 devices use phase shift to implement clock delays. You can phase shift
the output clocks from the MAX 10 PLLs using one of the following methods:
•
Fine resolution using VCO phase taps
•
Coarse resolution using counter starting time
The VCO phase output and counter starting time are the most accurate methods of
inserting delays. These methods are purely based on counter settings, which are
independent of process, voltage, and temperature.
The MAX 10 devices support dynamic phase shifting of VCO phase taps only. The
phase shift is configurable for any number of times. Each phase shift takes about one
scanclk cycle, allowing you to implement large phase shifts quickly.
Fine Resolution Phase Shift
Fine resolution phase shifts are implemented by allowing any of the output counters
(C[4..0]) or the M counter to use any of the eight phases of the VCO as the
reference clock. This allows you to adjust the delay time with a fine resolution. The
following equation shows the minimum delay time that you can insert using this
method.
Figure 17.
Fine Resolution Phase Shift Equation
fREF in this equation is the input reference clock frequency
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
For example, if fREF is 100 MHz, N = 1, and M = 8, then fVCO = 800 MHz, and Φfine =
156.25 ps. The PLL operating frequency defines this phase shift, a value that depends
on the reference clock frequency and counter settings.
The following figure shows an example of phase shift insertion using the fine
resolution through VCO phase taps method. The eight phases from the VCO are shown
and labeled for reference.
Figure 18.
Example of Delay Insertion Using VCO Phase Output and Counter Delay Time
The observations in this example are as follows:
•
CLK0 is based on 0° phase from the VCO and has the C value for the counter set
to one.
•
CLK1 signal is divided by four, two VCO clocks for high time and two VCO clocks
for low time. CLK1 is based on the 135° phase tap from the VCO and has the C
value for the counter set to one.
•
CLK2 signal is also divided by four. In this case, the two clocks are offset by 3
Φfine. CLK2 is based on the 0° phase from the VCO but has the C value for the
counter set to three. This creates a delay of two Φcoarse (two complete VCO
periods).
1/8 tVCO
tVCO
0
45
90
135
180
225
270
315
CLK0
td0-1
CLK1
CLK2
td0-2
Coarse Resolution Phase Shift
Coarse resolution phase shifts are implemented by delaying the start of the counters
for a predetermined number of counter clocks.
Figure 19.
Coarse Resolution Phase Shift Equation
C in this equation is the count value set for the counter delay time—the initial setting
in the PLL usage section of the compilation report in the Quartus Prime software. If
the initial value is 1, C – 1 = 0° phase shift.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Related Links
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 45
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Counter Selection on page 46
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration with Advanced Parameters on page 46
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings on page 54
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the
Quartus Prime software.
•
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 59
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter
settings in the Quartus Prime software.
2.3.12 Clock Switchover
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input
clocks. Use this feature for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application
where a system turns on the redundant clock if the previous clock stops running. The
design can perform clock switchover automatically when the clock is no longer
toggling or based on a user-controlled signal, clkswitch.
The following clock switchover modes are supported in MAX 10 PLLs:
•
Automatic switchover—The clock sense circuit monitors the current reference
clock. If the current reference clock stops toggling, the reference clock
automatically switches to inclk0 or inclk1 clock.
•
Manual clock switchover—The clkswitch signal controls the clock switchover.
When the clkswitch signal goes from logic low to high, and stays high for at
least three clock cycles, the reference clock to the PLL switches from inclk0 to
inclk1, or vice-versa.
•
Automatic switchover with manual override—This mode combines automatic
switchover and manual clock switchover. When the clkswitch signal goes high, it
overrides the automatic clock switchover function. As long as the clkswitch
signal is high, any further switchover action is blocked.
Related Links
•
Guideline: Clock Switchover on page 35
•
Clock Switchover Parameter Settings on page 53
2.3.12.1 Automatic Clock Switchover
The MAX 10 PLLs support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Figure 20.
Automatic Clock Switchover Circuit Block Diagram
This figure shows a block diagram of the automatic switchover circuit built into the
PLL.
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Switchover
State
Machine
Clock
Sense
clksw
clkswitch
(Provides Manual
Switchover Support)
inclk0
inclk1
N Counter
muxout
PFD
refclk
fbclk
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock sense block automatically
switches to the backup clock for PLL reference. You can select a clock source at the
backup clock by connecting it to the inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
The clock switchover circuit also sends out three status signals—clkbad[0],
clkbad[1], and activeclock—from the PLL to implement a custom switchover
circuit in the logic array.
In automatic switchover mode, the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals indicate the
status of the two clock inputs. When the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals are
asserted, the clock sense block detects that the corresponding clock input has stopped
toggling. These two signals are not valid if the frequency difference between inclk0
and inclk1 is greater than 20%.
The activeclock signal indicates which of the two clock inputs (inclk0 or inclk1)
is selected as the reference clock to the PLL. When the frequency difference between
the two clock inputs is more than 20%, the activeclock signal is the only valid
status signal.
Note:
Glitches in the input clock may cause the frequency difference between the input
clocks to be more than 20%.
When the current reference clock to the PLL stops toggling, use the switchover
circuitry to automatically switch from inclk0 to inclk1 that runs at the same
frequency. This automatic switchover can switch back and forth between the inclk0
and inclk1 clocks any number of times when one of the two clocks fails and the
other clock is available.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with the same frequency
as the reference clock, the switchover state machine generates a signal (clksw) that
controls the multiplexer select input. In this case, inclk1 becomes the reference
clock for the PLL.
When using automatic clock switchover mode, the following requirements must be
satisfied:
•
Both clock inputs must be running when the FPGA is configured.
•
The period of the two clock inputs differ by no more than 20%.
If the current clock input stops toggling while the other clock is also not toggling,
switchover is not initiated and the clkbad[0..1] signals are not valid. If both clock
inputs do not have the same frequency, but their period difference is within 20%, the
clock sense block detects when a clock stops toggling. However, the PLL might lose
lock after the switchover completes and needs time to relock.
Note:
Intel recommends resetting the PLL using the areset signal to maintain the phase
relationships between the PLL input and output clocks when using clock switchover.
Figure 21.
Example of Automatic Switchover After Loss of Clock Detection
This figure shows an example waveform of the switchover feature in automatic
switchover mode. In this example, the inclk0 signal remains low. After the inclk0
signal remains low for approximately two clock cycles, the clock sense circuitry drives
the clkbad[0] signal high. Since the reference clock signal is not toggling, the
switchover state machine controls the multiplexer through the clksw signal to switch
to the backup clock, inclk1.
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
(1)
clkbad0
clkbad1
activeclock
Note:
(1) Switchover is enabled on the falling edge of inclk0 or inclk1, depending on which clock is available. In this figure,
switchover is enabled on the falling edge of inclk1.
2.3.12.2 Automatic Switchover with Manual Override
In automatic switchover with manual override mode, you can use the clkswitch
signal for user- or system-controlled switch conditions. You can use this mode for
same-frequency switchover, or to switch between inputs of different frequencies.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must control the
switchover using the clkswitch signal. The automatic clock sense circuitry cannot
monitor clock input (inclk0 and inclk1) frequencies with a frequency difference of
more than 20%.
This feature is useful when clock sources originate from multiple cards on the
backplane, requiring a system-controlled switchover between frequencies of operation.
You must choose the backup clock frequency and set the M, N, and C counters so that
the VCO operates within the recommended frequency range.
The following figure shows a clock switchover waveform controlled by the clkswitch
signal. In this case, both clock sources are functional and inclk0 is selected as the
reference clock. The clkswitch signal goes high, which starts the switchover
sequence. On the falling edge of inclk0, the counter’s reference clock, muxout, is
gated off to prevent clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the reference clock
multiplexer switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference. The
activeclock signal is asserted to indicate the clock that is currently feeding the PLL,
which is inclk1.
In automatic override with manual switchover mode, the activeclock signal mirrors
the clkswitch signal. Since both clocks are still functional during the manual switch,
neither clkbad signal goes high. Because the switchover circuit is positive-edge
sensitive, the falling edge of the clkswitch signal does not cause the circuit to
switch back from inclk1 to inclk0. When the clkswitch signal goes high again,
the process repeats.
Figure 22.
Example of Clock Switchover Using the clkswitch (Manual) Control
inclk0
inclk1
muxout
clkswitch
activeclock
clkbad0
clkbad1
To initiate a manual clock switchover event,
both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when
the clkswitch signal goes high.
The clkswitch signal and automatic switch work only if the clock being switched to
is available. If the clock is not available, the state machine waits until the clock is
available.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
2.3.12.3 Manual Clock Switchover
In manual clock switchover mode, the clkswitch signal controls whether inclk0 or
inclk1 is selected as the input clock to the PLL. By default, inclk0 is selected.
A clock switchover event is initiated when the clkswitch signal transitions from logic
low to logic high, and is being held high for at least three inclk cycles. You must
bring the clkswitch signal back to low again to perform another switchover event. If
you do not require another switchover event, you can leave the clkswitch signal in a
logic high state after the initial switch. Pulsing the clkswitch signal high for at least
three inclk cycles performs another switchover event.
If inclk0 and inclk1 have different frequencies and are always running, the
minimum amount of time for which clkswitch signal is high must be greater than or
equal to three of the slower-frequency inclk0 and inclk1 cycles.
2.3.13 PLL Cascading
Related Links
Guideline: PLL Cascading on page 35
2.3.13.1 PLL-to-PLL Cascading
Two PLLs are cascaded to each other through the clock network. If your design
cascades PLLs, the source (upstream) PLL must have a low-bandwidth setting and the
destination (downstream) PLL must have a high-bandwidth setting.
2.3.13.2 Counter-to-Counter Cascading
The MAX 10 PLLs support post-scale counter cascading to create counters larger than
512. This is implemented by feeding the output of one C counter into the input of the
next C counter.
Figure 23.
Counter-to-Counter Cascading
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
VCO Output
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
VCO Output
When cascading counters to implement a larger division of the high-frequency VCO
clock, the cascaded counters behave as one counter with the product of the individual
counter settings.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
For example, if C0 = 4 and C1 = 2, the cascaded value is C0 x C1 = 8.
The Quartus Prime software automatically sets all the post-scale counter values for
cascading in the configuration file. Post-scale counter cascading cannot be performed
using PLL reconfiguration.
2.3.14 PLL Reconfiguration
The PLLs use several divide counters and different VCO phase taps to perform
frequency synthesis and phase shifts. In MAX 10 PLLs, you can reconfigure both
counter settings and phase shift the PLL output clock in real time. You can also change
the charge pump and loop filter components, which dynamically affects the PLL
bandwidth.
The following PLL components are configurable in real time:
•
Pre-scale counter (N)
•
Feedback counter (M)
•
Post-scale output counters (C0-C4)
•
Charge pump current (ICP)
•
Loop filter components (R, C)
You can use these PLL components to update the following settings in real time
without reconfiguring the entire FPGA:
•
Output clock frequency
•
PLL bandwidth
•
Phase shift
The ability to reconfigure the PLL in real time is useful in applications that may operate
in multiple frequencies. It is also useful in prototyping environments, allowing you to
sweep PLL output frequencies and dynamically adjust the output clock phase.
For instance, a system generating test patterns is required to generate and send
patterns at 75 or 150 MHz, depending on the requirements of the device under test.
Reconfiguring the PLL components in real time allows you to switch between two such
output frequencies in a few microseconds.
You can also use this feature to adjust clock-to-out (tCO) delays in real time by
changing the PLL output clock phase shift. This approach eliminates the need to
regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL settings.
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2 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Architecture and Features
Figure 24.
PLL Reconfiguration Scan Chain
This figure shows the dynamic adjustment of the PLL counter settings by shifting their
new settings into a serial shift register chain or scan chain. Serial data shifts to the
scan chain via the scandata port, and shift registers are clocked by scanclk. The
maximum scanclk frequency is 100 MHz. After shifting the last bit of data, asserting
the configupdate signal for at least one scanclk clock cycle synchronously updates
the PLL configuration bits with the data in the scan registers.
FVCO
from M counter
from N counter
PFD
LF/K/CP
VCO
scandata
scanclkena
configupdate
/C4
inclk
scandataout
/C3
/C2
/C1
/C0
/M
/N
scandone
scanclk
The counter settings are updated synchronously to the clock frequency of the
individual counters. Therefore, not all counters update simultaneously.
The dynamic reconfiguration scheme uses configuration files, such as the
Hexadecimal-format file (.hex) or the Memory Initialization file (.mif). These files are
used together with the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core to perform the dynamic
reconfiguration.
Related Links
•
Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration on page 37
•
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Implementation on page 41
•
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings on page 54
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the
Quartus Prime software.
•
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 59
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter
settings in the Quartus Prime software.
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3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations
3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations
3.1 Clock Networks Design Considerations
3.1.1 Guideline: Clock Enable Signals
Intel recommends using the clkena signals when switching the clock source to the
PLLs or GCLK. The recommended sequence is as follows:
1.
Disable the primary output clock by deasserting the clkena signal.
2. Switch to the secondary clock using the dynamic select signals of the clock control
block.
3. Allow some clock cycles of the secondary clock to pass before reasserting the
clkena signal. The exact number of clock cycles to wait before enabling the
secondary clock depends on your design. You can build a custom logic to ensure a
glitch-free transition when switching between different clock sources.
Related Links
•
Clock Enable Signals on page 11
•
ALTCLKCTRL Parameters on page 50
•
ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals on page 51
3.1.2 Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions
The following guidelines describe the restrictions associated with the signal sources
that can drive the inclk input:
•
You must use the inclk ports that are consistent with the clkselect ports.
•
When you are using multiple input sources, the inclk ports can only be driven by
the dedicated clock input pins and the PLL clock outputs.
•
If the clock control block feeds any inclk port of another clock control block, both
clock control blocks must be able to be reduced to a single clock control block of
equivalent functionality.
•
When you are using the glitch-free switchover feature, the clock you are switching
from must be active. If the clock is not active, the switchover circuit cannot
transition from the clock you originally selected.
3.2 Internal Oscillator Design Considerations
3.2.1 Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions
You cannot drive the PLLs with internal oscillator.
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3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations
3.3 PLLs Design Considerations
3.3.1 Guideline: PLL Control Signals
You must include the areset signal in your designs if one of the following conditions
is true:
•
PLL reconfiguration or clock switchover is enabled in your design.
•
Phase relationships between the PLL input clock and output clocks must be
maintained after a loss-of-lock condition.
•
The input clock to the PLL is toggling or unstable at power-up.
•
The areset signal is asserted after the input clock is stable and within
specifications.
Related Links
PLL Control Signals on page 17
3.3.2 Guideline: Connectivity Restrictions
To comply with simultaneous switching noise (SSN) design guideline, Intel
recommends that you do not use unterminated I/O in the same bank as the input
clock signal to the PLL.
Related Links
Guidelines: Clock and Asynchronous Control Input Signal
Provides more information about using I/O connectivity restrictions.
3.3.3 Guideline: Self-Reset
The lock time of a PLL is the amount of time required by the PLL to attain the target
frequency and phase relationship after device power-up, after a change in the PLL
output frequency, or after resetting the PLL.
A PLL might lose lock for a number of reasons, such as the following causes:
•
Excessive jitter on the input clock.
•
Excessive switching noise on the clock inputs of the PLL.
•
Excessive noise from the power supply, causing high output jitter and possible loss
of lock.
•
A glitch or stopping of the input clock to the PLL.
•
Resetting the PLL by asserting the areset port of the PLL.
•
An attempt to reconfigure the PLL might cause the M counter, N counter, or phase
shift to change, causing the PLL to lose lock. However, changes to the post-scale
counters do not affect the PLL locked signal.
•
PLL input clock frequency drifts outside the lock range specification.
•
The PFD is disabled using the pfdena port. When this happens, the PLL output
phase and frequency tend to drift outside of the lock window.
The ALTPLL IP core allows you to monitor the PLL locking process using a lock signal
named locked and also allows you to set the PLL to self-reset on loss of lock.
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3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations
3.3.4 Guideline: Output Clocks
Each MAX 10 PLL supports up to five output clocks. You can use the output clock port
as a core output clock or an external output clock port. The core output clock feeds
the FPGA core and the external output clock feeds the dedicated pins on the FPGA.
The ALTPLL IP core does not have a dedicated output enable port. You can disable the
PLL output using the areset signal to disable the PLL output counters.
3.3.5 Guideline: PLL Cascading
Consider the following guidelines when cascading PLLs:
•
Set the primary PLL to low bandwidth to help filter jitter. Set the secondary PLL to
high bandwidth to track the jitter from the primary PLL. You can view the Quartus
Prime software compilation report file to ensure the PLL bandwidth ranges do not
overlap. If the bandwidth ranges overlap, jitter peaking can occur in the cascaded
PLL scheme.
Note: You can get an estimate of the PLL deterministic jitter and static phase error
(SPE) by using the TimeQuest Timing Analyzer in the Quartus Prime
software. Use the SDC command derive_clock_uncertainty to
generate a report titled PLLJ_PLLSPE_INFO.txt in your project directory.
Then, use set_clock_uncertainty command to add jitter and SPE
values to your clock constraints.
•
Keep the secondary PLL in a reset state until the primary PLL has locked to ensure
the phase settings are correct on the secondary PLL.
•
You cannot connect any of the inclk ports of any PLLs in a cascaded scheme to
the clock outputs from PLLs in the cascaded scheme.
Related Links
PLL Cascading on page 30
3.3.6 Guideline: Clock Switchover
Use the following guidelines to design with clock switchover in PLLs:
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
35
3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations
Figure 25.
•
Clock loss detection and automatic clock switchover requires that the frequency
difference between inclk0 and inclk1 is within 20% range. Failing to meet this
requirement causes the clkbad[0] and clkbad[1] signals to function
improperly.
•
When using manual clock switchover, the frequency difference between inclk0
and inclk1 can be more than 20%. However, differences between the two clock
sources (frequency, phase, or both) can cause the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the
PLL ensures that the correct phase relationships are maintained between the input
and output clocks.
•
Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high
to start the manual clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement
causes the clock switchover to malfunction.
•
Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift
must use a low-bandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the lowbandwidth PLL reacts slower than a high-bandwidth PLL. When the switchover
happens, the low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stoppage of the clock to the
output at a slower speed than the high-bandwidth PLL. The low-bandwidth PLL
filters out jitter on the reference clock. However, be aware that the low-bandwidth
PLL also increases lock time.
•
After a switchover occurs, there might be a finite resynchronization period for the
PLL to lock onto a new clock. The exact amount of time it takes for the PLL to
relock depends on the PLL configuration.
•
The phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and output clock from
the PLL is important in your design. Assert areset for 10 ns after performing a
clock switchover. Wait for the locked signal (or gated lock) to go high before
reenabling the output clocks from the PLL.
•
Disable the system during switchover if the system is not tolerant of frequency
variations during the PLL resynchronization period. You can use the clkbad[0]
and clkbad[1] status signals to turn off the PFD (pfdena = 0) so that the VCO
maintains its last frequency. You can also use the switchover state machine to
switch over to the secondary clock. After enabling the PFD, the output clock
enable signals (clkena) can disable clock outputs during the switchover and
resynchronization period. After the lock indication is stable, the system can
reenable the output clock or clocks.
•
The VCO frequency gradually decreases when the primary clock is lost and then
increases as the VCO locks onto the secondary clock, as shown in the following
figure. After the VCO locks onto the secondary clock, some overshoot can occur
(an over-frequency condition) in the VCO frequency.
VCO Switchover Operating Frequency
Primary Clock Stops Running
Frequency Overshoot
Switchover Occurs
ΔFvco
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
36
VCO Tracks Secondary Clock
3 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Design Considerations
Related Links
•
Clock Switchover on page 26
•
Clock Switchover Parameter Settings on page 53
3.3.7 Guideline: .mif Streaming in PLL Reconfiguration
Consider the following guidelines when using .mif streaming in PLL reconfiguration:
•
10M02 devices do not support .mif streaming in PLL reconfiguration due to flash
size limitation. Intel recommends using an external flash.
•
10M04, 10M08, 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices only support .mif
streaming in single image mode. Intel recommends using an external flash for
dual image mode. The MAX 10 devices do not support using both dual image
mode and PLL reconfiguration with .mif simultaneously.
Related Links
PLL Reconfiguration on page 31
3.3.8 Guideline: scandone Signal for PLL Reconfiguration
scandone signal must be low before the second PLL reconfiguration. For scandone
signal to go low, PLL areset signal must be asserted.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
37
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
4.1 ALTCLKCTRL IP Core
The clock control block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP core is a clock control function for configuring
the clock control block.
The common applications of the ALTCLKCTRL IP core are as follows:
•
Dynamic clock source selection—When using the clock control block, you can
select the dynamic clock source that drives the global clock network.
•
Dynamic power-down of a clock network—The dynamic clock enable or disable
feature allows internal logic to power down the clock network. When a clock
network is powered down, all the logic fed by that clock network is not toggling,
thus reducing the overall power consumption of the device.
The ALTCLKCTRL IP core provides the following features:
•
Supports clock control block operation mode specifications
•
Supports specification of the number of input clock sources
•
Provides an active high clock enable control input
Related Links
•
Introduction to Intel FPGA IP Cores
Provides general information about all Intel FPGA IP cores, including
parameterizing, generating, upgrading, and simulating IP cores.
•
Creating Version-Independent IP and Qsys Simulation Scripts
Create simulation scripts that do not require manual updates for software or IP
version upgrades.
•
Project Management Best Practices
Guidelines for efficient management and portability of your project and IP files.
•
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives on page 66
Provides a list of user guides for previous versions of the ALTCLKCTRL IP core.
4.2 ALTPLL IP Core
The ALTPLL IP core specifies the PLL circuitry. You can use this IP core to configure the
PLL types, operation modes, and advanced features of the PLL.
Related Links
•
Introduction to Intel FPGA IP Cores
Provides general information about all Intel FPGA IP cores, including
parameterizing, generating, upgrading, and simulating IP cores.
•
Creating Version-Independent IP and Qsys Simulation Scripts
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
Create simulation scripts that do not require manual updates for software or IP
version upgrades.
•
Project Management Best Practices
Guidelines for efficient management and portability of your project and IP files.
•
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives on page 66
Provides a list of user guides for previous versions of the ALTPLL IP core.
4.2.1 Expanding the PLL Lock Range
The PLL lock range is between the minimum (Freq min lock parameter) and maximum
(Freq min lock parameter) input frequency values for which the PLL can achieve lock.
Changing the input frequency might cause the PLL to lose lock, but if the input clock
remains within the minimum and maximum frequency specifications, the PLL is able to
achieve lock. The Quartus Prime software shows these input frequency values in the
PLL Summary report located under the Resource Section of the Fitter folder in the
Compilation Report.
The Quartus Prime software does not necessarily pick values for the PLL parameters to
maximize the lock range. For example, when you specify a 75 MHz input clock in the
ALTPLL parameter editor, the actual PLL lock range might be between 70 MHz to
90 MHz. If your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, the default
lock range of this PLL is insufficient.
For devices that support clock switchover in PLLs, you can use the ALTPLL IP core
parameter editor to maximize the lock range.
To extract valid parameter values to maximize your PLL lock range, perform the
following steps:
1. In the schematic editor, double-click the ALTPLL instance in your design to open
the ALTPLL parameter editor.
2. On the General/Modes page, for What is the frequency of the inclk0 input?,
type the value of the low end of your desired PLL lock range.
For example, if your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, type
50 MHz.
3. On the Inputs/Lock page, turn on Create output file(s) using the 'Advanced'
PLL parameters.
4.
On the Clock switchover page, turn on Create an 'inclk1' input for a second
input clock and enter the high end of your lock range as the frequency for
inclk1.
For example, if your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, type
100 MHz.
5. Set the rest of the parameters in the remaining pages of the ALTPLL IP core
parameter editor.
6.
Compile your project and note the lock range shown in the PLL Summary report. If
it is satisfactory, note all of the values for the PLL from this report, such as the M
value, N value, charge pump current, loop filter resistance, and loop filter
capacitance.
7.
In the schematic editor, double-click the ALTPLL instance in your design to open
the ALTPLL parameter editor.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
39
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
8.
On the Clock switchover page, turn off Create an 'inclk1' input for a second
input clock.
9.
Click Finish to update the PLL wrapper file.
10. In a text editor, open the PLL wrapper file. Modify all of the values for the
parameters listed in step 6. Save the changes.
—
If the wrapper file is in Verilog format, go to the defparam section.
—
If the wrapper file is in VHDL HDL, go to the Generic Map section.
11. Compile your project.
12. Check the PLL Summary report to confirm that the PLL lock range meets your
requirements. The modified PLL should have the desired lock range.
If your input clock frequency is too close to the end of the desired PLL lock range—for
example the low end of the desired lock range is 50 MHz and the input clock frequency
is 50 MHz, the PLL might not maintain lock when the input clock has jitter or the
frequency drifts below 50 MHz. You may choose to expand your PLL lock range to
ensure your expected input clock frequency is further from the end of the range. For
this example, you can enter 45 MHz and 105 MHz to ensure that your target lock
range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz is within the PLL lock range.
The Quartus Prime software prompts an error message if it is unable to implement
your preferred lock range using this procedure. Therefore, you have to look into other
options, such as PLL reconfiguration to support your input frequency range.
4.2.2 Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters
An advanced level of control is also possible for precise control of the PLL loop filter
characteristics. This level allows you to explicitly select the following advanced
parameters:
•
Charge pump current (charge_pump_current)
•
Loop filter resistance (loop_filter_r)
•
Loop filter capacitance(loop_filter_c)
This option is intended for advanced users who know the exact details of their PLL
configuration. You can use this option if you understand the parameters well enough
to set them optimally. The files generated are not intended to be reused by the ALTPLL
IP core parameter editor. After the ALTPLL IP core output files are specified using the
advanced parameters, the Quartus Prime compiler cannot change them. For example,
the compiler cannot perform optimization. Thus, your design cannot benefit from
improved algorithms of the compiler. The Quartus Prime compiler cannot select better
settings or change some settings that the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor finds to be
incompatible with your design.
The parameter settings to generate output files using advanced PLL parameters are
located on the Inputs/Lock page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Turn on Create output file(s) using the 'Advanced' PLL parameters to enable the
feature.
When you turn on this option, the generated output files contain all of the initial
counter values used in the PLL. You can use these values for functional simulation in a
third-party simulator.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
40
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
These parameter settings create no additional top-level ports.
Related Links
•
Programmable Bandwidth on page 24
•
Charge Pump and Loop Filter on page 43
Provides more information about the PLL components to update PLL bandwidth
in real time.
•
Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings on page 53
4.2.3 PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Implementation
To reconfigure the PLL counters, perform the following steps:
1.
Assert the scanclkena signal at least one scanclk cycle prior to shifting in the
first bit of scandata (Dn).
2. Shift the serial data (scandata) into the scan chain on the second rising edge of
scanclk.
3. After all 144 bits have been scanned into the scan chain, deassert the
scanclkena signal to prevent inadvertent shifting of bits in the scan chain.
4.
Assert the configupdate signal for one scanclk cycle to update the PLL
counters with the contents of the scan chain.
The scandone signal goes high indicating that the PLL is being reconfigured. A
falling edge indicates that the PLL counters have been updated with new settings.
5.
Reset the PLL using the areset signal if you make any changes to the M, N, postscale output C counters, or the ICP , R, and C settings.
6. You can repeat steps 1 through 5 to reconfigure the PLL any number of times.
Figure 26.
PLL Reconfiguration Scan Chain Functional Simulation
scandata
Dn
D0
LSB
scanclk
scanclkena
scandataout
Dn_old
D0_old
Dn
configupdate
scandone
areset
When reconfiguring the counter clock frequency, you cannot reconfigure the
corresponding counter phase shift settings using the same interface. You can
reconfigure phase shifts in real time using the dynamic phase shift reconfiguration
interface. If you wish to keep the same nonzero phase shift setting (for example, 90°)
on the clock output, you must reconfigure the phase shift after reconfiguring the
counter clock frequency.
Related Links
PLL Reconfiguration on page 31
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
41
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
4.2.3.1 Post-Scale Counters (C0 to C4)
You can configure the multiply or divide values and duty cycle of the post-scale
counters in real time. Each counter has an 8-bit high time setting and an 8-bit low
time setting. The duty cycle is the ratio of output high or low time to the total cycle
time, which is the sum of the two.
The post-scale counters have two control bits:
•
rbypass—For bypassing the counter
•
rselodd—For selecting the output clock duty cycle
When the rbypass bit is set to 1, it bypasses the counter, resulting in a division by
one. When this bit is set to 0, the PLL computes the effective division of the VCO
output frequency based on the high and low time counters. The PLL implements this
duty cycle by transitioning the output clock from high-to-low on the rising edge of the
VCO output clock.
For example, if the post-scale divide factor is 10, the high and low count values are
set to 5 and 5 respectively, to achieve a 50–50% duty cycle. However, a 4 and 6
setting for the high and low count values, respectively, would produce an output clock
with 40–60% duty cycle.
The rselodd bit indicates an odd divide factor for the VCO output frequency with a
50% duty cycle. The PLL implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output clock
from high-to-low on a falling edge of the VCO output clock.
For example, if the post-scale divide factor is 3, the high and low time count values
are 2 and 1 respectively, to achieve this division. This implies a 67%–33% duty cycle.
If you need a 50%–50% duty cycle, you must set the rselodd control bit to 1 to
achieve this duty cycle despite an odd division factor. When you set rselodd = 1,
subtract 0.5 cycles from the high time and add 0.5 cycles to the low time.
The calculation for the example is shown as follows:
•
High time count = 2 cycles
•
Low time count = 1 cycle
•
rselodd = 1 effectively equals:
—
High time count = 1.5 cycles
—
Low time count = 1.5 cycles
—
Duty cycle = (1.5/3)% high time count and (1.5/3)% low time count
Related Links
Programmable Duty Cycle on page 23
4.2.3.2 Scan Chain
The MAX 10 PLLs have a 144-bit scan chain.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
42
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
Table 7.
PLL Component Reprogramming Bits
Block Name
Number of Bits
Counter
Control Bit
Total
C46
16
27
18
C3
16
27
18
C2
16
27
18
16
27
18
C0
16
27
18
M
16
27
18
N
16
27
18
Charge Pump
9
0
9
Loop Filter8
9
0
9
C1
Total number of bits
Figure 27.
144
PLL Component Scan Chain Order
DATAIN
LF
MSB
CP
LSB
DATAOUT
Figure 28.
C4
N
M
C0
C3
C2
C1
PLL Post-Scale Counter Scan Chain Bit Order
DATAOUT
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
HB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
LB
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
rbypass
DATAIN
rselodd
4.2.3.3 Charge Pump and Loop Filter
You can reconfigure the following settings to update the PLL bandwidth in real time:
•
Charge pump (ICP)
•
Loop filter resistor (R)
•
Loop filter capacitor (C)
6 LSB bit for C4 low-count value is the first bit shifted into the scan chain.
7 These two control bits include rbypass, for bypassing the counter, and rselodd, for selecting
the output clock duty cycle.
8 MSB bit for loop filter is the last bit shifted into the scan chain.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
43
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
Table 8.
Charge Pump Bit Control
Table 9.
CP[2]
CP[1]
CP[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
3
1
1
1
7
Loop Filter Resistor Value Control
LFR[4]
LFR[3]
LFR[2]
LFR[1]
LFR[0]
Setting
(Decimal)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
3
0
0
1
0
0
4
0
1
0
0
0
8
1
0
0
0
0
16
1
0
0
1
1
19
1
0
1
0
0
20
1
1
0
0
0
24
1
1
0
1
1
27
1
1
1
0
0
28
1
1
1
1
0
30
Table 10.
Loop Filter High Frequency Capacitor Control
LFC[1]
LFC[0]
Setting (Decimal)
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
3
Related Links
•
Programmable Bandwidth on page 24
•
Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters on page 40
•
Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings on page 53
4.2.3.4 Bypassing PLL Counter
Bypassing a PLL counter results in a multiplification (M counter) or a division (N, C0 to
C4 counters) factor of one.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
44
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
Table 11.
PLL Counter Settings
Description
PLL Scan Chain Bits [0..8] Settings
LSB
MSB
PLL counter bypassed
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
19
PLL counter not
bypassed
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
09
To bypass any of the PLL counters, set the bypass bit to 1. The values on the other
bits are ignored.
4.2.4 Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation
To perform one dynamic phase shift step, perform the following steps:
1. Set PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT as required.
2. Assert PHASESTEP for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Each PHASESTEP pulse allows
one phase shift.
3.
Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
4.
Wait for PHASEDONE to go high.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 as many times as required to perform multiple phase
shifts.
PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT signals are synchronous to SCANCLK and
must meet the tsu and th requirements with respect to the SCANCLK edges.
You can repeat dynamic phase-shifting indefinitely. For example, in a design where the
VCO frequency is set to 1,000 MHz and the output clock frequency is set to 100 MHz,
performing 40 dynamic phase shifts (each one yields 125 ps phase shift) results in
shifting the output clock by 180º, which is a phase shift of 5 ns.
Figure 29.
Dynamic Phase Shift Timing Diagram
SCANCLK
PHASESTEP
PHASEUPDOWN
PHASECOUNTERSELECT
PHASEDONE
a
b
c
d
PHASEDONE goes low
synchronous with SCANCLK
The PHASESTEP signal is latched on the negative edge of SCANCLK (a,c) and must
remain asserted for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Deassert PHASESTEP after
PHASEDONE goes low.
9 Bypass bit
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
45
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
On the second SCANCLK rising edge (b,d) after PHASESTEP is latched, the values of
PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT are latched. The PLL starts dynamic
phase-shifting for the specified counters and in the indicated direction.
The PHASEDONE signal is deasserted synchronous to SCANCLK at the second rising
edge (b,d) and remains low until the PLL finishes dynamic phase-shifting. Depending
on the VCO and SCANCLK frequencies, PHASEDONE low time may be greater than or
less than one SCANCLK cycle.
You can perform another dynamic phase-shift after the PHASEDONE signal goes from
low to high. Each PHASESTEP pulse enables one phase shift. The PHASESTEP pulses
must be at least one SCANCLK cycle apart.
Related Links
•
Programmable Phase Shift on page 24
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings on page 54
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the
Quartus Prime software.
•
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 59
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter
settings in the Quartus Prime software.
•
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings on page 54
Provides more information about the ALTPLL IP core parameter settings in the
Quartus Prime software.
•
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters on page 59
Provides more information about the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core parameter
settings in the Quartus Prime software.
4.2.4.1 Dynamic Phase Configuration Counter Selection
Table 12.
Phase Counter Select Mapping
PLL Counter Selection
PHASECOUNTERSELECT [2]
[1]
[0]
All output counters
0
0
0
M counter
0
0
1
C0 counter
0
1
0
C1 counter
0
1
1
C2 counter
1
0
0
C3 counter
1
0
1
C4 counter
1
1
0
Related Links
Programmable Phase Shift on page 24
4.2.4.2 Dynamic Phase Configuration with Advanced Parameters
The finest phase shift step resolution you can get in the ALTPLL IP core is 1/8 of the
VCO period. If the VCO frequency is at the lower end of the supported VCO range, the
phase shift step resolution might be larger than preferred for your design.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
46
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
You can modify your phase shift resolution using the dynamic phase reconfiguration
feature of the PLL. If you want to modify the phase shift resolution without the
dynamic phase reconfiguration feature enabled, perform the following steps:
1.
Create an ALTPLL instance. Make sure you specify the speed grade of your target
device and the PLL type.
2.
On the PLL Reconfiguration page, turn on Create optional inputs for
dynamic phase reconfiguration and Enable phase shift step resolution.
3.
On the Output Clocks page, set your desired phase shift for each required output
clock. Note all the internal PLL settings shown.
4.
On the Bandwidth/SS page, click More Details to see the internal PLL settings.
Note all of the settings shown.
5. On the Inputs/Lock page, turn on Create output file(s) using the ‘Advanced’
PLL Parameters.
6.
Return to the PLL Reconfiguration page and turn off Create Optional Inputs
for Dynamic Phase Reconfiguration.
7. Click Finish to generate the PLL instantiation file(s).
When using Advanced Parameters, the PLL wrapper file
(<ALTPLL_instantiation_name>.v or <ALTPLL_instantiation_name>.vhd) is
written in a format that allows you to identify the PLL parameters. The parameters
are listed in the Generic Map section of the VHDL file, or in the defparam section
of the Verilog file.
8.
Open your PLL instantiation wrapper file and locate either the Generic Map or the
defparam section.
9. Modify the settings to match the settings that you noted in steps 3 and 4.
10. Save the PLL instantiation wrapper file and compile your design.
11. Verify that the output clock frequencies and phases are correct in the PLL Usage
report located under the Resource section of the Fitter folder in the Compilation
Report.
By using this technique, you can apply valid PLL parameters as provided by the ALTPLL
IP core parameter editor to optimize the settings for your design.
Alternatively, you can leave the dynamic phase reconfiguration option enabled and tie
the relevant input ports—phasecounterselect[3..0], phaseupdown,
phasestep, and scanclk—to constants, if you prefer not to manually edit the PLL
wrapper file using the Advanced PLL Parameters option.
Related Links
Programmable Phase Shift on page 24
4.3 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core
The ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core implements reconfiguration logic to facilitate dynamic
real-time reconfiguration of PLLs. You can use the IP core to update the output clock
frequency, PLL bandwidth, and phase shifts in real time, without reconfiguring the
entire FPGA.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
47
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
Use the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in designs that must support dynamic changes in
the frequency and phase shift of clocks and other frequency signals. The IP core is
also useful in prototyping environments because it allows you to sweep PLL output
frequencies and dynamically adjust the output clock phase. You can also adjust the
clock-to-output (tCO) delays in real-time by changing the output clock phase shift. This
approach eliminates the need to regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL
settings. This operation requires dynamic phase-shifting.
Related Links
•
Introduction to Intel FPGA IP Cores
Provides general information about all Intel FPGA IP cores, including
parameterizing, generating, upgrading, and simulating IP cores.
•
Creating Version-Independent IP and Qsys Simulation Scripts
Create simulation scripts that do not require manual updates for software or IP
version upgrades.
•
Project Management Best Practices
Guidelines for efficient management and portability of your project and IP files.
•
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives on page 66
Provides a list of user guides for previous versions of the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP
core.
4.3.1 Obtaining the Resource Utilization Report
For details about the resource usage and performance of the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP
core, refer to the compilation reports in the Quartus Prime software.
To view the compilation reports for the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in the Quartus
Prime software, follow these steps:
1. On the Processing menu, click Start Compilation to run a full compilation.
2. After compiling the design, on the Processing menu, click Compilation Report.
3.
In the Table of Contents browser, expand the Fitter folder by clicking the “+” icon.
4.
Under Fitter, expand Resource section, and select Resource Usage Summary
to view the resource usage information.
5.
Under Fitter, expand Resource section, and select Resource Utilization by
Entity to view the resource utilization information.
4.4 Internal Oscillator IP Core
The Internal Oscillator IP core specifies the internal oscillator frequencies for the
devices.
Related Links
•
Introduction to Intel FPGA IP Cores
Provides general information about all Intel FPGA IP cores, including
parameterizing, generating, upgrading, and simulating IP cores.
•
Creating Version-Independent IP and Qsys Simulation Scripts
Create simulation scripts that do not require manual updates for software or IP
version upgrades.
•
Project Management Best Practices
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
48
4 MAX 10 Clocking and PLL Implementation Guides
Guidelines for efficient management and portability of your project and IP files.
•
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives on page 66
Provides a list of user guides for previous versions of the Internal Oscillator IP
core.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
49
5 ALTCLKCTRL IP Core References
5 ALTCLKCTRL IP Core References
5.1 ALTCLKCTRL Parameters
Table 13.
ALTCLKCTRL IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Parameter
How do you want to use
the ALTCLKCTRL
Value
Decription
For global clock, or
For external path
Specify the ALTCLKCTRL buffering mode. You can select from
the following modes:
• For global clock—Allows a clock signal to reach all parts of
the chip with the same amount of skew; you can select input
port clkselect to switch between the four clock inputs.
•
How many clock inputs
would you like?
1, 2, 3, or 4
For external path—Represents the clock path from the
outputs of the PLL to the dedicated clock output pins; only
one clock output is accepted.
Specify the number of input clock sources for the clock control
block. You can specify up to four clock inputs.
You can change the number of clock inputs only if you choose
For global clock option.
Create ‘ena’ port to enable
or disable the clock
network driven by this
buffer
On or Off
Turn on this option if you want to create an active high clock
enable signal to enable or disable the clock network.
Ensure glitch-free
switchover implementation
On or Off
Turn on this option to implement a glitch-free switchover when
you use multiple clock inputs.
You must ensure the currently selected clock is running before
switching to another source. If the selected clock is not running,
the glitch-free switchover implementation will not be able to
switch to the new clock source.
By default, the clkselect port is set to 00. A clock must be
applied to inclk0x for the values on the clkselect ports to
be read.
Related Links
•
Global Clock Control Block on page 8
•
Global Clock Network Power Down on page 10
•
Clock Enable Signals on page 11
•
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals on page 33
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
5 ALTCLKCTRL IP Core References
5.2 ALTCLKCTRL Ports and Signals
Table 14.
ALTCLKCTRL Input Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
Condition
Optional
clkselect[]
Description
Input that dynamically selects the clock source to drive the clock
network that is driven by the clock buffer.
Input port [1 DOWNTO 0] wide.
If omitted, the default is GND.
If this signal is connected, only the global clock network can be
driven by this clock control block.
The following list shows the signal selection for the binary value:
• 00—inclk[0]
•
01—inclk[1]
ena
Optional
Clock enable of the clock buffer.
If omitted, the default value is VCC.
inclk[]
Required
Clock input of the clock buffer.
Input port [1 DOWNTO 0] wide.
You can specify up to two clock inputs, inclk[1..0].
Clock pins, clock outputs from the PLL, and core signals can drive the
inclk[] port.
Multiple clock inputs are only supported for the global clock
networks.
Table 15.
ALTCLKCTRL Output Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
Condition
Required
outclk
Description
Output of the clock buffer.
Related Links
•
Global Clock Control Block on page 8
•
Global Clock Network Power Down on page 10
•
Clock Enable Signals on page 11
•
Guideline: Clock Enable Signals on page 33
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
51
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
6.1 ALTPLL Parameters
The following tables list the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
6.1.1 Operation Modes Parameter Settings
You can set the operation mode for PLL in the General/Modes page of the ALTPLL IP
core parameter editor.
Table 16.
Operation Mode Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Which device speed grade
will you be using?
What is the frequency of
the inclock0 input?
Value
Any, 7, or 8
—
Description
Specify the speed grade if you are not already using a device
with the fastest speed. The lower the number, the faster the
speed grade.
Specify the frequency of the input clock signal.
Use the feedback path
inside the PLL
In normal mode, In
source-synchronous
compensation
mode, In zero-delay
buffer mode, or
With no
compensation
Specify which operation mode to use.
For source-synchronous mode and zero-delay buffer mode, you
must make PLL Compensation assignments using the
Assignment Editor in addition to setting the appropriate mode in
the IP core. The assignment allows you to specify an output pin
as a compensation target for a PLL in zero-delay buffer mode, or
to specify an input pin or group of input pins as compensation
targets for a PLL in source-synchronous mode.
Which output clock will be
compensated for?
C0, C1, C2, C3, or C4
Specify which PLL output port to compensate.
The drop down list contains all output clock ports for the
selected device. The correct output clock selection depends on
the operation mode that you select.
For example, for normal mode, select the core output clock. For
zero-delay buffer mode, select the external output clock.
Related Links
Clock Feedback Modes on page 18
6.1.2 PLL Control Signals Parameter Settings
The parameter settings for the control signals are located on the Inputs/Lock page
of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Turn on the control signal you want to create from the options available.
Related Links
PLL Control Signals on page 17
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
6.1.3 Programmable Bandwidth Parameter Settings
You can configure the bandwidth of the ALTPLL IP core on the Bandwidth/SS page of
the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Table 17.
Bandwidth Configuration Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Value
Auto
—
Preset
Low
Medium
High
Description
The ALTPLL parameter editor chooses the best possible bandwidth values to
achieve the desired PLL settings. In some cases, you can get a bandwidth value
outside the Low and High preset range.
You can use the programmable bandwidth feature with the clock switchover
feature to get the PLL output settings that you desire. You must set the
bandwidth to Auto if you want to enable the spread-spectrum feature.
PLL with a low bandwidth has better jitter rejection but a slower lock time.
PLL with a medium bandwidth has a balance between lock time and jitter
rejection.
PLL with a high bandwidth has a faster lock time but tracks more jitter.
The table on the right in the Bandwidth/SS page shows the values of the following
components:
•
Charge pump current
•
Loop filter resistance
•
Loop filter capacitance
•
M counter
These parameter settings create no additional top-level ports.
Related Links
•
Programmable Bandwidth on page 24
•
Programmable Bandwidth with Advanced Parameters on page 40
•
Charge Pump and Loop Filter on page 43
6.1.4 Clock Switchover Parameter Settings
The parameter settings for clock switchover feature are located on the Clock
switchover page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Table 18.
Clock Switchover Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Create an 'inclk1' input for
a second input clock
Value
On or Off
Description
Turn on this option to enable the switchover feature.
The inclk0 signal is by default the primary input clock signal of
the ALTPLL IP core.
Create a 'clkswitch' input to
manually select between
the input clocks
—
Select this option for manual clock switchover mode.
Allow PLL to automatically
control the switching
between input clocks
—
Select this option for automatic clock switchover mode.
The automatic switchover is initiated during loss of lock or when
the inclk0 signal stops toggling.
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
53
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
Parameter
Value
Description
Create a 'clkswitch' input to
dynamically control the
switching between input
clocks
On or Off
Turn on this option for automatic clock switchover with manual
override mode.
The automatic switchover is initiated during loss of lock or when
the clkswitch signal is asserted.
Perform the input clock
switchover after (number)
input clock cycles
On or Off
Turn on this option to specify the number of clock cycles to wait
before the PLL performs the clock switchover.
The allowed number of clock cycles to wait is device-dependent.
Create an 'activeclock'
output to indicate the input
clock being used
On or Off
Turn on this option to monitor which input clock signal is driving
the PLL.
Create a 'clkbad' output for
each input clock
On or Off
When the current clock signal is inclk0, the activeclock
signal is low. When the current clock signal is inclk1, the
activeclock signal is high.
Turn on this option to monitor when the input clock signal has
stopped toggling.
The clkbad0 signal monitors the inclk0 signal. The clkbad1
signal monitors the inclk1 signal.
The clkbad0 signal goes high when the inclk0 signal stops
toggling. The clkbad1 signal goes high when the inclk1
signal stops toggling. The clkbad signals remain low when the
input clock signals are toggling.
Related Links
•
Clock Switchover on page 26
•
Guideline: Clock Switchover on page 35
6.1.5 PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Settings
The parameter settings for the normal dynamic reconfiguration scheme are located on
the PLL Reconfiguration page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Table 19.
PLL Dynamic Reconfiguration Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Create optional inputs for
dynamic reconfiguration
Value
Description
On or Off
Turn on this option to enable all the PLL reconfiguration ports for
this instantiation—scanclk, scanclkena, scandata,
scandone, scandataout, and configupdate.
Initial Configuration File
—
Specify the location of the configuration file that is used to
initialize the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core.
Additional Configuration
File(s)
—
Specify additional configuration file. This file might contain
additional settings for the PLL, or might be used to initialize the
ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core.
Related Links
•
PLL Reconfiguration on page 31
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 45
6.1.6 Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Settings
The parameter settings to enable the dynamic phase configuration feature are located
on the PLL Reconfiguration page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
54
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
Table 20.
Dynamic Phase Configuration Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Create optional inputs for
dynamic phase
reconfiguration
Value
On or Off
Description
Turn on this option to enable the dynamic phase configuration
feature. The following ports are created:
• phasecounterselect[2..0]
•
•
•
•
Enable phase shift step
resolution edit
On or Off
phaseupdown
phasestep
scanclk
phasedone
Turn on this option to modify the value for Phase shift step
resolution(ps) for each individual PLL output clock on the
Output Clocks page.
By default, the finest phase shift resolution value is 1/8 of the
VCO period. If the VCO frequency is at the lower end of the
supported VCO range, the phase shift resolution might be larger
than preferred for your design. Use this option to fine tune the
phase shift step resolution.
Related Links
•
Programmable Phase Shift on page 24
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 45
6.1.7 Output Clocks Parameter Settings
The Output Clocks page of the ALTPLL parameter editor contains the parameter
settings of the clock output signals. You can configure the c0, c1, c2, c3, and c4
clock output signals of the ALTPLL IP core.
Each option has the following two columns:
•
Requested settings—The settings that you want to implement.
•
Actual settings—The settings closest values that can be implemented in the PLL
circuit to best approximate the requested settings.
Use the values in the actual settings column as a guide to adjust the requested
settings. If the requested settings for one of the output clocks cannot be
approximated, the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor produces a warning message at
the top of every page.
Table 21.
Output Clocks Parameter Editor Settings
Parameter
Use this clock
Value
On or Off
Description
Turn on this option to generate an output clock port in your
ALTPLL instance.
The output clock port that is to be compensated for is enabled
by default. It cannot be disabled, unless you select a different
output clock port to be compensated for.
Enter output clock
frequency
—
Specify the frequency of the output clock signal.
Enter output clock
parameters
—
Specify the the output clock parameters instead of the
frequency.
Clock multiplication factor
—
Specify the clock multiplication factor of the signal.
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
55
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
Parameter
Value
Description
Clock division factor
—
Specify the clock division factor of the signal.
Clock phase shift
—
Set the programmable phase shift for an output clock signals.
The smallest phase shift is 1/8 of VCO period. For degree
increments, the maximum step size is 45 degrees. You can set
smaller steps using the Clock multiplication factor and Clock
division factor options.
For example, if the post-scale counter is 32, the smallest phase
shift step is 0.1°. The up and down buttons let you cycle
through phase shift values. Alternatively, you can enter a
number in the phase shift field manually instead of using the
buttons.
Clock duty cycle (%)
—
Set the duty cycle of the output clock signal.
Per Clock Feasibility
Indicators
—
Indicate output clocks that contain unachievable settings.
The output clock name in red is the name of the clock with
unachievable settings. The clock listed in green has no settings
issues, and the grayed-out names are the unselected output
clocks. You must adjust the requested settings for the affected
output clocks to resolve the warning messages.
The ALTPLL IP core parameter editor calculates the simplest fraction, and displays it in
the actual settings column. You can use the copy button to copy values from the
actual settings to the requested settings.
Figure 30.
PLL Output Clock Frequency
For example, if the input clock frequency is 100 MHz, and the requested multiplication
and division factors are 205 and 1025 respectively, the output clock frequency is
calculated as 100 × 205/1025=20 MHz. The actual settings reflect the simplest
fraction—the actual multiplication factor is 1, and the actual division factor is 5.
6.2 ALTPLL Ports and Signals
Table 22.
ALTPLL Input Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name10
areset
Condition
Optional
Description
Resets all counters to initial values, including the
GATE_LOCK_COUNTER parameter.
clkswitch
Optional
The control input port to dynamically toggle between clock
input ports (inclk0 and inclk1 ports), or to manually
override the automatic clock switchover.
You should create the clkswitch port if only the inclk1
port is created.
configupdate
Optional
Dynamic full PLL reconfiguration.
inclk[]
Required
The clock inputs that drive the clock network.
continued...
10 Replace brackets, [], in the port name with integer to get the exact name. For example,
inclk0 and inclk1.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
56
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
Port Name10
Condition
Description
If more than one inclk[] port is created, you must use
the clkselect port to specify which clock is used. The
inclk0 port must always be connected; connect other
clock inputs if switching is necessary.
A dedicated clock pin or PLL output clock can drive this port.
pfdena
Optional
Enables the phase frequency detector (PFD).
When the PFD is disabled, the PLL continues to operate
regardless of the input clock. Because the PLL output clock
frequency does not change for some time, you can use the
pfdena port as a shutdown or cleanup function when a
reliable input clock is no longer available.
phasecounterselect[]
Optional
Specifies counter select. You can use the
phasecounterselect[2..0] bits to select either the M or
one of the C counters for phase adjustment. One address
map to select all C counters. This signal is registered in the
PLL on the rising edge of SCANCLK.
phasestep
Optional
Specifies dynamic phase shifting. Logic high enables
dynamic phase shifting.
phaseupdown
Optional
Specifies dynamic phase shift direction. 1= UP, 0 = DOWN.
Signal is registered in the PLL on the rising edge of
SCANCLK.
scanclk
Optional
Input clock port for the serial scan chain.
Free-running clock from core used in combination with
PHASESTEP to enable or disable dynamic phase shifting.
Shared with SCANCLK for dynamic reconfiguration.
scanclkena
Optional
Clock enable port for the serial scan chain.
scandata
Optional
Contains the data for the serial scan chain.
Table 23.
ALTPLL Output Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name11
activeclock
Condition
Optional
Description
Specifies which clock is the primary reference clock when
the clock switchover circuit initiates.
If the inclk0 is in use, the activeclock port goes low. If
the inclk1 is in use, the activeclock port goes high.
You can set the PLL to automatically initiate the clock
switchover when the primary reference clock is not toggling
correctly, or you can manually initiate the clock switchover
using the clkswitch input port.
c[]
Required
The clock output of the PLL.
clkbad[]
Optional
clkbad1 and clkbad0 ports check for input clock toggling.
If the inclk0 port stops toggling, the clkbad0 port goes
high. If the inclk1 port stops toggling, the clkbad1 port
goes high.
continued...
10 Replace brackets, [], in the port name with integer to get the exact name. For example,
inclk0 and inclk1.
11 Replace the brackets, [], in the port name with an integer to get the exact name (for
example, c0 and c1).
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
57
6 ALTPLL IP Core References
Port Name11
Condition
Optional
locked
Description
This output port acts as an indicator when the PLL has
reached phase-locked. The locked port stays high as long
as the PLL is locked, and stays low when the PLL is out-oflock.
The number of cycles needed to gate the locked signal is
based on the PLL input clock. The gated-lock circuitry is
clocked by the PLL input clock. The maximum lock time for
the PLL is provided in the MAX 10 Device Datasheet.
Take the maximum lock time of the PLL and divide it by the
period of the PLL input clock. The result is the number of
clock cycles needed to gate the locked signal.
The lock signal is an asynchronous output of the PLL. The
PLL lock signal is derived from the reference clock and
feedback clock feeding the phase frequency detector (PFD)
as follows:
• Reference clock = Input Clock/N
•
Feedback clock = VCO/M
The PLL asserts the locked port when the phases and
frequencies of the reference clock and feedback clock are
the same or within the lock circuit tolerance. When the
difference between the two clock signals goes beyond the
lock circuit tolerance, the PLL loses lock.
Optional
phasedone
This output port indicates that dynamic phase
reconfiguration is completed.
When phasedone signal is asserted, it indicates to core
logic that the phase adjustment is complete and PLL is
ready to act on a possible second adjustment pulse. This
signal asserts based on internal PLL timing and deasserts on
rising edge of SCANCLK.
scandataout
Optional
The data output for the serial scan chain.
You can use the scandataout port to determine when PLL
reconfiguration completes. The last output is cleared when
reconfiguration completes.
Optional
scandone
This output port indicates that the scan chain write
operation is initiated.
The scandone port goes high when the scan chain write
operation initiates, and goes low when the scan chain write
operation completes.
Related Links
PLL Control Signals on page 17
11 Replace the brackets, [], in the port name with an integer to get the exact name (for
example, c0 and c1).
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
58
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
7.1 ALTPLL_RECONFIG Parameters
Table 24.
ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Page
Parameter
Parameter
Settings
EDA
Description
—
Specifies the chosen device family.
Which scan chain type
will you be using?
—
The scan chain is a serial shift register chain that is used
to store settings. It acts like a cache. When you assert
the reconfig signal, the PLL is reconfigured with the
values in the cache. The type of scan chain must follow
the type of PLL to be reconfigured. The scan chain type
has a default value of Top/Bottom.
Do you want to specify
the initial value of the
scan chain?
No, leave it
blank,
Yes, use this file
for the content
data
Add ports to write to
the scan chain from
external ROM during
run time
On, Off
Simulation Libraries
—
Generate netlist
Summary
Value
Currently Selected
Device Family
—
On, Off
—
Specifies the initial value of the scan chain. Select No,
leave it blank to not specify a file or select Yes, use
this file for the content data to browse for a .hex
or .mif file.
The option to initialize from a ROM is not available.
However, you can choose to add ports to write to the
scan chain from an external ROM during runtime by
turning on Add ports to write to the scan chain
from external ROM during run time.
Turn on this option to take advantage of cycling multiple
configuration files, which are stored in external ROMs
during user mode.
Specifies the libraries for functional simulation.
Turn on this option to generate synthesis area and
timing estimation netlist.
Specifies the types of files to be generated. A gray
checkmark indicates a file that is automatically
generated; an unchecked check box indicates an
optional file. Choose from the following types of files:
• AHDL Include file (<function name>.inc)
•
VHDL component declaration file (<function
name>.cmp)
•
Quartus Prime symbol file (<function name>.bsf)
•
Instantiation template file (<function
name>_inst.v or <function name>_inst.vhd)
•
Verilog HDL black box file (<function name>_bb.v)
If the Generate netlist option is turned on, the file for
that netlist is also available (<function name>_syn.v).
Related Links
•
Programmable Phase Shift on page 24
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 45
•
PLL Reconfiguration on page 31
•
Dynamic Phase Configuration Implementation on page 45
7.2 ALTPLL_RECONFIG Ports and Signals
Table 25.
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Input Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
Condition
Description
clock
Required
Clock input for loading individual parameters. This signal also clocks the
PLL during reconfiguration.
The clock input port must be connected to a valid clock.
Refer to the MAX 10 Device Datasheet for the clock fMAX.
reset
Required
Asynchronous reset input to the IP core.
Intel recommends that you reset this IP core before first use to guarantee
that it is in a valid state. However, it does power up in the reset state. This
port must be connected.
data_in[]
Optional
Data input that provides parameter value when writing parameters.
This 9-bit input port provides the data to be written to the scan cache
during a write operation. The bit width of the counter parameter to be
written determines the number of bits of data_in[] that are read into
the cache.
For example, the low bit count of the C0 counter is 8-bit wide, so
data_in[7..0] is read to the correct cache location. The bypass mode
for the C0 counter is 1-bit wide, so data_in[0] is read for the value of
this parameter.
If omitted, the default value is 0.
counter_type[]
Optional
Specifies the counter type.
An input port in the form of a 4-bit bus that selects which counter type
should be selected for the corresponding operation (read, write, or
reconfig).
Refer to the counter_type[3..0] settings table for the mapping
between the counter_type value and the physical counter to be set.
counter_param[]
Optional
Specifies the parameter for the value specified in the counter_type port.
An input port in the form of a 3-bit bus that selects which parameter for
the given counter type should be updated. The mapping to each
parameter type and the corresponding parameter bit-width are defined in
the counter_param[3..0] settings table.
read_param
Optional
Reads the parameter specified with the counter_type and
counter_param ports from cache and fed to the data_out[] port.
When asserted, the read_param signal indicates that the scan cache
should be read and fed to data_out[]. The bit location of the scan cache
and the number of bits read and sent to data_out[] depend on the
counter_type and counter_param values. The read_param signal is
sampled at the rising clock edge. If the read_param signal is asserted,
the parameter value is read from the cache. Assert the read_param
signal for 1 clock cycle only to prevent the parameter from being read
twice.
The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following the
assertion of the read_param signal. While the parameter is read, the
busy signal remains asserted. After the busy signal is deasserted, the
value on data_out[] is valid and the next parameter can be loaded.
While the busy signal is asserted, the value on data_out[] is not valid.
When the read_param signal is asserted, the busy signal is only asserted
on the following rising edge of the clock and not on the same clock cycle
as the read_param signal.
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
60
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
Port Name
write_param
Condition
Description
Optional
Writes the parameter specified with the counter_type and
counter_param ports to the cache with the value specified on the
data_in[] port.
When asserted, the write_param signal indicates that the value on
data_in[] should be written to the parameter specified by
counter_type[] and counter_param[]. The number of bits read from
the data_in[] port depends on the parameter. The write_param signal
is sampled at the rising clock edge. If the write_param signal is
asserted, the parameter value is written to the cache. Assert the
write_param signal for 1 clock cycle only to prevent the parameter from
being written twice.
The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following the
assertion of the write_param signal. While the parameter is being
written, the busy signal remains asserted and input to data_in[] is
ignored. After the busy signal is deasserted, the next parameter can be
written.
When the write_param signal is asserted, the busy signal is only
asserted on the following rising edge of the clock. The busy signal is not
asserted on the same clock cycle as the write_param signal.
Required
reconfig
Specifies that the PLL should be reconfigured with the PLL settings
specified in the current cache.
When asserted, the reconfig signal indicates that the PLL should be
reconfigured with the values in the cache. The reconfig signal is
sampled at the rising clock edge. If the reconfig signal is asserted, the
cached settings are loaded in the PLL. Assert the reconfig signal for 1
clock cycle only to prevent reloading the PLL configuration. The busy
signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following the assertion of the
reconfig signal. While the PLL is being loaded, the busy signal remains
asserted. After the busy signal is deasserted, the parameter values can be
modified again.
During and after reconfiguration, the scan chain data cache remains
unchanged. This allows you to easily create a new set of reconfiguration
settings using only one parameter.
If write_param has not been asserted since the previous assertion of
reconfig, the entire scan chain is shifted in to the PLL again.
When the reconfig signal is asserted, the busy signal is only asserted
on the following rising edge of the clock. The busy signal is not asserted
on the same clock cycle as the reconfig signal.
pll_areset_in
Optional
Input signal indicating that the PLL should be reset.
When asserted, the pll_areset_in signal indicates the PLL IP core
should be reset. This port defaults to 0 if left unconnected. When using the
ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in a design, you cannot reset the PLL in any
other way. You must use this IP core port to manually reset the PLL.
pll_scandone
Optional
Input port for the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core. This port is driven by the
PLL's scandone output signal and determines when the PLL is
reconfigured.
pll_scandataout
Required
Input port driven by the scandataout signal from the ALTPLL IP core.
Use this port to read the current configuration of the ALTPLL IP core. This
input port holds the ALTPLL scan data output from the dynamically
reconfigurable bits. The pll_scandataout port must be connected to the
scandataout port of the PLL. The activity on this port can only be
observed when the reconfig signal is asserted.
Table 26.
ALTPLL_RECONFIG Output Ports for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
data_out[]
Condition
Optional
Description
Data read from the cache when read_param is asserted.
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
61
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
Port Name
Condition
Description
This 9-bit output bus provides the parameter data to the user. When the
read_param signal is asserted, the values on counter_type[] and
counter_param[] determine the parameter value that is loaded from
cache and driven on the data_out[] bus. When the IP core deasserts the
busy signal, the appropriate bits of the bus (for example,[0] or [3..0])
hold a valid value.
Optional
busy
Indicates that the PLL is reading or writing a parameter to the cache, or is
configuring the PLL.
While the busy signal is asserted, no parameters can be read or written,
and no reconfiguration can be initiated. Changes to the IP core can be
made only when the busy signal is not asserted. The signal goes high
when the read_param, write_param, or reconfig input port is
asserted, and remains high until the specified operation is complete. In
the case of a reconfiguration operation, the busy signal remains high until
the pll_areset signal is asserted and then deasserted.
pll_areset
Required
Drives the areset port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
The pll_areset port must be connected to the areset port of the
ALTPLL IP core for the reconfiguration to function correctly. This signal is
active high. The pll_areset is asserted when pll_areset_in is
asserted, or, after reconfiguration, at the next rising clock edge after the
scandone signal goes high. If you use the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core, use
the pll_areset output port to drive the PLL areset port.
pll_configupdate
Optional
Drives the configupdate port on the PLL to be reconfigured. When
asserted, the pll_configupdate port loads selected data to PLL
configuration latches. The signal is asserted after the final data bit is sent
out.
pll_scanclk
Required
Drives the scanclk port on the PLL to be reconfigured. For information
about the maximum scanclk frequency for the various devices, refer to
the respective device handbook.
pll_scanclkena
Optional
This port acts as a clock enable for the scanclk port on the PLL to be
reconfigured.
Reconfiguration begins on the first rising edge of pll_scanclk after
pll_scanclkena assertion. On the first falling edge of pll_scanclk,
after the deassertion of the pll_scanclkena signal, the IP core stops
scanning data to the PLL.
pll_scandata
Required
Drives the scandata port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
This output port from the IP core holds the scan data input to the PLL for
the dynamically reconfigurable bits. The pll_scandata port sends
scandata to the PLL. Any activity on this port can only be observed when
the reconfig signal is asserted.
7.3 ALTPLL_RECONFIG Counter Settings
Table 27.
counter_type[3..0] Settings for MAX 10 Devices
Counter Selection
Binary
Decimal
N
0000
0
M
0001
1
CP/LF
0010
2
VCO
0011
3
C0
0100
4
continued...
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
62
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
Counter Selection
Binary
Decimal
C1
0101
5
C2
0110
6
C3
0111
7
C4
1000
8
Illegal value
1001
9
Illegal value
1010
10
Illegal value
1011
11
Illegal value
1100
12
Illegal value
1101
13
Illegal value
1110
14
Illegal value
1111
15
Table 28.
counter_param[2..0] Settings for MAX 10 Devices
Counter Type
Binary
Decimal
Width (bits)
High count
000
0
8
Low count
001
1
8
Bypass
100
4
1
Mode (odd/even division)
101
5
1
Charge pump unused
101
5
5
Charge pump current
000
0
3
Loop filter unused
100
4
1
Loop filter resistor
001
1
5
Loop filter capacitance
010
2
2
VCO
VCO post scale
000
0
1
M/N counters
High count
000
0
8
Low count
001
1
8
Bypass
100
4
1
Mode (odd/even division)
101
5
1
Nominal count
111
7
9
Regular counters (C0 - C4)
CP/LF
Counter Param
For even nominal count, the counter bits are automatically set as follows:
•
high_count = Nominalcount/2
•
low_count= Nominalcount/2
For odd nominal count, the counter bits are automatically set as follows:
•
high_count = (Nominalcount + 1)/2
•
low_count = Nominalcount - high_count
•
odd/even division bit = 1
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
63
7 ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP Core References
For nominal count = 1, bypass bit = 1.
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
64
8 Internal Oscillator IP Core References
8 Internal Oscillator IP Core References
8.1 Internal Oscillator Parameters
Table 29.
Internal Oscillator IP Core Parameters for MAX 10 Devices
This table lists the IP core parameters applicable to MAX 10 devices.
Parameter
Clock Frequency
Value
Decription
55, 116
Specify the clock frequency for simulation. If not specified, the
default value is 55 MHz.
8.2 Internal Oscillator Ports and Signals
Table 30.
Internal Oscillator Input Port for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
Required
oscena
Table 31.
Description
Input control signal to turn on or turn off the internal oscillator.
Internal Oscillator Output Port for MAX 10 Devices
Port Name
clkout
Condition
Condition
Optional
Description
Output clock from the internal oscillator.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
A MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives
A MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide Archives
If an IP core version is not listed, the user guide for the previous IP core version applies.
IP Core Version
User Guide
15.1
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
15.0
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
14.1
MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
B Document Revision History for MAX 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide
B Document Revision History for MAX 10 Clocking and PLL
User Guide
Date
Version
Changes
February 2017
2017.02.21
Rebranded as Intel.
November 2015
2015.11.02
•
•
Removed the topics about the IP catalog and parameter editor,
generating IP cores, and the files generated by the IP core, and added
a link to Introduction to Altera IP Cores.
Changed instances of Quartus II to Quartus Prime.
June 2015
2015.06.12
Added connectivity restriction guideline to the PLL design considerations.
May 2015
2015.05.04
Rearranged the fine resolution phase shift equation.
December 2014
2014.12.15
•
•
•
•
•
September 2014
2014.09.22
Corrected the statement that if you do not use the dedicated clock
input pins for clock input, you can also use them as general-purpose
input or output pins.
Added description in Internal Oscillator Architecture and Features to
state that the internal ring oscillator operates up to 232 MHz and this
frequency is not accessible.
Added connectivity restrictions guideline for internal oscillator.
Added Internal Oscillator IP Core parameter: Clock Frequency.
Moved Internal Oscillator Frequencies table from Internal Oscillator
Architecture and Features chapter to MAX 10 FPGA Device Datasheet.
Initial release.
Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Altera, Arria, Cyclone, Enpirion, MAX, Nios, Quartus
and Stratix words and logos are trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and/or other
countries. Intel warrants performance of its FPGA and semiconductor products to current specifications in
accordance with Intel's standard warranty, but reserves the right to make changes to any products and services
at any time without notice. Intel assumes no responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any
information, product, or service described herein except as expressly agreed to in writing by Intel. Intel
customers are advised to obtain the latest version of device specifications before relying on any published
information and before placing orders for products or services.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
ISO
9001:2008
Registered
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