Fact or Fiction - Buckle Up Illinois

Fact or Fiction - Buckle Up Illinois
Fact or Fiction
A Child Passenger Safety CEU Presentation
As Child Passenger Safety (CPS)
technicians/instructors, we have to stay
current in a field that is constantly
changing.
New technologies in both vehicles and car
seats require that we continuously
re-educate ourselves.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
2
Fact or Fiction?
It is acceptable to use both the lower
anchor attachments and the vehicle seat
belt to install a harnessed car seat.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
3
Both Fact and Fiction

Nearly all car seat manufacturer’s prohibit the use of both the
seat belt and lower anchors.

HOWEVER, NUNA’s Pipa infant seat allows the use of both lower
anchors and seat belt – at the same time.

Always refer to both the car seat and vehicle manufacturer advice
as there are exceptions.
Source: 2013 LATCH Manual
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
4
Fact or Fiction?
An infant seat carrying handle must
always be in the down position while
using it in a vehicle.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
5
Fiction

Most rear-facing only car seats
allow the handle to be locked in a
variety of positions when in use in
a vehicle.

Some rear-facing only car seats
instruct that the handle is to be, or
can be, left in the upright “carry”
position in the vehicle.

For instance, the Combi Centre,
Navette 22 and all Shuttle models
require the handle be used in the
“up” position only during travel.

Always carefully read the car seat’s
instructions to confirm the handle
positions allowed by the car seat
manufacturer.
An Example from the Chicco KeyFit 30 User Guide
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
6
Fact or Fiction?
It is considered a misuse if the car seat
has a tether strap and the vehicle has a
tether anchor but neither is being used in
a forward-facing installation.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
7
Fact

It is considered best practice to use the top tether when installing
a forward-facing car seat.

The top tether should be used whether installing with the seat
belt or lower anchors. It works with either system and should be
used for increased safety.

A properly used tether can reduce reduce serious injuries in a
crash. It significantly limits how much a child’s head moves
forward in a crash reducing the likelihood of head and spinal cord
injury.

Always read the car seat manufacturers instructions for weight
limits on LATCH.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
8
Fact or Fiction?
It is acceptable to place a locking clip on
the side opposite the latch plate.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
9
Fiction
Locking Clip

Unless instructed otherwise
by the manufacturer, place
the locking clip no more than
1 inch from the buckle.

If the locking clip binds
against the frame or shell of
the car seat and it cannot be
moved closer to the latch
plate, move the clip just far
enough away from the latch
plate so that it rests just
inside the frame or shell.

Remember that all vehicles
model year 1996 or newer
must have either a locking
latch plate or a locking
retractor.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
10
Fact or Fiction?
Always use a top tether for a rear-facing
convertible car seat if there is an anchor
point in the vehicle.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
11
Fiction

Currently, four car seat manufacturers in the U.S. allow optional
rear-facing tethering on some models: Britax, Clek, Combi and
Diono.

Tethers designed for forward-facing should never be used when
the convertible seat is in the rear-facing position unless explicitly
permitted in the car seat manufacturer’s instructions.

The tether strap on a convertible car seat should be stowed
securely when the car seat is used rear-facing.
Source: 2013 LATCH Manual
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
12
Fact or Fiction?
The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) must certify that
every child restraint meet Federal Motor
Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 213
before it goes to market.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
13
Fiction



NHTSA does not certify car
seats before they go to
market.
Car seat manufacturers
self-certify their products
as meeting NHTSA
performance standards.
NHTSA conducts random
compliance tests.
What is FMVSS 213?
This rule provides car seat
performance standards for children up
to 65 lbs.
Some standards include:
 Crashworthiness
 Labeling and instructions
 Flammability
 Buckle release pressure
NHTSA randomly tests
car seats on vehicle bench seats
in 30 mph frontal crashes involving crash
test dummies.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
14
Fact or Fiction?
All vehicles have been required to have a
pre-crash locking seat belt feature, either
at the retractor or the latch plate since
Model Year 2000.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
15
Fiction

They have been required since model year 1996.

In vehicles made before 1996, seat belts were not federally
required to provide the pre-crash locking feature. Some did but it
was purely voluntary on the part of the manufacturer.

Take-away Message:
◦ If you are working in a car model year 1996 or newer, start at
the latch plate to see if it locks. If the latch plate doesn’t lock,
the retractor should lock unless it’s broken.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
16
Fact or Fiction?
As a technician or parent, you should
always use your knee in the car seat to
tighten it.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
17
Fiction

The weight of an adult hand on the car seat should be enough to
tighten the car seat in place.

It is recommended to use the weaker hand so as not to use more
force than necessary.

Britax specifically requests that the vehicle seat NOT be
compressed with it’s new Click Tight technology found on the
Frontier 90 and Pinnacle 90.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
18
Fact or Fiction?
An emergency locking retractor (ELR)
cannot be used to install a car seat
without an approved additional step or
locking latch plate.
What is an ELR?
A retractor on a seat belt system that locks in response to
rapid deceleration of the vehicle. ELRs respond to rapid
extraction of the belt or the sudden deceleration of the
vehicle or both.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
19
Fact

Vehicles where neither the retractor nor the latch plate stay
locked need an additional approved step to lock the car
seat in place pre-crash:
◦ Locking clip/lockoff
◦ Belt shortening clip
◦ Flip latch plate
(used when the locking latch plate is in an unlocked unparalleled position to the
webbing)
◦ Twist buckle stalk
(used when the locking latch plate is in an unlocked unparalleled position to the
webbing)
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
20
Fact or Fiction?
It is acceptable to twist a buckle stalk as
many times as necessary to fix an
incompatibility issue.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
21
Fiction

The maximum number of twists is
.

The number was agreed upon by the Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) Child Restraint subcommittee based on
IMMI data.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
22
Fact or Fiction?
It is best practice to always use the top
tether for a forward-facing car seat –
whether using the lower anchors or the
seat belt.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
23
Fact

For forward-facing car seats, use of a tether is recommended, whenever
possible, by car seat and vehicle manufacturers. However, use of this
protective feature is technically optional in the U.S.

A top tether holds the back of the car seat firmly against the vehicle seat
to make it more secure and reduce the amount of forward and side
movement.

A top tether can reduce the distance that the child’s head moves forward
by 4 to 6 inches, lessening the risk of head injuries in a crash and
providing more protection for children.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
24
Fact or Fiction?
It is the law in Illinois that a child under
the age of 13 cannot ride in the front seat
if there are active air bags.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
25
Fiction

The Illinois law does not specify what age a child can ride in the front
seat.

NHTSA recommends that all children under the age of 13 ride in the
back seat to avoid contact with the frontal air bag system.

It is best practice for children under the age of 13 to ride in the back
seat.

If a child must ride in the front seat make sure that the seat is as far
away from the air bag as possible. If there is an on/off switch for the
air bag, make sure it is turned off. If the child is in a car seat, make
sure the car seat is properly installed and used correctly.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
26
Fact or Fiction?
When finding the correct car seat for a
child, you should only be concerned with
the child’s height and weight.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
27
Fiction

It is important to place children in car seats based on more
than just their weight and height. These factors all need to be
considered:
1. Age
2. Weight
3. Height
4. Physical Needs
5. Behavioral Needs
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
28
Fact or Fiction?
If the angle of a rear-facing seat needs
adjusted, only three pool noodles may be
used to correct the angle.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
29
Fiction

Your National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training
Program student manual says if the car seat doesn’t have
an adjustable base, a firm, lightweight object (tightly rolled
towel or pool noodles) can be placed at the vehicle seat
crack or bight. Use as few as possible to achieve the
correct angle.

Read the car seat instructions prior to using a noodle as
some manufacturer’s do not allow the use of noodles with
their seats.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
30
Fact or Fiction?
If a child is born under 5 lbs., they MUST
use a car bed until they are 5 lbs.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
31
Fiction

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends tolerance
testing for infants delivered at less than 37 weeks gestation.

If the infant passes the tolerance test in a conventional car
seat, no car bed is necessary.

It is the responsibility of a health care professional – not the
technician – to determine whether or not a car bed is needed.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
32
Fact or Fiction?
When installing a booster in a vehicle with
no head protection (low seat backs or no
head restraint) a high back booster is a
more appropriate choice than a backless
booster.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
33
Fact

High back booster seats must be used when the vehicle seat backs
are low or do not have head restraints. This type of seat provides
head, neck and back support for the child.
High back booster
seats must be
used, because
there is no head
restraint.
Backless booster
seats can be used,
because there are
head restraints.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
34
Fact or Fiction?
Booster seats should be used on school
buses if the bus is equipped with lap and
shoulder belts.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
35
Fiction

School bus seats are different than vehicle seats. They have
shorter seat depths, so they are better scaled to allow a small
child’s legs to bend. Also, shoulder belts for buses are
adjustable by height, so that the shoulder belt is able to fit
shorter children. These factors make small children able to
pass the 5-Step Test for Seat Belt Readiness at a much earlier
age on a bus, as compared to a car. Adding a booster seat to
a school bus seat, therefore, unnecessarily moves the child
forward in the narrower confines of bus seat spacing. The
proper solution for a child who doesn’t fit the bus seat is to
use a car seat with a harness rather than a booster seat.
- CPS Express - August 2011
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
36
Fact or Fiction?
If you re-certify early (within the 4 month
time frame) your CPS certification date
will stay the same.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
37
Fact

If you re-certify early, the month and day of your
certification cycle will not change.

For example, your certification ends on 12/01/13 and you
decide to re-certify early on 10/01/13. Your new
certification cycle will be 12/01/13 to 12/01/15. Any CEUs
earned between 10/01/13 and 12/01/13 will not count
towards either cycle and you will not be able to enter them
into your CPS online profile.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
38
Fact or Fiction?
It is required for all children to use a car
seat while on an airplane.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
39
Fiction

Children younger than 2 years are
not required to be restrained or
secured on aircraft during takeoff,
landing or conditions of turbulence.

Not all car seats can fit on
standard airplane seats, which are
typically about 16 inches wide, but
Safe Kids and the Federal Aviation
Administration strongly
recommend using an approved car
seat if it fits.

Car seats are not allowed in aisle
seats or exit rows, where they
could block emergency escape
routes so they must be used at a
window seat.

Booster seats cannot be used on
airplanes because there are no lapshoulder belts.

For additional information please visit the
FAA’s website at:
www.faa.gov/passengers/fly_children/
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
40
The CARES Child Safety
Device is the only FAAapproved harness-type
restraint for children
weighing between 22
and 44 pounds. This is
an alternative to using
a hard-backed seat and
is approved only for
use on aircraft.
For more information:
http://kidsflysafe.com/
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
41
Fact or Fiction?
Car seats cannot be installed using
inflatable seat belts?
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
42
Fiction

Some manufacturer’s DO allow the use of their car seats with an
inflatable seat belt but not all.

From Britax’s website:
“Can I use an inflatable seat belt to install my BRITAX car seat?
Yes. BRITAX has revised its recommendations and based upon an
analysis of vehicle seat belt system testing results, the current Ford
Motor Company (Ford and Lincoln vehicles) Inflatable seat belt
system is approved for use with all BRITAX car seats made to date.
BRITAX will continue to evaluate information provided by automobile
inflatable seat belt manufacturers and may revise these
recommendations as new data becomes available.”
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
43
Fact or Fiction?
In Illinois, children are not required by
law to use a car seat in a taxi cab.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
44
Fact

A taxi cab is considered a commercial vehicle, so car seats
are not required under Illinois law.

Of course, the recommendation is that car seats should be
used in taxi cabs, but it is not the law.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
45
Fact or Fiction?
Car seats must be used in low speed
vehicles (LSVs).
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
46
Fiction
Child Restraints are designed for the FMVSS 213 bench and motor vehicle
seats meeting the federal motor vehicle safety standard definitions of
“passenger car” and “multipurpose passenger vehicle.” In both these
definitions, “low speed vehicle” is excluded. While low speed vehicles may
meet some federal motor vehicle safety standards, they are not the same
standards as passenger cars or multipurpose passenger vehicles, and
therefore, child restraints may not perform as designed when used in
those vehicle types. It is not recommended to rely on child restraints to
protect children while traveling in low speed vehicles. Most child restraint
manufacturers prohibit use of child restraints in low speed vehicles. Refer
to the individual child restraint manufacturer for more information.
Manufacturers Alliance for Child Passenger Safety
Statement for CPS Technicians/Instructors on child restraints
and LSVs
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
47
Fact or Fiction?
Each tether anchor can only be used for
one car seat.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
48
Fiction
“A single loop can be used to route
and anchor more than one child seat.
For example, the center loop can be
used as a routing loop for a child
safety seat in the center rear seat
and as an anchoring loop for child
seats installed in the outboard rear
seats.” - 2012 Ford F250 Supercab
Instructions
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
49
Fact or Fiction?
Six years is the expiration for car seats
made in the United States.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
50
Fiction

Expiration dates are not mandated by
FMVSS 213 so it is up to each
manufacturer to decide how long their car
seats can be used.

Different car seats have different
recommendations. The Britax Pinnacle 90
has a 9 year expiration from date of
manufacture while the Nuna Pipa has a 5
year expiration from the date of purchase.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
51
Fact or Fiction?
Just like car seats have an expiration
date, the LATCH system in the vehicle
also has an expiration date.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
52
Fiction

All of the occupant protection features in
the vehicle are designed to last for the life
of the vehicle.

If the vehicle is involved in a crash,
certain features may need to be replaced,
however.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
53
Fact or Fiction?
Load leg technology (foot prop) is
currently only available in seats sold in
Europe.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
54
Fiction

At least 2 new seats currently available in the
US offer the load leg technology or foot prop.
(Cybex Aton 2 and Nuna Pipa)

This technology helps the car seat to better
ride down the crash with the vehicle instead
of separately.

The Aton 2 testing shows HIC (Head Injury
Criteria) numbers reduced by 48% when
using the foot prop.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
55
Fact or Fiction?
In harnessed car seats, the LATCH
system can be used to install the car seat
until the combined weight of the child and
the restraint reach 65 lb.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
56
Fact

To improve FMVSS 213, a new rule will take
effect in 2014 regarding LATCH and car seat
weight.

The LATCH system can be used to install the
harnessed car seat until the combined weight
of the child and the restraint reach 65 lb.

So for a product weighing 15 lb, you will be
able to install it with LATCH until the child’s
weight reaches 50 lb.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
57
Fact or Fiction?
All seats installed rear-facing must always
be at a 45% angle.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
58
Fiction

Most rear facing infant seats have level
indicators to indicate the correct angle when
installing the seat. The correct angle of the
car seat is generally between 30-45 degrees.

Most convertible seats will also have a level
indicator that is used when the car seat is
installed rear facing. This could be a line,
bubble, arrow, etc..

Some seats may have more than one level
indicator. For instance, there may be one for
rear-facing and another for forward-facing.

Always carefully read the car seat’s
instructions to see how the seat is installed
and how to ensure the proper angle when
installing the seat rear-facing.

Remember that some types of indicators may
only be accurate if the vehicle is on level
ground.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
59
Fact or Fiction?
Cargo tie downs can never be used as a
Tether Anchor.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
60
Fiction
Tether anchor identification can be confusing so it is important to
follow the directions in the vehicle owner’s manual.
For example: For the model years 02-07 Buick Rendezvous SUV,
if the vehicles third row seat is not used by a passenger and can
be folded down, a cargo tie-down in the center of the folded
third-row seats doubles as a tether anchor and should be used
instead of the cargo loop.
LATCH Manual 2013
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
61
Fact or Fiction?
You must always switch your switchable
retractor to the ALR (locking) mode when
using the car seat’s lock-offs to install
your car seat.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
62
Fiction
Car seat manufacturers vary on recommendations.
For example:
•Britax:
Either switch the seat belt to the ALR mode or use the
lock-offs on the seat.
•Summer:
Do not put the shoulder belt in locking mode.
You must read the child restraint instruction manual and vehicle
manual before installing the child restraint
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
63
Fact or Fiction?
The lower anchor straps on all convertible
seats must be re-routed when switching
the seat from rear-facing to forwardfacing.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
64
Fiction
Most convertible seats come from the manufacturer with the
lower anchor straps in the rear-facing mode and need to be
moved for forward-facing use.
However, some seats come with two sets of LATCH straps – one
for rear-facing and another for forward-facing so rethreading is
not required.
To change the straps you must follow the manufacturers
instructions.
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
65
Remember- ALWAYS check the
Owners manuals!
THANK YOU!
January 2014
Fact or Fiction
66
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