US006272078B2 (12) United States Patent (10) Patent N0.: US 6,272,078 B2 (45) Date of Patent: *Aug. 7, 2001 Yankowski (54) METHOD FOR UPDATING A MEMORY IN A 5,244,705 9/1993 Tsurushima et al. ................ .. 428/64 RECORDED MEDIA PLAYER 5,335,218 5,260,922 11/1993 8/1994 Osada Chigasaki ................................. .............. .. .. 369/178 (75) Inventor: Carl J. Yankowskl, Dover, MA (US) (List Continued on next page‘) (73) Assignees: Sony Corporation, Tokyo (JP); Sony FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS Electronics Inc., Park Ridge, NJ (US) (*) Notice: This patent issued on a continued pros- 0460869A2 ()580361A2 12/1991 1/1994 (EP) _ ecution application ?led under 37 CFR 0680040A2 11/1995 (EP). 1.53(d), and is subject to the tWenty year _ patent term provisions of 35 U.S.C. _ (Llst Con?rmed on next page‘) 154(a)(2)- OTHER PUBLICATIONS SubJeCt_t0 any disclaimer>_ the term of this Compact Disc Technology, H. Nakajima/H. OgaWa, 1992, Patent 15 extended or adtusted under 35 Pub. by Ohmsha, Ltd. 3_1 Kanda Nishiki—cho, Chiyoda—ku, U50 154(b) by 0 days- Tokyo 101, Japan, Chap.5, pp. 85—124, ISBN 4—274—03347—3. (21) Appl' NO‘: 08/961’394 (22) Filed; Oct, 30, 1997 The Song Servant Advertisement, undated. Denon DN—1400F 200 CD Change Speci?cation Sheet, undated. Related U‘S‘ Apphcatlon Data _ _ _ (62) _ CDP—CX153 100—Disc Changer, Features/Speci?cations, _ 1995 Sony Electronics Inc., 1 Sony Drive, Park Ridge, NJ DlVlSlOIl of application No. 08/507,544, ?led on Jul. 26, 07656 (2/95) 1995, now Pat. No. 5,751,672. ' (List continued on neXt page.) (51) Int. Cl.7 ...................................................... .. G11B 7/22 (52) US. Cl. .......................... .. 369/30; 369/34; 369/47.15 (58) Field of Search ................................ .. 369/30, 34, 32, Primary Examiner—Ali NeyZari (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Christopher M. Tobin; Harold T. Fujii 369/47.15, 47.16, 59.1, 53.2, 36, 38, 47.1, 360/19'1’ 33'1 (56) References Cited (57) ABSTRACT A method and a PP aratus for uP datin g a memor y in a Com pact Disc changer. Information identifying discs stored in a CD changer is stored in a memory. The memory is updated U'S' PATENT DOCUMENTS 4,358,780 11/1982 Sato ................................ .. 369/135.1 When a CD is loaded Which does not have identifying features Which are recogniled by the CD changer- Updating is carried out via a modem connection to a remote database. 4,397,011 8/1983 Ogawa 4,491,882 1/1985 4,587,643 5/1986 Monen et a1 47017900 10/1987 Fujiie ____ __ 369/50 ............ . . . . .. 360/53 Ha_SegaWa ct a1~ - - - - - - - , a amura e a. database can be stored locally in a local - - - ~~ 369/36 queried to locate desired tracks and can be used to facilitate control of the compact disc changer by providing a simpli ..... .. - 4,893,199 1/1990 Okada ............... . . . . .. 360/48 5,148,418 9/1992 Tsurushima 5,243,588 9/1993 Maeda et a1. ........................ .. 369/54 - - - 19 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets /2 4 20 [CD CHHNGERI ; /32 COMPUTER 38 - ?ed Interface for bulldmg a play 11st and the hke' .... .. 369/32 DHTH BHSE database residing in a personal computer Where the database can be ghlilkenbearf elt a1‘ " , The 369/32 STEREO HMPLIFIER %< /40 /44 MODEM PHONE LINE REMOTE DHTHBFISE /28 U US 6,272,078 B2 Page 2 US. PATENT DOCUMENTS FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 5,341,350 8/1994 Frank et a1. ......................... .. 369/30 5,446,714 8/1995 Yoshio et a1. . 5,475,835 3-76082 8 12/1995 Hickey ............................... .. 395/600 5,559,764 9/1996 5,615,345 3/1997 Wanger .............................. .. 395/309 WO91/2OO82 2/1991 (JP) - 151332 8;; 12/1991 (W0) _ Chen et a1. .......................... .. 369/30 OTHER PUBLICATIONS 2’642’337 * 6/1997 0.5131311“. a1’ """"""""""" " 369/30 523%: * 1i/ 11:16 er em et a ' ' 369 30 5, 5 , * 5/ etelison ............................. .. / Microsoft Windows Sound System, Version 2.0, Software User’s Guide, Microsoft Corp. 1993, Dragon Systems, Inc., Newton, MA, USA, DOC‘ NO‘ HA53828_0993~ 632353;? * “£333 zankowski """""""""""""" " Compact Disc Player, Operating Instructions, CDP—CX100/ ’ ’ 6,128,625 / * 10/2000 an 0W5 ' "" " / CDP—CX100S, 1993 Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Yankowski ......................... .. 707/104 6,147,940 * 11/2000 Yankowski ........................... .. 369/30 * cited by eXarniner U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 Sheet 2 0f 8 US 6,272,078 B2 24 STEREO HMF’LIFIER PHONE LINE REMOTE DFITHBFISE FIG.2 /?4 /?8 MULTI-DISC cn CHHNGER MECHFINISM —> _, lc?rggggé B4 I PRSEESE‘ENG W CONTROLLER 72 84 DISPLFIY/ IR RECEIVER CONTROL PFINEL J FIG.3 U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 Sheet 3 0f 8 STFIRT US 6,272,078 B2 1'30 SELECT DISC r104 CID /10s CHFINGER REHD DISC "FINGERPRINT" | COMPFIRE T0 MEMORY |/110 CONVENTIONFIL OPERFITION FOUND? 1 14 N0 /12U MHNUFIL MRNUHL ENTRY ROUTINE 122 MESSFIGE: "DISC DHTH NOT FOUND. PLFIY OR RETRIEVE DFITH OR MFINUFIL ENTRY?" RETRIEVE SEND "F‘INGERPRINT" T0 COMPUTER CHECK LOCHL DHTFIBHSE FOUND? 132 DIHL. PLHY 124 128 /l38 noTwglLgn?n CHHNGER N0 MEMORY MESSHGE: "DISC DFITFI NOT FUOND. PLRY, DIFIL REMOTE DFITF-IBFISE OR MFINUFIL ENTRY?" MFINUFIL F I G . 4H PLHY U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 Sheet 4 0f 8 US 6,272,078 B2 ? DIHL REMOTE DHTHBHSEI/ QUERY REMOTE DFITHBFISE FOR "FINGERPRINT" N0 FOUND? A 144 150 I COMPUTER YES 158 /1B2 MESSHGE: "DISC DFITH NOT FOUND. PLF'IY OR MFINUFIL. ENTRY?" PLFIY MFINUFIL | DONNLOHD T0 LOCHL DFITFIBFISE I/IBB DONNLOFID T0 cn CHHNGER MEMORY FIG. 4B 170 U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 Sheet 5 0f 8 US 6,272,078 B2 CONTROL SEFIRCH EDIT CHHNGER on MORE /174 TITLE TRI TR2 TR3 TR4 TRS TRG 1 LOCFIL 2 DHTFIBFISE 3 O O 4 5 s 7 SEHRCH PLHY PLFIY LIST 00. MORE /1?5 DISC TITLE TRI TR2 TR3 TR4 TRS / 1 I // //A/// 2 l?gggl?lqslz REPRESENTFITION OF cn CHHNGER a / // // 4 5 /////.M_E.MORY ' // ‘L /1?8 PLHY LIST 12345— 67- NIGHTINGHLE .IFIZZMHN YOU GO YOUR NFIY, I'LL GO MINE COME DONN EFISY MY MY SHE CRIES THE FIRST DHY IN HUGUST BLUE INTERLUDE FIG . 5 U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 Sheet 6 0f 8 US 6,272,078 B2 I QUERY CD CHHNGER MEMORY FOR DISCS INSTHLLED IN CHHNGER FIND CORRESPONDING ENTRIES IN LOCFIL DHTHBRSE < SERRcH PLRY LIST INSTRUCT 0Q0 CD CHHNGER T0 PLFIY cURRENT PLRY LIST ENTER DHTHBHSE QUERY ROUTINE 186/ l/182 /184 _> USER COMMFIND? PLHY r180 188 V /19O HDD, DELETE, DISRLRY? > HUD — /192 DELETE HDD SELEcTIoN DISPLHY T0 CURRENT PLF-IY LIST 19B DELETE SELEcTIoN FROM cURRENT PLFIY LIST /198 OPEN PLRY LIST wINDow v FIG.5 U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 US 6,272,078 B2 vv m 0_IUZPWOEZUM uM |Iam m Ea . I" nUmHDIoIPJZ ZMmHUEI 0m \EimB .~vs69m502.8 N.Q~k U.S. Patent Aug. 7, 2001 Sheet 8 0f 8 US 6,272,078 B2 (SE/30° SELECT DISC ‘ 304 /3 U5 LREFID DISC FINGERPRINT 31C] COMF'HRE TO MEMORY YES FOUND? 314 MHNUHL N0 CONVENTIONHL OPERHTIONS /320 MESSHGE: "DISC DFITH NOT FOUND. PLFIY 0R RETRIEVE DFITH 0R MFINUFIL ENTRY" PLHY MHNUFIL /322 ENTRY & DIHL REMOTE DFITHBHSE I’ 344 QUERY REMOTE DFITFIBFISE FOR "FINGERPRINT" DONNLOFID TO CD CHHNGER MEMORY 358 /362 MFINUHL MESSF'IGE: "DISC NOT FOUND. F’LFIY OR MHNUFIL ENTRY?" FIG. 8 PLHY ‘ US 6,272,078 B2 1 2 METHOD FOR UPDATING A MEMORY IN A RECORDED MEDIA PLAYER this technique is helpful in locating a desired selection, the user still has only limited access to the available information This application is a division of application Ser. No. 08/507,544 ?led Jul. 26, 1995, now US. Pat. No. 5,751,672 relating to the disc. For eXample, there is no information available on the speci?ed tracks on the disc, artist, etc. unless this information is used to identify the entire disc. Which is copending and is hereby incorporated by reference. Moreover, all such information must currently be entered by BACKGROUND the user using a remote control or jog dial to cycle through available characters. The process of entering such data is 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates generally to the ?eld of audio and 10 audio/video equipment including compact disc (CD) play ers. More particularly, this invention relates to a CD changer Which can access a database Which is user searchable and updated upon recognition of an unknown CD. This invention is particularly useful for multiple CD changers Which serve to store substantial numbers of compact discs. In addition, this invention provides a mechanism for computer control of the operation of the CD changer. 2. Background of the Invention Several large capacity compact disc players are currently content of individual tracks on the disc. 15 07676. Each of these players includes an internal rotary table itself in machine readable form, there eXists a large body of Work Which has no such identi?cation information. Thus, there is a need to provide the user With access to an 20 The present invention addresses these problems by pro viding a database of the information for access by the user to provide searchable access to the information Which and 25 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 30 It is an object of the present invention to provide a compact disc player With access to an external database and compact arrangement. Which permits easy selection of discs stored in a multiple In earlier compact disc players Which only hold one or a disc player. 35 It is a further feature that the present invention identi?es a CD by the table of contents area of the disc (or other 40 track or disc. Unfortunately, this information may not be as readily available to the user of a CD player Which is used as a storage device such as the above-mentioned high capacity CD players. Since users commonly use such players to store It is a feature that the present invention provides the ability to search a database for desired music selections With minimal or no user entry of the database data. ing each selection (e.g. artist, title, author, etc.). Such information facilitates the listener’s selection of the desired the ability to doWnload such information. This minimiZes and in most cases eliminates the need for data input by the user. a convenient mechanism for storing such discs in a very neat feW discs, the compact discs are commonly stored in their protective jeWel case. Such jeWel cases generally include an insert provides a Written directory for each disc Which generally lists in order the selections available on the disc and often includes play times and other information regard equivalent body of information to use, particularly in con nection With high capacity multiple disc players. With 100 slots Which can store up to 100 compact discs. Players With even higher storage capacity Will no doubt appear in the future. Compact disc players of this nature are commonly used to not only play compact discs, but also as While variations of compact disc format might permit various information about the disc to be included on the disc available commercially. For eXample, Sony Corporation, Tokyo Japan produces several such players such as the model CDP-CX100 and the CDP-CX153, available through Sony Electronics Inc., 1 Sony Drive, Park Ridge, N]. someWhat inconvenient (especially for large numbers of discs) and thus often omitted by the user. Furthermore, the user of such players are currently restricted to controlling the discs using stored parameters (eg level and sound ?eld selections) on a disc by disc basis Without regard for the 45 the compact discs, they also frequently store the jeWel case unique identifying information) Which is used as a “?nger print” for the disc. It is a further feature that certain embodiments of the present invention can facilitate control over playback param eters of a compact disc on a track-by-track basis. It is an advantage that the present invention can provide a large body of searchable information for the user to access and related informational inserts in a less convenient loca tion. Moreover, the user must knoW not only the disc Which he desires to play, but the location of the disc in the rotary table and perhaps a track number in order to readily access a particular chosen selection. In addition, it is dif?cult for the Without entry of the data. It is a further advantage of the present invention that compact discs or other storage media can be easily stored Within a multiple disc player While producing an enhanced user to have a clear overvieW of the musical selections ability to locate a music selection of choice. available and to control the play of such selections. It is another advantage of embodiments of the present invention to provide for user control of the play selections of the CD player via the computer’s user interface. This problem has been partially addressed in the above Sony disc players by providing the user With the ability to program the disc player to store identifying information for each disc in the player’s memory and to categoriZe discs into a number of groups of the user’s selection (e.g. jaZZ, classical, Rock, etc.). These multiple CD changers utiliZe a portion of the table of contents (TOC) data for uniquely identifying each compact disc stored therein. In particular, the total music play time and the number of movements 55 Broadly speaking, the present invention provides a modem link to a remote database Which a user can utiliZe in order to provide information updates to a memory forming 60 a part of a CD player. The system uses a “?ngerprint” of a CD in order to search the remote database for information such as title, track names, artist, etc. Once the CD is identi?ed, the information associated With the CD can be (typically songs) as indicated in the TOC is used in some loaded into a local database so that the user can search for changers to uniquely identify the discs. Compact disc chang desired music, artists, etc. In addition, the information is ers also include a feature knoWn as “Custom File” Which is 65 loaded into the memory of a CD player so that discs stored described in Japanese patent application publication number 03-76082 Which is incorporated herein by reference. While in the CD player can be readily identi?ed. This is especially useful for large capacity multiple CD players Which are also US 6,272,078 B2 3 4 used to store CDs. The user can further use the computer as remote database is accessed and searched via a modem, Wherein in the event the comparison does not detect the identifying information in the memory, the remote database is searched via the modem to locate identifying information a simpli?ed control interface to search for selections, build play lists as Well as enhance control of the playback opera tion. The present invention contemplates many alternatives and variations. For example, in one aspect of the present invention, a system for playback of music compact discs includes a disc changer for receiving a compact disc and reading data from the disc to convert to signals representing music. An identifying portion of the disc is read in order to uniquely identify the disc. The identifying portion of the disc relating to the medium, the medium being identi?ed in the database by the identifying portion. The information relating to the medium is doWnloaded from the remote database to the memory. A method of updating a memory in an audio compact disc 10 Which uniquely identi?es the compact disc; comparing the identifying portion With identifying portions stored in a With a memory to determine if data relating to the compact disc is stored in the memory. A modem is provided along With a searching mechanism for accessing a remote database via the modem, Wherein in the event the comparison does not detect the identifying information in the memory, the changer according to an aspect of the invention includes the steps of: reading an identifying portion of a compact disc 15 remote database is accessed via the modem to locate iden memory; querying a database residing outside the compact disc changer for the identifying portion of the disc if the identifying portion is not found in the memory; and doWn loading data from the database to the memory corresponding to the identifying portion. tifying information relating to the disc, the disc being identi?ed in the database by the identifying portion. The Amethod of updating a memory in recorded media player, according to an aspect of the invention includes the steps of: reading an identifying portion of a recorded medium Which information is then doWnloaded from the remote database to the memory. uniquely identi?es the medium; comparing the identifying In another aspect of the invention, a system for playback of music compact discs includes a disc changer for receiving identifying portion of the disc Which can be used to uniquely portion With identifying portions stored in a memory; que rying a database residing outside the recorded media player for the identifying portion of the medium if the identifying portion is not found in the memory; and doWnloading data identify the disc. The identifying portion of the disc is from the database to the memory corresponding to the compared With the memory to determine if data relating to the compact disc is stored in the memory. A ?rst searching mechanism is provided for accessing a local database, Wherein in the event the comparison does not detect the controlling the operation of a compact disc player, Which in a compact disc and reading data from the disc to convert to signals representing music. Aportion of the changer reads an 25 identifying portion. The present invention further contemplates a method for one aspect includes the steps of: storing data relating to a compact disc in a database, the database including informa tion relating to each track of the compact disc; storing a playback attribute in the database on a track-by-track basis; identifying portion in the memory, the ?rst searching mecha nism accesses the local database to locate the identifying portion relating to the disc, the disc being identi?ed in the local database by the identifying portion. Asecond searching 35 and instructing the compact disc changer to play a selected track using the playback attribute. mechanism is provided for accessing a remote database via a modem, Wherein in the event the comparison does not detect the identifying information in the memory and the ?rst searching mechanism does not locate the identifying Furthermore, the present invention contemplates a method of building a play list for a multiple disc compact disc changer, Which in one embodiment includes the steps portion in the local database, the second searching mecha of: in a computer, storing information in a database about a nism accesses the remote database via the modem to locate plurality of compact discs residing in the multiple disc compact disc changer; the database including playback identifying information relating to the disc, the disc being identi?ed in the database by the identifying portion. The information is doWnloaded from either of the local database or the remote database to the memory. 45 attributes for tracks of the compact discs; displaying a table of tracks of the plurality of compact discs; selecting a sequential set of tracks from the plurality of compact discs to de?ne a play list; and sending a sequence of commands In another aspect of the invention, a multiple disc compact disc player includes a multiple disc CD changer mechanism for playing and storing a plurality of compact discs. A memory stores information associated With the plurality of compact discs. A controller controls operations of the mul tiple disc compact disc player. A modem is coupled to the invention, as Well as others, Will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon consideration of the folloWing controller for accessing a remote database via a telephone description of the invention. from the computer to the multiple compact disc changer to sequentially play the selected tracks from the play list. The above objects, advantages and features of the line connection. The controller includes capability for issu The features of the invention believed to be novel are set ing a ?rst query to the memory to determine if the memory forth With particularity in the appended claims. The inven includes information associated With a selected disc in the 55 tion itself hoWever, both as to organiZation and method of CD changer mechanism, and for issuing a second query to operation, together With further objects and advantages a remote database via the modem in order to ?nd informa thereof, may be best understood by reference to the folloW tion associated With the selected, if the ?rst query fails to locate a information in the memory associated With the selected compact disc. In another aspect of the invention, a system for playback of recorded media includes a media changer for receiving a recorded medium and reading data from the medium. An identifying portion of the medium is read and used to ing description taken in conjunction With the accompanying uniquely identify the medium. The identifying portion of the medium is compared With With a memory to determine if data relating to the medium is stored in the memory. A draWing. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 illustrates the TOC data format for a conventional compact disc. FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a ?rst embodiment of the 65 present invention. FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the CD changer 20 of FIG. 2. US 6,272,078 B2 6 5 FIG. 4, Which is shown as FIG. 4A and FIG. 4B, is a How TOC entry for the ?rst movement alone could theoretically chart describing the operation of one embodiment of the present invention. account for up to 272 (Which is approximately 4.7E21) unique discs. In practice, the actual number of unique values FIG. 5 illustrates the use of computer 32 for control of the Which are likely to occur in this one entry is substantially loWer since a typical movement has a duration of approxi CD changer 20. mately three minutes, the movement number for the ?rst movement is alWays 1, the POINT value is often the same, FIG. 6 is a simpli?ed ?oW chart of one embodiment of a routine for issuing commands to the CD changer 20. etc. Even so, it is clear that each disc has an adequate amount of unique information that one can readily understand that FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 8 is a How chart describing the operation of the 10 second embodiment as shoWn in FIG. 7. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION While this invention is susceptible of embodiment in many different forms, there is shoWn in the draWings and Will herein be described in detail speci?c embodiments, With each compact disc has its oWn unique “?ngerprint” Which can be used to uniquely identify the disc from all other discs. By Way of example, and not to be limiting, an extremely large number of discs could be uniquely identi?ed by examining the number of movements, the play time of each 15 movement (or, e. g. the play time of the ?rst ?ve movements) and the total play time of the CD. Such a scheme Would provide data of a manageable siZe Which Would uniquely the understanding that the present disclosure is to be con sidered as an example of the principles of the invention and not intended to limit the invention to the speci?c embodi ments shoWn and described. In the description beloW, like identify a vast number of discs. Due to the variables men tioned earlier, the exact number of discs Which can be reference numerals are used to describe the same, similar or Other combinations Will occur to those skilled in the art. The exact scheme selected should be based upon an analysis of a large sampling of compact discs to assure that enough TOC data is used Without making the amount of data unneces identi?ed by this scheme for practical purposes is dif?cult to ascertain With any degree of exactness, but is clearly huge. corresponding parts in the several vieWs of the draWing. Before discussing the actual method and apparatus of the present invention in detail, it is useful to understand several basic concepts relating to the standard formatting of com pact discs so that the options available for uniquely identi 25 sarily large. In addition to the above example of using TOC data for the identifying information, a sample of the actual disc data fying each disc are understood. Conventional music com pact discs are formatted according to a speci?cation Which representing a musical selection or movement can also be is knoWn in the industry as the “Red Book” speci?cation. The format is also discussed in, for example, chapter 5 of used to uniquely identify each disc. Due to the Wide dynamic CompactDisc Technology, by Heitaro Nakaj ima and Hiroshi OgaWa, 1992, Ohmsha, Ltd., 3-1 Kanda Nishiki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan, Which is incorporated herein samples taken at consistent locations on a disc can also be by reference. While the Red Book speci?cation permits an identifying code to be used With each disc, the industry rarely utiliZes this option. Thus, there is no unique label Which is currently assured of being available for each disc. HoWever, the Red Book speci?cation de?nes a lead-in area to include an area of subcoding having so called P-channel data and Q-channel data. This data includes information knoWn as the Table of Contents (TOC) Which is someWhat analogous to the table of contents of a book. Since each CD is unique in exact content, it is possible to use this the TOC information as a sort of “?ngerprint” to uniquely identify each CD. FIG. 1 illustrates the format of a TOC entry for a typical music compact disc. It is noted that a frame of TOC data is range of music characteriZed on each disc, several data statistically likely to uniquely identify the disc, either alone or in combination With a portion of the TOC data. Thus, by 35 has been manufactured and Which is likely to be manufac tured in the future. Accordingly, an exact de?nition of the “?ngerprint” data is to be determined by a detailed analysis of a large body of discs and is not critical to the understand ing of the overall concept and operation of the present invention. After selection of such a sampling of data to be used as a CD “?ngerprint”, in the unlikely event that the 45 identifying “?ngerprint” of tWo or more discs are the same, remedies such as user selection of the appropriate disc are contemplated by the present invention. Referring noW to FIG. 2, a ?rst embodiment of a system according to the present invention is shoWn in block diagram provided for each track (movement) of the music disc. Each TOC entry includes the elapsed time of each movement and form. In this embodiment, a CD changer 20 is coupled in a conventional manner to a stereo ampli?er (or receiver) 24 Which provides poWer ampli?cation suitable to drive a pair an absolute time for the POINT content. These times are extremely precise in that they are measured in minutes, seconds and frames. Each disc may include up to 99 such tracks or movements With each TOC entry occupying 72 bits. The TOC entries are repeated in order to ?ll the entire lead-in area. As stated above, a small portion of this TOC selecting a large enough sampling of data to characteriZe each disc, it is possible to uniquely identify each disc Which (or more) of stereo speakers 26 and 28 or headphones (not shoWn). According to the present embodiment, the CD changer 20 includes an interconnection to an external com 55 puter 32 such as a personal computer or a dedicated com information has been used to uniquely identify compact puter designated to carry out the functions of the present invention. Computer 32 includes input devices such as a discs for purposes of the “Custom File” feature in Sony keyboard, mouse or other input device and a display screen. compact disc players. In the present invention, a larger sampling of the data may be required to uniquely identify or “?ngerprint” each compact disc, since the invention depends suitable standard or proprietary interface including SCSI or Computer 32 may be coupled to the CD changer 20 via any RS-232, or via a local area netWork interconnection as upon unique identi?cation of all discs in an extremely extensive database. The solution to this problem is to simply select a sampling of information Which is large enough to uniquely identify each disc. An enormous amount of data is available on each disc Which can be used to uniquely characteriZe each disc. The desired. Computer 32 includes a disc drive 36 including any 65 suitable database management softWare (for example, a SQL compliant database such as those commercially available from various manufacturers). Computer 32 also includes a modem 40 (either internal or external) Which is connected to a telephone netWork 44. US 6,272,078 B2 7 8 While the present invention contemplates a conventional display/control panel 82 to receive commands directly from data modem connection using conventional telephone the user and to provide visual displays in a more or less service, those skilled in the art Will appreciate that a number conventional manner. In addition, controller 68 may be of alternatives are possible such as ISDN netWorks and coupled to an infra-red (or RF) receiver 84 Which receives associated terminal adapters. control signals from a remote commander. Controller 68 is used to control the normal functions of the compact disc changer 20 in a conventional manner and In operation, the present invention utiliZes the modem 40 to dial up a database 50 Which may be maintained by an online service provider or made available on the Internet, for in addition provides the function of (1) receiving memory updates from the computer interface 64, (2) updating eXample. Database 50 is preferably industry maintained to assure the maXimum level of completeness, but could also 10 memory 72, and (3) Sending requests, Via interface 64 fOf be maintained by the user community, the CD changer iIlfOrIIlatiOn updates fOr memory 72. manufacturer, commercial ventures or other sources. DataOne method of operation according to the present inven base 50 includes identifying information as described above tion is illustrated in the How chart of FIG. 4 (Which is broken for a large body of compact discs Which is associated With doWn into FIGS. 4A and 4B. The process starts at step 100. tabulated data for each disc. An eXample of the type of data 15 When the user selects or loads a disc at step 104, the in such a database is illustrated in TABLE 1 beloW. The controller 68 directs the changer mechanism 74 to read the preferred method for accessing and utiliZing this information portion of the disc Which contains the identifying informa Will described later. tion or “?ngerprint” of the selected disc at step 106. The TABLE 1 Movement # 1 Movement # 1 time Movement Movement # 99 # 99 time Total play time Total # of Title (Min, Sec, Frame) Title (Min, Sec, Frame) (Min, Sec, Frame) Movements 06:38:42 null 00:00:00 78:04:22 8 Fingerprint CD-Title Artist ~ The New Yo-Yo Ma Concerto for Cello York Album and Orchestra: I. Audacemente ma sostenuto As illustrated in TABLE 1, the machine readable data controller then compares this With the “?ngerprints” stored in memory 72 at step 110. If the “?ngerprint” is found at step available on the actual CD can be supplemented substan tially by the addition of titles of each movement, CD title, 35 Artist, etc. Those skilled in the art Will also understand that disc selection. If the “?ngerprint” is not found at step 114, the user is the database can also include even more detailed informa tion such as composer, producer, record label, as Well as any other information Which might be of value to the user. While TABLE 1 illustrates the data in a form Which might be interpreted as a ?at ?eld database, those skilled in the art Will understand that the data may be more readily stored in the form of a relational database. TABLE 1, is thus intended to be an illustrative eXample of the database and should not be considered limiting since those skilled in the art Will under stand that the database may be designed in numerous Ways and may contain any relevant data of the designer’s choos informed via a display (or other message system) indicating 40 45 CD changer 20 of FIG. 2 is illustrated. The interconnection With computer 32 is provided via a conventional computer interface 64. Interface 64 is coupled to a microprocessor based controller 68 to provide communication betWeen the computer 32 and the controller 68. Controller 68 is coupled 50 to a memory 72 Which is preferably a non-volatile read-Write memory such as an Electrically Erasable Programmable 55 122. Such manual entry can be accomplished in a manner similar to that used in commercially available CD changers to enter so-called “custom ?le” information. After step 122, control returns to step 116. If the user decides to attempt to retrieve data, the disc’s “?ngerprint” is sent to the computer 32 via the computer interface 64 at step 124. Under softWare control, the computer 32 then initiates a query of the database stored in disc drive 36 to attempt to match the Read Only Memory (EEPROM) or a battery backed up Random Access Memory Memory 72 is used to “?ngerprint” in question at step 128. If found at step 132, the store an internal database of information relating to a 60 be more extensive. Controller 68 is coupled to a multiple disc CD changer mechanism 74 such as that used in the conventional manner. Controller 68 is also coupled to a the display/control panel 82. If the user decides to simply play the disc (for eXample, if the disc is borroWed or infrequently played), control returns to step 116 Where conventional operation proceeds. If the user decides to enter the data manually, a manual entry routine is initiated at step Referring noW to FIG. 3, a more detailed diagram of the commercially available Sony CDP-CX153 and associated signal processing circuitry 78 to provide control thereto in a that the disc data Was not found in the CD changer’s database. The user is then asked if the disc is to be played, if the user Wishes to attempt to retrieve the data from a database, or if the user desires to enter data manually at step 120. The user may respond via a remote commander or via ing. plurality of CDs. In particular, the memory 72 contains information relating to at least all of the CDs presently stored in the multiple disc changer mechanism, but may also 114, the CD changer 20 operates in a more or less conven tional manner at step 116 and then returns to aWait the neXt appropriate portions of the database are doWnloaded to the CD changer’s memory at step 138 and control returns to step 116. Thus, the user is received of the burden of manual entry. In the event the “?ngerprint” is not found at step 132, the user may be informed at step 139. At this point, the user can again make a decision as to Whether to simply play the disc, 65 make further attempts to doWnload information from a database or opt for manual entry of the data. If the user elects to play the disc, control returns to step 116. If the user elects US 6,272,078 B2 9 10 to enter the data manually, control returns to step 122. added to a play list. This is shoWn in FIG. 5 as shaded blocks in database 176. Once the user selects an item for the play list, the play list can be revieWed in a play list WindoW or Manual entry routine 122 should preferably utilize the connection to the computer 32 in order to permit a simpli?ed manual entry of the data via the keyboard of computer 32. screen shoWn as 178. Thus, the user can select as many If the user elects to make further attempts to doWnload the data, the computer 32 initiates a call to the remote database selection for play in a speci?ed order as desired. The selection is made based upon the ?ll knoWledge of the title 50 via modem 40 and telephone line 44 to attempt to retrieve the data. Once the database is accessed, computer 32 ini of the selection and/or the disc, rather than simply the disc number and track number. In addition, the poWer of the tiates a query of the remote database to locate the “?nger database management softWare can be used to search for print” for the disc in question at step 150. particular selections to add to the play list. Thus, for eXample, the user could initiate a search by entering speci?c 10 If the disc’s “?ngerprint”s not found, a message is pro vided at step 162 indicating such and providing the user With the option of entry of the data or playing the CD Without data entry. If the user elects to play, control again returns to step key Words. The search results can be presented as a list of possible tracks or discs containing the key Word(s) and the user can add the track or disc to the play list by selecting the 116. If the user elects to enter data manually, this can be 15 desired match. carried out at the computer keyboard at step 122. If the Once the play list is assembled in this manner, the user can then initiate play of the list at 188. The control interface “?ngerprint” is found in the remote database at step 158, the computer 32 doWnloads the data to the local database stored at 36 at step 166. Computer 32 then proceeds to doWnload the appropriate data to the changer’s memory 72 at step 170. can be implemented as a character or graphical user interface as desired, In one embodiment, the interface can be designed in a manner similar to that of the Music Box WindoW Once the data is stored in the database at 36, the user can available in the Microsoft WindoWsTM operating system and utiliZe the search poWer of the database management soft may include all conventional instructions Which could be Ware to ?nd selections; categoriZe discs, by music type, artist, etc.; and perform other knoWn database management issued via a remote control (including stop, play, pause, skip back, skip forWard, play modes such as shuffle and repeat, volume, sound ?elds, etc.). In addition, the interface can activities. Once the above-referenced interconnection betWeen the CD changer 20 and computer 32 is established, and once the local database is created, this arrangement can be used 25 include character and graphic displays of such attributes as CD and track play time, CD and track time remaining, track number, track title, CD title, Artist and any other desired information from the database. Of course, in the Music Box interface, any desired database information must be entered advantageously to control operation of the CD changer by utiliZing the computer’s keyboard, mouse or other input devices. The computer may be used to provide a friendlier interface to the user than that provided by a conventional CD changer to permit the user to start or stop play of a CD, select a play list, identify a CD or track of a CD for play, search for a passage in a CD, and in general effect control over all by the user, and this interface does not have a communica 35 aspects of the CD changer. In order to illustrate this, consider FIG. 5 Which illustrates ?rst the local database (shoWn as 174) arranged as an array of cells. The above control can be effected by selecting any of the desired CD changer func tions from a menu of available functions or by directly typing commands from the computer keyboard. Those tion mechanism Which permits the computer to knoW the disc content of a multiple disc player. Those skilled in the art Will understand that many variations of this procedure can be implemented Within the scope of the present invention. With reference to FIG. 6, one simpli?ed process for implementing the control of CD changer 20 is illustrated. Those skilled in the art Will appreciate that many variations of this implementation are possible, and an implementation similar to this could be built around the Microsoft Music Box program as described above. At step 180, the CD changer 20 is queried by the computer 32 for a listing of all CD “?ngerprints” for CDs Which are currently installed in the CD changer. This step can be carried out Whenever the skilled in the art Will understand that there are many Ways to represent these control functions in a user interface, for eXample, a menu bar can be provided With drop doWn menus or particular control icons can be provided. Such an interface 45 user requests it or Whenever the CD changer detects that a Will desirably occupy the computer’s display simultaneously CD has been loaded or unloaded. At step 182, these “?n gerprints” are checked against the local database 174 and the local database is restricted to those CDs currently installed in the database at 182. This produces an image of the CDs currently installed at step 176. At this point, the user can With the database tables including data relating to the compact discs. In one embodiment of the enhanced control possible With the present invention, the user may generate a play list by ?rst having the computer 32 query the CD changer 20 to scan the matrix displayed as 176 and select CDs or tracks to determine Which CDs are contained Within the changer as identi?ed in the memory 72. Since the local database 174 can carry information regarding as many CDs as the user desires Without regard for the content of the CD changer 20, 55 be added to the play list using mouse or keyboard com mands. Alternatively, the user can implement a search at step 184 by selecting “SEARCH” from a menu (eg a menu bar, menu button or icon). In this event, the database is searched the user can then reduce the display of the local database 174 to a representation of only those discs Which are in fact using conventional query methods at step 186. When the query is completed, a display of the matching selections is loaded into the CD changer 20. This reduced representation 176 is shoWn as having only 5 entries corresponding to 5 compact discs. In other embodiments, the loaded discs might shoWn for the user to select from and control returns to step be represented in a different color or might be accented in the “PLAY LIST” command from the menu. At this point the user can select any variety of play list related commands at 184. Once one or more selections are made, the user can select some other manner. Once the user has a display of the step 190. Step 190 illustrates three such commands, but available discs including the titles of all tracks on the discs, the user can create a play list by simply revieWing the available tracks and then making a selection by, for eXample, clicking a mouse button When a display cursor points to a desired selection and then con?rming that the item is to be 65 those skilled in the art Will understand that a full comple ment of such commands can be programmed as desired. If the user selects “ADD” at 190, control passes to a routine 192 that adds the selected tracks or CDs to the current play US 6,272,078 B2 11 12 In operation, the CD changer 220 of FIG. 7 performs list. If “DELETE” is selected at step 190, control passes to a routine 196 Which deletes the selected tracks or CDs from functions similar to those of CD changer 20 of FIGS. 2 and the current play list. If “DISPLAY” is selected, a WindoW such as 178 is opened to shoW a list representation of the play list. Of course, once the play list is represented as list 3, except that the local database search is bypassed. Of course, those skilled in the art Will appreciate that by incorporating mass storage into the CD changer 220, the 178, the user can more readily see the listing of songs or CDs function of computer 32 could be more or less completely selected in their playing order and can preferably manipulate the list directly to delete items, rearrange items, etc. integrated into a single package. FIG. 8, illustrates one method of operation of CD changer 220. This method starts at step 300, When the user selects or loads a disc at step 304, the controller 268 directs the Those skilled in the art Will appreciate that the process of FIG. 6 is but one partial illustration of a command structure changer mechanism 74 to read the portion of the disc Which contains the identifying information or “?ngerprint” of the selected disc at step 306. The controller then compares this With the “?ngerprints” stored in memory 72 at step 310. If the “?ngerprint” is found at step 314, the CD changer 220 Which could be utiliZed to control CD changer 20. Obviously, many additional useful commands (as discussed above) can be implemented throughout the process. Accordingly, the present process is not intended to be limiting, but rather, illustrative of the type of control that can be implemented once the computer 32 is linked to the CD changer 20 and once the poWer of the database is harnessed for use in controlling the CD changer 20. 15 operates in a more or less conventional manner at step 316 and then returns to aWait the next disc selection at step 304. If the “?ngerprint” is not found at step 314, the user is Once the user has access to the entire content of a compact informed via a display (or other message system) indicating disc via the database 174, other opportunities for control are possible. For example, the Sony CDP-CX100 includes a function knoWn as “custom ?les” in Which, for example, the volume level for playback can be stored along With each disc (a so-called “level ?le”). Once the user has access to the that the disc data Was not found in the CD changer’s internal memory 72. The user is then asked if the disc is to be played or if the user Wishes to attempt to retrieve the data from a database, or if the user desires to enter data manually at step 320. The user may respond via a remote commander or via database 174 including information regarding every track of every disc, one can readily appreciate that the individual attributes of each track can be individually controlled via computer 36. For example, in an extension of the “custom ?le” function of the CDP-CX100, computer 36 can issue commands to the CD changer 20 to alter the volume level on a track by track basis on the playback list. Moreover, other attributes such as sound ?elds can similarly be manipulated on a track by track basis. Thus, the play list and/or the local 25 the display/control panel 282. If the user decides to simply play the disc, control returns to step 316 Where conventional operation proceeds. If the user decides to enter the data manually, a manual entry routine is initiated at step 322 and then control returns to step 316. If the user Wishes to doWnload information from a data base at step 320, control passes to step 344 Where the database can also include entries for attributes associated With each track as illustrated in TABLE 2 beloW. Such controller 268 directly initiates a call to the remote database 50 via modem 240 and telephone line 44 to attempt to retrieve the data. Once the database is accessed, controller entries can be expanded in a separate WindoW shoWing 268 initiates a query of the remote database to locate the selections of attributes for each database entry (track). “?ngerprint” for the disc in question at step 350. 35 If the disc’s “?ngerprint” is not found, a message is provided at step 362 indicating such and providing the user With the option of manual entry of the data or playing the CD Without data entry. If the user elects to play, control again TABLE 2 Track Title: Come DoWn Easy Track: 1 Disc: 3 returns to step 316. If the user elects to enter data manually, Disc Title: Rhymes & Reasons this can be carried out via the remote commander or the Artist: Carole King Play Time: 03:06 display/control panel at step 322. If the “?ngerprint” is found in the remote database at step 358, the controller 268 doWnloads the data to the changer’s memory 72 at step 370. Play Attributes: Level: 65% Sound Field: Live Room Thus, by the above processes, the CD changer’s memory 45 Thus, for the example of TABLE 2, at play time the track can be updated Without need for tedious manual entry Whenever the disc in question can be found in the comput er’s local database or When the information can be doWn loaded from a remote database. For the sake of not obscuring Will be played at a volume level of 65% With a signal processing sound ?eld “live room”. Of course, other user the present invention With unnecessary details, the above controllable attributes can similarly be stored and assigned process has been described Without the details of error on a track by track basis. Referring noW to FIG. 7, a second embodiment of the trapping, database format, communications protocol for contact With the remote database, full messaging and other details Which are not required for the understanding of the present invention. In addition, the above process, of course, present invention is shoWn. In this embodiment, a compact disc changer 220 incorporates an internal modem 240 Which operates under the control of controller 268 to access remote 55 assumes that the computer is active at the time of the need for contact by the CD changer. These details are Well Within the abilities of those skilled in the art and need not be explained here. In addition, as CD formats evolve to incor porate speci?c identifying information stored on the disc for database 50 via telephone line 44. In this embodiment, a portion of the function of computer 32 is absorbed into the compact disc changer 220. The function and operation of controller 268 is similar to that of controller 68 except that the additional functions required to control modem 240 and this purpose (or to contain the actual database information), the present invention contemplates utiliZing this information the additional search and communications functions are to the extent it is available. incorporated therein. Infrared receiver 284 is similar in function to that of infrared receiver 84, except that it may require a broader vocabulary of commands in the absence of Many alternative embodiments of the above processes Will occur to those skilled in the art. For example, the processes described can be carried out With the CD in the computer 32. Similarly, display/control panel 282 is similar to that of display/control panel 82 except that in the absence of the computer display and keyboard, a more extensive display and keyboard function is desirable. 65 question playing While the database updating process is carried out. In another variation, the user may select default ansWers to the doWnload queries of steps 120, 138, 162, 320, US 6,272,078 B2 13 14 or 362. In addition, although the possibility of having tWo discs Which have identical “?ngerprints” is remote, the 5. The method of claim 4, further comprising the step of manually updating said EEPROM in the event said identi fying portion is found in neither said ?rst nor said second process can provide the user With the ability to select among them if the situation Were to occur. database. 6. A method of updating a memory in a recorded media While the present invention has been described in terms of a compact disc as the media containing the program player, comprising the steps of: material, the present invention also contemplates equivalent reading a portion of a recorded medium Which uniquely identi?es said recorded medium as storing particular embodiments in other music or video or other recording media Which might not contain machine readable informa tion Which Would be useful to a user of the media. For eXample, an equivalent embodiment can be devised for media such as the MiniDiscTM, digital video discs or other as 10 yet undeveloped media. Accordingly, the present invention should not be limited to the illustrated format. Thus it is apparent that in accordance With the present invention, an apparatus that fully satis?es the objectives, 15 aims and advantages is set forth above. While the invention content; determining Whether the memory in the recorded media player includes supplementary information that is asso ciated With the particular content but Which is not stored on the recorded medium, the supplementary information including at least one of a title and a name of an artist; has been described in conjunction With speci?c embodiments, it is evident that many alternatives, modi?cations, permutations and variations Will become apparent to those skilled in the art in light of the foregoing description. Accordingly, it is intended that the present querying a database residing outside said recorded media invention embrace all such alternatives, modi?cations and variations as fall Within the scope of the appended claims. What is claimed is: 1. A method of updating a memory in an audio compact doWnloading said supplementary information from said player for said supplementary information if said supplementary information is not found in said memory; and database to said memory. 25 disc changer, comprising the steps of: reading a portion of a compact disc Which uniquely identi?es said compact disc as storing particular musi cal content; determining Whether the memory in the audio compact disc changer includes supplementary information that is associated With the particular musical content but Which is not stored on the compact disc, the supple 7. The method of claim 6, Wherein said database resides in a computer coupled to said compact disc changer. 8. The method of claim 6, Wherein said database resides in a remote location and Wherein said querying step includes the step of accessing said database via a modem connection. 9. The method of claim 6, further comprising the step of storing playback attributes for entries in said local database. 10. The method of claim 9, further comprising the step of controlling playback of said recorded medium in accordance With said playback attributes stored in said local database. 11. The method of claim 9, Wherein said recorded medium may include a plurality of tracks and Wherein playback mentary information including at least one of a title for a movement, a title for the compact disc, and a name of 35 an artist; attributes are stored on a track-by-track basis for each track querying a database residing outside said compact disc of said recorded medium. changer for said supplementary information if said 12. The method of claim 1, Wherein said portion includes TOC data and Wherein said reading step includes reading supplementary information is not found in said memory; and doWnloading said supplementary information from said database to said memory. 2. The method of claim 1, Wherein said database resides in a computer coupled to said compact disc changer. 3. The method of claim 1, Wherein said database resides in a remote location and Wherein said querying step includes the step accessing said database via a modem connection. 4. A method of updating a memory in an audio compact 45 said compact disc’s TOC data. 13. The method of claim 1, Wherein said database resides in a remote location and Wherein said doWnloading step includes accessing said database in said remote location. 14. The method of claim 1, Wherein playback attributes are stored in said database and further including the step of playing back said compact disc in accordance With said playback attributes. uniquely identi?es said compact disc, said identifying 15. The method of claim 2, Wherein playback attributes are stored in said database and further including the step of playing back said compact disc in accordance With said portion including a portion of said compact disc’s TOC playback attributes. disc changer, comprising the steps of: reading an identifying portion of a compact disc Which data; comparing said identifying portion With identifying por tions stored in an EEPROM; querying a ?rst database residing in a computer situated 55 16. The method of claim 14, Wherein playback attributes are stored in said database and further including the step of playing back said compact disc in accordance With said playback attributes. outside and connected to said compact disc changer for 17. The method of claim 6, Wherein said recorded media said identifying portion of said disc if said identifying portion is not found in said EEPROM; player includes a compact disc player for playing compact disc media. 18. The method of claim 6, Wherein said recorded media player includes a MiniDiscTM. 19. The method of claim 6, Wherein said recorded media querying a second database residing in remote location via a modem connected to said computer for said identifying portion of said disc if said identifying player includes a digital video disc player for playing digital portion is not found in said ?rst database; and doWnloading data from said ?rst or second database to said EEPROM corresponding to said identifying por tion. 65 video discs.
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