Effective Use of the North Carolina Energy Conservation

Effective Use of the North Carolina Energy Conservation

Effective Use of the

North Carolina Energy Conservation Code

The North Carolina Energy Conservation Code (NCECC) is a model code that regulates minimum energy conservation requirements for new buildings. The NCECC addresses energy conservation requirements for all aspects of energy uses in both commercial and residential construction, including heating and ventilating, lighting, water heating, and power usage for appliances and building systems.

The NCECC is a design document. For example, before one constructs a building, the designer must determine the minimum insulation R-values and fenestration U-factors for the building exterior envelope. Depending on whether the building is for residential use or for commercial use, the NCECC sets forth minimum requirements for exterior envelope insulation, window and door U-factors and SHGC ratings, duct insulation, lighting and power efficiency, and water distribution insulation.

Arrangement and Format of the 2012 NCECC

Before applying the requirements of the NCECC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and format. The

NCECC is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection.

The NCECC is divided into five different parts:

Chapters

1–2

3

4

Subjects

Administration and definitions

Climate zones and general materials requirements

Energy efficiency for residential buildings

5

6

Energy efficiency for commercial buildings

Referenced standards

The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the NCECC.

Chapter 1 Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining ―due process of law‖ in enforcing the energy conservation criteria contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provisions can the building official reasonably expect to demonstrate that ―equal protection under the law‖ has been provided.

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. While a defined term may be used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 is applicable throughout the code.

Additional definitions regarding climate zones are found in Tables 301.3(1) and (2). These are not listed in

Chapter 2.

Where understanding of a term’s definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of a particular code provision, the term is show in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the codedefined meaning be known.

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding terms not defined in this code is provided.

Chapter 3 Climate Zones. Chapter 3 specifies the climate zones that will serve to establish the exterior design conditions. In addition, Chapter 3 provides interior design conditions that are used as a basis for assumptions in heating and cooling load calculations, and provides basic material requirements for insulation materials and fenestration materials.

Climate has a major impact on the energy use of most buildings. The code establishes many requirements such as wall and roof insulation R-values, window and door thermal transmittance requirement (U-factors) as well as provisions that affect the mechanical systems based upon the climate where the building is located. This chapter will contain the information that will be used to properly assign the building location into the correct climate zone and will then be used as the basis for establishing requirements or elimination of requirements.

Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency. Chapter 4 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of residential buildings regulated under this code. It should be noted that the definition of a

residential building in this code is unique for this code. In this code, a residential building is an R-2, R-3 or R-4 building three stories or less in height. All other buildings, including residential buildings greater than three stories in height, are regulated by the energy conservation requirements of Chapter 5. The applicable portions of a residential building must comply with the provisions within this chapter for energy efficiency. This chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in new residential construction and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system and the service water heating system of the building.

Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency. Chapter 5 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of most types of commercial buildings and residential buildings greater than three stories in height above grade. Residential buildings, townhouses and garden apartments three stories or less in height are covered in Chapter 4. Like Chapter 4, this chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in new commercial construction and new residential construction greater than three stories in height, and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system and the service water heating system of the building.

Chapter 6 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 6 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner.

Chapter 6 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency’s standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard referenced; any addenda included as part of the

ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION CHAPTER 5 COMMERCIAL ENERGY

EFFICIENCY

Section

PART 1—SCOPE AND APPLICATION

Section

101 Scope and General Requirements

102 Alternate Materials—Method of Construction,

Design or Insulating Systems

501 General

502 Building Envelope Requirements

503 Building Mechanical Systems

504 Service Water Heating

505 Electrical Power and Lighting Systems

PART 2—ADMINISTRATION AND

ENFORCEMENT

103 Construction Documents

506 Additional Prescriptive Options

507 Total Building Performance

104 Inspections

105 Validity

106 Referenced Standards

107 Fees

108 Stop Work Order

109 Board of Appeals

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS

Section

201 General

202 General Definitions

CHAPTER 3 CLIMATE ZONES

Section

301 Climate Zones

302 Design Conditions

303 Materials, Systems and Equipment

CHAPTER 4 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY

Section

EFFICIENCY

401 General

402 Building Thermal Envelope

403 Systems

404 Electrical Power and Lighting Systems

405 Simulated Performance Alternative

CHAPTER 6 REFERENCED STANDARDS

INDEX

APPENDIX 1: RESIDENTIAL

REQUIREMENTS

APPENDIX 2: COMMERCIAL BUILDING

REQUIREMENTS

APPENDIX 3: APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE

WORKSHEETS FOR RESIDENTIAL AIR AND

DUCT LEAKAGE TESTING

APPENDIX 4 ADDITIONAL VOLUNTARY

CRITERIA FOR INCREASING ENERGY

EFFICIENCY (High Efficiency Residential

Option)

CHAPTER 1

ADMINISTRATION

PART 1

—SCOPE AND APPLICATION

SECTION 101

SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

101.1 Title. This code shall be known as the North

Carolina Energy Conservation Code as adopted by the North Carolina Building Code Council on

December 14, 2010, to be effective January 1, 2012.

References to the International Codes shall mean the

North Carolina Codes. The NCECC is referred to herein as ―this code.‖

101.2 Scope. This code applies to residential and

commercial buildings.

101.3 Intent. This code shall regulate the design and construction of buildings for the effective use of energy. This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve the effective use of energy.

This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmental requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordinances.

101.4 Applicability. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern.

101.4.1 Existing buildings. Except as specified in this chapter, this code shall not be used to require the removal, alteration or abandonment of, nor prevent the continued use and maintenance of, an existing building or building system lawfully in existence at the time of adoption of this code.

101.4.2 Historic buildings. Any building or structure that is listed in the State or National Register of

Historic Places; designated as a historic property under local or state designation law or survey; certified as a contributing resource with a National

Register listed or locally designated historic district; or with an opinion or certification that the property is eligible to be listed on the National or State Registers of Historic Places either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district by the State

Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the

National Register of Historic Places, are exempt from this code.

101.4.3 Additions, alterations, renovations or

repairs. Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this code as they relate to new construction without requiring the unaltered portion(s) of the existing building or building system to comply with this code. Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. An addition shall be deemed to comply with this code if the addition alone complies or if the existing building and addition comply with this code as a single building.

Exceptions:

1. The following need not comply provided the energy use of the building is not increased: a. Storm windows installed over existing fenestration. b. Incidental repairs requiring a new sash or new glazing. c. Existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are filled with insulation. d. Construction where the existing roof, wall or floor cavity is not exposed. e. Reroofing for roofs where neither the sheathing nor the insulation is exposed.

Roofs without insulation in the cavity and where the sheathing or insulation is exposed during reroofing shall be insulated either above or below the sheathing.

f. Replacement of existing doors that separate conditioned space from the exterior shall not require the installation of a vestibule or revolving door, provided, however, that an existing vestibule that separates a conditioned

space from the exterior shall not be removed, g. Alterations that replace less than 50 percent of the luminaires in a space, provided that such alterations do not increase the installed interior lighting power. h. Alterations that replace only the bulb and ballast within the existing luminaires in a space provided that the alteration does not increase the installed interior lighting power.

2. Converting unconditioned attic space to conditioned attic space for one and twofamily dwellings and townhouses. Ceilings shall be insulated to a minimum of R-30, walls shall be insulated to the exterior wall requirements in Tables 402.1.1 and 402.1.3 and follow backing requirements in Section

402.2.12.

101.4.4 Change in occupancy or use. Spaces undergoing a change in occupancy that would result in an increase in demand for either fossil fuel or electrical energy shall comply with this code. Where the use in a space changes from one use in Table

505.5.2 to another use in Table 505.5.2, the installed lighting wattage shall comply with Section 505.5.

101.4.5 Change in space conditioning. Any nonconditioned space that is altered to become

conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code.

Exception: See 101.4.3, exception 2.

101.4.6 Mixed occupancy. Where a building includes both residential and commercial occupancies, each occupancy shall be separately considered and meet the applicable provisions of

Chapter 4 for residential and Chapter 5 for

commercial.

101.5 Compliance. Residential buildings shall meet the provisions of Chapter 4. Commercial buildings shall meet the provisions of Chapter 5.

101.5.1 Compliance materials. The code official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, worksheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code.

101.5.2 Low energy buildings. The following buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal

envelope assemblies complying with this code shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of this code:

1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h·ft

2

(10.7 W/m

2

) or

1.0 watt/ft

2

(10.7 W/m

2

) of floor area for space conditioning purposes.

2. Those that do not contain conditioned space.

101.5.3 Requirements of other State Agencies, occupational licensing boards, or commissions.

The North Carolina State Building Codes do not include all additional requirements for buildings and structures that may be imposed by other State agencies, occupational licensing boards, and commissions. It shall be the responsibility of a permit holder, design professional, contractor, or occupational license holder to determine whether any additional requirements exist.

SECTION 102

ALTERNATE MATERIALS

—METHOD

OF CONSTRUCTION, DESIGN

OR INSULATING SYSTEMS

102.1 General. This code is not intended to prevent the use of any material, method of construction, design or insulating system not specifically prescribed herein, provided that such construction, design or insulating system has been approved by the

code official as meeting the intent of this code.

102.1.1 Above code programs

Deleted

PART 2

—ADMINISTRATION AND

ENFORCEMENT

SECTION 103

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

103.1 General. Construction documents and other supporting data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

Where special conditions exist, the code official is authorized to require necessary construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exceptions:

1. The code official is authorized to waive the requirements for construction documents or other supporting data if the code official determines they are not necessary to confirm compliance with this code.

2. Construction documents for energy code compliance are not required for one and two-family dwellings and townhouses.

103.2 Information on construction documents.

Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the code

official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include, but are not limited to, as applicable, insulation materials and their R-values; fenestration

U-factors and SHGCs; area-weighted U-factor and

SHGC calculations; mechanical system design criteria; mechanical and service water heating system and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies; economizer description; equipment and systems controls; fan motor horsepower (hp) and controls; duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location; lighting fixture schedule with wattage and control narrative; and air sealing details.

103.3 Examination of documents.

Deleted.

See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies.

103.4 Amended construction documents.

Deleted.

See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies.

103.5 Retention of construction documents.

Deleted. See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies

SECTION 104

INSPECTIONS

104.1 General.

Deleted.

See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies

SECTION 105

VALIDITY

105.1 General. If a portion of this code is held to be illegal or void, such a decision shall not affect the validity of the remainder of this code.

SECTION 106

REFERENCED STANDARDS

106.1 General. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those listed in Chapter 6, and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference.

106.2 Conflicting requirements. Where the provisions of this code and the referenced standards conflict, the provisions of this code shall take precedence.

106.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

106.4 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.

SECTION 107

FEES

Deleted. See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies.

SECTION 108

STOP WORK ORDER

Deleted. See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies.

SECTION 109

BOARD OF APPEALS

Deleted. See the NC Administrative Code and

Policies.

CHAPTER 2

DEFINITIONS

SECTION 201

GENERAL

201.1 Scope. Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter.

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the

International Building Code, International Fire

Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International

Mechanical Code, International Plumbing Code or the International Residential Code shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes.

201.4 Terms not defined. Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

SECTION 202

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

ABOVE-GRADE WALL. A wall more than 50 percent above grade and enclosing conditioned space.

This includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and skylight shafts.

ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see ―Readily accessible‖).

ACH50. Air Changes per Hour of measured air flow in relation to the building volume while the building is maintained at a pressure difference of 50 Pascals

.

ADDITION. An extension or increase in the

conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.

AIR BARRIER MATERIAL. Material(s) that have an air permeability not to exceed 0.004 cfm/ft2 under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. water (1.57psf) (0.02

L/s.m2 @ 75 Pa) when tested in accordance with

ASTM E 2178.

AIR BARRIER SYSTEM. Material(s) assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier system is a combination of AIR BARRIER MATERIALS and sealants.

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official for compliance with the provisions of the applicable

Code or reference standard.

AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see ―Manual‖).

BASEMENT WALL. A wall 50 percent or more below grade and enclosing conditioned space.

BPI ENVELOPE PROFESSIONAL. An individual that has successfully passed the Building

Performance Institute written and field examination requirements for the Building Envelope certification.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

BUILDING COMMISSIONING AUTHORITY

CERTIFIED COMMISSIONING

PROFESSIONAL. An individual that has passed the eligibility and certification process maintained by the Building Commissioning Association.

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof, and any other building element that enclose conditioned

space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and any exempt or unconditioned space.

C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h ft

2 x °F) [W/(m

2 x K)].

CFM25. Cubic Feet per minute of measured air flow while the forced air system is maintained at a pressure difference of 25 Pascals (0.1 inches w.p.)

CFM50. Cubic Feet per Minute of measured air flow while the building is maintained at a pressure difference of 50 Pascals (0.2 inches w.p.).

CLOSED CRAWL SPACE. A foundation without wall vents that uses air sealed walls, ground and foundation moisture control, and mechanical drying potential to control crawl space moisture. Insulation may be located at the floor level or at the exterior walls.

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.

COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of

―Residential buildings.‖

CONDITIONED CRAWL SPACE. A foundation without wall vents that encloses an intentionally heated or cooled space. Insulation is located at the exterior walls.

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the

conditioned space.

CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space within a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling equipment or systems capable of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 50 F

(10 C) during the heating season and 85 F (29 C) during the cooling season, or communicates directly with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, an area, room or space being heated or cooled by any equipment or appliance.

CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade.

CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.

DAYLIGHT ZONE.

1. Under skylights. The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension in that direction plus either the floor-to ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent skylights or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.

2

Adjacent to vertical fenestration. The area adjacent to vertical fenestration which receives daylight through the fenestration. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed analysis is provided, the daylight zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylight zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus 2 feet (610 mm) on each side, or the window width plus the distance to an opaque partition, or the window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.

DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air.

The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.

ECONOMIZER,WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.

ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and

standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.

ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.

ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION

SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.

ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.

ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse.

EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both abovegrade walls and basement walls.

FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan’s shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses (belts, gears, etc.).

FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the

heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS.

Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.

FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the

conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors. Fenestration includes products with glass and nonglass glazing materials.

F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slabon-grade floors (Btu/h x ft x °F) [W/(m x K)].

FULLY

ENCLOSED ATTIC FLOOR SYSTEM

The ceiling insulation is enclosed on all six sides by an air barrier system, such as taped drywall below, solid framing joists on the sides, solid blocking on the ends, and solid sheathing on top which totally enclose the insulation. This system provides for full depth insulation over the exterior walls.

FULLY SHIELDED. A light fixture constructed, installed, and maintained in such a manner that all light emitted from the fixture, either directly from the lamp or a diffusing element, or indirectly by reflection or refraction from any part of the fixture, is projected below the horizontal plane through the fixture's lowest light emitting part.

HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosiphoning of hot water during standby periods.

HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.

HERS RATER. An individual that has completed training and been certified by RESNET (Residential

Energy Services Network) Accredited Rating

Provider.

HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts,

2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts, and

3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board with a core material having a minimum R-value of R-

2.

LABELED. Appliance, equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the appliance, equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LAMP. The device in a lighting fixture that provides illumination, typically a bulb, fluorescent tube, or light emitting diode (LED).

LISTED. Appliance, equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of

listed appliance, equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. Lighting equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conductor and track lighting.

MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m

2

). solid wood walls having a mass greater than 20 pounds per square foot (98 kg/m

2

), and any other walls having a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft

2

* F[266 J/(m

2

*K)].

MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see ―Automatic‖).

NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor horsepower rating stamped on the motor nameplate.

ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Includes but is not limited to solar photovoltaic; active solar thermal that employs collection panels, heat transfer mechanical components; wind; small hydro; tidal; wave energy; geothermal (core earth); biomass energy systems; landfill gas and bio-fuel based electrical production, Onsite energy shall be generated on or adjacent to the project site and shall

not be delivered to the project through the utility service.

PROCESS ENERGY. Energy consumed in support of manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than conditioning spaces and maintaining comfort and amenities for the occupants of a building.

PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance.

READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see

Accessible‖).

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice his respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Design by a Registered Design

Professional is not required where exempt under the registration or licensure laws.

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes R-3 buildings, as well as R-2 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads.

The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.

R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area

(h x ft

2

x °F/Btu) [(m

2 x K)/W].

SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compactfluorescent, incandescent, or tungsten-halogen bulb.

SEMI-CONDITIONED SPACE A space indirectly conditioned within the thermal envelope that is not directly heated or cooled. For energy purposes, semiconditioned spaces are treated as conditioned spaces

SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.

SHADING COEFFICIENT The amount of the sun's heat transmitted through a given window compared with that of a standard 1/8- inch-thick single pane of glass under the same conditions.

SKYLIGHT. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls is included in this definition.

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC).

The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

This value is related to the Shading

Coefficient (SC) by the formula SHGC = 0.87 * SC.

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.

STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use.

Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings.

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure’s exterior walls and roof.

SYSTEM VERIFICATION. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the code requirements and construction documents.

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space(s).

The conditioned space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.

THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable set point.

U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE).

The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h x ft

2 x °F) [W/(m

2 x K)].

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

WALL VENTED CRAWL SPACE. A foundation that uses foundation wall vents as a primary means to control space moisture. Insulation is located at the floor level.

ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.

CHAPTER 3

CLIMATE ZONES

SECTION 301

CLIMATE ZONES

301.1 General. Climate zones from Figure 301.1 or

Table 301.1 shall be used in determining the applicable requirements from Chapters 4 and 5.

301.2 Warm humid counties. Warm humid counties are identified in Table 301.1 by an asterisk.

301.3 International climate zones. The climate zone for any location outside the United States shall be determined by applying Table 301.3(1) and then

Table 301.3(2).

TABLE 301.1

NORTH CAROLINA CLIMATE ZONES, MOISTURE REGIMES, AND WARM-HUMID DESIGNATIONS

BY COUNTY

Key: A

– Moist, B – Dry, C – Marine. Absence of moisture designation indicates moisture regime is irrelevant.

Asterisk (*) indicates a warm-humid location.

NORTH

CAROLINA

4A Alamance

4A Alexander

5A Alleghany

3A Anson

5A Ashe

5A Avery

3A Beaufort

4A Bertie

3A Bladen

3A Brunswick*

4A Buncombe

4A Burke

3A Cabarrus

4A Caldwell

3A Camden

3A Carteret*

4A Caswell

4A Catawba

4A Chatham

4A Cherokee

3A Chowan

4A Clay

4A Cleveland

3A Columbus*

3A Craven

3A Cumberland

3A Currituck

3A Dare

3A Davidson

4A Davie

3A Duplin

4A Durham

3A Edgecombe

4A Forsyth

4A Franklin

3A Gaston

4A Gates

4A Graham

4A Granville

3A Greene

4A Guilford

4A Halifax

4A Harnett

4A Haywood

4A Henderson

4A Hertford

3A Hoke

3A Hyde

4A Iredell

4A Jackson

3A Johnston

3A Jones

4A Lee

3A Lenoir

4A Lincoln

4A Macon

4A Madison

3A Martin

4A McDowell

3A Mecklenburg

5A Mitchell

3A Montgomery

3A Moore

4A Nash

3A New Hanover*

4A Northampton

3A Onslow*

4A Orange

3A Pamlico

3A Pasquotank

3A Pender*

3A Perquimans

4A Person

3A Pitt

4A Polk

3A Randolph

3A Richmond

3A Robeson

4A Rockingham

3A Rowan

4A Rutherford

3A Sampson

3A Scotland

3A Stanly

4A Stokes

4A Surry

4A Swain

4A Transylvania

3A Tyrrell

3A Union

4A Vance

4A Wake

4A Warren

3A Washington

5A Watauga

3A Wayne

4A Wilkes

3A Wilson

4A Yadkin

5A Yancey

Figure 301.1 North Carolina Climate Zones

Figure 301.2 Climate Zones

TABLE 301.3(1)

INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE ZONE DEFINITIONS

MAJOR CLIMATE TYPE DEFINITIONS

Warm-humid Definition—Moist (A) locations where either of the following wet-bulb temperature conditions shall occur during the warmest six consecutive months of the year:

1. 67 F (19.4 C) or higher for 3,000 or more hours; or

2. 73 F (22.8 C) or higher for 1,500 or more hours

Dry (B) Definition—Locations meeting the following criteria: Not marine and

P in

0.44 x (TF – 19.5) [P

cm

2.0 x (TC + 7) in SI units] where:

P in

= Annual precipitation in inches (cm)

T

= Annual mean temperature in

ºF ºC

)

Moist (A) Definition—Locations that are not marine and not dry.

For SI: ºC = [(ºF)-32]/1.8; 1 inch = 2.54 cm.

ZONE

NUMBER

TABLE 301.3(2)

INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE ZONE DEFINITIONS

THERMAL CRITERIA

IP Units

1 9000 < CDD50ºF

SI Units

5000 < CDD10ºC

2

6300 < CDD50ºF ≤ 9000 3500 < CDD10ºC ≤ 5000

3A and 3B 4500 < CDD50ºF ≤ 6300

AND HDD65ºF ≤ 5400

2500 < CDD10ºC ≤ 3500

AND HDD18ºC ≤ 3000

4A and 4B

CDD50ºF ≤ 4500 AND

HDD65ºF ≤ 5400

CDD10ºC ≤ 2500 AND

HDD18ºC ≤ 3000

3C

4C

5

6

7

HDD65ºF ≤ 3600

3600 < HDD65ºF ≤ 5400

5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200

7200 < HDD65ºF ≤ 9000

9000 < HDD65ºF ≤ 12600

HDD18ºC ≤ 2000

2000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 3000

3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000

4000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 5000

5000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 7000

7000 < HDD18ºC 8

For SI: ºC = [(ºF)-32]/1.8

12600 < HDD65ºF

SECTION 302

DESIGN CONDITIONS

302.1 Interior design conditions. The interior sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation, the installed thickness of the areas covered and R-value of installed thickness shall be listed on the design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72ºF (22ºC) for heating and minimum of 75ºF (24ºC) for cooling.

SECTION 303

MATERIALS, SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

303.1 Identification. Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will certification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a conspicuous location on the job site.

303.1.1.1 Blown or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation.

The thickness of blown-in or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation (fiberglass or cellulose) shall be written in inches (mm) on markers that are installed at least one allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code.

303.1.1 Building thermal envelope insulation. An

R-value identification mark shall be applied by the manufacturer to each piece of building thermal

envelope insulation 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alternately, the insulation installers shall provide a certification listing the type, manufacturer and R-value of insulation installed in each element of the building thermal envelope. For blown or sprayed insulation (fiberglass and cellulose), the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and number of bags installed shall be listed on the certification. For for every 300 square feet (28 m

2

) throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each polyurethane foam thickness and installed R-value shall be listed on certification provided by the insulation installer.

303.1.2 Insulation mark installation. Insulating materials shall be installed such that the manufacturer’s R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.

303.1.3 Fenestration product rating. U-factors of fenestration products (windows, doors and skylights)

shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default Ufactor from Table 303.1.3(1) or 303.1.3(2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC shall be assigned a default SHGC from Table 303.1.3(3).

TABLE 303.1.3(1)

DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION U-FACTOR

FRAME TYPE SINGLE

PANE

DOUBLE

PANE

SKYLIGHT

Single Double

Metal

Metal with

Thermal Break

Nonmetal or

Metal Clad

1.20

1.10

0.95

0.80

0.65

0.55

2.00

1.30

1.90

1.10

1.75

1.05

Glazed Block 0.60

TABLE 303.1.3(2)

DEFAULT DOOR U-FACTORS

DOOR TYPE U-FACTOR

Uninsulated Metal

Insulated Metal

1.20

0.60

Wood

Insulated, nonmetal edge, max 45% glazing, any glazing double pane

0.50

0.35

TABLE 303.1.3(3)

Clear

DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC

SINGLE GLAZED

Tinted

DOUBLE GLAZED

Clear Tinted

GLAZED

BLOCK

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.6

303.1.4 Insulation product rating. The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulation shall be determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade

Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460,

May 31, 2005) in units of h x ft

2 x °F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C).

303.2 Installation. All materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions and the

International Building Code.

303.2.1 Protection of exposed foundation

insulation. Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawlspace walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective covering to prevent the degradation of the insulation’s thermal performance.

The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend a minimum of 6 inches

(153 mm) below grade.

303.3 Maintenance information. Maintenance instructions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance.

Required regular maintenance actions shall be clearly stated and incorporated on a readily accessible label.

The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance manual for that particular model and type of product.

CHAPTER 4

RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY

SECTION 401

GENERAL

401.1 Scope. This chapter applies to residential buildings.

401.2 Compliance. Projects shall comply with indicate whether the building air leakage was visually inspected as required in 402.4.2.1 or provide results of the air leakage testing required in 402.4.2.2.The certificate shall provide results of duct leakage test required in 403.2.2. Appendix 1A contains a sample certificate.

Sections 401, 402.4, 402.5, and 403.1, 403.2.2,

403.2.3, and 403.3 through 403.9 (referred to as the mandatory provisions) and either:

1. Sections 402.1 through 402.3, 403.2.1 and

404.1 (prescriptive); or

2. Section 405 (performance); or

3. North Carolina specific REScheck shall be permitted to demonstrate compliance with this code. Envelope requirements may not be traded off against the use of high efficiency heating and/or cooling equipment.

No trade-off calculations are needed for required termite inspection and treatment gaps.

401.3 Certificate. A permanent certificate shall be posted on or in the electrical distribution panel, in the attic next to the attic insulation card, or inside a kitchen cabinet or other approved location. The certificate shall not cover or obstruct the visibility of the circuit directory label, service disconnect label or other required labels. The builder, permit holder, or registered design professional shall be responsible for completing the certificate. The certificate shall list the predominant R-values of insulation installed in or on ceiling/roof, walls, foundation (slab, basement

wall, crawlspace wall and/or floor) and ducts outside conditioned spaces; U-factors for fenestration and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration.

Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall list the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall

401.4 Additional Voluntary Criteria for

Increasing Residential Energy Efficiency.

Appendix 4 contains additional voluntary measures for increasing residential energy efficiency beyond code minimums. Implementation of the increased energy efficiency measures is strictly voluntary at the option of the permit holder. The sole purpose of the appendix is to provide guidance for achieving additional residential energy efficiency improvements that have been evaluated to be those that are most cost effective for achieving an additional 15-20% improvement in energy efficiency beyond code minimums.

SECTION 402

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE

402.1 General (Prescriptive).

402.1.1 Insulation and fenestration criteria. The

building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Table 402.1.1 based on the climate

zone specified in Chapter 3.

402.1.2 R-value computation. Insulation material used in layers, such as framing cavity insulation and insulating sheathing, shall be summed to compute the component R-value. The manufacturer’s settled Rvalue shall be used for blown insulation.

Computed R-values shall not include an R-value for other building materials or air films.

CLIMATE

ZONE

3

FENESTRATIO

N

U-FACTORb

0.35

TABLE 402.1.1

INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT a

SKYLIGHTb

U-FACTOR

GLAZED

FENESTRATION

SHGCb, e

CEILING

R-VALUEk

WOOD

FRAME WALL

R-VALUE e

MASS

WALL

R-VALUEi

FLOOR

R-VALUE

BASEMENTc

WALL

R-VALUE

0.65

0.30 30 13 5/10 19 10/13 f

SLABd

R-VALUE

& DEPTH

0

CRAWL

SPACEc

WALL

R-VALUE

5/13

4 0.35

0.60

0.30 38 or 30 cont. j

3

4

5

5 0.35

0.60

NR 38 or 30 cont. j

19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

13/17 30 g

10/13 10 10/13

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. a. R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. b. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration. c. ―10/13‖ means R-10 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall or crawl space wall. d. For monolithic slabs, insulation shall be applied from the inspection gap downward to the bottom of the footing or a maximum of 18 inches below grade whichever is less . For floating slabs, insulation shall extend to the bottom of the foundation wall or 24 inches, whichever is less.

(See Appendix O) R-5 shall be added to the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs. e. R -19 fiberglass batts compressed and installed in a nominal 2 × 6 framing cavity is deemed to comply. Fiberglass batts rated R-19 or higher compressed and installed in a 2x4 wall is not deemed to comply.

f. Basement wall insulation is not required in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure N1101.2(1 and 2) and Table N1101.2. g. Or insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity, R-19 minimum. h. ―13+5‖ means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 insulated sheathing. 15+3 means R-15 cavity insulation plus R-3 insulated sheathing. If structural sheathing covers 25 percent or less of the exterior, insulating sheathing is not required where structural sheathing is used. If structural sheathing covers more than 25 percent of exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2. 13+2.5 means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-2.5 sheathing. i. For Mass Walls, the second R-value applies when more than half the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall. j. R-30 shall be deemed to satisfy the ceiling insulation requirement wherever the full height of uncompressed R-30 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. Otherwise R-38 insulation is required where adequate clearance exists or insulation must extend to either the insulation baffle or within 1‖ of the attic roof deck. k. Table value required except for roof edge where the space is limited by the pitch of the roof, there the insulation must fill the space up to the air baffle.

TABLE 402.1.3

EQUIVALENT U-FACTORS a

CLIMATE

ZONE

FENESTRATION

U-FACTOR

SKYLIGHT

U-FACTOR

CEILING

U-FACTOR

FRAME

WALL

U-FACTOR

MASS

WALL

U-FACTOR b

FLOOR

U-FACTOR

BASEMENT

WALL

U-FACTOR d

CRAWL

SPACE

WALL

U-FACTOR c

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.65

0.60

0.60

0.035

0.030

0.030

0.082

0.071

0.067

0.141

0.141

0.082

0.047

0.047

0.033

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.136

0.065

0.065 a. Nonfenestration U-factors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source. b. When more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors shall be a maximum of 0.17 in Zone 1, 0.14 in Zone 2, 0.12 in

Zone 3, 0.10 in Zone 4 except Marine, and the same as the frame wall U-factor in Marine Zone 4 and Zones 5 through 8. c. Basement wall U-factor of 0.360 in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure 301.1 and Table 301.2. d. Foundation U-factor requirements shown in Table 402.1.3 include wall construction and interior air films but exclude soil conductivity and exterior air films. U-factors for determining code compliance in accordance with Section 402.1.4 (total UA alternative) of Section 405

(Simulated Performance Alternative) shall be modified to include soil conductivity and exterior air films.

402.1.3 U-factor alternative. An assembly with a Ushall include the thermal bridging effects of framing factor equal to or less than that specified in Table materials. The SHGC requirements shall be met in

402.1.3 shall be permitted as an alternative to the Rvalue in Table 402.1.1.

402.1.4 Total UA alternative. If the total building

thermal envelope UA (sum of U-factor times assembly area) is less than or equal to the total UA resulting from using the U-factors in Table 402.1.3

(multiplied by the same assembly area as in the proposed building), the building shall be considered in compliance with Table 402.1.1. The UA calculation shall be done using a method consistent with the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals and

15,

13+2.5

h

5/10 19 10/13 10 addition to UA compliance.

402.2 Specific insulation requirements

10/13

(Prescriptive)

402.2.1 Ceilings with attic spaces. Ceilings with attic spaces over conditioned space shall meet the insulation requirements in Table 402.1.1.

Exceptions:

1) When insulation is installed in a fully

enclosed attic floor system, as described

in Appendix 1.B, R-30 shall be deemed compliant.

2) In roof edge and other details such as bay windows, dormers, and similar areas where the space is limited, the insulation must fill the space up to the air baffle.

402.2.2 Ceilings without attic spaces. Where the design of the roof/ceiling assembly, including cathedral ceilings, bay windows and other similar areas, does not allow sufficient space for the required insulation, the minimum required insulation for such roof/ceiling assemblies shall be R-30. This reduction of insulation from the requirements of Section

402.1.1 shall be limited to 500 square feet (46m

2

) of ceiling surface area. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the total UA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.2.3 Access hatches and doors. Horizontal

access hatches from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to an R-10 minimum value, and vertical doors to such spaces shall be weatherstripped and insulated to R-5.

Access shall be provided to all equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer is required to be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.

Exceptions:

1) Pull down stair systems shall be weatherstripped and insulated to an R-5 insulation value such that the insulation does not interfere with proper operation of the stair. Non-rigid insulation materials are not allowed. Additional insulation systems that enclose the stair system from above are allowed. Exposed foam plastic must meet the provisions of the Building Code or

Residential Code, respectively.

2) Full size doors that are part of the building thermal envelope and provide a passageway to unconditioned spaces shall meet the requirements of exterior doors in

Section 403.2.4.

402.2.4 Mass walls. Mass walls for the purposes of this chapter shall be considered above-grade walls of concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form

(ICF), masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), earth (adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth) and solid timber/logs.

402.2.5 Steel-frame ceilings, walls, and floors.

Steel-frame ceilings, walls and floors shall meet the insulation requirements of Table 402.2.5 or shall meet the U-factor requirements in Table 402.1.3. The calculation of the U-factor for a steel-frame envelope assembly shall use a series-parallel path calculation method.

TABLE 402.2.5

STEEL-FRAME CEILING, WALL AND FLOOR

INSULATION (R-VALUE)

WOOD FRAME

R-VALUE

REQUIREMENT

COLD-FORMED STEEL

EQUIVALENT R-VALUE

Steel Truss Ceilings b a

R-30 R - 38 or R - 30 + 3 or R -

26 + 5

R-38 R - 49 or R - 38 + 3

R-49

R-30

R-38+5

Steel Joist Ceilings b

R - 38 in 2×4 or 2×6 or 2×8

R - 49 in any framing

R-38

R-13

R-19

R-21

R - 49 in 2×4 or 2×6 or 2×8 or 2×10

Steel Framed Wall

R - 13 + 5 or R - 15 + 4 or

R - 21 + 3 or R - 0 + 10

R - 13 + 9 or R - 19 + 8 or

R - 25 + 7

R - 13 + 10 or R - 19 + 9 or

R - 25 + 8

R-13

Steel Joist Floor

R - 19 in 2×6

R - 19 + 6 in 2×8 or 2×10

R-19 R - 19 + 6 in 2×6

R - 19 + 12 in 2×8 or 2×10 a. Cavity insulation R-value is listed first, followed by continuous insulation R-value. b. Insulation exceeding the height of the framing shall cover the framing.

402.2.6 Floors. Floor insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking. The distance between tension support wires or other devices that hold the floor insulation in place against the subfloor shall be no more than 18 inches. In addition, supports shall be located no further than 6 inches from each end of the insulation.

Exception: Enclosed floor cavity such as garage ceilings, cantilevers or buildings on pilings with enclosed floor cavity with the insulation fully in contact with the lower air barrier. In this case, the band boards shall be insulated to maintain thermal envelope continuity.

402.2.7 Basement walls. Walls associated with conditioned basements shall be insulated from the top of the basement wall down to 10 feet (3048 mm) below grade or to the basement floor, whichever is less. Walls associated with unconditioned basements shall meet this requirement unless the floor overhead is insulated in accordance with Sections 402.1.1 and

402.2.6.

402.2.8 Slab-on-grade floors. Slab-on-grade floors with a floor surface less than 12 inches (305 mm) below grade shall be insulated in accordance with

Table 402.1.1. The top edge of the insulation installed between the exterior wall and the edge of the interior slab shall be permitted to be cut at a 45degree (0.79 rad) angle away from the exterior wall.

Slab edge insulation shall have 2‖ termite inspection gap consistent with Appendix 1.C of this code.

402.2.9 Closed Crawl space walls.

Where the floor above a closed crawl space is not insulated, the exterior crawlspace walls shall be insulated in accordance with table 402.1.1.

Wall insulation may be located in any combination of the outside and inside wall surfaces and within the structural cavities or materials of the wall system.

Wall insulation requires that the exterior wall band joist area of the floor frame be insulated. Wall insulation shall begin 3 inches (76.2mm) below the top of the masonry foundation wall and shall extend down to 3 inches (76.2mm) above the top of the footing or concrete floor, 3 inches(76.2mm ) above the interior ground surface or 24 inches (609.6mm) below the outside finished ground level, whichever is less. (See Appendix 1.2.2 details)

Termite inspection, clearance, and wicking gaps are allowed in wall insulation systems. Insulation may be omitted in the gap area without energy penalty.

The allowable insulation gap widths are listed in

Table 402.2.9. If gap width exceeds the allowances, one of the following energy compliance options shall be met:

1. Wall insulation is not allowed and the required insulation value shall be provided in the floor system.

2. Compliance shall be demonstrated with energy trade-off methods provided by a North Carolinaspecific version of RESCHECK.

TABLE 402.2.9

WALL INSULATION ALLOWANCES FOR TERMITE

TREATMENT AND INSULATION GAPS

Gap Description Maximum Gap

Width(inches)

3

Insulation

Location

Outside

6

4a

Outside

Inside

Above grade inspection between top of insulation and bottom of siding

Below grade treatment

Wall inspection between top of insulation and bottom of sill

4a

Inside Clearance / wicking space between bottom of insulation and top of ground surface, footing, or concrete floor.

For si 1 inch = 25.4mm a. No insulation shall be required on masonry wall of 9 inches in height or less.

402.2.10 Masonry veneer. Insulation shall not be required on the horizontal portion of the foundation that supports a masonry veneer.

402.2.11 Thermally isolated conditioned sunroom

insulation. The minimum ceiling insulation R-values shall be R-19 in Zones 3 and 4, and R-24 in Zone 5.

The minimum wall R-value shall be R-13. New wall(s) separating a sunroom from conditioned space shall meet the building thermal envelope requirements. Floor or slab insulation shall comply with values in table 402.1.1.

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. The exterior thermal envelope wall insulation shall be installed in substantial contact and continuous alignment with the building envelope air barrier. Insulation shall be substantially free from installation gaps, voids, or compression. For framed walls, the cavity insulation shall be enclosed on all sides with rigid material or an air barrier material. Wall insulation shall be enclosed at the following locations when installed on exterior walls prior to being covered by subsequent construction, consistent with the Appendix 1.2.3 of this code:

1. Tubs

2. Showers

3. Stairs

4. Fireplace units

Enclosure of wall cavity insulation also applies to walls that adjoin attic spaces by placing a rigid material or air barrier material on the attic space side of the wall on the attic space side of the wall.

402.3 Fenestration. (Prescriptive).

402.3.1 U-factor. An area-weighted average of fenestration products shall be permitted to satisfy the

U-factor requirements.

402.3.2 Glazed fenestration SHGC. An areaweighted average of fenestration products more than

50 percent glazed shall be permitted to satisfy the

SHGC requirements.

402.3.3 Glazed fenestration exemption. Up to 15 square feet (1.4m

2

) of glazed fenestration per dwelling unit shall be permitted to be exempt from

U-factor and SHGC requirements in Section 402.1.1.

This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the Total

UA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.3.4 Opaque door. Opaque doors separating conditioned and unconditioned space shall have a maximum U-factor of 0.35.

Exception: One side-hinged opaque door assembly up to 24 square feet (2.22 m

2

) in area is exempted from the U-factor requirement in Section 402.1.1. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the total UA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.3.5 Thermally isolated conditioned sunroom

U-factor and SHGC.

The maximum fenestration U-factor shall be 0.40 and the maximum skylight U-Factor shall be 0.75.

Sunrooms with cooling systems shall have a maximum fenestration SHGC of 0.40 for all glazing.

New windows and doors separating the sunroom from conditioned space shall meet the building thermal envelope requirements. Sunroom additions shall maintain thermal isolation; and shall be served by a separate heating or cooling system, or be thermostatically controlled as a separate zone of the existing system.

402.3.6 Replacement fenestration. Where an entire existing fenestration unit is replaced with a new fenestration product, including frame, sash and glazing, the replacement fenestration unit shall meet the applicable requirements for U-factor and SHGC in Table 402.1.1.

402.4 Air leakage control (Mandatory

Requirements).

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. The building

thermal envelope shall be durably sealed with an air barrier system to limit infiltration. The sealing methods between dissimilar materials shall allow for differential expansion and contraction. For all homes, where present, the following shall be caulked, gasketed, weatherstripped or otherwise sealed with an air barrier material, or solid material consistent with

Appendix 1.2.4 of this code:

1. Blocking and sealing floor/ceiling systems and under knee walls open to unconditioned or exterior space.

2. Capping and sealing shafts or chases, including flue shafts.

3. Capping and sealing soffit or dropped ceiling areas.

4. Sealing HVAC register boots and return boxes to subfloor or drywall.

402.4.2 Air sealing. Building envelope air tightness shall be demonstrated by compliance with section

402.4.2.1 or 402.4.2.2. Appendix 3 contains optional sample worksheets for visual inspection or testing for the permit holder’s use only.

402.4.2.1 Visual inspection option. Building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when items providing insulation enclosure in

402.2.12 and air sealing in 402.4.1 are addressed and when the items listed in Table 402.4.2, applicable to the method of construction, are certified by the builder, permit holder or registered design professional via the certificate in Appendix 1.1.

TABLE 402.4.2

AIR BARRIER INSPECTION

COMPONENT

Ceiling/attic

CRITERIA

Sealants or gaskets provide a continuous air barrier system joining the top plate of framed walls with either the ceiling drywall or the top edge of wall drywall to prevent air leakage. Top plate penetrations are sealed.

For ceiling finishes that are not air barrier systems such as tongue-and-groove planks, air barrier systems,(for example, taped house wrap), shall be used above the finish

Note: It is acceptable that sealants or gaskets applied as part of the application of the drywall will not be observable by the code official

Sill plate is gasketed or sealed to subfloor or slab.

Walls

Windows and doors Space between window and exterior door jambs and framing is sealed.

Air barrier system is installed at any exposed edge of insulation.

Floors (including above-garage

and cantilevered floors)

Penetrations

Garage separation

Duct boots

Recessed lighting

Utility penetrations through the building thermal envelope, including those for plumbing, electrical wiring, ductwork, security and fire alarm wiring, and control wiring, shall be sealed.

Air sealing is provided between the garage and conditioned spaces. An air barrier system shall be installed between the ceiling system above the garage and the ceiling system of interior spaces.

Sealing HVAC register boots and return boxes to subfloor or drywall.

Recessed light fixtures are air tight, IC rated, and sealed to drywall.

Exception—fixtures not penetrating the building envelope.

402.4.2.2 Testing option. Building envelope depressurization, not temperature corrected, test is sufficient to comply with this provision, provided tightness shall be considered acceptable when items providing insulation enclosure in 402.2.12 and air sealing in 402.4.1 are addressed and when tested air leakage is less than or equal to one of the two following performance measurements: that the blower door fan assembly has been certified by the manufacturer to be capable of conducting tests in accordance with ASTM E779-03. Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including

1. 0.30 CFM50/Square Foot of Surface Area

(SFSA) or

2. Five (5) air changes per hour (ACH50) when tested with a blower door fan assembly, at a pressure of 33.5 psf (50 Pa). A single point penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation and combustion appliances. Testing shall be reported by the permit holder, a NC licensed general contractor, a NC licensed HVAC contractor, a NC licensed Home Inspector, a registered design professional, a certified BPI Envelope Professional or a certified HERS rater.

During testing:

1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed;

2. Dampers shall be closed, but not sealed, including exhaust, backdraft, and flue dampers;

3. Interior doors shall be open;

4. Exterior openings for continuous ventilation systems, air intake ducted to the return side of the conditioning system, and energy or heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;

5. Heating and cooling system(s) shall be turned off; and

6. Supply and return registers shall not be sealed.

The air leakage information, building air leakage result, tester name, date, and contact information, shall be included on the certificate described in

Section 401.3.

For Test Criteria 1 above, the report shall be produced in the following manner: perform the

blower door test and record the CFM50. Calculate the total square feet of surface area for the building thermal envelope (all floors, ceilings, and walls including windows and doors, bounding conditioned space) and record the area. Divide CFM50 by the total square feet and record the result. If the result is less than or equal to [0.30 CFM50/SFSA] the envelope tightness is acceptable; or

For Test Criteria 2 above, the report shall be produced in the following manner: Perform a blower door test and record the CFM50. Multiply the

CFM50 by 60 minutes to create CFHour50 and record. Then calculate the total conditioned volume of the home and record. Divide the CFH50 by the total volume and record the result. If the result is less than or equal to 5 ACH50 the envelope tightness is acceptable.

402.4.3 Fireplaces. Site-built masonry fireplaces shall have doors and comply with Section R1006 of the North Carolina Residential Code for combustion air.

402.4.4 Fenestration air leakage. Windows, skylights and sliding glass doors shall have an air infiltration rate of no more than 0.3 cfm per square foot (1.5 L/s/m

2

), and swinging doors no more than

0.5 cfm per square foot (2.6 L/s/m

2

), when tested according to NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA

101/I.S.2/A440 by an accredited, independent laboratory and listed and labeled by the manufacturer.

Exceptions: Site-built windows, skylights and doors.

402.4.5 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as meeting ASTM E 283 when tested at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential with no more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) of air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity.

All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and the interior wall or ceiling covering.

402.5 Maximum fenestration U-factor and SHGC

(Mandatory Requirements). The area-weighted average maximum fenestration U-factor permitted using trade-offs from Section 402.1.4 shall be 0.40.

Maximum skylight U-factors shall be 0.65 in zones 4 and 5 and 0.60 in zone 3. The area-weighted average maximum fenestration SHGC permitted using tradeoffs from Section 405 in Zones 3 and 4 shall be 0.40.

SECTION 403

SYSTEMS

403.1 Controls (Mandatory Requirements). At least one thermostat shall be provided for each separate heating and cooling system.

403.1.1 Programmable thermostat. Where the primary heating system is a forced-air furnace, at least one thermostat per dwelling unit shall be capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain different temperature set points at different times of the day. This thermostat shall include the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F

(29°C).

403.1.2 Heat pump supplementary heat

(Mandatory Requirements). Heat pumps having supplementary electric-resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compressor can meet the heating load.

A heat strip outdoor temperature lockout shall be provided to prevent supplemental heat operation in response to the thermostat being changed to a warmer setting. The lockout shall be set no lower than 35 F and no higher than 40 o

F.

403.1.3 Maintenance information. Maintenance instructions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance.

403.2 Ducts.

403.2.1 Insulation (Prescriptive).

Supply and return ducts in unconditioned space and outdoors shall be in insulated to R-8. Supply ducts inside semi-conditioned space shall be insulated to R-

4; return ducts inside conditioned and semiconditioned space are not required to be insulated.

Ducts located inside conditioned space are not required to be insulated other than as may be necessary for preventing the formation of condensation on the exterior of cooling ducts.

403.2.2 Sealing (Mandatory Requirements). All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Part V – Mechanical, Section 603.9 of the North Carolina Residential Code.

Duct tightness shall be verified as follows:

Total duct leakage less than or equal to 6 CFM (12

L/min) per 100 ft

2

(9.29 m

2

) of conditioned floor area served by that system when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure.

During testing:

1. Block, if present, the ventilation air duct connected to the conditioning system.

2. The duct air leakage testing equipment shall be attached to the largest return in the system or to the air handler.

3. The filter shall be removed and the air handler power shall be turned off.

3.Supply boots or registers and return boxes or grilles shall be taped, plugged, or otherwise sealed air tight.

4.The hose for measuring the 25 Pascals of pressure differential shall be inserted into the boot of the supply that is nominally closest to the air handler.

5. Specific instructions from the duct testing equipment manufacturer shall be followed to reach duct test pressure and measure duct air leakage.

Testing shall be performed and reported by the permit holder, a NC licensed general contractor, a

NC licensed HVAC contractor, a NC licensed Home

Inspector, a registered design professional, a certified

BPI Envelope Professional or a certified HERS rater.

A single point depressurization, not temperature corrected, test is sufficient to comply with this provision, provided that the duct testing fan assembly has been certified by the manufacturer to be capable of conducting tests in accordance with ASTM E1554-

07.

The duct leakage information, including duct leakage result, tester name, date, and contact information, shall be included on the certificate described in

Section 401.3.

For the Test Criteria, the report shall be produced in the following manner: perform the HVAC system air leakage test and record the CFM25. Calculate the total square feet of Conditioned Floor Area (CFA) served by that system. Multiply CFM25 by 100, divide the result by the CFA and record the result. If the result is less than or equal to 6 CFM25/100 SF the

HVAC system air tightness is acceptable. Appendix

3C contains optional sample worksheets for duct testing for the permit holder’s use only.

Exceptions to testing requirements:

1. Duct systems or portions thereof inside the building thermal envelope shall not be required to be leak tested.

2. Installation of a partial system as part of replacement, renovation or addition does not require a duct leakage test.

403.2.3 Building cavities (Mandatory

Requirements). Building framing cavities shall not be used as supply ducts.

403.3 Mechanical system piping insulation

(Mandatory Requirements). Mechanical system piping capable of carrying fluids above 105°F (41°C) or below55°F (13°C) shall be insulated to a minimum of R-3.

403.4 Circulating hot water systems (Mandatory

Requirements). All circulating service hot water piping shall be insulated to at least R-2. Circulating hot water systems shall include an automatic or readily accessible manual switch that can turn off the hot water circulating pump when the system is not in use.

403.5 Mechanical ventilation (Mandatory

Requirements). Exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating.

403.6 Equipment sizing and efficiency (Mandatory

Requirements).

403.6.1 Equipment Sizing. Heating and cooling equipment shall be sized in accordance with the

North Carolina Mechanical Code.

403.6.2 Equipment Efficiencies. Equipment efficiencies shall comply with the current NAECA minimum standards.

403.7 Systems serving multiple dwelling units

(Mandatory Requirements). Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections

503 and 504 in lieu of Section 403.

403.8 Snow melt system controls (Mandatory

Requirements). Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above

50°F, and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F.

403.9 Pools, inground permanently installed spas

(Mandatory). Pools and inground permanently installed spas shall comply with Sections 403.9.1 through 403.9.3.

403.9.1 Heaters. All heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible on-off switch that is mounted outside of the heater to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with constant burning pilot lights.

403.9.2 Time switches. Time switches or other control method that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed on all heaters and pumps. Heaters, pumps and motors that have built-in timers shall be deemed in compliance with this requirement.

Exceptions:

1. Where public health standards require 24hour pump operation.

2. Where pumps are required to operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

403.9.3 Covers. Heated pools and inground permanently installed spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover.

Exception: Pools deriving over 70 percent of the energy for heating from site-recovered energy, such as a heat pump or solar energy source computed over an operating season.

SECTION 404

ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING

SYSTEMS

404.1 Lighting equipment (Prescriptive). A minimum of 75 percent of the lamps in permanently installed lighting fixtures shall be high-efficacy

lamps.

SECTION 405

SIMULATED PERFORMANCE ALTERNATIVE

(Performance)

405.1 Scope. This section establishes criteria for compliance using simulated energy performance analysis. Such analysis shall include heating, cooling, and service water heating energy only. A North

Carolina licensed design professional is required to perform the analysis.

405.2 Mandatory Requirements. Compliance with this section requires that the mandatory provisions identified in Section 401.2 be met. All supply and return ducts not inside the building thermal envelope shall be insulated to a minimum of R-8. Supply ducts inside semi-conditioned space shall be insulated to R-

4; return ducts inside semi-conditioned space are not required to be insulated.

405.3 Performance-based compliance. Compliance based on simulated energy performance requires that a proposed residence (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference

design. Energy prices shall be taken from a source

approved by the code official, such as the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration’s

State Energy Price and Expenditure Report. Code

officials shall be permitted to require time-of-use pricing in energy cost calculations.

Exception: The energy use based on source energy expressed in Btu or Btu per square foot of conditioned floor area shall be permitted to be substituted for the energy cost. The source energy multiplier for electricity shall be 3.16. The source energy multiplier for fuels other than electricity shall be 1.1.

405.4 Documentation.

405.4.1 Compliance software tools. Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of the compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.

405.4.2 Compliance report. Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the

proposed design complies with Section 405.3. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:

1. Address or other identification of the residence;

2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the

proposed design as listed in Table

405.5.2(1). The inspection checklist shall show results for both the standard reference

design and the proposed design, and shall document all inputs entered by the user necessary to reproduce the results;

3. Name of individual completing the compliance report; and

4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.

Exception: Multiple orientations. When an otherwise identical building model is offered in multiple orientations, compliance for any orientation shall be permitted by documenting that the building meets the performance requirements in each of the four cardinal (north, east, south and west) orientations.

405.4.3 Additional documentation. The code

official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the standard reference

design.

2. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the proposed design as given in Table 405.5.2(1).

3. Documentation of the actual values used in the software calculations for the proposed

design.

405.5 Calculation procedure.

405.5.1 General. Except as specified by this section, the standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed using identical methods and techniques.

405.5.2 Residence specifications. The standard

reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed as specified by Table

405.5.2(1). Table 405.5.2(1) shall include by reference all notes contained in Table 402.1.1.

405.6 Calculation software tools.

405.6.1 Minimum capabilities. Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the annual energy consumption of all building elements that differ between the standard reference design and the

proposed design and shall include the following capabilities:

1. Computer generation of the standard

reference design using only the input for the

proposed design. The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.

2. Calculation of whole-building (as a single

zone) sizing for the heating and cooling equipment in the standard reference design residence in accordance with the North

Carolina Mechanical Code.

3. Calculations that account for the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures and partload ratios on the performance of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment based on climate and equipment sizing.

4. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the proposed design component characteristics from Table

405.5.2(1) determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings (e.g., Rvalue, U-factor, SHGC, HSPF, AFUE,

SEER, EF, etc.).

405.6.2 Specific approval. Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable sections of Section 405 shall be permitted to be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code

official shall be permitted to approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.

405.6.3 Input values. When calculations require input values not specified by Sections 402, 403, 404 and 405, those input values shall be taken from an

approved source.

TABLE 405.5.2(1)

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS

BUILDING COMPONENT STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN PROPOSED DESIGN

Above-grade walls Type: mass wall if proposed wall is mass; otherwise wood frame.

Gross area: same as proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Basement and crawl space walls

U-factor: from Table 402.1.3

Solar absorptance = 0.75

Remittance = 0.90

Type: same as proposed

Gross area: same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 402.1.3, with insulation layer on

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Above-grade floors

Ceilings interior side of walls.

Type: wood frame

Gross area: same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 402.1.3

Type: wood frame

Gross area: same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 402.1.3

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Roofs

Attics

Foundations

Doors

Fenestration

Skylights b

Thermally isolated sunrooms

Type: composition shingle on wood sheathing

Gross area: same as proposed

Solar absorptance = 0.75

Emittance = 0.90

Type: vented with aperture = 1 ft

2 per 300 ft

2 ceiling area

Type: same as proposed foundation wall area above and below grade and soil characteristics: same as proposed.

Area: 40 ft2

Orientation: North

U-factor: same as fenestration from Table 402.1.3.

Total area bc

=

(a) The proposed fenestration area; where proposed fenestration area is less than 15% of the conditioned floor area.

(b) 15% of the conditioned floor area; where the proposed fenestration area is 15% or more of the conditioned floor area.

Orientation: equally distributed to four cardinal compass orientations (N, E, S & W).

U-factor: from Table 402.1.3

SHGC: from Table 402.1.1

Interior shade fraction:

Summer (all hours when cooling is required) = 0.90

Winter (all hours when heating is required) = 0.90

External shading: none

None

None

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Same as standard reference design d

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

TABLE 405.5.2(1)

—continued

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS

BUILDING COMPONENT STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN PROPOSED DESIGN

Air exchange rate Specific leakage area (SLA)d = 0.00021 or 3 ACH50. For residences that are not tested, the same as the standard reference design.

Mechanical ventilation None, except where mechanical ventilation is specified by the proposed design, in which case:

Annual vent fan energy use: kWh/yr = 0.03942 × CFA + 29.565 × (N

br

+1)

As proposed

Internal gains where:

CFA = conditioned floor area

N br

= number of bedrooms

IGain = 17,900 + 23.8 x CFA + 4104 x Nbr + ΔIG lighting

(Btu/day per dwelling unit)

Where ΔIG lighting represents the reduced internal gains from efficient lighting as defined by the lighting building component.

IGain = 17,900 + 23.8 x CFA + 4104 x Nbr + ΔIG lighting

(Btu/day per dwelling unit)

Where ΔIG lighting represents the reduced internal gains from efficient lighting as defined by the lighting building component.

Structural mass For masonry floor slabs, 80% of floor area covered by R-2 carpet and pad, and 20% of floor directly exposed to room air.

For masonry basement walls, as proposed, but with insulation required by Table 402.1.3 located on the interior side of the walls

For other walls, for ceilings, floors, and interior walls, wood frame construction

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Heating systems g,h,i,j

As proposed

Capacity: sized in accordance with the

North

Carolina Mechanical Code and North Carolina

Residential Code.

Fuel type: same as proposed design

As proposed

Cooling systems h, j i, k

As proposed

Service water heating i, l

As proposed

Capacity: sized in accordance with the North

Carolina Mechanical Code and North Carolina

Residential Code.

As proposed

Fuel type: use: same as proposed design

Thermal distribution systems

Thermostat

A thermal distribution system efficiency (DSE) of 0.88 shall be applied to both the heating and cooling system efficiencies for all systems other than tested duct systems.

Duct insulation: From Section 403.2.1. For tested duct systems, the leakage rate shall be the applicable maximum rate from Section 403.2.2.

Type: Manual, cooling temperature setpoint = 75 F;

As proposed gal/day = 30 + (10 x N

br

)

As tested or as specified in Table

405.5.2(2) if not tested

Same as standard reference

Lighting

Heating temperature setpoint = 72 F kWh/yr = (455 + 0.80 * CFA) + ΔkWh/yr where:

ΔkWh/yr = [29.5 – 0.5189*CFA *50% –295.12*50% +

0.0519*CFA]

Internal gains in the Standard Reference Design shall be reduced by 90% of the impact from efficient lighting, calculated in Btu/day using the following equation:

ΔIG lighting

= - 0.90 * ΔkWh/yr * 10

6

/ 293 / 365 kWh/yr = (455 + 0.80 * CFA) +

ΔkWh/yr where:

ΔkWh/yr = [29.5 –

0.5189*CFA*FL% –295.12*FL% +

0.0519*CFA]

FL% = the ratio of Qualifying Light

Fixtures to all light fixtures in

Qualifying Light Fixture Locations.

The Proposed Design shall not have

FL% more than 50% from CFL.

Internal gains in the Proposed Design shall be reduced by 90% of the impact from efficient lighting, calculated in

Btu/day using the following equation:

ΔIG lighting

=0.90*ΔkWh/yr * 10

6

/293/

365

TABLE 405.5.2(1)

—continued

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.93 m

2

; 1 British thermal unit = 1055 J; 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m

2

; 1 gallon (U.S.) = 3.785 L; °C = (°F-3)/1.8,

1 degree = 0.79 rad. a. Glazing shall be defined as sunlight-transmitting fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Glazing includes the area of sunlight-transmitting fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned basements. For doors where the sunlight-transmitting opening is less than 50 percent of the door area, the glazing area is the sunlight transmitting opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the rough frame opening area for the door including the door and the frame. b. For residences with conditioned basements, R-2 and R-4 residences and townhouses, the following formula shall be used to determine glazing area:

AF = A

s

× FA × F

where:

AF = Total glazing area.

A s

= Standard reference design total glazing area.

FA = (Above-grade thermal boundary gross wall area)/(above-grade boundary wall area + 0.5 × below-grade boundary wall area).

F = (Above-grade thermal boundary wall area)/(above-grade thermal boundary wall area + common wall area) or 0.56, whichever is greater. and where:

Thermal boundary wall is any wall that separates conditioned space from unconditioned space or ambient conditions. Above-grade thermal boundary wall is any thermal boundary wall component not in contact with soil. Below-grade boundary wall is any thermal boundary wall in soil contact. Common wall area is the area of walls shared with an adjoining dwelling unit. c. For fenestrations facing within 15 degrees (0.26 rad) of true south that are directly coupled to thermal storage mass, the winter interior shade fraction shall be permitted to be increased to 0.95 in the proposed design. d. Where leakage area (L) is defined in accordance with Section 5.1 of ASHRAE 119 and where:

SLA = L/CFA where L and CFA are in the same units. e. Tested envelope leakage shall be determined and documented by an independent party approved by the code official. Hourly calculations as specified in the 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 26, page 26.21, Equation 40 (Sherman-Grimsrud model) or the equivalent shall be used to determine the energy loads resulting from infiltration. f. The combined air exchange rate for infiltration and mechanical ventilation shall be determined in accordance with Equation 43 of 2001

ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, page 26.24 and the ―Whole-house Ventilation‖ provisions of 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, page 26.19 for intermittent mechanical ventilation. g. Thermal storage element shall mean a component not part of the floors, walls or ceilings that is part of a passive solar system, and that provides thermal storage such as enclosed water columns, rock beds, or phase-change containers. A thermal storage element must be in the same room as fenestration that faces within 15 degrees (0.26 rad) of true south, or must be connected to such a room with pipes or ducts that allow the element to be actively charged. h. For a proposed design with multiple heating, cooling or water heating systems using different fuel types, the applicable standard reference design system capacities and fuel types shall be weighted in accordance with their respective loads as calculated by accepted engineering practice for each equipment and fuel type present. i. For a proposed design without a proposed heating system, a heating system with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency shall be assumed for both the standard reference design and proposed design. For electric heating systems, the prevailing federal minimum efficiency air-source heat pump shall be used for the standard reference design. j. For a proposed design home without a proposed cooling system, an electric air conditioner with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency shall be assumed for both the standard reference design and the proposed design. k. For a proposed design with a nonstorage-type water heater, a 40-gallon storage-type water heater with the prevailing federal minimum energy factor for the same fuel as the predominant heating fuel type shall be assumed. For the case of a proposed design without a proposed water heater, a 40-gallon storage-type water heater with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency for the same fuel as the predominant heating fuel type shall be assumed for both the proposed design and standard reference design.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND CONDITION:

TABLE 405.5.2(2)

DEFAULT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EFFICIENCIES FOR PROPOSED DESIGNS a

Distribution system components located in unconditioned space

FORCED AIR SYSTEMS

HYDRONIC SYSTEMS b

0.95

Untested distribution systems entirely located in conditioned space

―Ductless‖ systems d c

0.88

1

1

For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 L/s; 1 square foot = 0.093m

2

; 1 pound per square inch = 6895 Pa; 1 inch water gauge = 1250 Pa. a. Default values given by this table are for untested distribution systems, which must still meet minimum requirements for duct system insulation. b. Hydronic systems shall mean those systems that distribute heating and cooling energy directly to individual spaces using liquids pumped through closed loop piping and that do not depend on ducted, forced airflow to maintain space temperatures. c. Entire system in conditioned space shall mean that no component of the distribution system, including the air handler unit, is located outside of the conditioned space. d. Ductless systems shall be allowed to have forced airflow across a coil but shall not have any ducted airflow external to the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure.

CHAPTER 5

COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY

SECTION 501

GENERAL

501.1 Scope.

The requirements contained in this chapter are

502.1.1 Insulation and fenestration criteria. The

building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Tables 502.2(1) and 502.3 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. Commercial applicable to commercial buildings, or portions of commercial buildings. These commercial buildings shall either:

1. Meet the requirements contained in this chapter, or

2. Comply with the mandatory provisions of

2007 ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1,

Energy Standard for Buildings Except for

Low-Rise Residential Buildings and exceed the minimum level of energy efficiency it prescribes by 20% following the procedure in ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1,

Appendix G.

North Carolina specific COMcheck shall be permitted to demonstrate compliance with this code.

501.2 Application. The commercial building project shall comply with the requirements in Sections 502

(Building envelope requirements), 503 (Building mechanical systems), 504(Service water heating),

505 (Electrical power and lighting systems) and 506

(Additional prescriptive options). Compliance with section 506 requires complying with any one (1) of the following prescriptive options: a. 506.2.1 More Efficient Mechanical Equipment b. 506.2.2 Reduced Lighting Power Density c. 506.2.3 Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems d. 506.2.4 Higher Efficiency Service Water Heating e. 506.2.5 On-Site Supply of Renewable Energy f. 506.2.6 Automatic Daylighting Control System

At the time of plan submittal, the building jurisdiction shall be provided, by the submittal authority, documentation designating the intent to comply with Section 506.2.1, 506.2.2, 506.2.3,

506.2.4, 506.2.5 or 506.2.6 in their entirety.

Exception: Buildings conforming to Section

507, provided Sections 502.4, 503.2, 504,

505.2, 505.3, 505.4, 505.6 and 505.7 are each satisfied.

SECTION 502

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

502.1 General (Prescriptive).

buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the Rvalues from the ―Group R‖ column of Table

502.2(1). Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the ―All other‖ column of Table 502.2(1).

502.1.2 U-factor alternative. An assembly with a Ufactor, C-factor, or F-factor equal or less than that specified in Table 502.1.2 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table 502.2(1).

Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor from the ―Group

R‖ column of Table 502.1.2.

Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-factor, C-factor or F-factor from the

―All other‖ column of Table 502.1.2.

502.2 Specific insulation requirements

(Prescriptive). Opaque assemblies shall comply with Table 502.2(1).

502.2.1 Roof assembly. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), based on construction materials used in the roof assembly.

Exception: Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted U-factor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in

Table 502.2(1).

Insulation installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered part of the minimum thermal resistance of the roof insulation.

502.2.2 Classification of walls. Walls associated with the building envelope shall be classified in accordance with Section 502.2.2.1 or 502.2.2.2.

502.2.2.1 Above-grade walls. Above-grade walls are those walls covered by Section 502.2.3 on the exterior of the building and completely above grade or walls that are more than 15 percent above grade.

502.2.2.2 Below-grade walls. Below-grade walls covered by Section 502.2.4 are basement or firststory walls associated with the exterior of the building that are at least 85 percent below grade.

502.2.3 Above-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material(s) installed in the wall cavity between the framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly.

The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units (CMU) shall not be used in determining compliance with Table 502.2(1). ―Mass walls‖ shall include walls weighing at least (1) 35 pounds per square foot (170 kg/m

2

) of wall surface area or (2) 25 pounds per square foot (120 kg/m

2

) of wall surface area if the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot (1900 kg/m

3

).

502.2.4 Below-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed in, or continuously on, the below-grade walls shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), and shall extend to a depth of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the outside finished ground level, or to the level of the floor, whichever is less.

502.2.5 Floors over outdoor air or unconditioned

space. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the floor framing or continuously on the floor assembly shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), based on construction materials used in the floor assembly.

―Mass floors‖ shall include floors weighing at least

(1) 35 pounds per square foot (170 kg/m

2

) of floor surface area or (2) 25 pounds per square foot (120 kg/m

2

) of floor surface area if the material weight is not more than 12 pounds per cubic foot (1,900 kg/m

3

).

Climate Zone

Insulation entirely above deck

Metal buildings (with

R-5 thermal blocks a

)

Attic and other

TABLE 502.1.2

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS OPAQUE ELEMENT, MAXIMUM U-FACTORS

3 4

All Other Group R Group R All Other

U-0.039 U-0.039

All Other

Roofs

U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.032

U-0.041

U-0.027

U-0.041

U-0.035 U-0.035

U-0.021

U-0.035

U-0.021

Mass

Metal building

U-0.123

U-0.072

U-0.041

U-0.104

U-0.050

U-0.021

Walls, Above Grade

U-0.104

U-0.060

U-0.090

U-0.050

U-0.090

U-0.050

5

Group R

U-0.032

U-0.035

U-0.021

U-0.060

U-0.050

Metal framed U-0.064 U-0.049

Wood framed and other

Below-grade wall a

Mass

Joist / Framing

Unheated slabs

U-0.064

C-0.119

U-0.064

U-0.033

F-0.730

U-0.064

U-0.051

U-0.055

U-0.051

U-0.049

U-0.045

C-0.119

Walls, Below Grade

C-0.119

U-0.064

U-0.033

F-0.540

Floors

U-0.057

U-0.027

Slab-on-Grade Floors

F-0.520

C-0.092

U-0.051

U-0.027

F-0.520

U-0.045

C-0.119

U-0.057

U-0.027

F-0.520

U-0.043

U-0.041

C-0.092

U-0.051

U-0.027

F-0.510

Heated slabs F-0.860 F-0.860

F-0.688 F-0.688

F-0.688 F-0.688

a. When heated slabs are placed below-grade, below grade walls must meet the F-factor requirements for perimeter insulation according to the heated slab-on-grade construction.

Climate Zone

Insulation entirely above deck

TABLE 502.2(1)

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS – OPAQUE ASSEMBLIES

3 4

All Other Group R All Other

Roofs

Group R All Other

R - 25 ci R-25 ci R - 30 ci R-30 ci R - 30 ci

5

Group R

R-30 ci

Metal buildings (with

R-5 thermal blocks) a,b

Attic and other - wood framing

Attic and other - steel framing

R-10 + R-19

FC

R-38

R-38

R-10 + R-19

FC

R-38

R-38

R-19 + R-11

Ls

R-42

R-49

R-19 + R-11

Ls

R-42

R-49

R-19 + R-11

Ls

R-42

R-49

R-19 + R-11

Ls

R-42

R-49

Mass other

Metal building b

Metal framed

Wood framed and

R-7.6 ci

R-0+R-13 ci

R-13 + 7.5 ci

R-13 + R-3.8 ci

R-9.5 ci

Walls, Above Grade

R-9.5 ci

R-0 + R-19 ci R-0 + R-15.8 ci

R- 13 +

R-7.5 ci

R-13 + R-10 ci

R-19, R-13+

R-5, or R-15 +

R-3 g

R-13 + R-7.5 ci

Walls, Below Grade

R-7.5 ci R-7.5 ci

R-11.4 ci R-11.4 ci R-15 ci

R-0 + R-19 ci R-0 + R-19 ci R-0 + R-19 ci

R-13 +

R-12.5 ci

R-19, R-13+

R-5, or R-15 +

R-3 g

R-13 +

R-12.5 ci

R- 13 +

R-15 ci

R-13 + R-10 ci R-19, R-13+

R-5, or R-15 +

R-3 g

Below-grade wall c

R-7.5 ci R-10 ci R-7.5 ci R-10 ci

Mass

Joist / Framing

Unheated slabs

R-12.5 ci

R-30 e

NR

R-12.5 ci

R-30 e

Floors

R-14.6 ci

R-38

R-16.7 ci

R-38

R-14.6 ci

R-38

R-16.7 ci

R-38

Slab-on-Grade Floors

d

R-10 for 24 in. R-15 for 24 in. R-15 for 24 in. R-15 for 24 in. R-20 for 24 in.

Heated slabs R-15 for 24 in. R-15 for 24 in. R-20 for 24 in. R-20 for 48 in.

Opaque Doors

R-20 for 48 in.

R-20 for 48 in.

Swinging

Roll-up or sliding

U – 0.70

U - 0.50

U – 0.50

U - 0.50

U – 0.50

U - 0.50

U – 0.50

U - 0.50

U – 0.50

U - 0.50

U – 0.50

U - 0.50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

CI = Continuous insulation. FC = Filled Cavity. LS = Liner System. NR = No requirement. a. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required, otherwise use the U-factor compliance method. [see Tables

502.1.2 and 502.2(2)]. b. Assembly descriptions can be found in Table 502.2(2). c. R-5.7 ci is allowed to be substituted with concrete block walls complying with ASTM C 90, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with material having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu-in./h-f

2

F. d. For monolithic slabs, insulation shall be applied from the inspection gap downward to the bottom of the footing. For floating slabs, insulation shall extend to the bottom of the foundation wall or 24 inches, whichever is less. (See Appendix 1.C) e. Steel floor joist systems shall to be R-38. f. R-30 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for R-38 wherever the full height of uncompressed R-30 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. Similarly, R-38 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for R-42 or R-49 wherever the full height of uncompressed R-38 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves.

ROOFS

R-10 + R-19FC

TABLE 502.2(2)

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

–OPAQUE ASSEMBLIES

DESCRIPTION

Filled cavity fiberglass insulation.

A continuous vapor barrier is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Both layers of uncompressed, unfaced fiberglass insulation rest on top of the vapor barrier and are installed parallel, between the purlins. A minimum R-3.5 thermal spacer block is placed above the purlin/batt, and the roof deck is secured to the purlins. Drawings of typical details are shown in Appendix 2.1.

R-19 + R11 Ls

WALLS

R-0 + R-13 ci

R-0 + R-19 ci

Liner System with minimum R-3.5 thermal spacer block.

A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. Drawings of typical details are shown in

Appendix 2.1.

The second rated R-value is for continuous rigid insulation installed between the metal wall panel and steel framing, or on the interior of the steel framing. Drawings of typical details are shown in Appendix 2.1.

502.2.6 Slabs on grade. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1). The insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of a foundation wall. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance as shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table.

502.2.7 Opaque doors. Opaque doors (doors having less than 50 percent glass area) shall meet the applicable requirements for doors as specified in

Table 502.2(1) and be considered as part of the gross area of above-grade walls that are part of the building envelope.

502.3 Fenestration (Prescriptive). Fenestration shall comply with Table 502.3.

502.3.1 Maximum area. The vertical fenestration area (not including opaque doors) shall not exceed the percentage of the gross wall area specified in

Table 502.3. The skylight area shall not exceed the percentage of the gross roof area specified in Table

502.3.

502.3.2 Maximum U-factor and SHGC. For vertical fenestration, the maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in

Table 502.3, based on the window projection factor.

For skylights, the maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in

Table 502.3.

The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation 5-1.

PF = A/B (Equation 5-1) where:

PF = Projection factor (decimal).

A = Distance measured horizontally from the furthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing.

B = Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device.

Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately, or an area-weighted PF value shall be calculated and used for all windows and glass doors.

CLIMATE ZONE

TABLE 502.3

BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS: FENESTRATION

3 4

Vertical Fenestration (30% maximum of above-grade wall)

U-Factor

Framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcement or cladding

U-Factor 0.32

0.32

Metal framing with or without thermal break

Curtain Wall/Storefront 0.45

U-Factor

Entrance Door U-Factor

All Other U-Factor a

0.77

0.45

0.45

0.77

0.45

SHGC-All Frame Types

SHGC: PF < 0.25

SHGC: 0.25 ≤ PF < 0.5

SHGC: PF ≥ 0.5

0.25

0.33

0.40

0.25

0.33

0.40

Skylights (3% maximum, 5% if using automatic daylighting controls

)

U-Factor

SHGC

0.60

0.35

0.60

0.35

SHGC = Solar Heat Gain Coefficient.(approximately equal to 0.87 times the Shading Coefficient). NR = No requirement.

PF = Projection factor (see Section 502.3.2). a. All others include operable windows, fixed and nonentrance doors.

5

0.30

0.38

0.77

0.45

0.40

NR

NR

0.60

0.40

502.4 Air leakage control (Mandatory

Requirements).

502.4.1 Window and door assemblies. The air leakage of window and sliding or swinging door assemblies that are part of the building envelope shall be determined in accordance with

AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, or NFRC 400 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer and shall not exceed the values in Section 402.4.2.

Exception: Site-constructed windows and doors that are weatherstripped or sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.

502.4.2 Curtain wall, storefront glazing and

commercial entrance doors. Curtain wall, storefront glazing and commercial-glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors shall be tested for air leakage at 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) (75 Pa) in accordance with ASTM E 283. For curtain walls and storefront glazing, the maximum air leakage rate shall be 0.3 cubic foot per minute per square foot

(cfm/ft

2

) (5.5 m

3

/h × m

2

) of fenestration area. For commercial glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors, the maximum air leakage rate shall be 1.00 cfm/ft

2

(18.3 m

3

/h × m

2

) of door area when tested in accordance with ASTM E-283.

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope. Openings and penetrations in the building envelope shall be sealed with caulking materials or closed with gasketing systems compatible with the construction materials and location. Joints and seams of the air barrier system shall be sealed in the same manner or taped or covered with a moisture vapor-permeable wrapping material. Sealing materials spanning joints between construction materials shall allow for expansion and contraction of the construction materials. See construction details in Appendix 2.

The following connections shall be air sealed:

1. joints around fenestration and door frames

2. junctions between walls and foundations, between walls at building corners, between walls and structural floors or roofs, and between walls and roof or wall panels

3. openings at penetrations of utility services through roofs, walls, and floors including but not limited to electrical, plumbing, mechanical, security, and communications

4. site-built fenestration and doors

5. joints, seams, and penetrations of the air barrier system

6. other openings in the building envelope

502.4.5 Stair and elevator vents Shaft vents serving stairs and elevators integral to the building thermal envelope shall be equipped with not less than a Class

I motorized, leakage-rated damper with a maximum leakage rate of 4 cfm per square foot (6.8 L/s · C m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (125 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D.

Exception:

1. Buildings without fire alarm systems.

2. Stairway vents open to the exterior.

502.4.6 Loading dock weatherseals. Cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.

502.4.7 Vestibules. A door that separates conditioned

space from the exterior shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time.

Exceptions:

1. Doors not intended to be used as a building entrance door, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equipment rooms.

2. Doors opening directly from a sleeping

unit or dwelling unit.

3. Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 m

2

) in area.

4. Revolving doors.

5. Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent personnel doors.

6. Building entrances in buildings that are less than four stories above grade and less than 10,000 ft 2 in area.

502.4.8 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be ICrated and labeled as meeting ASTM E 283 when tested at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential with no more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) of air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. Such recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering.

SECTION 503

BUILDING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

503.1 General. Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Section 503.2 (referred to as the mandatory provisions) and either:

1. Section 503.3 (Simple systems), or

2. Section 503.4 (Complex systems).

503.2 Provisions applicable to all mechanical systems (Mandatory requirements).

503.2.1 Calculation of heating and cooling loads.

Design loads shall be determined in accordance with the procedures described in the ASHRAE/ACCA

Standard 183. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved when energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the

ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook.

Alternatively, design loads shall be determined by an

approved equivalent computation procedure, using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3.

503.2.2 Equipment and system sizing. Heating and cooling equipment and systems capacity shall not exceed the loads calculated in accordance with

Section 503.2.1, within available equipment options.

A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling must satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible.

Exceptions:

1. Required standby equipment and systems provided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating.

2. Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that have the capability to sequence the operation of each unit based on load.

3. When the equipment selected is the smallest size needed to meet the load within available options of the desired equipment line.

503.2.3 HVAC equipment performance

requirements. Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables 503.2.3(1),

503.2.3(2), 503.2.3(3), 503.2.3(4), 503.2.3(5),

503.2.3(6) and 503.2.3(7) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. The efficiency shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, if no certification program exists, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements.

Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from different manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein.

Exception: Water-cooled centrifugal waterchilling packages listed in Table 503.2.3(7) not designed for operation at ARHI Standard

550/590 test conditions of 44°F (7°C) leaving chilled water temperature and 85°F

(29°C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s.kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full load and NPLV ratings adjusted using the following equations:

Adjusted maximum full load kW/ton rating = [full load kW/ton from Table 503.2.3(7)]/K adj

Adjusted maximum NPLV rating = [IPLV from

Table 503.2.3(7)]/K adj where:

K

adj

= 6.174722 - 0.303668(X) +

0.00629466(X)

2

- 0.000045780(X)

3

X =DT

std

+ LIFT

DT std

= {24+[full load kW/ton from Table

503.2.3(7)] × 6.83}/Flow

Flow = Condenser water flow (GPM)/Cooling

Full Load Capacity (tons)

LIFT = CEWT – CLWT ( F)

CEWT = Full Load Condenser Entering Water

Temperature ( F)

CLWT = Full Load Leaving Chilled Water

Temperature ( F)

The adjusted full load and NPLV values are only applicable over the following full-load design ranges:

Minimum Leaving Chilled

Water Temperature: 38°F (3.3°C)

Maximum Condenser Entering

Water Temperature: 102°F (38.9°C)

Condensing Water Flow: 1 to 6 gpm/ton 0.018 to

0.1076 1/s kW) and X 39 and 60

Chillers designed to operate outside of these ranges or applications utilizing fluids or solutions with secondary coolants (e.g., glycol solutions or brines) with a freeze point of 27°F (-2.8°C) or lower for freeze protection are not covered by this code.

503.2.4 Hot gas bypass limitation. Cooling systems shall not use hot gas bypass or other evaporator pressure control systems unless the system is designed with multiple steps of unloading or continuous capacity modulation. The capacity of the hot gas bypass shall be limited as indicated in Table

502.4.4.

Exception: Unitary packaged systems with nominal cooling capacities of 7.5 tons or less (approximately 90 kBtu/h or 26.4 kW).

TABLE 503.2.4.4

MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY

RATED CAPACITY MAXIMUM HOT GAS

BYPASS

CAPACITY

(% of total capacity)

≤ 20 nominal tons 240 kBtu/h) 50%

> 20 nominal tons 240 kBtu/h)

For SI: 1 Btu/h = 0.29 watts.

25%

TABLE 503.2.3(1)

UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

EQUIPMENT TYPE

SIZE CATEGORY

e

REQUIREMENTS

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY b

TEST PROCEDURE a

Air conditioners,

Air cooled

< 65,000 Btu/h d

(<= 5 nominal tons)

≥ 65,000 Btuh/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

≥ 240,000 Btu/h and

< 760,000 Btu/h

≥ 760,000 Btu/h

Split system

Single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

13.0 SEER

13 SEER

11.2 EER

11.0 EER

10.0 EER

9.7 IPLV c c c g

AHRI 210/240

AHRI 340/360

Through-the-wall,

Air cooled

Air conditioners, Water and evaporatively cooled

< 30,000 Btu/h

< 65,000 Btu/h d

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

≥ 240,000 Btu/h

Split system and single package

Split system

Single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

9.7 EER c

9.4 IPLV c

12.0 SEER

12.0 SEER

12.1 EER

11.5 EER c

11.0 EER c

11.5 EER c

AHRI 210/240

AHRI 210/240

AHRI 340/360

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation. c. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat. d. Single-phase air-cooled air conditioners 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA);

SEER values are those set by NAECA. e. Size category is based on nominal equipment sizes, e.g. <65,000 Btu/h indicates <= 5 tons, < 135,000 Btu/h indicates <= 10 tons, <240,000

Btu/h indicates < 20 tons, >= 760,000 Btu/h indicates > 60 tons.

TABLE 503.2.3(2)

UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORYe

REQUIREMENTS

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

MINIMUM

EFFICIENCY b

TEST PROCEDURE a

Air cooled

(Cooling mode)

Through-the-Wall

(Air cooled, cooling mode)

Water source

(Cooling mode)

Groundwater source

(Cooling mode)

< 65,000 Btu/h d

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

≥135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

≥ 240,000 Btu/h

< 30,000 Btu/h

< 17,000 Btu/h d

≥ 17,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

< 135,000 Btu/h

Split system

Single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system

Single package

86°F entering water

86°F entering water

59°F entering water

13.0 SEER

13.0 SEER

11.0 EER c

10.6 EER c

9.5 EER c

9.2 IPLV c

12.0 SEER

12.0 SEER

11.2 EER

12.0 EER

16.2 EER

AHRI 210/240

AHRI 340/360

AHRI 210/240

AHRI/ASHRAE-13256-1

AHRI/ASHRAE-13256-1

AHRI/ASHRAE-13256-1

Ground source

(Cooling mode)

Air cooled

(Heating mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

< 65,000 Btu/h d

(Cooling capacity)

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

≥ 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

77°F entering water

Split system

Single package

47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air

13.4 EER

7.7 HSPF

7.7 HSPF

3.3 COP

AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1

AHRI 210/240

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air

Split system

3.2 COP AHRI 340/360

Through-the-wall

(Air cooled, heating mode)

Water source

(Heating mode)

Groundwater source

(Heating mode)

< 30,000 Btu/h

Single package

68°F entering water

50°F entering water

7.4 HSPF

7.4 HSPF

4.2 COP

3.6 COP

AHRI 210/240

ARI/ASHRAE-13256-1

ARI/ASHRAE-13256-1

Ground Source

(Heating mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

32°F entering water 3.1 COP ARI/ASHRAE-13256-1

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. db = dry-bulb temperature, °F; wb = wet-bulb temperature, °F. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. IPLVs and Part load rating conditions are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation. c. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat. d. Single-phase air-cooled heat pumps < 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA),

SEER and HSPF values are those set by NAECA e. Size category is based on nominal equipment sizes, e.g. <65,000 Btu/h indicates <= 5 tons, < 135,000 Btu/h indicates <= 10 tons, <240,000

Btu/h indicates < 20 tons, >= 760,000 Btu/h indicates > 60 tons.

EQUIPMENT TYPE

New construction

PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS AND PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS

SIZE CATEGORY

(INPUT)

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY b

TEST PROCEDURE a

PTAC (Cooling mode)

PTAC (Cooling mode)

All capacities

All capacities

95°F db outdoor air

95°F db outdoor air

12.5 - (0.213

⋅ Cap/1000) EER

10.9 - (0.213

⋅ Cap/1000) EER

ARI 310/380

Replacements c

PTHP (Cooling mode)

New construction

All capacities

TABLE 503.2.3(3)

95°F db outdoor air 12.3 - (0.213

⋅ Cap/1000) EER

PTHP (Cooling mode)

Replacements c

All capacities 95°F db outdoor air

10.8 - (0.213

⋅ Cap/1000) EER

PTHP (Heating mode)

New construction

PTHP (Heating mode)

Replacements c

All capacities

All capacities

3.2 - (0.026

⋅ Cap/1000) COP

2.9 - (0.026

⋅ Cap/1000) COP

For SI: ºC - [(ºF) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour - 0.2931 W. db = dry-bulb temperature, ºF. wb = wet-bulb temperature, ºF. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. Cap means the rated cooling capacity of the product in Btu/h. If the unit’s capacity is less than 7,000 Btu/h, use 7,000 Btu/h in the calculation.

If the unit’s capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculation. c. Replacement units must be factory labeled as follows: ―MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE

INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.‖ Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches

(406 mm) high and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) wide.

TABLE 503.2.3(4)

WARM AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS,

EQUIPMENT TYPE

Warm air furnaces, gas fired

WARM AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

SIZE CATEGORY

(INPUT)h

< 225,000 Btu/h

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

MINIMUM

EFFICIENCY d, e

78% AFUE or

TEST PROCEDURE a

DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or ANSI Z21.47

80% E

t c

Warm air furnaces,

≥ 225,000 Btu/h

< 225,000 Btu/h

Maximum capacity

— c

80% E t f

78% AFUE

ANSI Z21.47

DOE 10 CFR Part 430 oil fired or

80% E

t

or UL 727

≥ 225,000 Btu/h

Maximum capacity b

81% E

tg

UL 727

Warm air duct furnaces, gas fired

All capacities Maximum capacity b

80% E

c

ANSI Z83.8

Warm air unit heaters, gas fired

All capacities Maximum capacity b

80% E

c

ANSI Z83.8

Warm air unit heaters, oil fired

All capacities Maximum capacity b

80% E

c

UL 731

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit’s controls. c. Combination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating. d. E

t

= Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion. e. E

c

= Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion. f. E

c

= Combustion efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. g. E

t

= Thermal efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. h. Size category is based on nominal equipment sizes, e.g. <65,000 Btu/h indicates <= 5 tons, < 135,000 Btu/h indicates <= 10 tons, <240,000

Btu/h indicates < 20 tons, >= 760,000 Btu/h indicates > 60 tons.

EQUIPMENT TYPE f

Boilers, Gas fired

TABLE 503.2.3(5)

BOILERS, GAS- AND OIL-FIRED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

SIZE CATEGORY

(INPUT)g

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

MINIMUM

EFFICIENCY c, d, e

< 300,000 Btu/h Hot water

Steam

80% AFUE

75% AFUE

≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h

>2,500,000 Btu/h f

Minimum capacity

Hot water b

75% E

t

and 80% E

(See Note c, d)

80% E

c

(See Note c, d)

c

Steam

< 300,000 Btu/h

80% E

c

(See Note c, d)

80% AFUE

TEST PROCEDURE a

DOE 10 CFR

Part 430

DOE 10 CFR

Part 431

Boilers, Oil fired DOE 10 CFR

Part 430

Boilers, Oil fired

(Residual)

≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h

> 2,500,000 Btu/h f

≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h

> 2,500,000 Btu/h f

Minimum capacity

Hot water

Steam

Minimum capacity

Hot water b b

78% E

t

and 83% E

(See Note c, d)

c

83% E

c

(See Note c, d)

83% E

c

(See Note c, d)

78% E

t

and 83% E

c

(See Note c, d)

83% E

c

(See Note c, d)

DOE 10 CFR

Part 431

DOE 10 CFR

Part 431

Steam 83% E

c

(See Note c, d)

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. Minimum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit’s controls. c. E

c

= Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses). See reference document for detailed information. d. E

t

= Thermal efficiency. See reference document for detailed information. e. Alternative test procedures used at the manufacturer’s option are ASME PTC-4.1 for units greater than 5,000,000 Btu/h input, or ANSI Z21.13 for units greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h and less than or equal to 2,500,000 Btu/h input. f. These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers, and to all packaged boilers.

Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers. g. Size category is based on nominal equipment sizes, e.g. <65,000 Btu/h indicates <= 5 tons, < 135,000 Btu/h indicates <= 10 tons, <240,000

Btu/h indicates < 20 tons, >= 760,000 Btu/h indicates > 60 tons.

TABLE 503.2.3(6)

CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE MINIMUM EFFICIENCY b

TEST PROCEDURE a

Condensing units, air cooled

SIZE CATEGORY

≥ 135,000 Btu/h

10.1 EER

11.2 IPLV

ARI 365

Condensing units, water or evaporatively cooled

≥ 135,000 Btu/h

13.1 EER

13.1 IPLV

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.

EQUIPMENT

TYPE

Air-Cooled

Chillers

Air-Cooled without

Condenser,

Electrical

Operated

Water cooled,

Electrically

Operated,

Reciprocating

Water Cooled

Electrically

Operated,

Positive

Displacement

Water Cooled

Electrically

Operated,

Centrifugal

SIZE

CATEGORY

<150 tons

≥150 tons

All Capacities

All Capacities kW/ton

<75 tons

≥75 tons and

< 150 tons

≥150 tons and

< 300 tons

≥300 tons

<150 tons

≥150 tons and

< 300 tons

≥300 tons and

< 600 tons

≥600 tons

TABLE 503.2.3(7)

WATER CHILLING PACKAGES, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS a

UNITS

EER

EER

BEFORE 1/1/2010

IPLV FULL

LOAD

≥9.562

≥10.416

FULL

AS OF 1/1/2010

C

PATH A

IPLV

LOAD

≥9.562

≥9.562

≥12.500

≥12.750

PATH B

FULL

LOAD

IPLV

NA

NA d d

NA

NA d d

EER

≥10.586

≥11.782

Air-cooled chillers without condensers must be rated with matching condensers and comply with the air-cooled chiller efficiency requirements kW/ton kW/ton kW/ton kW/ton kW/ton kW/ton

≤0.837

≤0.790

≤0.717

≤0.639

≤0.703

≤0.634

≤0.696

≤0.676

≤0.627

≤0.571

≤0.669

≤0.596

≤0.549

Reciprocating units must comply with water cooled positive displacement efficiency

≤0.780

≤0.775

requirements

≤0.630

≤0.615

≤0.800

≤0.790

≤0.600

≤0.586

≤0.680

≤0.620

≤0.634

≤0.580

≤0.540

≤0.596

≤0.718

≤0.639

≤0.639

≤0.540

≤0.490

≤0.450

TEST

PROCEDURE b

AHRI

550/590 kW/ton kW/ton

≤0.576

≤0.576

≤0.549

≤0.576

≤0.570

≤0.549

≤0.539

≤0.600

ARI 560

≤0.400

≤0.400

Air Cooled

Absorption

Single Effect

Water-Cooled

Absorption

Single Effect

Absorption

Double Effect

Indirect-Fired

Absorption

Double Effect

Direct Fired

All Capacities

All Capacities

All Capacities

All Capacities

COP

COP

COP

COP

≥0.600

≥0.700

≥1.000

≥1.000

NR

NR e e

≥1.050

≥1.000

≥0.600

≥0.700

≥1.000

≥1.000

NR

NR e e

≥1.050

≥1.000

NA

NA

NA

NA d d d d

NA

NA

NA

NA d d d d

For SI: 1 ton = 907 kg, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. The chiller equipment requirements do not apply for chillers used in low-temperature applications where the design leaving fluid temperature is

40ºF. b. Section 12 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. c. Compliance with this standard can be obtained by meeting the minimum requirements of Path A or B. However, both the full load and IPLV must be met to fulfill the requirements of Path A or B. d. NA means that this requirement is not applicable and cannot be used for compliance. e. NR means that there are no minimum requirements for this category.

503.2.4 HVAC system controls. Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with thermostatic controls as required in Section 503.2.4.1, 503.2.4.2,

503.2.4.3, 503.2.4.4, 503.4.1, 503.4.2, 503.4.3 or

503.4.4.

503.2.4.1 Thermostatic controls. The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. Where humidification or dehumidification or both is provided, at least one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system.

Exception: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses or gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided:

1. The perimeter system includes at least one thermostatic control zone for each building exposure having exterior walls facing only one orientation (within +/- 45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15.2 m); and

2. The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by a thermostat(s) located within the zone(s) served by the system.

503.2.4.1.1 Heat pump supplementary heat. Heat pumps having supplementary electric resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplementary heat operation when the heat pump can meet the heating load.

In systems with a cooling capacity of less than

65,000 Btuh, a heat strip outdoor temperature lockout shall be provided to prevent supplemental heat operation in response to the thermostat being changed to a warmer setting. The lockout shall be set no lower than 35 F and no higher than 40 o

F.

503.2.4.2 Set point overlap restriction. Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall provide a temperature range or deadband of at least 5°F (2.8°C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is capable of being shut off or reduced to a minimum.

Exception: Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.

503.2.4.3 Off-hour controls. Each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are controlled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system.

Exceptions:

1. Zones that will be operated continuously.

2. Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btu/h (2 kW) and having a readily accessible manual shutoff switch.

3. HVAC systems serving hotel/ motel guestrooms or other residential units complying with Section 503.2.2 requirements.

4. Packaged terminal air conditioners, packaged terminal heat pumps, and room air conditioner systems.

503.2.4.3.1 Thermostatic setback capabilities.

Thermostatic setback controls shall have the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F

(13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C).

503.2.4.3.2 Automatic setback and shutdown

capabilities. Automatic time clock or programmable controls shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a loss of power for at least 10 hours.

Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer capable of being adjusted to operate the system for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor.

503.2.4.4 Shutoff damper controls. Both Outdoor air supply and exhaust ducts, fans or openings in the building thermal envelope shall be equipped with motorized dampers that will automatically shut when the systems or spaces served are not in use.

Exceptions:

1. Gravity dampers shall be permitted in buildings less than three stories in height.

2. Gravity dampers shall be permitted for outside air intake or exhaust airflows of 300 cfm (0.14m

3

/s) or less.

503.2.4.5 Snow melt system controls. Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C) and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor

temperature is above 40°F (4°C) so that the potential for snow or ice accumulation is negligible.

503.2.5 Ventilation. Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with

Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.

Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air supply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the

International Mechanical Code.

503.2.5.1 Demand controlled ventilation.

Ventilation systems in buildings over 10,000 ft

2

of conditioned area shall have demand controls. In all buildings, spaces larger than 500 ft

2

(50 m

2

) with a maximum occupant load of 40 or more people per

1,000 ft

2

(93 m

2

) of floor area (as established in Table

403.3 of the North Carolina Mechanical Code), ventilation supply air flow shall be controlled by monitoring indoor air quality conditions, such as with

CO2 sensors or thermostats. Demand controlled ventilation systems shall be capable of reducing outside supply air to at least 50% below design ventilation rates.

Exceptions:

1. Systems with energy recovery that provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of 50 percent or more of the difference between the outdoor air and return air at design conditions.

2. Building spaces where the primary ventilation needs are for process loads, including laboratories and hospital.

3. Individual units with less than 65,000

Btu/h of cooling capacity.

503.2.6 Energy recovery ventilation systems.

Individual fan systems that have both a design supply air capacity of 5,000 cfm (2.36 m

3

/s) or greater and a minimum outside air supply of 70 percent or greater of the design supply air quantity shall have an energy recovery system that provides a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of 50 percent or more of the difference between the outdoor air and return air at design conditions. Provision shall be made to bypass or control the energy recovery system to permit cooling with outdoor air where cooling with outdoor air is required.

Exception: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions:

1. Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the International Mechanical

Code.

2. Laboratory fume hood systems that include at least one of the following features:

2.1. Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values.

2.2. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2°F (1.1°C) below room setpoint, cooled to no cooler than 3°F (1.7°C) above room setpoint, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.

3. Systems serving spaces that are not cooled and are heated to less than 60°F

(15.5°C).

4. Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site solar energy.

5. Heating systems in climates with less than

3,600 HDD.

6. Cooling systems in climates with a 1percent cooling design wet-bulb temperature less than 64°F (18°C).

7. Systems requiring dehumidification that employ series-style energy recovery coils wrapped around the cooling coil.

503.2.7 Duct and plenum insulation and sealing.

All supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with a minimum of R-5 insulation when located in unconditioned spaces and a minimum of

R-8 insulation when located outside the building.

When located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by a minimum of R-8 insulation.

Exceptions:

1. When located within equipment.

2. When the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum does not exceed 15°F (8°C).

All ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section

603.9 of the International Mechanical Code.

503.2.7.1 Duct construction. Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the

International Mechanical Code.

503.2.7.1.1 Low-pressure duct systems. All longitudinal and transverse joints, seams and

connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches w.g. (500

Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus-embeddedfabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

Exceptions:

1. Continuously welded and locking-type longitudinal joints and seams on ducts operating at static pressures less than 2 inches w.g. (500 Pa) pressure classification.

2. Ducts exposed within the conditioned space they serve shall not be required to be sealed.

503.2.7.1.2 Medium-pressure duct systems. All ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches w.g. (500 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (750 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section 503.2.7. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

503.2.7.1.3 High-pressure duct systems. Ducts designed to operate at static pressures in excess of 3 inches w.g. (746 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section 503.2.7. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak-tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to

6.0 as determined in accordance with Equation 5-2.

CL=F x P

0.65

(Equation 5-2)

where:

F = The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface.

P = The static pressure of the test.

Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling at least 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections meet the requirements of this section.

503.2.8 Piping insulation. All piping serving as part of a heating or cooling system shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 503.2.8.

Exceptions:

1. Factory-installed piping within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code.

2. Factory-installed piping within room fancoils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and variation provisions of Section

6.5 shall not apply) and 840, respectively.

3. Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between

55°F (13°C) and 105°F (41°C).

4. Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power.

5. Runout piping not exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in length and 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter between the control valve and

HVAC coil.

6. Refrigerant suction piping located in conditioned space is not required to be insulated other than as may be necessary for preventing the formation of condensation.

FLUID

Steam

Hot water

TABLE 503.2.8

MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION

(thickness in inches)

NOMINAL PIPE DIAMETER

≤ 1.5"

1.5"

1

1

/

2

1

1

/

2

3

2

Chilled water, brine or refrigerant

1

1

/

2

1

1

/

2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. a. Based on insulation having a conductivity (k) not exceeding 0.27

Btu per inch/h · ft

2

· °F. b. For insulation with a thermal conductivity not equal to 0.27 Btu

· inch/h · ft

2

· °F at a mean temperature of 75°F, the minimum required pipe thickness is adjusted using the following equation;

T = r[(1+tlr)

K/k

-1] where:

T = Adjusted insulation thickness (in).

r = Actual pipe radius (in).

t = Insulation thickness from applicable cell in table (in).

K = New thermal conductivity at 75°F (Btu · in/hr · ft

2

· °F).

k = 0.27 Btu · in/hr · ft

2

· °F.

503.2.9 HVAC system completion. Prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy, the following shall be completed

503.2.9.1 Air system balancing. Each supply air outlet and zone terminal device shall be equipped

with means for air balancing in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of the International

Mechanical Code. Discharge dampers are prohibited on constant volume fans and variable volume fans with motors 10 horsepower (hp) (7.4 kW) and larger.

503.2.9.2 Hydronic system balancing. Individual hydronic heating and cooling coils shall be equipped with means for balancing and pressure test connections.

503.2.9.3 Manuals. The construction documents shall require that an operating and maintenance manual be provided to the building owner by the mechanical contractor.

The manual shall include, at least, the following:

1. Equipment capacity (input and output) and required maintenance actions.

2. Equipment operation and maintenance manuals.

3. HVAC system control maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, and control sequence descriptions.

Desired or field-determined setpoints shall be permanently recorded on control drawings, at control devices or, for digital control systems, in programming comments.

4. A complete written narrative of how each system is intended to operate.

503.2.10 Air system design and control. Each

HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower (hp) exceeding 5 horsepower

(hp) shall meet the provisions of Sections 503.2.10.1 through 503.2.10.2.

503.2.10.1 Allowable fan horsepower. Each HVAC system at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp

(Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) as shown in

Table 503.2.10.1(1). This includes supply fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability.

Exceptions:

1. Hospital and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust and/or return to maintain space pressure relationships necessary for occupant health and safety or environmental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation.

2. Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp or less.

3. Fans exhausting air from fume hoods.

(Note: If this exception is taken, no related exhaust side credits shall be taken from

Table 503.2.10.1(2) and the Fume Exhaust

Exception Deduction must be taken from

Table 503.2.10.1(2).

TABLE 503.2.10.1(1)

FAN POWER LIMITATION

LIMIT CONSTANT VOLUME VARIABLE VOLUME

Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate

Option 2: Fan system bhp

Allowable nameplate motor hp

CFM

S

*0.0011 + A

Allowable fan system bhp bhp

CFM

S

*0.00094 + A hp

CFM

S

*0.0015 + A bhp

CFM

S

*0.0013 + A where:

CFM

S

= The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute. hp = The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower.

Bhp = The maximum combined fan brake horsepower.

A =Sum of [PD CFM

D

/ 4131]. where:

PD = Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table 503.2.10.1(2) in. w.c.

TABLE 503.2.10.1(2)

FAN POWER LIMITATION PRESSURE DROP ADJUSTMENT

DEVICE ADJUSTMENT

Credits

0.5 in w.c. Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems with capacity ≤ 20,000 cfm

Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems with capacity > 20,000 cfm

Return and/or exhaust air flow control devices

2.0 in w.c.

Exhaust filters, scrubbers, or other exhaust treatment.

0.5 in w.c

The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition.

Particulate Filtration Credit: MERV 9 thru 12

Particulate Filtration Credit: MERV 13 thru 15

Particulate Filtration Credit: MERV 16 and greater and electronically enhanced filters

0.5 in w.c.

0.9 in w.c.

Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.

Carbon and Other gas-phase air cleaners

Heat Recovery Device

Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.

Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition.

Evaporative Humidifier/Cooler in series with another cooling coil

Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions

Sound Attenuation Section

Fume Hood Exhaust Exception

(required if 503.2.10.1.1 Exception 3 is taken)

503.2.10.2 Motor nameplate horsepower. For each

0.15 in w.c.

Deductions

-1.0 in w.c. fan, the selected fan motor shall be no larger than the first available motor size greater than the brake bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed. horsepower (bhp). The fan brake horsepower (bhp) shall be indicated on the design documents to allow for compliance verification by the code official.

503.2.11 Heating outside a building. Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems. Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occupancy sensing device or a timer

Exceptions:

1. For fans less than 6 bhp, where the first available motor larger than the brake horsepower has a nameplate rating within 50 switch, so that the system is automatically deenergized when no occupants are present. percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.

2. For fans 6 bhp and larger, where the first available motor larger than the bhp has a

503.3 Simple HVAC systems and equipment

(Prescriptive). This section applies to buildings served by unitary or packaged HVAC equipment listed in Tables 503.2.3(1) through 503.2.3(5), each serving one zone and controlled by a single nameplate rating within 30 percent of the thermostat in the zone served. It also applies to two-

pipe heating systems serving one or more zones, where no cooling system is installed.

This section does not apply to fan systems serving multiple zones, nonunitary or nonpackaged HVAC equipment and systems or hydronic or steam heating and hydronic cooling equipment and distribution systems that provide cooling or cooling and heating which are covered by Section 503.4.

503.3.1 Economizers. Supply air economizers shall be provided on each cooling system as shown in

Table 503.3.1(1).

Economizers shall be capable of providing 100percent outdoor air, even if additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the cooling load of the building. Systems shall provide a means to relieve excess outdoor air during economizer operation to prevent overpressurizing the building. The relief air outlet shall be located to avoid recirculation into the building. Where a single room or space is supplied by multiple air systems, the aggregate capacity of those systems shall be used in applying this requirement.

Exceptions:

1. Where the cooling equipment is covered by the minimum efficiency requirements of

Table 503.2.3(1) or 503.2.3(2) and meets or exceeds the minimum cooling efficiency requirement (EER) by the percentages shown in Table 503.3.1(2).

2. Systems with air or evaporatively cooled condensors and which serve spaces with open case refrigeration or that require filtration equipment in order to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of

Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical

Code.

TABLE 503.3.1(1)

ECONOMIZER REQUIREMENTS

CLIMATE ZONES ECONOMIZER REQUIREMENT

1A, 1B, 2A, 7, 8

2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B,

4C, 5A, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B

No requirement

Economizers on all cooling systems ≥ Btu/h a

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.293 W. a. The total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h per building, or 20 percent of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater.

TABLE 503.3.1(2)

EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE

EXCEPTION FOR ECONOMIZERS

CLIMATE ZONES COOLING EQUIPMENT

PERFORMANCE

IMPROVEMENT (EER OR

IPLV)

3B 15% Efficiency

Improvement

4B 20% Efficiency

Improvement

503.3.2 Hydronic system controls. Hydronic systems of at least 300,000 Btu/h (87,930 W) design output capacity supplying heated and chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that meet the requirements of Section 503.4.3.

503.4 Complex HVAC systems and equipment.

(Prescriptive). This section applies to buildings served by HVAC equipment and systems not covered in Section 503.3.

503.4.1 Economizers. Supply air economizers shall be provided on each cooling system according to

Table 503.3.1(1). Economizers shall be capable of operating at 100 percent outside air, even if additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the cooling load of the building.

Exceptions:

1. Systems utilizing water economizers that are capable of cooling supply air by direct or indirect evaporation or both and providing

100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 50°F

(10°C) dry bulb/45°F (7°C) wet bulb and below.

2. Where the cooling equipment is covered by the minimum efficiency requirements of

Table 503.2.3(1), 503.2.3(2), or 503.2.3(6) and meets or exceeds the minimum EER by the percentages shown in Table 503.3.1(2)

3. Where the cooling equipment is covered by the minimum efficiency requirements of

Table 503.2.3(7) and meets or exceeds the minimum integrated part load value (IPLV) by the percentages shown in Table

503.3.1(2).

503.4.2 Variable air volume (VAV) fan control.

Individual VAV fans with motors of 10 horsepower

(7.5 kW) or greater shall be:

1. Driven by a mechanical or electrical variable speed drive; or

2. The fan motor shall have controls or devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 30 percent of their design wattage at 50 percent of

design airflow when static pressure set point equals one-third of the total design static pressure, based on manufacturer’s certified fan data.

For systems with direct digital control of individual

zone boxes reporting to the central control panel, the static pressure set point shall be reset based on the

zone requiring the most pressure, i.e., the set point is reset lower until one zone damper is nearly wide open.

503.4.3 Hydronic systems controls. The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections 503.4.3.1 through 503.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls capable of sequencing operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems comprised of a single boiler and greater than 500,000

Btu/h input design capacity shall include either a multistaged or modulating burner.

503.4.3.1 Three-pipe system. Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.

503.4.3.2 Two-pipe changeover system. Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a dead band between changeover from one mode to the other of at least 15°F (8.3°C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for at least 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be no more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart.

503.4.3.3 Hydronic (water loop) heat pump

systems. Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections 503.4.3.3.1 through 503.4.3.3.3.

503.4.3.3.1 Temperature dead band. Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are capable of providing a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of at least 20°F (11.1°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.

Exception: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on real-time conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20°F

(11°C) shall be permitted.

503.4.3.3.2 Heat rejection. Heat rejection equipment shall comply with Sections 503.4.3.3.2.1 and

503.4.3.3.2.2.

Exception: Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.

503.4.3.3.2.1 Climate Zones 3 and 4. For Climate

Zones 3 and 4 as indicated in Figure 301.1 and Table

301.1:

1. If a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower, or lower leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.

2. If an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.

3. If an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, then heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.

503.4.3.3.2.2 Climate Zones 5 through 8. For climate Zones 5 through 8 as indicated in Figure

301.1 and Table 301.1, if an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used, then a separate heat exchanger shall be required to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, and heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop and providing an automatic valve to stop the flow of fluid.

503.4.3.3.3 Two position valve. Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 horsepower (hp) (7.5kW) shall have a two-position valve.

503.4.3.4 Part load controls. Hydronic heating systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h

(87,930 W) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that have the capability to:

1. Automatically reset the supply hot water temperatures using zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature, or outside air temperature as an indicator of building heating or

cooling demand. The temperature shall be capable of being reset by at least 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference; or

2. Reduce system pump flow by at least 50 percent of design flow rate utilizing adjustable speed drive(s) on pump(s), or multiple-staged pumps where at least one-half of the total pump horsepower is capable of being automatically turned off or control valves designed to modulate or step down, and close, as a function of load, or other approved means.

503.4.3.5 Pump isolation. Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller. Boiler plants including more than one boiler shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the boiler plant when a boiler is shut down.

503.4.4 Heat rejection equipment fan speed

control. Each fan powered by a motor of 7.5 hp (5.6 kW) or larger shall have the capability to operate that fan at two-thirds of full speed or less, and shall have controls that automatically change the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature/pressure of the heat rejection device.

Exception: Factory-installed heat rejection devices within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with Tables 503.2.3(6) and 503.2.3(7).

503.4.5 Requirements for complex mechanical

systems serving multiple zones. Sections 503.4.5.1 through 503.4.5.3 shall apply to complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Supply air systems serving multiple zones shall be VAV systems which, during periods of occupancy, are designed and capable of being controlled to reduce primary air supply to each zone to one of the following before reheating, recooling or mixing takes place:

1. Thirty percent of the maximum supply air to each

zone.

2. Three hundred cfm (142 L/s) or less where the maximum flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.

3. The minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter

4 of the International Mechanical Code.

Exception: The following define when individual zones or when entire air distribution systems are exempted from the requirement for VAV control:

1. Zones where special pressurization relationships or cross-contamination requirements are such that VAV systems are impractical.

2. Zones or supply air systems where at least

75 percent of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered or site-solar energy source.

3. Zones where special humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs.

4. Zones with a peak supply air quantity of

300 cfm (142 L/s) or less and where the flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.

5. Zones where the volume of air to be reheated, recooled or mixed is no greater than the volume of outside air required to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International

Mechanical Code.

6. Zones or supply air systems with thermostatic and humidistatic controls capable of operating in sequence the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone(s) and which are capable of preventing reheating, recooling, mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previously cooled, either mechanically or through the use of economizer systems, and air that has been previously mechanically heated.

503.4.5.1 Single duct variable air volume (VAV)

systems, terminal devices. Single duct VAV systems shall use terminal devices capable of reducing the supply of primary supply air before reheating or recooling takes place.

503.4.5.2 Dual duct and mixing VAV systems,

terminal devices. Systems that have one warm air duct and one cool air duct shall use terminal devices which are capable of reducing the flow from one duct to a minimum before mixing of air from the other duct takes place.

503.4.5.3 Single fan dual duct and mixing VAV

systems, economizers. Individual dual duct or mixing heating and cooling systems with a single fan and with total capacities greater than 90,000 Btu/h

[(26 375 W) 7.5 tons] shall not be equipped with air economizers.

503.4.5.4 Supply-air temperature reset controls.

Multiple zone HVAC systems shall include controls

that automatically reset the supply-air temperature in response to representative building loads, or to outdoor air temperature. The controls shall be capable of resetting the supply air temperature at least 25 percent of the difference between the design supply-air temperature and the design room air temperature.

Exceptions:

1. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling or mixing of heated and cooled supply air.

2. Seventy five percent of the energy for reheating is from site-recovered or site solar energy sources.

3. Zones with peak supply air quantities of

300 cfm (142 L/s) or less.

503.4.6 Heat recovery for service water heating.

Condenser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water-cooled systems exceeds 6,000,000

Btu/hr of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 1,000,000 Btu/h.

The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:

1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions; or

2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C).

Exceptions:

1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak watercooled condenser load at design conditions.

2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.

SECTION 504

SERVICE WATER HEATING

(Mandatory Requirements)

504.1 General. This section covers the minimum efficiency of, and controls for, service water-heating equipment and insulation of service hot water piping.

504.2 Service water-heating equipment

performance efficiency. Water-heating equipment and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements of Table 504.2. The efficiency shall be verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or through certification under an approved certification program.

504.3 Temperature controls. Service water-heating equipment shall be provided with controls to allow a setpoint of 110°F (43°C) for equipment serving dwelling units and 90°F (32°C) for equipment serving other occupancies. The outlet temperature of lavatories in public facility rest rooms shall be limited to 110°F (43°C).

504.4 Heat traps. Water-heating equipment not supplied with integral heat traps and serving noncirculating systems shall be provided with heat traps on the supply and discharge piping associated with the equipment.

EQUIPMENT TYPE

Water heaters, Electric

Storage water heaters,

Gas

TABLE 504.2

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE OF WATER-HEATING EQUIPMENT

SIZE CATEGORY

(input)

≤ 12 kW

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

Resistance

PERFORMANCE

REQUIRED a, b

0.97 – 0.00132V, EF

> 12 kW

≤ 24 amps and

≤ 250 volts

≤ 75,000 Btu/h

Resistance

Heat pump

≥ 20 gal

1.73V + 155 SL, Btu/h

0.93 – 0.00132V, EF

0.67 - 0.0019V, EF

TEST

PROCEDURE

DOE 10 CFR Part

430

ANSI Z21.10.3

DOE 10 CFR Part

430

DOE 10 CFR Part

430

ANSI Z21.10.3 > 75,000 Btu/h and

≤ 155,000 Btu/h

< 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% E

t

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

80% E

t

> 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal

Instantaneous water heaters, Gas

> 50,000 Btu/h and

< 200,000 Btu/h c

≥ 200,000 Btu/h

≥ 200,000 Btu/h

≥ 4,000 (Btu/h)/gal and < 2 gal

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and

< 10 gal

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and≥ 10 gal

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

0.62 - 0.0019V, EF

80% E

t

80% E

t

DOE 10 CFR Part

430

ANSI Z21.10.3

Storage water heaters, Oil

≤ 105,000 Btu/h

> 105,000 Btu/h

≥20 gal

< 4,000 Btu/h/gal

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

0.59 - 0.0019V, EF

78% E

t

DOE 10 CFR Part

430

ANSI Z21.10.3

Instantaneous water heaters, Oil

≤ 210,000 Btu/h

> 210,000 Btu/h

> 210,000 Btu/h

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and

< 2 gal

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and

< 10 gal

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and≥ 10 gal

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

0.59 - 0.0019V, EF

80% E

t

78% E

t

DOE 10 CFR Part

430

ANSI Z21.10.3

Hot water supply boilers, Gas and Oil

Hot water supply boilers, Gas

≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

<12,500,000 Btu/h

≥ 300,000 Btu/h and

<12,500,000 Btu/h

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and

< 10 gal

≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and

≥ 10 gal

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

80% E

t

80% E

t

ANSI Z21.10.3

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

Hot water supply boilers, Oil

>300,000 Btu/h and

<12,500,000 Btu/h

> 4,000 Btu/h/gal and

> 10 gal

78% E

t

Pool heaters, Gas and

Oil

Heat pump pool heaters

All

All

Q / 800+110√ V

)

SL, Btu/h

78% E

t

4.0 COP

ASHRAE 146

ARI 1160

Unfired storage tanks All

Minimum insulation requirement R-12.5

(none)

(h- ft

2

- F)/Btu

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 British thermal unit per hour per gallon = 0.078

W/L. a. Energy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (E

t

) are minimum requirements. In the EF equation, V is the rated volume in gallons. b. Standby loss (SL) is the maximum Btu/h based on a nominal 70°F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the SL equation ,Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h. In the SL equation for electric water heaters, V is the rated volume in gallons. In the SL equation for oil and gas water heaters and boilers, V is the rated volume in gallons. c. Instantaneous water heaters with input rates below200,000 Btu/h must comply with these requirements if the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures 180°F or higher.

504.5 Pipe insulation. For automatic-circulating hot water systems, piping shall be insulated with 1 inch

(25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h x ft

2 x °F (1.53 W per

25 mm/m

2 x K). The first 8 feet (2438 mm) of piping in noncirculating systems served by equipment without integral heat traps shall be insulated with 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of material having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h x ft

2 x °F (1.53 W per

25 mm/m

2 x K).

504.6 Hot water system controls. Automaticcirculating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be arranged to be conveniently turned off automatically or manually when the hot water system is not in operation.

504.7 Pools and inground permanently installed

spas (Mandatory). Pools and inground permanently installed spas shall comply with Sections 504.7.1 through 504.7.3.

504.7.1 Heaters. All heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible on-off switch that is mounted outside of the heater to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with constant burning pilot lights.

504.7.2 Time switches. Time switches or other control method that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed on all heaters and pumps. Heaters, pumps and motors that have built-in timers shall be deemed in compliance with this requirement.

Exceptions:

1. Where public health standards require 24hour pump operation.

2. Where pumps are required to operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

504.7.3 Covers. Heated pools and inground permanently installed spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover.

Exception: Pools deriving over 70 percent of the energy for heating from site-recovered energy, such as a heat pump or solar energy source computed over an operating season.

SECTION 505

ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING

SYSTEMS

505.1 General (Mandatory Requirements). This section covers lighting system controls, the connection of ballasts, the maximum lighting power for interior applications, and minimum acceptable lighting equipment for exterior applications.

Exception: Lighting within dwelling units where 75 percent or more of the permanently installed interior light fixtures are fitted with high-efficacy lamps.

505.2 Lighting controls (Mandatory

Requirements). Lighting systems shall be provided with controls as required in Sections 505.2.1, 505.2.2,

505.2.3, and 505.2.4.

505.2.1 Interior lighting controls. Each area enclosed by walls or floor-to-ceiling partitions shall have at least one manual control for the lighting serving that area. The required controls shall be located within the area served by the controls or be a remote switch that identifies the lights served and indicates their status.

Exceptions:

1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that must be continuously lighted.

2. Lighting in stairways or corridors that are elements of the means of egress.

505.2.2 Additional controls. Each area that is required to have a manual control shall have additional controls that meet the requirements of

Sections 505.2.2.1 and 505.2.2.2.

505.2.2.1 Light reduction controls. Each area that is required to have a manual control shall also allow the occupant to reduce the connected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern by at least 50 percent. Lighting reduction shall be achieved by one of the following or other approved method:

1. Controlling all lamps or luminaires;

2. Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or alternate lamps;

3. Switching the middle lamp luminaires independently of the outer lamps; or

4. Switching each luminaire or each lamp.

Exceptions:

1. Areas that have only one luminaire.

2. Areas that are controlled by an occupantsensing device.

3. Corridors, storerooms, restrooms or public lobbies.

4. Sleeping unit (see Section 505.2.3).

5. Spaces that use less than 0.6 watts per square foot (6.5 W/m

2

).

505.2.2.2 Automatic Lighting Shutoff.

505.2.2.2.1 Building automatic lighting controls

Buildings larger than 5,000 square feet (465 m

2

) shall be equipped with an automatic control device to shut off lighting. This automatic control requirement shall be achieved by one or a combination of the following:

1. A scheduled basis, using time-of-day, with an independent program schedule that controls the interior lighting in areas that do not exceed 25,000 square feet (2,323 m

2

) and are not more than one floor; or

2. A signal from another control or alarm system that indicates the area is unoccupied; or

3. An occupancy sensor that automatically turns lighting off within 30 minutes of an occupant leaving a space.

Exception: The following shall not require an automatic control device:

1. Sleeping unit (see Section 505.2.3).

2. Lighting in spaces where patient care is directly provided.

3. Spaces where an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or security.

4. Spaces with daylight control zones that have automatic daylighting controls using either continuous or stepped control systems.

5. Lighting intended for 24-hour operation.

6. Tenant spaces less than 2,000 sq ft complying with 505.2.2.2.2.

505.2.2.2.2 Occupancy sensors

All buildings shall have occupancy sensors in all of the following spaces:

1. Classrooms

2. Conference/meeting rooms

3. Employee lunch and break rooms

4. Private offices

5. Storage rooms over 100 s.f.

6. Computer rooms over 100 s.f.

505.2.2.2.3 Occupant override. Where an automatic time switch control device is installed to comply with

Section 505.2.2.2.1, Item 1, it shall incorporate an override switching device that:

1. Is readily accessible.

2. Is located so that a person using the device can see the lights or the area controlled by that switch, or so that the area being lit is annunciated.

3. Is manually operated.

4. Allows the lighting to remain on for no more than

2 hours when an override is initiated.

5. Controls an area not exceeding 5,000 square feet

(465 m

2

).

Exceptions:

1. In malls and arcades, auditoriums, singletenant retail spaces, industrial facilities and arenas, where captive-key override is utilized, override time shall be permitted to exceed 2 hours.

2. In malls and arcades, auditoriums, singletenant retail spaces, industrial facilities and arenas, the area controlled shall not exceed

20,000 square feet (1860 m

2

).

505.2.2.2.4 Holiday scheduling. If an automatic time switch control device is installed in accordance with

Section 505.2.2.2, Item 1, it shall incorporate an automatic holiday scheduling feature that turns off all loads for at least 24 hours, then resumes the normally scheduled operation.

Exception: Retail stores and associated malls, restaurants, grocery stores, places of religious worship and theaters.

505.2.3 Sleeping unit controls. Sleeping units in hotels, motels, boarding houses or similar buildings shall have at least one master switch at the main entry door that controls all permanently wired luminaires and switched receptacles, except those in the bathroom(s). Suites shall have a control meeting these requirements at the entry to each room or at the primary entry to the suite.

505.2.4 Exterior lighting controls. Lighting not designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by either a combination of a photosensor and a time switch, or an astronomical time switch.

Lighting designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by an astronomical time switch or photosensor. All time switches shall be capable of retaining programming and the time setting during loss of power for a period of at least 10 hours.

505.2.5 Additional miscellaneous lighting control

505.2.5.1 Separate lighting controls

Separate lighting controls shall be required for: a. Display/Accent Lighting b. Case Lighting c. Nonvisual Lighting—lighting for nonvisual applications, such as plant growth and food warming d. Demonstration Lighting—lighting equipment that is for sale or for demonstrations in lighting education

505.2.5.2 Hotel and Motel Guest Room Lighting

hotel and motel guest rooms and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles.

505.2.5.3 Task Lighting

Supplemental task lighting, including permanently installed undershelf or undercabinet lighting, shall have a control device integral to the luminaires or be controlled by a wall-mounted control device provided the control device is readily accessible and located so that the occupant can see the controlled lighting.

505.2.6 Lighting controls functional performance

testing requirements For lighting controls which include daylight or occupant sensing automatic controls, automatic shut-off controls, occupancy sensors, or automatic time switches, the lighting control shall be tested to ensure that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to ensure they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.

505.3 Tandem wiring (Mandatory Requirements).

The following luminaires located within the same area shall be tandem wired:

1. Fluorescent luminaires equipped with one, three or odd-numbered lamp configurations, that are recess mounted within 10 feet (3048 mm) center-to-center of each other.

2. Fluorescent luminaires equipped with one, three or any odd-numbered lamp configuration, that are pendant- or surface-mounted within 1 foot (305 mm) edge- to-edge of each other.

Exceptions:

1. Where electronic high-frequency ballasts are used.

2. Luminaires on emergency circuits.

3. Luminaires with no available pair in the same area.

505.4 Exit signs (Mandatory Requirements).

Internally illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 watts per side.

505.5 Interior lighting power requirements

(Prescriptive). A building complies with this section if its total connected lighting power calculated under

Section 505.5.1 is no greater than the interior lighting power calculated under Section 505.5.2.

505.5.1 Total connected interior lighting power.

The total connected interior lighting power (watts) shall be the sum of the watts of all interior lighting equipment as determined in accordance with Sections

505.5.1.1 through 505.5.1.4.

Exceptions:

1. The connected power associated with the following lighting equipment is not included in calculating total connected lighting power.

1.1. Professional sports arena playing field lighting.

1.2. Sleeping unit lighting in hotels, motels, boarding houses or similar buildings.

1.3. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal building operation.

1.4. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including the visually impaired visual impairment and other medical and agerelated issues.

1.5. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as a registered interior historic landmark.

1.6. Casino gaming areas.

2. Lighting equipment used for the following shall be exempt provided that it is in addition to general lighting and is controlled by an independent control device:

2.1. Task lighting for medical and dental purposes.

2.2. Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments.

3. Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production.

4. Lighting for photographic processes.

5. Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by the manufacturer.

6. Task lighting for plant growth or maintenance.

7. Advertising signage or directional signage.

8. In restaurant buildings and areas, lighting for food warming or integral to food preparation equipment.

9. Lighting equipment that is for sale.

10. Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilities.

11. Lighting approved because of safety or emergency considerations, inclusive of exit lights.

12. Lighting integral to both open and glass enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.

13. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.

14. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff.

505.5.1.1 Screw lamp holders. The wattage shall be the maximum labeled wattage of the luminaire.

505.5.1.2 Low-voltage lighting. The wattage shall be the specified wattage of the transformer supplying the system.

505.5.1.3 Other luminaires. The wattage of all other lighting equipment shall be the wattage of the lighting equipment verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or other approved sources.

505.5.1.4 Line-voltage lighting track and plug-in busway.

The wattage shall be:

1. The specified wattage of the luminaires included in the system with a minimum of 30 W/lin ft. (98

W/lin. m);

2. The wattage limit of the system’s circuit breaker; or

3. The wattage limit of other permanent current limiting device(s) on the system.

505.5.2 Interior lighting power.

Interior lighting power allowance shall be calculated using one of the following two methods:

1. Building area method:

(a) Determine the appropriate building area type from

Table 505.5.2 and the allowed lighting power density

(watts per unit area) from the building area method column. For building area types not listed, selection of a reasonably equivalent type shall be permitted.

(b) Determine the gross lighted floor area (square feet) of the building area type.

(c) Multiply the gross lighted floor areas of the building area type(s) times the lighting power density.

(d) The interior lighting power allowance for the building is the sum of the lighting power allowances of all building area types. Trade-offs among building area types are permitted provided that the total installed interior lighting power does not exceed the interior lighting power allowance.

2. Space-by-Space Method

(a) Determine the appropriate building type from

Table 505.5.2. For building types not listed, selection of a reasonably equivalent type shall be permitted.

(b) For each space enclosed by partitions 80% or greater than ceiling height, determine the gross interior floor area by measuring to the center of the partition wall. Include the floor area of balconies or other projections. Retail spaces do not have to comply with the 80% partition height requirements.

(c) Determine the interior lighting power allowance by using the columns designated space-by-space method in Table 505.5.2. Multiply the floor area(s) of the space(s) times the allowed lighting power density for the space type that most closely represents the proposed use of the space(s). The product is the lighting power allowance for the space(s). For space types not listed, selection of a reasonable equivalent category shall be permitted.

(d) The interior lighting power allowance is the sum of lighting power allowances of all spaces. Trade-offs among spaces are permitted provided that the total installed interior lighting power does not exceed the interior lighting power allowance.

TABLE 505.5.2

INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES

LIGHTING POWER DENSITY

Whole

Building

Building Area Type a

Space by

Space

(W/ft

2

)

Common Space Types

Active Storage

Atrium - First Three Floors

Atrium - Each Additional Floor

Automotive Facility

Bank / Office, Bank Activity

0.63

0.63

0.16

0.91

1.38

Area

Classroom / Lecture / Training

Conference / Meeting /

Multipurpose

Corridor / Transition

Education Laboratory

Electrical / Mechanical

Food Preparation

Lobby

Locker Room

1.25

1.29

0.65

1.28

0.95

0.99

0.60

0.78

1.62 Medical / Industrial Research

Laboratory

Parking Garage - Garage Area 0.21

Restroom

Stairway

Convention Center

Exhibit Space

1.05

0.84

0.69

1.58

Audience / Seating Area

Court House

Audience / Seating Area

1.07

0.80

0.80

Courtroom

Confinement Cells

Judges Chambers

Dressing / Locker / Fitting Room

1.91

1.10

1.17

0.78

Dining: Bar / Lounge / Leisure

1.01

Lounge / Leisure Dining

Dining: Cafeteria / Fast Food

Dining: Family

Dining

0.93

0.94

Dormitory

Living Quarters

0.58

Bedroom

Study Hall

Exercise Center

0.89

Dressing / Locker / Fitting Room

Audience / Seating Area

Exercise Area / Gymnasium

Gymnasium

0.70

Dressing / Locker / Fitting Room

Audience / Seating Area

Playing Area

Exercise Area

Healthcare Clinic / Hospital

Corridors w/ patient waiting,

1.06

exam

Exam / Treatment

Emergency

Public & Staff Lounge

1.66

2.35

0.79

0.78

0.40

1.35

0.72

0.94

0.50

1.30

0.78

0.30

0.72

1.40

0.99

0.32

0.86

0.53

1.05

1.05

0.89

0.22

0.94

1.35

0.94

0.84

1.14

1.01

0.96

0.98

Hospital / Medical Supplies

Hospital - Nursery

Nurse Station

Physical Therapy

Patient Room

Pharmacy

Hospital / Radiology

Operating Room

Recovery

Active Storage

Laundry – Washing

Hotel

Dining Area

Guest quarters

Reception / Waiting

Lobby

Library

Library - Audio Visual

Stacks

Card File & Cataloguing

Reading Area

Manufacturing Facility

Low Bay (< 25 ft Floor to

Ceiling)

High Bay (> 25 ft Floor to

Ceiling)

Detailed Manufacturing

Equipment Room

Corridor / Transition

Motel

Dining Area

Living Quarters

Reception / Waiting

Motion Picture Theater

Audience / Seating Area

Lobby

Multi-Family

Museum

Active Storage

General Exhibition

Restoration

Office

Enclosed

Open Plan

Parking Garage

Penitentiary

Performing Arts Theater

Audience / Seating Area

Lobby

Dressing / Locker / Fitting Room

Police / Fire Station

Fire Station Engine Room

Sleeping Quarters

Post Office / SF

Sorting Area

Lobby

Religious Buildings

Lobby / Fellowship Hall

Worship / Pulpit / Choir

1.34

2.30

2.34

1.14

0.56

0.63

1.05

1.02

1.11

0.98

0.25

0.94

1.00

0.64

1.95

1.29

0.95

0.41

1.05

0.75

1.90

0.53

1.13

1.34

1.89

1.15

0.63

0.60

0.85

1.11

1.27

0.60

0.87

0.91

0.62

1.14

2.30

1.05

0.60

1.42

0.72

0.93

1.19

Retail c

Department Store Sales Area

Dressing / Fitting Room

Fine Merchandise Sales Area

Mall Concourse

Mass Merchandising Sales Area

Personal Services Sales Area

Specialty Store Sales Area

Supermarket Sales Area

School / University

Classroom

Audience

Dining Area

Office

Corridor

Storage

Laboratory

Sports Arena

Ring Sports Arena

Court Sports Arena

1.41

0.98

0.71

Town Hall

Transportation

Dining Area

Baggage Area

Airport - Concourse

0.89

0.76

Terminal - Ticket Counter

Reception / Waiting

1.12

0.50

Warehouse

Fine Material

Medium Bulky Material

Workshop

0.56

0.95

0.63

1.59

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m

2

. a. In cases where both a general building area type and a more specific building area type are listed, the more specific building area type shall apply.

b. The lighting power densities contained in this table include allowances for video-display terminals, decorative lighting and display lighting Additional lighting power is not allowed for these uses. Task lighting is not included in these connected LPD limits.

c. Where lighting equipment is specified to be installed to highlight specific merchandise in addition to lighting equipment specified for general lighting and is switched or dimmed on circuits different from the circuits for general lighting, the smaller of the actual wattage of the lighting equipment installed specifically for merchandise, or additional lighting power as determined below shall be added to the interior lighting power determined in accordance with this line item.

Calculate the additional lighting power as follows:

Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance = (Retail Area 1 X

0.6 4W/ft

2

) + (Retail Area 2 X 0.6 W/ft

2

) + (Retail Area 3 X 0.9

W/ft

2

) + (Retail Area 4 X 1.5 W/ft

2

). where:

Retail Area 1 = The floor area for all products not listed in Retail

Area 2, 3 or 4.

Retail Area 2 = The floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.

Retail Area 3 = The floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.

Retail Area 4 = The floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china.

Exception: Other merchandise categories are permitted to be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 above, provided that justification documenting the need for

0.50

0.50

1.28

2.68

1.80

1.90

0.76

0.39

1.30

1.60

1.30

1.30

0.70

1.00

1.00

1.30

0.96

2.60

1.06

1.30 additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the authority having jurisdiction.

505.6 Exterior lighting. (Mandatory

Requirements). When the power for exterior lighting is supplied through the energy service to the building, all exterior lighting, other than low-voltage landscape lighting, shall comply with Sections 505.6.1 and

505.6.2.

Exception: Where approved because of historical, safety, signage or emergency considerations.

505.6.1 Exterior building grounds lighting. All exterior building grounds luminaires that operate at greater than 100 watts shall contain lamps having a minimum efficacy of 60 lumens per watt unless the luminaire is controlled by a motion sensor or qualifies for one of the exceptions under Section

505.6.2.

505.6.2 Exterior building lighting power. The total exterior lighting power allowance for all exterior building applications is the sum of the base site allowance plus the individual allowances for areas that are to be illuminated and are permitted in Table

505.6.2(2) for the applicable lighting zone. Tradeoffs are allowed only among exterior lighting applications listed in Table 505.6.2(2), Tradable Surfaces section.

The lighting zone for the building exterior is determined from Table 505.6.2(1) unless otherwise specified by the local jurisdiction. Exterior lighting for all applications (except those included in the exceptions to Section 505.6.2) shall comply with the requirements of Section 505.6.1.

Exceptions: Lighting used for the following exterior applications is exempt when equipped with a control device independent of the control of the nonexempt lighting:

1. Specialized signal, directional and marker lighting associated with transportation;

2. Advertising signage or directional signage;

3. Integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer;

4. Theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production;

5. Athletic playing areas;

6. Temporary lighting;

7. Industrial production, material handling, transportation sites and associated storage areas;

8. Theme elements in theme/amusement parks; and

9. Used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or buildings.

TABLE 505.6.2(1)

EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES

LIGHTING ZONE DESCRIPTION

1

2

3

4

Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas

Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas

All other areas

High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authority

505.6.3 Shielding of exterior building lighting

fixtures. Only fully shielded fixtures shall be permitted unless a lighting plan is submitted showing that the use of alternative fixtures would provide greater energy efficiency than any comparable lighting plan using fully shielded fixtures.

Exceptions:

1. Luminaires with an output of 150 Watts or less, or the equivalent light output.

2. Luminaires intended to illuminate the façade of buildings or to illuminate other objects including but not limited to flagpoles, landscape and water features, statuary and works of art.

3. Luminaires for historic lighting on the premises of an historic building as defined in the or within a designated historic district.

4. Outdoor sports facility lighting of the participant sport area.

5. Emergency exit discharge lighting.

6. Low voltage landscape lighting.

7. Sign illumination.

8. Festoon lighting as defined in the NFPA

70.

9. Temporary lighting for emergency, repair, construction, special events or similar activities.

505.7 Electrical energy consumption. (Mandatory

Requirements). In buildings having individual dwelling units, provisions shall be made to determine the electrical energy consumed by each tenant by separately metering individual dwelling units.

Base Site Allowance

(base allowance may be used in tradable or nontradable surfaces)

Tradable Surfaces

(Lighting power densities for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs and outdoor sales areas may be traded.)

TABLE 505.6.2(2)

INDIVIDUAL LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS

Zone 1

500 W

Zone 2

600 W

Zone 3

750 W

Parking areas and drives

Walkways less than 10 feet wide

Walkways 10 feet wide or greater

Plaza areas

Special Feature Areas

Stairways

Pedestrian Tunnels

Main entries

Other doors

Entry Canopies

(free standing and attached)

0.04 W/ft

2

0.7 W/linear foot

0.14 W/ft

2

Open areas (including vehicle sales lots)

Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to ―open area‖ allowance

Building Facades

0.25 W/ft

2

No allowance

Non-Tradable Surfaces

(Lighting power density calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific application and can-not be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting.

The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the

―tradable Surfaces‖ section of this table.)

Automated teller machines and night depositories

Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities

Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles

Drive-up windows/doors

Parking near 24-hour retail entrances

No allowance

270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location

0.75 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

0.5 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

400 W per drive through

800 W per main entry

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m

2

.

Uncovered Parking Areas

0.06 W/ft

2

Building Grounds

0.7 W/linear foot

0.14 W/ft

2

0.1 W/ft

2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 2.5

W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length

270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location

0.75 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

0.5 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

400 W per drive through

800 W per main entry

0.10 W/ft

2

0.8 W/linear foot

0.16 W/ft

2

0.75 W/ft

0.15 W/ft

0.6 W/ft

2

2

2

20 W/linear foot of door width

20 W/linear foot of door width

0.25 W/ft

2

1.0 W/ft

2

0.15 W/ft

2

Building Entrances and Exits

20 W/linear foot of door width

20 W/linear foot of door width

0.25 W/ft

2

Sales Canopies

0.6 W/ft

2

1.0 W/ft

0.2 W/ft

2

2

30 W/linear foot of door width

20 W/linear foot of door width

0.4 W/ft

2

0.8 W/ft

2

Outdoor Sales

0.25 W/ft

2

10 W/linear foot

0.5 W/ft

2

10 W/linear foot

0.15 W/ft

2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 3.75

W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length

270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location

0.75 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

0.5 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

400 W per drive through

800 W per main entry

Zone 4

1300 W

0.13 W/ft

2

1.0 W/linear foot

0.2 W/ft

2

1.0 W/ft

2

0.3 W/ft

2

30 W/linear foot of door width

20 W/linear foot of door width

0.4 W/ft

2

1.0 W/ft

2

0.7 W/ft

2

30 W/linear foot

0.2 W/ft

2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 5.0 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length

270 W per location plus

90 W per additional

ATM per location

0.75 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

0.5 W/ft

2 of covered and uncovered area

400 W per drive through

800 W per main entry

SECTION 506

ADDITIONAL PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE

REQUIREMENTS

506.1 Requirements. Commercial buildings are required to comply with one of the following sections: a. 506.2.1 More Efficient Mechanical Equipment b. 506.2.2 Reduced Lighting Power Density c. 506.2.3 Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems d. 506.2.4 Higher Efficiency Service Water Heating e. 506.2.5 On-Site Supply of Renewable Energy f. 506.2.6 Automatic Daylighting Control System

At the time of plan submittal, the building requirements of section 506 by choosing to install efficient mechanical equipment.

Mechanical equipment choices that fulfill requirements for section 506.2.1 shall comply with the following in addition to the requirements in section 503: a. Package unitary equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements in Tables

506.2.1(1) and 506.2.1(2) b. Package Terminal

Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements in Table

506.2.1(3) b. Warm air furnaces and combination warm air furnaces / air conditioning units shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements in Table jurisdiction shall be provided, by the submittal authority, documentation designating the intent to comply with Section 506.2.1, 506.2.2, 506.2.3,

506.2.4, 506.2.5, or 506.2.6, in their entirety.

506.2.1(4) c. Boilers shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements in Table 506.2.1(5) d. Electric chillers shall meet the energy efficiency

506.2.1 Efficient Mechanical Equipment

This mechanical alternative compliance option is intended to allow the builder to meet the

EQUIPMENT TYPE

Air conditioners,

Air cooled requirements in Table 506.2.1(6) e. Absorption chillers shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements in Table 506.2.1(7)

TABLE 506.2.1(1)

UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS,

ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

SIZE CATEGORYc SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

< 65,000 Btu/h d

Split system

REQUIRED

EFFICIENCYa

15.0 SEER

12.5 EER

≥ 65,000 Btuh/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

≥ 135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

≥ 240,000 Btu/h and <

760,000 Btu/h

≥ 760,000 Btu/h

Single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

15.0 SEER

12.0 EER

12.0 EER b

12.4 IPLV b

12.0 EER b

12.4 IPLV b

10.8 EER b

11.0 IPLV b

10.2 EER b

11.0 IPLV b

Air conditioners, Water and evaporatively cooled

Split system and single package

14.0 EER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation. b. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat. c. Size category is based on nominal equipment sizes, e.g. <65,000 Btu/h indicates <= 5 tons, < 135,000 Btu/h indicates <= 10 tons, <240,000

Btu/h indicates < 20 tons, >= 760,000 Btu/h indicates > 60 tons.

EQUIPMENT TYPE

Air cooled

(Cooling mode)

TABLE 506.2.1(2)

UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS, ELECTRICALLY

OPERATED, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

SIZE CATEGORYc SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

< 65,000 Btu/h d

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h

≥135,000 Btu/h and

< 240,000 Btu/h

≥ 240,000 Btu/h

Split system

Single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

Split system and single package

85°F entering water

REQUIRED

EFFICIENCY a

15.0 SEER

12.5 EER

15.0 SEER

12.0 EER

12.4 EER b

11.9 IPLV b

12.4 EER b

11.9 IPLV b

12.4 EER b

10.9 IPLV b

14.0 EER Water source

(Cooling mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

Air cooled

(Heating mode)

< 65,000 Btu/h d

(Cooling capacity)

≥ 65,000 Btu/h and

< 135,000 Btu/h (Cooling capacity)

≥ 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

Split system

Single package

47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air

77°F db/15°F wb outdoor air

47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air

77°F db/15°F wb outdoor air

9.0 HSPF

8.5 HSPF

3.4 COP

2.4 COP

3.2 COP

2.1 COP

Water source

(Heating mode)

< 135,000 Btu/h

(Cooling capacity)

70°F entering water 4.6 COP

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. db = dry-bulb temperature, °F; wb = wet-bulb temperature, °F a. IPLVs and Part load rating conditions are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation. b. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat. c. Size category is based on nominal equipment sizes, e.g. <65,000 Btu/h indicates <= 5 tons, < 135,000 Btu/h indicates <= 10 tons, <240,000

Btu/h indicates < 20 tons, >= 760,000 Btu/h indicates > 60 tons.

EQUIPMENT TYPE

TABLE 506.2.1(3)

PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS AND

PACKAGED TERMINALHEAT PUMPS

SIZE CATEGORY REQUIRED EFFICIENCY b

Air conditioners

& Heat Pumps

(Cooling Mode)

< 7,000 Btu / h

7,000 Btu / h and < 10,000 Btu / h

10,000 Btu / h and < 13,000 Btu / h

> 13,000 Btu / h

11.9 EER

11.3 EER

10.7 EER

9.5 EER a. Replacement units must be factory labeled as follows: ―MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE

INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.‖ Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches

(406 mm) high and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) wide.

TABLE 506.2.1(4)

WARM AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS,

WARM AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY

(INPUT)

SUBCATEGORY OR

RATING CONDITION

REQUIRED

EFFICIENCY

Warm air furnaces, gas fired

Warm air furnaces, oil fired

< 225,000 Btu/h

≥ 225,000 Btu/h

< 225,000 Btu/h

Maximum capacity

Maximum capacity

92 AFUE or 92 Et

90% E c note 1

85 AFUE or 85 Et

Warm air duct furnaces, gas fired

Warm air unit heaters, gas fired

Warm air unit heaters, oil fired

≥ 225,000 Btu/h

All capacities

All capacities

All capacities

Maximum capacity

Maximum capacity

Maximum capacity

85% E t

, Note 1

90% E c

90% E c

90% E c

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

1 Units must also include an IID (intermittent ignition device), have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. Where there two ratings units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating.

E t

= Thermal efficiency.

E c

= Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses).

Efficient furnace fan: All fossil fuel furnaces shall have a furnace electricity ratio not greater than 0.02 and shall include a manufacturer's designation of the furnace electricity ratio.

TABLE 506.2.1(5)

BOILER, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE

Gas Hot Water

SIZE CATEGORY

< 300,000 Btu / h

> 300,000 Btu / h and >

TEST PROCEEDURE

DOE 10 CFR Part 430

DOE 10 CFR Part 431

REQUIRED EFFICIENCY

90% Et

89% Et

Gas Steam

Oil

2.5 mBtu/h

< 300,000 Btu / h

> 300,000 Btu / h

< 300,000 Btu / h

> 300,000 Btu / h

DOE 10 CFR Part 430

DOE 10 CFR Part 431

DOE 10 CFR Part 430

DOE 10 CFR Part 431

89% Et

89% Et

90% Et

89% Et

Et = thermal efficiency

* Systems must be designed with lower operating hot water temperatures (<150◦F) and use hot water reset to take advantage of the much higher efficiencies of condensing boilers.

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY

TABLE 506.2.1(5)

CHILLERS - EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

REQUIRED EFFICIENCY- CHILLERS OPTIONAL COMPLIANCE PATH -

REQUIRED EFFICIENCY - CHILLERS WITH

VSD

Full Load

(KW /TON)

IPLV

(KW /TON)

Full Load

(KW /TON)

IPLV

(KW /TON)

Air Cooled w/

Condenser

Air Cooled w/o

Condenser

Water Cooled,

Reciprocating

Water Cooled,

Rotary Screw and

Scroll

Water Cooled,

Centrifugal

All

All

All

< 90 tons

3

90 tons and

< 150 tons

3

150 tons and

< 300 tons

> 300 tons

< 150 tons

3

150 tons and

< 300 tons

300 tons and

< 600 tons

1.2

1.08

0.840

0.780

0.730

0.610

0.600

0.610

0.590

0.570

1.0

1.08

0.630

0.600

0.550

0.510

0.490

0.620

0.560

0.510

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.630

0.600

0.580

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.400

0.400

0.400

> 600 tons 0.550 0.510 0.550 0.400 a. Compliance with full load efficiency numbers and IPLV numbers are both required. b. Only Chillers with Variable Speed Drives(VSD) may use the optional compliance path here for chiller efficiency.

TABLE 506.2.1(6)

ABSORPTION CHILLERS - EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE

Air Cooled, Single Effect

Water Cooled, Single Effect

Double Effect - Direct Fired

Double Effect - Indirect Fired

REQUIRED EFFICIENCY FULL LOAD COP (IPLV)

0.60, but only allowed in heat recovery applications

0.70, But only allowed in heat recovery applications

1.0 (1.05)

1.20

506.2.2 Reduced Lighting Power Density - Whole

Building Lighting Power Density (watts/SF) must comply with values 10% lower than those in Table

505.5.2. Compliance with this section is in addition to meeting the requirements of section 505.

506.2.3 Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems

Buildings using 500 cfm or more outdoor air shall have heat or energy recovery ventilation systems for at least 80% of ventilation air. The recovery system shall provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of 50 percent or more of the difference between the outdoor air and return air at design conditions. Provision shall be made to bypass or control the energy recovery system to permit cooling with outdoor air where cooling with outdoor air is required.

506.2.4 High Efficiency Service Water Heating

Buildings must be of the following types to use this compliance method:

1. Hotels or Motels

2. Hospitals

3. Restaurants or buildings containing food preparation areas.

4. Buildings with residential occupancies.

5. Buildings with laundry facilities or other high process service water heating needs.

6.Buildings showing a service hot water load of 8% or more of total building energy loads as shown with an energy analysis as described in Section 507.

The building service water heating system shall have one of the following: a. Instantaneous fuel-fired water heating systems for all fuel-fired water heating systems, b. Electric heat pump water heating systems, c. Water heating provided by geothermal heat pumps, or d. Solar water heating systems sized to provide at least 40% of hot water requirements.

506.2.5 On-site Supply of Renewable Energy

The building or surrounding property shall incorporate an on-site renewable energy system that supplies 3% or more of total building energy loads.

On-site power generation using nonrenewable sources does not meet this requirement.

The jurisdiction shall be provided with an energy analysis as described in Section 506 that documents the renewable energy contribution to the building or a calculation demonstrating that the on-site supply of renewable energy

1) is capable of providing at least 3% of the total energy load of the building, or

2) provides on-site renewable energy generation with a nominal (peak) rating of 175 BTU's or 0.50 watts per square foot of building.

506.2.6 Automatic Daylighting Control System

A minimum of 30% of the total conditioned floor area shall be daylight zones with automatic controls that control lights in the daylit areas separately from the non-daylit areas.

Controls for calibration adjustments to the lighting control device shall be accessible to authorized personnel. Each daylight control zone shall not exceed 2,500 square feet. Automatic daylighting controls must incorporate an automatic shut-off ability based on time or occupancy in addition to lighting power reduction controls.

Controls will automatically reduce lighting power in response to available daylight by either one of the following methods:

1. Continuous dimming using dimming ballasts and daylight-sensing automatic controls that are capable of reducing the power of general lighting in the daylit zone continuously to less than 35% of rated power at maximum light output.

2. Stepped Dimming using multi-level switching and daylight-sensing controls that are capable of reducing lighting power automatically. The system should provide at least two control channels per zone and be installed in a manner such that at least one control step shall reduce power of general lighting in the daylit zone by 30% to 50% of rated power and another control step that reduces lighting power by

65% to 100%. Stepped dimming control is not appropriate in continuously occupied areas with ceiling heights of 14 feet or lower.

SECTION 507

TOTAL BUILDING PERFORMANCE

507.1 Scope. This section establishes criteria for compliance using total building performance. The following systems and loads shall be included in determining the total building performance: heating systems, cooling systems, service water heating, fan systems, lighting power, receptacle loads and process loads.

507.2 Mandatory requirements. Compliance with this section requires that the criteria of Sections

502.4, 503.2, 504 and 505 be met.

507.3 Performance-based compliance. Compliance based on total building performance requires that a proposed building (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference

design. Energy prices shall be taken from a source

approved by the code official, such as the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration’s

State Energy Price and Expenditure Report. Code

officials shall be permitted to require time-of-use pricing in energy cost calculations. Nondepletable energy collected off site shall be treated and priced the same as purchased energy. Energy from nondepletable energy sources collected on site shall be omitted from the annual energy cost of the

proposed design.

Exception: Jurisdictions that require site energy (1 kWh = 3413 Btu) rather than energy cost as the metric of comparison.

507.4 Documentation. Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.

507.4.1 Compliance report. Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the

proposed design has annual energy costs less than or equal to the annual energy costs of the standard

reference design. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:

1. Address of the building;

2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the

proposed design as listed in Table

507.5.1(1). The inspection checklist shall show the estimated annual energy cost for both the standard reference design and the

proposed design;

3. Name of individual completing the compliance report; and

4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.

507.4.2 Additional documentation. The code

official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the standard reference

design;

2. Thermal zoning diagrams consisting of floor plans showing the thermal zoning scheme for standard reference design and proposed

design.

3. Input and output report(s) from the energy analysis simulation program containing the complete input and output files, as applicable. The output file shall include energy use totals and energy use by energy source and end-use served, total hours that space conditioning loads are not met and any errors or warning messages generated by the simulation tool as applicable;

4. An explanation of any error or warning messages appearing in the simulation tool output; and

5. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the proposed design as given in Table 507.5.1(1).

507.5 Calculation procedure. Except as specified by this section, the standard reference design and

proposed design shall be configured and analyzed using identical methods and techniques.

507.5.1 Building specifications. The standard

reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed as specified by Table

507.5.1(1). Table 507.5.1(1) shall include by reference all notes contained in Table 502.2(1).

507.5.2 Thermal blocks. The standard reference

design and proposed design shall be analyzed using identical thermal blocks as required in Section

507.5.1.1, 507.2.2 or 507.5.2.3.

507.5.2.1 HVAC zones designed. Where HVAC zones are defined on HVAC design drawings, each

HVAC zone shall be modeled as a separate thermal block.

Exception: Different HVAC zones shall be allowed to be combined to create a single

thermal block or identical thermal blocks to which multipliers are applied provided:

1. The space use classification is the same throughout the thermal block.

2. All HVAC zones in the thermal block that are adjacent to glazed exterior walls face the same orientation or their orientations are within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of each other.

3. All of the zones are served by the same

HVAC system or by the same kind of

HVAC system.

507.5.2.2 HVAC zones not designed. Where HVAC zones have not yet been designed, thermal blocks shall be defined based on similar internal load densities, occupancy, lighting, thermal and temperature schedules, and in combination with the following guidelines:

1. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for interior and perimeter spaces. Interior spaces shall be those located more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an exterior wall. Perimeter spaces shall be those located closer than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an exterior wall.

2. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces adjacent to glazed exterior walls: a separate

zone shall be provided for each orientation, except orientations that differ by no more than 45 degrees

(0.79 rad) shall be permitted to be considered to be the same orientation. Each zone shall include floor area that is 15 feet (4572 mm) or less from a glazed perimeter wall, except that floor area within 15 feet

(4572 mm) of glazed perimeter walls having more than one orientation shall be divided proportionately between zones.

3. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having floors that are in contact with the ground or exposed to ambient conditions from zones that do not share these features.

4. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having exterior ceiling or roof assemblies from zones that do not share these features.

507.5.2.3 Multifamily residential buildings.

Residential spaces shall be modeled using one thermal block per space except that those facing the same orientations are permitted to be combined into one thermal block. Corner units and units with roof or floor loads shall only be combined with units sharing these features.

507.6 Calculation software tools. Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the annual energy consumption of all building elements that differ between the standard reference design and the

proposed design and shall include the following capabilities.

1. Computer generation of the standard reference

design using only the input for the proposed design.

The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.

2. Building operation for a full calendar year (8760 hours).

3. Climate data for a full calendar year (8760 hours) and shall reflect approved coincident hourly data for temperature, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed for the building location.

4. Ten or more thermal zones.

5. Thermal mass effects.

6. Hourly variations in occupancy, illumination, receptacle loads, thermostat settings, mechanical ventilation, HVAC equipment availability, service hot water usage and any process loads.

7. Part-load performance curves for mechanical equipment.

8. Capacity and efficiency correction curves for mechanical heating and cooling equipment.

9. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the proposed design component characteristics from Table 507.5.1(1) determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings (e.g., R-value, Ufactor, SHGC, HSPF, AFUE, SEER, EF, etc.).

507.6.1 Specific approval. Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable sub-sections of Section

507 and tested according to ASHRAE Standard 140 shall be permitted to be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code

official shall be permitted to approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.

507.6.2 Input values. When calculations require input values not specified by Sections 502, 503, 504 and 505, those input values shall be taken from an

approved source.

TABLE 507.5.1(1)

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS

BUILDING COMPONENT

CHARACTERISTICS

Space use classification

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN

Same as proposed

PROPOSED DESIGN

The space use classification shall be chosen in accordance with Table 505.5.2 for all areas of the building covered by this permit. Where

Roofs Type: Insulation entirely above deck

Gross area: same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 502.1.2

Solar absorptance: 0.75 the space use classification for a building is not known, the building shall be categorized as an office building.

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Walls, above-grade

Emittance: 0.90

Type: Mass wall if proposed wall is mass; otherwise steel-framed wall

Gross area: same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 502.1.2

Solar absorptance: 0.75

Emittance: 0.90

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Walls, below-grade

Floors, above-grade

Type: Mass wall

Gross area: same as proposed

U-Factor: from Table 502.1.2 with insulation layer on interior side of walls

Type: joist/framed floor

Gross area: same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 502.1.2

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Floors, slab-on-grade

Doors

Glazing

Skylights

Type: Unheated

F-factor: from Table 502.1.2

Type: Swinging

Area: Same as proposed

U-factor: from Table 502.2(1)

Area:

(a) The proposed glazing area; where the proposed glazing area is less than 30 percent of above-grade wall area.

(b) 30 percent of above-grade wall area; where the proposed glazing area is 30 percent or more of the above-grade wall area.

U-factor: from Table 502.3

SHGC: from Table 502.3 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used

External shading and PF: None

For example, if the proposed building design has a glazing area equal to 45% of the above-grade wall area, the Standard

Reference Design shall have a glazing area equal to 30% of the above-grade wall area. On the other hand, if the proposed design has a glazing fraction of 20%, the Standard Reference

Design shall also have a glazing fraction of 20%.

Area:

(a) The proposed skylight area; where the proposed skylight area is less than 3 percent of gross area of roof assembly.

(b) 3 percent of gross area of roof assembly; where the proposed skylight area is 3 percent or more of gross area of roof assembly.

U-factor: from Table 502.3

SHGC: from Table 502.3 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used.

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Lighting, interior

Lighting, exterior

The interior lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Table 505.5.2. Where the occupancy of the building is not known, the lighting power density shall be 1.0 Watt per square foot (10.73 W/m

2

) based on the categorization of buildings with unknown space classification as offices.

The lighting power shall be determined in accordance with

Table 505.6.2. Areas and dimensions of tradable and nontradable surfaces shall be the same as proposed.

As proposed

As proposed

TABLE 507.5.1(1)

—continued

BUILDING COMPONENT

CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN PROPOSED DESIGN

Internal gains

Schedules

Mechanical ventilation

Same as proposed

Same as proposed

Same as proposed

Receptacle, motor and process loads shall be modeled and estimated based on the space use classification. All end-use load components within and associated with the building shall be modeled to include, but not be limited to, the following: exhaust fans, parking garage ventilation fans, exterior building lighting, swimming pool heaters and pumps, elevators, escalators, refrigeration equipment and cooking equipment.

Operating schedules shall include hourly profiles for daily operation and shall account for variations between weekdays, weekends, holidays and any seasonal operation.

Schedules shall model the time-dependent variations in occupancy, illumination, receptacle loads, thermostat settings, mechanical ventilation, HVAC equipment availability, service hot water usage and any process loads. The schedules shall be typical of the proposed building type as determined by the designer and approved by the jurisdiction.

As proposed, in accordance with Section

503.2.5.

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Heating systems Fuel type: same as proposed design

Equipment type a

: from Tables 507.5.1(2) and 507.5.1(3)

Efficiency: from Tables 503.2.3(4) and 503.2.3(5)

Capacity b

: sized proportionally to the capacities in the proposed design based on sizing runs, and shall be established such that no smaller number of unmet heating load hours and no larger heating capacity safety factors are provided than in the proposed design.

Cooling systems Fuel type: same as proposed design

Equipment type c

: from Tables 507.5.1(2) and 507.5.1(3)

Efficiency: from Tables 503.2.3(1), 503.2.3(2) and

503.2.3(3)

Capacity b

: sized proportionally to the capacities in the proposed design based on sizing runs, and shall be established such that no smaller number of unmet cooling load hours and no larger cooling capacity safety factors are provided than in the proposed design.

Economizer d

: same as proposed, in accordance with

Section 503.4.1.

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

Service water heating Fuel type: same as proposed

Efficiency: from Table 504.2

Capacity: same as proposed Where no service water hot

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed water system exists or is specified in the proposed design, no service hot water heating shall be modeled. a. Where no heating system exists or has been specified, the heating system shall be modeled as fossil fuel. The system characteristics shall be identical in both the standard reference design and proposed design. b. The ratio between the capacities used in the annual simulations and the capacities determined by sizing runs shall be the same for both the standard reference design and proposed design. c. Where no cooling system exists or no cooling system has been specified, the cooling system shall be modeled as an air-cooled single-zone system, one unit per thermal zone. The system characteristics shall be identical in both the standard reference design and proposed design. d. If an economizer is required in accordance with Table 503.3.1 (1), and if no economizer exists or is specified in the proposed design, then a supply air economizer shall be provided in accordance with Section 503.4.1.

CONDENSER COOLING

SOURCE a

Water/ground

HEATING SYSTEM

CLASSIFICATION b

Electric resistance

Heat pump

Fossil fuel

TABLE 507.5.1(2)

HVAC SYSTEMS MAP

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN HVC SYSTEM TYPE c

Single-zone

Residential System

Single-zone

Nonresidential System

System 5

System 6

System 7

System 5

System 6

System 7

All Other

System 1

System 6

System 2

Air/none Electric resistance

Heat pump

System 8

System 8

System 9

System 9

System 3

System 3

Fossil fuel System 10 System 11 System 4 a. Select ―water/ground‖ if the proposed design system condenser is water or evaporatively cooled; select ―air/none‖ if the condenser is air cooled. Closed-circuit dry coolers shall be considered air cooled. Systems utilizing district cooling shall be treated as if the condenser water type were ―water.‖ If no mechanical cooling is specified or the mechanical cooling system in the proposed design does not require heat rejection, the system shall be treated as if the condenser water type were ―Air.‖ For proposed designs with ground-source or groundwater-source heat pumps, the standard reference design HVAC system shall be water-source heat pump (System 6). b. Select the path that corresponds to the proposed design heat source: electric resistance, heat pump (including air source and water source), or fuel fired. Systems utilizing district heating (steam or hot water) and systems with no heating capability shall be treated as if the heating system type were ―fossil fuel.‖ For systems with mixed fuel heating sources, the system or systems that use the secondary heating source type (the one with the smallest total installed output capacity for the spaces served by the system) shall be modeled identically in the standard reference design and the primary heating source type shall be used to determine standard reference design HVAC system type. c. Select the standard reference design HVAC system category: The system under ―single-zone residential system‖ shall be selected if the HVAC system in the proposed design is a single-zone system and serves a residential space. The system under ―single-zone nonresidential system‖ shall be selected if the HVAC system in the proposed design is a single-zone system and serves other than residential spaces. The system under ―all other‖ shall be selected for all other cases.

SYSTE

M NO.

1

2

3

4

5

6

TABLE 507.5.1(3)

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS

SYSTEM TYPE FAN CONTROL COOLING TYPE HEATING TYPE

Variable air volume with parallel fan-powered boxes a

VAV d

Variable air volume with reheat b

VAV d

VAV d

Packaged variable air volume with parallel fanpowered boxes a

Packaged variable air volume with reheat b

VAV d

Two-pipe fan coil

Water-source heat pump

Constant volume

Constant volume i i

Chilled water

Chilled water e e

Direct expansion

Direct expansion

Chilled water e c c

Direct expansion c

Electric resistance

Electric resistance

Hot water fossil fuel boiler f

Hot water fossil fuel boiler f

Electric resistance

Electric heat pump and boiler g

7

8

9

10

Four-pipe fan coil

Packaged terminal heat pump

Packaged rooftop heat pump

Packaged terminal air conditioner

Constant volume

Constant volume

Constant volume

Constant volume i i i i

Chilled water e

Direct expansion

Direct expansion

Direct expansion c c

Hot water fossil fuel boiler

Electric heat pump

Electric heat pump h h

Hot water fossil fuel boiler f f

11 Packaged rooftop air conditioner Constant volume i

Direct expansion Fossil fuel furnace

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cfm/ft2 = 0.0004719, 1 Btu/h = 0.293/W, C = [( F) -32/1.8]. a. VAV with parallel boxes: Fans in parallel VAV fan-powered boxes shall be sized for 50 percent of the peak design flow rate and shall be modeled with 0.35 W/cfm fan power.

Minimum volume setpoints for fan-powered boxes shall be equal to the minimum rate for the space required for ventilation consistent with Section 503.4.5, Exception 5. Supply air temperature setpoint shall be constant at the design condition. b. VAV with reheat: Minimum volume setpoints for VAV reheat boxes shall be 0.4 cfm/ft2 of floor area. Supply air temperature shall be reset based on zone demand from the design temperature difference to a 10°F temperature difference under minimum load conditions. Design airflow rates shall be sized for the reset supply air temperature, i.e., a 10°F temperature difference. c. Direct expansion: The fuel type for the cooling system shall match that of the cooling system in the proposed design. d. VAV: Constant volume can be modeled if the system qualifies for Exception 1, Section 503.4.5. When the proposed design system has a supply, return or relief fan motor 25 horsepower (hp) or larger, the corresponding fan in the VAV system of the standard reference design shall be modeled assuming a variable speed drive. For smaller fans, a forward-curved centrifugal fan with inlet vanes shall be modeled. If the proposed design’s system has a direct digital control system at the zone level, static pressure setpoint reset based on zone requirements in accordance with Section 503.4.2 shall be modeled. e. Chilled water: For systems using purchased chilled water, the chillers are not explicitly modeled and chilled water costs shall be based as determined in Sections 507.3 and

507.5.2. Otherwise, the standard reference design’s chiller plant shall be modeled with chillers having the number as indicated in Table 507.5.1(4) as a function of standard reference building chiller plant load and type as indicated in Table 507.5.1(5) as a function of individual chiller load. Where chiller fuel source is mixed, the system in the standard reference design shall have chillers with the same fuel types and with capacities having the same proportional capacity as the proposed design’s chillers for each fuel type. Chilled water supply temperature shall be modeled at 44°F design supply temperature and 56°F return temperature. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Chilled water supply water temperature shall be reset in accordance with Section 503.4.3.4.Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no chilled water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 22 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 75-foot head, 65-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). The chilled water system shall be modeled as primary-only variable flow with flow maintained at the design rate through each chiller using a bypass. Chilled water pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable-speed drives when required in Section 503.4.3.4. The heat rejection device shall be an axial fan cooling tower with two-speed fans if required in Section 503.4.4. Condenser water design supply temperature shall be 85°F or 10°F approach to design wet-bulb temperature, whichever is lower, with a design temperature rise of 10°F. The tower shall be controlled to maintain a 70°F leaving water temperature where weather permits, floating up to leaving water temperature at design conditions. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no condenser water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 19 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 60-foot head, 60-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). Each chiller shall be modeled with separate condenser water and chilled water pumps interlocked to operate with the associated chiller. f. Fossil fuel boiler: For systems using purchased hot water or steam, the boilers are not explicitly modeled and hot water or steam costs shall be based on actual utility rates.

Otherwise, the boiler plant shall use the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft. The standard reference design boiler plant shall be modeled with a single boiler if the standard reference design plant load is 600,000 Btu/h and less and with two equally sized boilers for plant capacities exceeding 600,000 Btu/h. Boilers shall be staged as required by the load. Hot water supply temperature shall be modeled at 180°F design supply temperature and 130°F return temperature. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Hot water supply water temperature shall be reset in accordance with Section 503.4.3.4. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no hot water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 19 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 60-foot head,

60-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). The hot water system shall be modeled as primary only with continuous variable flow. Hot water pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable speed drives when required by

Section 503.4.3.4. g. Electric heat pump and boiler: Water-source heat pumps shall be connected to a common heat pump water loop controlled to maintain temperatures between 60°F and 90°F.

Heat rejection from the loop shall be provided by an axial fan closed-circuit evaporative fluid cooler with two-speed fans if required in Section 503.4.2. Heat addition to the loop shall be provided by a boiler that uses the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft. If no boilers exist in the proposed design, the standard reference building boilers shall be fossil fuel. The standard reference design boiler plant shall be modeled with a single boiler if the standard reference design plant load is 600,000 Btu/h or less and with two equally sized boilers for plant capacities exceeding 600,000 Btu/h. Boilers shall be staged as required by the load. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Pump system power shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 22 W/gpm, which is equal to a pump operating against a 75-foot head, with a 65-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. Loop flow shall be variable with flow shutoff at each heat pump when its compressor cycles off as required by Section 503.4.3.3. Loop pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable speed drives when required by Section

503.4.3.4. h. Electric heat pump: Electric air-source heat pumps shall be modeled with electric auxiliary heat. The system shall be controlled with a multistage space thermostat and an outdoor air thermostat wired to energize auxiliary heat only on the last thermostat stage and when outdoor air temperature is less than 40°F. i. Constant volume: Fans shall be controlled in the same manner as in the proposed design; i.e., fan operation whenever the space is occupied or fan operation cycled on calls for heating and cooling. If the fan is modeled as cycling and the fan energy is included in the energy efficiency rating of the equipment, fan energy shall not be modeled explicitly

TOTAL CHILLER PLANT CAPACITY

≤ 300 tons

300 tons, 600 tons

600 tons

For SI: 1 ton = 3517 w.

INDIVIDUAL CHILLER PLANT CAPACITY

≤ 100 tons

100 tons, 300 tons

300 tons

For SI: 1 ton = 3517 w.

TABLE 507.5.1(4)

NUMBER OF CHILLERS

NUMBER OF CHILLERS

1

2, sized equally

2 minimum, with chillers added so that no chiller is larger than

800 tons, all sized equally

TABLE 507.5.1(5)

WATER CHILLER TYPES

ELECTRIC CHILLER TYPE

Reciprocating

Screw

Centrifugal

FOSSIL FUEL CHILLER TYPE

Single-effect absorption, direct fired

Double-effect absorption, direct fired

Double-effect absorption, direct fired

CHAPTER 6

REFERENCED STANDARDS

This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 107.

AAMA

Standard Referenced number

AAMA/WDMA/CSA

101/I.S.2/A 440—05

American Architectural Manufacturers Association

1827 Walden Office Square

Suite 550

Schaumburg, IL 60173-4268

Title

Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights reference in code section number

402.4.4, 502.4.1

AHRI

Standard reference number

Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute

4100 North Fairfax Drive

Suite 200

Arlington, VA 22203

Title

210/240—03

310/380—93

340/360—2000

365—02

440—05

550/590—98

560—00

840—1998

13256-1 (2004)

1160—2004

AMCA

Standard reference number

500D—07

ANSI

Standard reference number

Z21.10.3—01

Z21.13—04

Z21.47—03

Z83.8—02

Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment

Standard for Packaged Terminal Air-conditioners and Heat Pumps

Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning and Heat

Pump Equipment

Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning Condensing

Units

Room Fan-coil

Water Chilling Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle— with Addenda

Absorption Water Chilling and Water Heating Packages

Unit Ventilators

Water-source Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance—

Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps

Performance Rating of Heat Pump Pool Heaters .

Air Movement and Control Association International

30 West University Drive

Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1806

Title

Laboratory Methods for Testing Dampers for Rating

American National Standards Institute

25 West 43rd Street

Fourth Floor

New York, NY 10036

Title

Gas Water Heaters, Volume III - Storage Water Heaters with Input

Ratings Above 75,000 Btu per Hour, Circulating Tank and

Instantaneous—with Addenda Z21.10.3a-2003 and Z21.10.3b-2004

Gas-fired Low Pressure Steam and Hot Water Boilers

Gas-fired Central Furnaces

Gas Unit Heaters and Gas-Fired Duct Furnaces—with Addendum

Z83.8a-2003

Referenced in code section number

Table 503.2.3(1), Table 503.2.3(2)

Table 503.2.3(3)

Table 503.2.3(1), Table 503.2.3(2)

Table 503.2.3(6)

503.2.8

Table 503.2.3(7)

Table 503.2.3(7)

503.2.8

Table 503.2.3(2)

Table 504.2

Referenced in code section number

502.4.5

Referenced in code section number

Table 504.2

Table 503.2.3(5)

Table 503.2.3(4)

Table 503.2.3(4)

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning

Engineers, Inc.

1791 Tullie Circle, NE

Atlanta, GA 30329-2305

Title Standard reference number

119—88 (RA 2004)

140—2007

146—1998

ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA

Standard 183—2007

13256-1 (2005)

90.1—2007

ASHRAE—2005

ASHRAE—2004

ASME

Air Leakage Performance for Detached Single-family Residential

Buildings

Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy

Analysis Computer Programs

Testing and Rating Pool Heaters

Peak Cooling and Heating Load Calculations in Buildings Except

Low-rise Residential Buildings

Water-source Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance—

Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps

(ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004)

Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential

Buildings (ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007)

ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals

ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook-2004

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Three Park Avenue

New York, NY 10016-5990

Title Standard reference number

PTC 4.1 - 1964

(Reaffirmed 1991)

ASTM

Standard reference number

C 90—06b

E 283—04

E1554-07

CSA

Standard reference number

101/I.S.2/A440—08

DOE

Steam Generating Units

ASTM International

100 Barr Harbor Drive

West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2859

Title

Specification for Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Unit

Test Method for Determining the Rate of Air Leakage Through

Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors Under Specified

Pressure Differences Across the Specimen

Standard Test Methods for Determining Air Leakage of Air

Distribution Systems by Fan Pressurization

Canadian Standards Association

5060 Spectrum Way

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6

Title

Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights.

U.S. Department of Energy c/o Superintendent of Documents

U.S. Government Printing Office

Washington, DC 20402-9325

Title Standard reference number

10 CFR Part 430, Subpart B,

Appendix E (1998)

10 CFR Part 430,

Subpart B, Appendix N (1998)

10 CFR Part 431,

Subpart E 2004

Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of

Water Heaters

Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of

Furnaces and Boilers

Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards for Commercial

Packaged Boilers

Referenced in code section number

Table 405.5.2(1)

506.6.1

Table 504.2

503.2.1

Table 503.2.3(2)

501.1, 501.2, 502.1.1, Table 502.2(2)

402.1.4, Table 405.5.2(1)

503.2.1

Referenced in code section number

Table 503.2.3(5)

Referenced in code section number

Table 502.2(1)

402.4.5, 502.4.2, 502.4.8

403.2.2

Referenced in code section number

402.4.4, 502.4.1

Referenced in code section number

Table 504.2

Table 503.2.3(4), Table 503.2.3(5)

Table 503.2.3(6)

DOE/EIA—0376

(Current Edition)

NAECA - National Appliance

Energy Conservation Act

ICC

Standard reference number

IBC—09

IFC—09

IFGC—09

IMC—09

IPC—09

IRC—09

State Energy Prices and Expenditure Report

Minimum energy efficiency standards for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps

International Code Council, Inc.

500 New Jersey Avenue, NW

6th Floor

Washington, DC 20001

Title

International Building Code

®

International Fire Code

®

International Fuel Gas Code

®

International Mechanical Code

®

International Plumbing Code

®

.

International Residential Code

®

IESNA

Standard reference number

90.1-2004

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

120 Wall Street, 17th Floor

New York, NY 10005-4001

Title

NFRC

Standard reference number

100—04

200—04

400—04

SMACNA

Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential

Buildings

National Fenestration Rating Council, Inc.

6305 Ivy Lane, Suite 140

Greenbelt, MD 20770

Title

Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product U-factors—

Second Edition

Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Solar Heat Gain

Coefficients and Visible Transmittance at Normal Incidence—

Second Edition

Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Air Leakage—

Second Edition

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National

Association, Inc.

4021 Lafayette Center Drive

Chantilly, VA 20151-1209

Title Standard reference number

SMACNA—85

UL

Standard reference number

727—06

731—95

HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual

Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

333 Pfingsten Road

Northbrook, IL 60062-2096

Title

Oil-fired Central Furnaces

Oil-fired Unit Heaters—with Revisions through February 2006

405.3, 506.2

403.6.2

Referenced in code section number

303.2, 201.3

201.3

201.3

503.2.5, 503.2.6, 503.2.7.1,

503.2.7.1.1,

503.2.7.1.2, 503.2.9.1, 503.3.1, 503.4.5

201.3

201.3, 403.2.2, 403.6, 405.6.1, Table

405.5.2(1)

Referenced in code section number

501.1, 501.2, 502.1.1, Table 502.2(2)

Referenced in code section number

303.1.3

303.1.3

402.4.2, 502.4.1

Referenced in code section number

503.2.7.1.3

Referenced in code section number

Table 503.2.3(4)

Table 503.2.3(4)

US—FTC

Standard reference number

CFR Title 16

WDMA

Standard reference number

AAMA/WDMA/CSA

101/I.S.2/A440—08

United States - Federal Trade Commission

600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW

Washington, DC 20580

Title

R-value Rule

Window and Door Manufacturers Association

1400 East Touhy Avenue, Suite 470

Des Plaines, IL 60018

Title

Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights

Referenced in code section number

303.1.4

Referenced in code section number

402.4.4, 502.4.1

APPENDIX 1: RESIDENTIAL REQUIREMENTS

APPENDIX 1.1 Energy Efficiency Certificate (Section 401.9)

ENERGY EFFICIENCY CERTIFICATE

401.9

Builder, Permit Holder or Registered Design Professional Print

Name:

Signature:

Property Address:

Date:

Insulation Rating - List the value covering largest area to all that apply

Ceiling/roof:

R-Value

R-

Wall:

Floor:

Closed Crawl Space Wall:

Closed Crawl Space Floor:

Slab:

Basement Wall:

Fenestration:

U-Factor

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient(SHGC)

Building Air Leakage



Visually inspected according to 402.4.2.1 OR



Building Air Leakage Test Results (Sec.

402.4.2.2)

ACH50 [Target: 5.0] or CFM50/SFSA [Target: 0.30]

Name of Tester / Company:

Date: Phone:

Ducts:

Insulation

Total Duct Leakage Test Result (Sect. 403.2.2)

(CFM25 Total/100SF) [Target: 6]

Name of Tester or Company:

Date: Phone:

Certificate to be displayed permanently

R-

R-

R-

R-

R-

R-

R-

APPENDIX 1.2

INSULATION AND AIR SEALING DETAILS

APPENDIX 1.2.1

402.2.1 Ceilings with attic spaces: Exception for fully enclosed attic floor systems

SECTION VIEW OF CEILING WITH ATTIC SPACE

APPENDIX 1.2.2

402.2.9 Closed crawl space walls. Insulation illustrations

Foam or porous insulation has

3” top inspection gap and extends down 3” above top of wall footing or concrete floor

Foam or porous insulation has

3” top inspection gap and extends down 3” above interior ground surface

Foam or porous insulation has

3” top inspection gap and extends down 24” below grade

APPENDIX 1.2.3

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. Insulation enclosure – 1. Tubs

SECTION VIEW OF BATH TUB ON EXTERIOR WALL

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. Insulation enclosure – 2. Showers

SECTION VIEW OF SHOWER ON EXTERIOR WALL

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. Insulation enclosure – 3. Stairs

SECTION VIEW OF INTERIOR STAIRCASE ON EXTERIOR WALL

(OPTION 1)

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. Insulation enclosure – 3. Stairs

SECTION VIEW OF INTERIOR STAIRCASE ON EXTERIOR WALL

(OPTION 2)

402.2.12 Framed cavity wall. Insulation enclosure – 4. Direct vent gas fireplace

SECTION VIEW OF DIRECT VENT GAS FIREPLACE

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. Insulation enclosure – 5. Walls that adjoin attic spaces

SECTION VIEW OF WALL ADJOINING ATTIC SPACE

402.2.12 Framed cavity walls. Insulation enclosure – 5. Walls that adjoin attic spaces

SECTION VIEW OF WALL ADJOINING ATTIC SPACE

APPENDIX 1.2.4

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. – 1. Block and seal floor/ceiling systems

ISOMETRIC VIEW OF DIMENSIONAL LUMBER FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEM

ABOVE COMMON WALL BETWEEN UNCONDITIONED AND CONDITIONED

SPACE

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. – 1. Block and seal floor/ceiling systems

ISOMETRIC VIEW OF WOOD TRUSS FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEM ABOVE

COMMON WALL BETWEEN UNCONDITIONED AND CONDITIONED SPACE

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. – 1. Block and seal floor/ceiling systems

ISOMETRIC VIEW OF I-JOIST FLOOR/CEILING SYSTEM ABOVE COMMON

WALL BETWEEN UNCONDITIONED AND CONDITIONED SPACE

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope – 2. Cap and seal shafts and chases

SECTION VIEWS OF DUCT PENETRATING INTO ATTIC

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. – 3. Cap and seal soffit or dropped ceiling

SECTION VIEW OF SOFFIT OVER CABINET

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. – 4. Seal HVAC boot penetration – floor

SECTION VIEW OF FLOOR HVAC BOOT PENETRATION

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. – 4. Seal HVAC boot penetration – ceiling

SECTION VIEW OF CEILING HVAC BOOT PENETRATION

APPENDIX 2: COMMERCIAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS

APPENDIX 2.1: Air Sealing Details

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 1. Air seal around fenestration frames

PLAN VIEW OF WINDOW IN WOOD FRAME WALL

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 1. Air seal around fenestration frames

SECTION VIEW OF CURTAIN WALL

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 1. Air seal around door frames

PLAN VIEW OF HOLLOW METAL DOOR FRAME

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 2. Air seal junctions between walls and foundations

SECTION VIEW OF WOOD FRAME WALL, FLOOR, AND FOUNDATION

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 2. Air seal junctions between walls and foundations

SECTION VIEW OF METAL STUD WALL, FLOOR, AND FOUNDATION

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 2. Air seal between walls and roof

SECTION VIEW (A) OF WALL AND ROOF

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 2. Air seal between walls and roof

PLAN VIEW (B) OF WALL AND ROOF

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 3. Air seal utility services through walls

SEAL EXTERIOR PENETRATIONS

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 3. Air sealing utility services through walls.

PLAN VIEW OF WALL HVAC DUCT PENETRATING EXTERIOR WALL

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope - 3. Air sealing utility services through walls and floors.

SECTION VIEW OF WALL AND SEALING POINTS OF UTILITY

PENETRATIONS

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope

5. Air sealing joints, seams, and penetrations of the air barrier system. Compliant systems include:

A. OSB or plywood sheathing covered with continuous 15-pound felt or other water and vapor resistant treatment with joints lapped 6 inches minimum

B. Building wrap with sealed seams

C. Drywall with sealed joints that completely covers the interior or exterior side of all exterior framed wall cavities with the exception of interior wall intersections (see next page)

ELEVATION VIEW OF A 3 STORY COMMERCIAL BUILDING

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope

6. Other openings in the building envelope, continuous wall enclosure

SECTION VIEW OF SUSPENDED CEILING TILES AND EXTERIOR WALL

APPENDIX 2.2: COMMERCIAL BUILDING OPAQUE ASSEMBLIES

Table 502.2(2) Roofs.

SECTION VIEW OF METAL FRAME ROOF:

FILLED CAVITY FIBERGLASS INSULATION

Table 502.2(2) Roofs.

SECTION OF METAL FRAME ROOF:

LINER SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM R-3.5 THERMAL SPACER BLOCK

Table 502.2(2) Walls.

SECTION VIEW OF METAL FRAME WITH INSULATION BETWEEN FRAME AND

EXTERIOR PANEL

APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE WORKSHEETS FOR RESIDENTIAL AIR AND DUCT

LEAKAGE TESTING

APPENDIX 3A

Air sealing: Visual inspection option (Section 402.4.2.1)

Sample Worksheet

402.4.2 Air sealing. Building envelope air tightness shall be demonstrated by Section 402.4.2.1 or 402.4.2.2:

402.4.2.1 Visual inspection option. Building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when items providing insulation enclosure in 402.2.12 and air sealing in 402.4.1 are addressed and when the items listed in

Table 402.4.2, applicable to the method of construction, are certified by the by the builder, permit holder or registered design professional via the certificate in Appendix 1.

TABLE 402.4.2

AIR BARRIER INSPECTION

COMPONENT

Ceiling/attic

CRITERIA

Sealants or gaskets provide a continuous air barrier system joining the top plate of framed walls with either the ceiling drywall or the top edge of wall drywall to prevent air leakage. Top plate penetrations are sealed.

For ceiling finishes that are not air barrier systems such as tongue-and-groove planks, air barrier systems,(for example, taped house wrap), shall be used above the finish

Note: It is acceptable that sealants or gaskets applied as part of the application of the drywall will not be observable by the code official

Sill plate is gasketed or sealed to subfloor or slab.

Walls

Windows and doors Space between window and exterior door jambs and framing is sealed.

Air barrier system is installed at any exposed edge of insulation.

Floors (including above-garage

and cantilevered floors)

Penetrations

Garage separation

Duct boots

Utility penetrations through the building thermal envelope, including those for plumbing, electrical wiring, ductwork, security and fire alarm wiring, and control wiring, shall be sealed.

Air sealing is provided between the garage and conditioned spaces. An air barrier system shall be installed between the ceiling system above the garage and the ceiling system of interior spaces.

Sealing HVAC register boots and return boxes to subfloor or drywall.

Recessed lighting Recessed light fixtures are air tight, IC rated, and sealed to drywall.

Exception—fixtures not penetrating the building envelope.

Property Address:

______________________________________________________________________________

402.4.2.1 Visual Inspection Option

The inspection information including tester name, date, and contact shall be included on the certificate described in Section 401.3.

________________________________________________

Signature

______________________________

Date

APPENDIX 3B

Air sealing: Testing option (Section 402.4.2.2)

Sample Worksheet

402.4.2 Air sealing. Building envelope air tightness shall be demonstrated by Section 402.4.2.1 or 402.4.2.2:

402.4.2.2 Testing option. Building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when items providing insulation enclosure in 402.2.12 and air sealing in 402.4.1 are addressed and when tested air leakage is less than or equal to one of the two following performance measurements:

1. 0.30 CFM50/Square Foot of Surface Area (SFSA) or

2. Five (5) air changes per hour (ACH50)

When tested with a blower door fan assembly, at a pressure of 33.5 psf (50 Pa). A single point depressurization, not temperature corrected, test is sufficient to comply with this provision, provided that the blower door fan assembly has been certified by the manufacturer to be capable of conducting tests in accordance with ASTM E779-03.

Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation and combustion appliances. Testing shall be reported by the permit holder, a NC licensed general contractor, a NC licensed HVAC contractor, a NC licensed Home

Inspector, a registered design professional, a certified BPI Envelope Professional or a certified HERS rater.

During testing:

1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed;

2. Dampers shall be closed, but not sealed, including exhaust, backdraft, and flue dampers;

3. Interior doors shall be open;

4. Exterior openings for continuous ventilation systems, air intake ducted to the return side of the conditioning system, and energy or heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;

5. Heating and cooling system(s) shall be turned off; and

6. Supply and return registers shall not be sealed.

The air leakage information, including building air leakage result, tester name, date, and contact information, shall be included on the certificate described in Section 401.3.

For Test Criteria 1 above, the report shall be produced in the following manner: Perform the blower door test and record the CFM50___________. Calculate the total square feet of surface area for the building thermal envelope, all floors, ceilings, and walls (this includes windows and doors) and record the area______________. Divide CFM50 by the total square feet and record the result below. If the result is less than or equal to [0.30 CFM50/SFSA] the envelope tightness is acceptable; or

For Test Criteria 2 above, the report shall be produced in the following manner: Perform a blower door test and record the CFM50___________. Multiply the CFM50 by 60 minutes to create CFHour50 and record

______________. Then calculate the total conditioned volume of the home and record_________________. Divide the CFH50 by the total volume and record the result below. If the result is less than or equal to [5 ACH50] the envelope tightness is acceptable.

Property Address:

______________________________________________________________________________

Fan attachment location _______________________ Company Name _________________________

Contact Information: ______________________________________________________

____________________________________________________ _____

Signature of Tester

Permit Holder, NC Licensed General Contractor, NC Licensed HVAC Contractor,

Date

NC Licensed Home Inspector, Registered Design Professional,

Certified BPI Envelope Professional, or Certified HERS Rater (circle one)

APPENDIX 3C

Duct sealing. Duct air leakage test (Section 403.2.2)

Sample Worksheet

N1103.2.2 Sealing All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603 of the NC Mechanical Code

Duct tightness shall be verified as follows:

Total duct leakage less than or equal to 6 CFM (18 L/min) per 100 ft 2 (9.29 m

2

) of conditioned floor area served by that system when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure.

During testing:

1. Block, if present, the ventilation air duct connected to the conditioning system.

2. The duct air leakage testing equipment shall be attached to the largest return in the system or to the air handler.

3. The filter shall be removed and the air handler power shall be turned off.

3. Supply boots or registers and return boxes or grilles shall be taped, plugged, or otherwise sealed air tight.

4. The hose for measuring the 25 Pascals of pressure differential shall be inserted into the boot of the supply that is nominally closest to the air handler.

5. Specific instructions from the duct testing equipment manufacturer shall be followed to reach duct test pressure and measure duct air leakage.

Testing shall be performed and reported by the permit holder, a NC licensed general contractor, a NC licensed

HVAC contractor, a NC licensed Home Inspector, a registered design professional, a certified BPI Envelope

Professional or a certified HERS rater. A single point depressurization, not temperature corrected, test is sufficient to comply with this provision, provided that the duct testing fan assembly has been certified by the manufacturer to be capable of conducting tests in accordance with ASTM E1554-07.

The duct leakage information, including duct leakage result, tester name, date, company and contact information, shall be included on the certificate described in Section N1101.9.

For the Test Criteria, the report shall be produced in the following manner: perform the HVAC system air leakage test and record the CFM25. Calculate the total square feet of Conditioned Floor Area (CFA) served by that system.

Multiply CFM25 by 100, divide the result by the CFA and record the result. If the result is less than or equal to [6

CFM25/100 SF] the HVAC system air tightness is acceptable.

Complete one duct leakage report for each HVAC system serving the home:

Property Address: ________________________________________________________________

HVAC System Number: _________ Describe area of home served: _____________________

CFM25 Total _________. Conditioned Floor Area (CFA) served by system: __________ s.f.

CFM25 x 100 divided by CFA = ____ CFM25/100SF

(e.g. 100 CFM25x100/ 2,000 CFA = 5 CFM25/100SF)

Fan attachment location ___________________

Company Name __________________________________________________________________

Contact Information:_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

Signature of Tester

______________________________

Date

Permit Holder, NC Licensed General Contractor, NC Licensed HVAC Contractor,

NC Licensed Home Inspector, Registered Design Professional,

Certified BPI Envelope Professional, or Certified HERS Rater (circle one)

APPENDIX 4 ADDITIONAL VOLUNTARY CRITERIA FOR INCREASING ENERGY

EFFICIENCY (High Efficiency Residential Option)

1.

Introduction. The increased energy efficiency measures identified in this appendix are strictly voluntary at the option of the permit holder and have been evaluated to be the most cost effective measures for achieving an additional 15-20% energy efficiency beyond the code minimums.

2. Requirements: Follow all sections of the Chapter 4 of the North Carolina Energy Conservation Code, except the following. a. Instead of using Table 402.1 in Section 402.1, use Table E-5A shown below.

CLIMATE

ZONE

3

FENESTRATIO

N

U-FACTORb

0.32

j

TABLE 4A

INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENT a

SKYLIGHTb

U-FACTOR

GLAZED

FENESTRATION

SHGCb, e

CEILING

R-VALUEk

WOOD

FRAME WALL

R-VALUE e

MASS

WALL

R-VALUEi

FLOOR

R-VALUE

BASEMENTc

WALL

R-VALUE

0.65

0.25

38 19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

5/10 19 10/13 f

SLABd

R-VALUE

5

CRAWL

SPACEc

WALL

R-VALUE

10/13

4 0.32

0.60

0.25

38 19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

5/10 19 10/13 10 10/13

4

5

3

4

5 0.32

0.60

(NR) 38 19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

13/17 30 g

10/13 10 15/19

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. a. R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. b. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration. c. ―10/13‖ means R-10 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall or crawl space wall. d. For monolithic slabs, insulation shall be applied from the inspection gap downward to the bottom of the footing or a maximum of 18 inches

below grade, whichever is less . For floating slabs, insulation shall extend to the bottom of the foundation wall or 24 inches, whichever is less.

(See Appendix O) R-5 shall be added to the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs. e. R -19 fiberglass batts compressed and installed in a nominal 2 × 6 framing cavity is deemed to comply. Fiberglass batts rated R-19 or higher compressed and installed in a 2x4 wall is not deemed to comply.

f. Basement wall insulation is not required in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure 301.2 and Tables 301.1 and 301.3. g. Or insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity, R-19 minimum. h. ―13+5‖ means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 insulated sheathing. 15+3 means R-15 cavity insulation plus R-3 insulated sheathing. If structural sheathing covers 25 percent or less of the exterior, insulating sheathing is not required where structural sheathing is used. If structural sheathing covers more than 25 percent of exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2. 13+2.5 means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-2.5 sheathing. i. For Mass Walls, the second R-value applies when more than half the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall.

j. R-30 shall be deemed to satisfy the ceiling insulation requirement wherever the full height of uncompressed R-30 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. Otherwise R-38 insulation is required where adequate clearance exists or insulation must extend to either the insulation baffle or within 1” of the attic roof deck.

k. Table value required except for roof edge where the space is limited by the pitch of the roof, there the insulation must fill the space up to the air baffle.

3

CLIMATE

ZONE

b. Instead of using Table 402.2 in Section 402.2, use Table E-5B to find the maximum U-factors for building components.

FENESTRATION

U-FACTOR

0.32

0.32

0.32

0.32

0.32

SKYLIGHT

U-FACTOR

0.65

0.60

0.60

0.65

0.60

4.

3. TABLE 4B

EQUIVALENT U-FACTORS a

CEILING

U-FACTOR

FRAME

WALL

U-FACTOR

MASS

WALL

U-FACTOR b

0.035 0.082

0.141

0.030

0.030

0.071

0.067

0.141

0.082

0.030

0.030

0.067

0.067

0.141

0.141

FLOOR

U-FACTOR

0.047

0.047

0.033

0.047

0.047

BASEMENT

WALL

U-FACTOR d

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.059

0.059

CRAWL

SPACE

WALL

U-FACTOR c

0.136

0.065

0.065

0.065

0.065

5 0.32 0.60 0.030 0.067 0.082 a. Nonfenestration U-factors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source.

0.033 0.059 0.046

b. When more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors shall be a maximum 0.12 in Zone 3, 0.10 in Zone 4, and the same as the frame wall U-factor in Zone 5. c. Basement wall U-factor of 0.360 in warm-humid locations as defined by Figures 401.2(1), 401.2(2) and Table 401.2. d. Foundation U-factor requirements shown in Table E-5B include wall construction and interior air films but exclude soil conductivity and exterior air films. U-factors for determining code compliance in accordance with Section 402.1.3 (total UA alternative) shall be modified to include soil conductivity and exterior air films. c. Instead of using the air leakage value for maximum leakage shown in Section 402.4.2.2, use the following: i. 0.24 CFM50/Square Foot of Surface Area (SFSA) or ii. Four (4) air changes per hour (ACH50) d. Instead of using the duct leakage value for maximum leakage shown in Section 403.2.2 use the following:

Total duct leakage less than or equal to 4 CFM (12 L/min) per 100 ft

2

(9.29 m

2

) of

conditioned floor area served by that system when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across

Table 4C: Sample Confirmation Form for ADDITIONAL VOLUNTARY CRITERIA

FOR INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY (High Efficiency Residential Option)

North Carolina Energy Conservation Code: High

Proposed

Insulation and Fenestration Values

Climate Zone

Fenestration U-Factor

Skylight U-Factor

Glazed Fenestration SHGC

b, e

Ceiling R-value

Wood Frame Wall R-value

e

3

0.32

j

0.65

0.25

Mass Wall R-value

j

Floor R-value

Basement Wall R-value c

Slab R-value and Depth d

Crawl Space Wall R-value

c

4

0.32 j

0.6

0.25

5

0.32 j

0.6

(NR)

38

19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

5/10

38

19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

5/10

38

19, 13+5, or 15+3 eh

13/17

19

10/13

f

5, 2 ft

10/13

19

10/13 f

10, 2 ft

10/13

30

g

10/13 f

10, 2 ft

15/19

Values

Building Air Leakage

Visually inspected according to

N1102.4.2.1 (check box) OR

Building Air Leakage Test according to N1102.4.2.2 (check box). Show test value:

ACH50 [Target: 4.0], or

CFM50/SFSA [Target: 0.24]

Name of Tester / Company:

Date:

Phone:

Duct Insulation and Sealing

Insulation Value

Duct Leakage Test Result

(Sect. N1103.2.2)

(CFM25 Total/100SF)

[Target:4]

Name of Tester or Company:

R-

Date:

Phone:

4D:

SAMPLE WORKSHEETS FOR RESIDENTIAL AIR AND DUCT LEAKAGE TESTING

4D.1

Air sealing: Visual inspection option (Section 402.4.2.1)

Sample Worksheet for Alternative Residential Energy Code for Higher Efficiency

402.4.2 Air sealing. Building envelope air tightness shall be demonstrated by Section 402.4.2.1 or 402.4.2.2:

402.4.2.1 Visual inspection option. Building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when items providing insulation enclosure in 402.2.12 and air sealing in 402.4.1 are addressed and when the items listed in

Table 402.4.2, applicable to the method of construction, are certified by the by the builder, permit holder or registered design professional via the certificate in Appendix 1.

TABLE 402.4.2

AIR BARRIER INSPECTION

COMPONENT

Ceiling/attic

CRITERIA

Sealants or gaskets provide a continuous air barrier system joining the top plate of framed walls with either the ceiling drywall or the top edge of wall drywall to prevent air leakage. Top plate penetrations are sealed.

For ceiling finishes that are not air barrier systems such as tongue-and-groove planks, air barrier systems,(for example, taped house wrap), shall be used above the finish

Note: It is acceptable that sealants or gaskets applied as part of the application of the drywall will not be observable by the code official

Sill plate is gasketed or sealed to subfloor or slab.

Walls

Windows and doors Space between window and exterior door jambs and framing is sealed.

Air barrier system is installed at any exposed edge of insulation.

Floors (including above-garage

and cantilevered floors)

Penetrations

Garage separation

Duct boots

Recessed lighting

Utility penetrations through the building thermal envelope, including those for plumbing, electrical wiring, ductwork, security and fire alarm wiring, and control wiring, shall be sealed.

Air sealing is provided between the garage and conditioned spaces. An air barrier system shall be installed between the ceiling system above the garage and the ceiling system of interior spaces.

Sealing HVAC register boots and return boxes to subfloor or drywall.

Recessed light fixtures are air tight, IC rated, and sealed to drywall.

Exception—fixtures not penetrating the building envelope.

Property Address:

______________________________________________________________________________

402.4.2.1 Visual Inspection Option

The inspection information including tester name, date, and contact shall be included on the certificate described in Section 401.3.

________________________________________________

Signature

______________________________

Date

4D.2

Air sealing: Testing option (Section 402.4.2.2)

Sample Worksheet for Alternative Residential Energy Code for Higher Efficiency

402.4.2 Air sealing. Building envelope air tightness shall be demonstrated by Section 402.4.2.1 or 402.4.2.2:

402.4.2.2 Testing option. Building envelope tightness shall be considered acceptable when items providing insulation enclosure in 402.2.12 and air sealing in 402.4.1 are addressed and when tested air leakage is less than or equal to one of the two following performance measurements:

1. 0.24 CFM50/Square Foot of Surface Area (SFSA) or

2. Four (4) air changes per hour (ACH50)

When tested with a blower door fan assembly, at a pressure of 33.5 psf (50 Pa). A single point depressurization, not temperature corrected, test is sufficient to comply with this provision, provided that the blower door fan assembly has been certified by the manufacturer to be capable of conducting tests in accordance with ASTM E779-03.

Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation and combustion appliances. Testing shall be reported by the permit holder, a NC licensed general contractor, a NC licensed HVAC contractor, a NC licensed Home

Inspector, a registered design professional, a certified BPI Envelope Professional or a certified HERS rater.

During testing:

1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed;

2. Dampers shall be closed, but not sealed, including exhaust, backdraft, and flue dampers;

3. Interior doors shall be open;

4. Exterior openings for continuous ventilation systems, air intake ducted to the return side of the conditioning system, and energy or heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;

5. Heating and cooling system(s) shall be turned off; and

6. Supply and return registers shall not be sealed.

The air leakage information, including building air leakage result, tester name, date, and contact information, shall be included on the certificate described in Section 401.3.

For Test Criteria 1 above, the report shall be produced in the following manner: Perform the blower door test and record the CFM50___________. Calculate the total square feet of surface area for the building thermal envelope, all floors, ceilings, and walls (this includes windows and doors) and record the area______________. Divide CFM50 by the total square feet and record the result below. If the result is less than or equal to [0.24 CFM50/SFSA] the envelope tightness is acceptable; or

For Test Criteria 2 above, the report shall be produced in the following manner: Perform a blower door test and record the CFM50___________. Multiply the CFM50 by 60 minutes to create CFHour50 and record

______________. Then calculate the total conditioned volume of the home and record_________________. Divide the CFH50 by the total volume and record the result below. If the result is less than or equal to [4 ACH50] the envelope tightness is acceptable.

Property Address:________________________________________________________________

Fan attachment location _______________________ Company Name _________________________

Contact Information: ___________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________ _______________

Signature of Tester Date

Permit Holder, NC Licensed General Contractor, NC Licensed HVAC Contractor,

NC Licensed Home Inspector, Registered Design Professional,

Certified BPI Envelope Professional, or Certified HERS Rater (circle one)

4D.3

Duct sealing. Duct air leakage test (Section 403.2.2)

Sample Worksheet for Alternative Residential Energy Code for Higher Efficiency

403.2.2 Sealing All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Part V – Mechanical, Section 603.9 of the North Carolina Residential Code.

Duct tightness shall be verified as follows:

Total duct leakage less than or equal to 4 CFM (12 L/min) per 100 ft

2

(9.29 m

2

) of conditioned floor area served by that system when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure.

During testing:

1. Block, if present, the ventilation air duct connected to the conditioning system.

2. The duct air leakage testing equipment shall be attached to the largest return in the system or to the air handler.

3. The filter shall be removed and the air handler power shall be turned off.

3. Supply boots or registers and return boxes or grilles shall be taped, plugged, or otherwise sealed air tight.

4. The hose for measuring the 25 Pascals of pressure differential shall be inserted into the boot of the supply that is nominally closest to the air handler.

5. Specific instructions from the duct testing equipment manufacturer shall be followed to reach duct test pressure and measure duct air leakage.

Testing shall be performed and reported by the permit holder, a NC licensed general contractor, a NC licensed

HVAC contractor, a NC licensed Home Inspector, a registered design professional, a certified BPI Envelope

Professional or a certified HERS rater. A single point depressurization, not temperature corrected, test is sufficient to comply with this provision, provided that the duct testing fan assembly has been certified by the manufacturer to be capable of conducting tests in accordance with ASTM E1554-07.

The duct leakage information, including duct leakage result, tester name, date, company and contact information, shall be included on the certificate described in Section 401.3.

For the Test Criteria, the report shall be produced in the following manner: perform the HVAC system air leakage test and record the CFM25. Calculate the total square feet of Conditioned Floor Area (CFA) served by that system.

Multiply CFM25 by 100, divide the result by the CFA and record the result. If the result is less than or equal to [4

CFM25/100 SF] the HVAC system air tightness is acceptable.

Complete one duct leakage report for each HVAC system serving the home:

Property Address: ________________________________________________________________

HVAC System Number: _________ Describe area of home served: _____________________

CFM25 Total _________. Conditioned Floor Area (CFA) served by system: __________ s.f.

CFM25 x 100 divided by CFA = ____ CFM25/100SF

(e.g. 70 CFM25x100/ 2,000 CFA = 3.5 CFM25/100SF)

Fan attachment location ___________________

Company Name __________________________________________________________________

Contact Information:_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

Signature of Tester

______________________________

Date

Permit Holder, NC Licensed General Contractor, NC Licensed HVAC Contractor,

NC Licensed Home Inspector, Registered Design Professional,

Certified BPI Envelope Professional, or Certified HERS Rater (circle one)

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