SPOILER SYSTEM - C

SPOILER SYSTEM - C
SEEGE R
/
SPOILER SYSTEM
/
.
t
\._,/
1J
443cl TECHNICAL TRAINING SQUADRON
443cl MILITARY AIRLIFT WING, TNG (MAC)
ALTUS AIR
FOR~I
BASE, OKLAHOMA
,-
C-141 SPOILER SYSTEM
OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this program, you should be able to:
i
1.
Name the sources of hydraulic pressure during Spoiler operation in
flight and on the ground.
2.
Identify by name the positions of the Spoiler Lever.
3.
Identify the Spoiler warning lights and indicators from a photograph
of the various instrument panels.
4.
Identify by name the four positions of the Spoiler Select Switch.
5.
Identify the qonditions which will cause the
to illuminate.
6.
Define the function of the High Force Detent and Indicator Pin.
7.
List the po~itions of the Spoiler Select Switch and Spoiler Lever
for takeoff, inflight and landing operations.
8.
List the conditions under which the Spoilers should NOT be
deployed in flight.
9.
Identify the indications of an asymmetric condition.
S~oiler
warning lights
10.
Define the corrective action after an asymmetric condition occurs.
11.
List the positions of the Emergency Retract/Emergency Off Switch.•
12.
Define the use of the Emergency Retract/Emergency Off Switch.
13.
List the conditions which will cause the UNDER SPLR SPEED (Under
Spoiler Speed) light to illuminate and define corrective action.
Air Force oc. 13 Jul 70·2500
r
Page A
This book ls not arranged like an ordinary study guide.
Even though
the pages are numbered ln order, the text does not follow in that order.
There will be directions on each page directing you to the correct page.
For example; TURN to Page
c.
Page B
This is page B!
If you were reading a common ordinary every day book
this would be the right page, but remember we said that in this book the
text would not follow in order.
Each page will have directions telling
you the correct page to turn to.
Now RETURN to Page A and follow the directions at the bottom of the page.
From Page A
OK, you got the idea and shouldn't have trouble following the text
of this program.
TURN to Page 1.
Page C
Page 1
WING SPOILERS
The Wing Spoilers on the C-141 are ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED, HYDRAULICALLY
OPERATED, ·HINGED PANELS located just forward of the wing flaps on the UPPER
and LOWER surfaces of each wing.
Study the picture and then select the MOST correct statement below.
•
a.
The Spoiler panels are divided into INBOARD and OUTBOARD sections
on the UPPER s urface of each wing.
TURN to Page 2.
b.
The Spoiler panels consist of single sections located on the
UPPER and LOWER surface of each wing .
TURN to Page 3.
c.
The Spoiler panels are divided into INBOARD and OUTBOARD sections
on the UPPER and LOWER surfaces of each wing.
TURN to Page 4 •
Page 2
From Page 1
Well, almost.
But the picture showed an inboard and outboard section
on both the UPPER and LOWER surfaces of each wing.
•
Study the picture and note where these Spoiler sections are located •
TURN to Page 4 •
.,
..
From Page 1
Not quite right.
Page 3
You see, the Spoilers are divided into INBOARD and
OUTBOARD sections on the upper and lower surfaces of each wing.
Study the picture and note where these Spoiler sections are located.
i
D
TURN to Page 4.
From Page 1, 2 or 3
That's right!
Page 4
The Spoiler panels are divided into INBOARD and OUTBOARD
sections located on the UPPER and LOWER surfaces of each wing.
With the
Spoilers closed, the airflow over and under the wing surface is relatively
•
smooth with a minimum amount of drag.
Opening the Spoilers increases drag.
The purposes of the Spoilers are:
1.
In flight.
a.
To act as a speed brake.
b.
To allow the pilot to INCREASE the RATE OF DESCENT without
exceeding airspeed or Mach limitations.
2.
On the ground.
a.
DECREASE the landing ground roll.
b.
DECREASE the stopping distance during a Rejected Takeoff.
Do you agree that by opening the Spoilers, these four purposes can be
accomp 1 ished?
NO
TURN to Page 5.
YES
TURN to Page 6.
From Page 4
You don't?
Page 5
Then consider the effect on the aircraft that would be
achieved by increasing drag.
If all other factors remain constant,
increasing drag decreases airspeed.
Opening the Spoilers does increase drag; thereby reducing airspeed.
Spoiler opening can be compared to opening a parachute attached to the rear
of a moving vehicle, except that with Spoilers, the drag can be removed
or added when desired, simply by closing or opening them.
TURN to Page 6.
i
From Page 4 or 5
You have the idea.
Page 6
The Spoilers are OPENED to DECREASE the airspeed in
flight, to allow the pilot to INCREASE the Rate of Descent (without exceeding
airspeed or Mach limitations), DECREASE the Landing Ground Roll, and DECREASE
•
..
the stopping distance during a Rejected Takeoff •
The picture below shows the Spoiler system installation •
Position Transmitter
Both
electrical power
operation.
and
hydraulic pressure
are necessary far Spoiler
If eitheF system is not available, ~he SpniJeri-1d.l:L_J~~OT c::operate.
First, let's examine the SOURCES of hydraulic pressure used to operate
"
the Spoilers and how the Landing Gear Lever position influences the source
of hydraulic pressure.
TURN to Page 7.
From Page 6
Page 7
Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 are used to open and close the Spoilers.
But HOW these systems work together to operate the Spoilers depends on the
POSITION of the LANDING GEAR LEVER •
•
With the Landing Gear Lever in the DOWN position:
•
1.
Hydraulic System Nr 2 operates the INBOARD
Spoiler Sections.
2.
~ydraulic
System Nr 3 operates the OUTBOARD
Spoiler Sections.
Study the picture and then answer the statement below.
With the Landing Gear Lever DOWN, does Hydraulic System Nr 2 operate
the Outboard Spoiler Sections?
YES
TURN to Page 8.
NO
TURN to Page 9.
From Page 7
Page 8
Maybe you didn't read the stateme nt correctly.
You see, with the
Landing Gear Lever in the DOWN posit i on , Hydraulic System Nr 2 operates
the
INBOARD
se ctions and Hydraulic System Nr 3 operates the
sections .
Study the s chematic carefully and then TURN to Page 9 .
OUTBOARD
From Page 7 or 8
Page 9
You 're getting the picture.
With th e Landing Gear Lever down, Hydraulic
System Nr 2 operates the inboard sections and Hydrauli c System Nr 3 operates
the outboard sections •
•
-
Let's place the Landing Gear Lever UP.
•
Now BOTH hydraulic systems send
pressure to operate ALL SPOILER SECTIONS t o overcome the higher air loads
e ncountered at high airspeeds .
Study the picture and see what I mean.
Which of the f ollowing is correct?
•
a.
With the Landing Gear Lever UP, Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 apply
pressure to all Spoi l er sections simultaneously to open or close them.
TURN to Page 10.
· b.
With the Landing Gear Leve r UP , Hydrau li c System Nr 2 operates the
inboard sections and Hydrauli c System Nr 3 operates the outboard
sections to ope n and close them.
TURN to Page 11.
From Page 9 or 11
Real good.
Page 10
Now we know, when the Landing Gear Lever is in the UP position,
both hydraulic systems work together and operate ALL Spoiler sections and with
the Landing Gear Lever in the DOWN position, Hydraulic System Nr 2 operates the
inboard sections while Hydraulic System Nr 3 operates the outboard sections.
But -- WHAT happens if either hydrauli c system should fail?
No sweat, because the remaining system would then operate ALL Spoiler.._
sections REGARDLESS of which position the Landing Gear Lever was in.
Naturally, the Spoilers will not move quite so fast with only one hydraulic
system operating, but they will function.
Which statement is correct?
a.
With the Landing Gear Lever DOWN , the inboard Spo~ler sections would
NOT operate after a Hydraulic Sys tem Nr 2 failure.
TURN to Page 12.
b.
Should Hydraulic System Nr 2 fail when the Landing Gear .Lever is DOWN,
Hydraulic System Nr 3 will operate ALL .Spoiler sect ions, but the rate
of movement will be s lower than normal.
TURN to Page 13.
From Page 9
Oops.
Page 11
You missed the point.
Notice on the picture below that Hydraulic
System Nr 2 is applying pressure to ALL Spoiler sections.
Notice that Hydraulic
System Nr 3 is also applying pressure to ALL Spoiler sections.
this is to overcome high air loads at high airspeeds .
•
The reason for
The manufacturer deter-
mined that one way to allow both systems to work together during flight and
s eparately at slow airspeeds is to connect the control mechanism through the
Landing Gear Lever.
Gear Lever is UP.
TURN to Page 10.
Therefore, they will only work together when the Landing
From Page 10
Page 12
..
Sorry.
You selected the wrong answer.
Remember, we said that should
ONE hydraulic system FAIL, the other will operate ALL Spoiler sections
REGARDLESS OF THE LANDING GEAR LEVEL POSITION .
Therefore, when the Landing
Gear Lever is DOWN and should Hydraulic System Nr 2 fail, Hydraulic System
Nr 3 will also operate the inboard sections, but all sections will move at
a slower rate.
If you're s till in doubt, RETURN to Page 10 and take another look at
the schematic.
Otherwise, GO TO Page 13.
From Page 10 or 12
How right you are!
Page 13
Should either hydraulic system fail, the other system
operates all Spoiler sections regardless of the position of the Landing
Gea~
Lever, but at a slower than normal speed •
•
As a review, fill in the statements or circle the correct word(s) below;
•
then check your answers on Page 14 •
1.
The Spoiler sections are divided into inboard and-------------- sections
located on the upper and ----------------- surfaces of each wing.
2.
3.
Opening the Spoilers will:
a.
Cause the airspeed to (increase) (decrease).
b.
Allow the pilot to (increase) (decrease) his Rate of Descent without
exceeding airspeed or Mach limitations.
c.
Cause the landing ground roll to (increase) (decrease).
d.
Decrease stopping distance during a (Short Field) (Rejected) Takeoff.
With the Landing Gear Lever DOWN, Hydraulic System Nr 2 operates the
(inboard) (upper) Spoiler sections and Hydraulic System Nr 3 operates the
(outboard) (lower) Spoiler sections.
4.
With the Landing Gear Lever UP, Hydraulic Systems Nr ___ and Nr _ __
apply pressure to all Spoiler sections simultaneously.
5.
.
If Hydraulic System Nr 2 fails, Hydraulic System Nr ____ operates
(all) (only the outboard) Spoiler sections •
TURN to Page 14 and check your answers.
From Page 13
Page 14
ANSWERS to the REVIEW.
1.
outboard
2.
a•
decrease
b.
increase
c•
decrease
d.
Rejected
•
•
3.
inboard
4.
2
3
s.
3
all
lower
outboard
If you missed any questions, review the page listed.
Page 1.
1.
Spoiler panel
2.
Purposes of Spoilers:
3.
Hydraulic sources with the Landing Gear Lever DOWN:
4.
Hydraulic sources with the Landing Gear Lever UP:
s.
Failure of one hydraulic system:
loca~ion:
Page 4.
Page 10.
After reviewing as necessary, TURN to Page 15.
Page 7.
Page 9.
From Page 14
Page 15
Now we are going to be concerned with the three (3) Spoiler Controls
located on the Control Pedestal:
1.
Spoiler Lever
2.
Spoiler Select Switch
3.
Emergency Retract/Emergency Off Switch
a.SPOILER SELECT SWITCH
CONTROL PEDESTAL
Let's discuss the SPOILER LEVER first.
It provides a means of opening
and closing the Spoilers.
Does thi s picture s how four quadrant markings:
and GROUND?
No
TURN to Page 16.
Yes
TURN to Page 17.
RESET, CLOSED, FLT LIMIT,
From Page 15
Page 16
•
If you check the picture a little more closely, you will find there are
FOUR markings on the Spoiler Lever quadrant.
FLT LIMIT and GROUND.
They are labe led:
RESET, CLOSED,
Know them.
RESET ..
CLOSED
FLT
LIMIT
GROUND
How many positions does it have?
a.
Four (4):
b.
Three ( 3)??
RESET, CLOSED, FLT LIMIT and GROUND.
TURN to Page 17.
Look at the picture until you see the four (4) positions!
From Page 15 or 16
Page 17
Yep, that's right.
quadrant are:
•
~oving
The four (4) pos ition markings on the Spoiler Lever
RESET, CLOSED, FLT LIMIT and GROUND.
the Spoiler Lever to any of the positions except RESET will position
the
Spoilers to the selected position. The Spoiler Lever is spring loaded from
-----~-=-=-~--=-~~-=..::..::..:..::..:..:.=-=:~~~;__.::..:;.:.::.._::.~~::_.:;:~==----=--==-==-:;;..:...:c=.::..:::._:=~
the RESET to the CLOSED position.
Moving the Spoiler Lever to any intermediate
position between quadrant markings will MOVE the Spoilers to a position relative
to the Spoiler Lever position.
RESET
C>--==---..-----............
t.
CLOSED
FLT
LIMIT
GROUND
By looking at the picture above, can you see that the Spoilers are
designed to open further on the ground than in flight?
YES ·
TURN to Page 18.
NO
TURN to Page 19.
From Page 17 or 19
Righto.
f li ght .
•
Page 18
The Spoilers are designed to open further on the ground than in
The 9ROUND position is too much for fli ght operation.
Here i s something else you should know a bout the SPO I LER LEVER.
solenoid operated HIGH FORCE
~ing
It has a
CLOSED posi tion that serves a s a
to prevent the pilot from inadvertentl y deploying the Spo i lers when
the Wing Flaps are
!!IT.
full up in fl ight.
The High Force Detent -- when
engaged - - resists Spoiler Lever movement but can be overridden by applying
approximately SO pounds of f orce to t he Spoiler Lever.
When the High Force Detent is engaged, an INDICATOR PI N located below
t he Spoiler Lever slot will extend from the face of t he control pedestal.
PIN EXTENDED
PIN RETRACTED
1
It is easier . to position the Spoiler Lever when the I NDICATOR PIN:
a.
Extends from the face of the pedestal.
TURN to Page 20.
b.
Is retracted from the face of the pedestal.
TURN to Page 21.
From Page 17
You said no, and you're wrong this time .
Page 19
The Spoilers WILL open
further on the ground than they will in flight .
More Spoiler opening is
desired during a landing gro und roll or a rejected takeoff to decelerate
more rapidl y.
However, in flight the Spoilers are limited to the amount they can open .
This is because full open in flight creates too much drag and destroys t oo
much wing 1 i ft.
TURN to Page 18.
From Page 18
Sorry about that.
Page 20
We said that when the Indica tor Pin EXTENDS
(sticks out) from the face of the pedestal, the HIGH FORCE DETENT is
engaged.
When engaged, it requires about SO pounds of force to overr ide
the High Force Detent.
Whe n the Indicator Pin is
retracted~
the Spo iler Lever is eas ily moved
because it indicates that the High For ce De t ent is removed.
TURN to Page 21.
From.Page 18 or 20
You are 1003 right.
Page 21
It ,!!. easier to position the Spoiler Lever when the
Indicator Pin is retracted because the High Force Detent is also retracted.
But how can the pilot remove the High Force Detent from the CLOSED position?
I
Easy, if the wing flaps are full up, he simply LIFTS the Spoiler Lever.
This
energizes a solenoid to remove the High Force Detent.
When the Spoiler Lever is lifted, what happens to the Indicator Pin?
•
a.
It retracts from the face of the pedestal.
TURN to Page 22.
b.
It extends from the face of the pedestal •
TURN to Page 23.
From Page 21 or 23
Yep.
Page 22
Lifting the Spoiler Lever·completes the circuit to the solenoid
operated High Force Detent and RETRACTS the Detent and Indicator Pin.
•
If the Wing Flaps are NOT full up IN FLIGHT, the High Force Detent CANNOT
BE REMOVED even if the Spoiler Lever is lifted.
This warns the pilot when
he tries to open the Spoilers.
Select the correct answer below.
The pilot CANNOT open the Spoilers in flight when the Wing Flaps are
positioned other than full up.
..
TRUE
TURN to Page 24.
FALSE
TURN to Page 25.
From Page 21
You selected "b".
Page 23
Actually, when the Spoiler Lever is LIFTED, the
solenoid recei ves electrical power to r emove the High Force Detent and
retract the Ind icator Pin prov ided the wing flaps are up.
TURN to Page 22 •
...
From Page 22
Nope.
It' s f a ls e.
Page 24
If the pilot t r ies to open the Spoilers when the
Wing Fl aps a r e NOT f ull up, the High Fo rce Detent WARNS him, but does NOT
preven t h im from ope n ing them.
All he has to do is OVERRIDE the High Force
Detent by app l y i ng approximately 50 po unds of force to the Spoiler Lever.
TU RN to Page 25.
From Page 22 or 24
ROGER!
Page 25
The pilot CAN open the Spoilers in flight when the wing flaps are
NOT full up by applying approximately 50 pounds of force to the Spoiler Lever
to override the High Force Detent •
..
However, a WARNING in T.O. 1C-141A-l tells us:
•
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE
SPOILERS BE DEPLOYED IN FLIGHT
UNLESS THE FLAPS ARE FULLY RETRACTED.
A Cable SERVO, operated by Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3, is located in
the Spoiler Lever Mechanism to provide TWO primary
functions~
1.
ASSIST the pilot in moving the Spoiler Lever in EITHER direction.
2.
Provide AUTOMATIC Spoiler Lever movement toward the GROUND
positioh during AUTC!-fA.TIC Spoiler opening.
\ SERVO
i MECHANISM
-,
~~'
No. 2 and/or No. 3
HYO. SYSTEMS
if
TO SPOILER
ACTUATING MECHANISM
•
•
The SERVO is hy.draulically operated to move the Spoiler ·Lever automatically and to assist the pilot in moving the Spoiler Lever toward the GROUND
position only.
TRUE
TURN to Page 26.
FAISE
TURN to Page 27.
Q•
From Page 25
Page 26
-
Almost!
Servo operation does provide automatic Spoiler Lever movement
toward the GROUND position during automatic opening.
However, Servo operation
a lso assists the pilot whenever he moves the Spoiler Lever,
direction of movement -- sort of like power stee ring.
TURN to Page 27 •
•
REGARDLESS
of the
From Page 25 or 26
We made it.
Page 27
The Spoiler Lever is Servo operated by Hydraulic Systems Nr 2
and Nr 3 to:
..,
1.
Assist the. pilot in moving the Spoiler Lever during manual
operation, regardless of the direction of movement •
2.
Provide automatic Spoiler Lever movement toward the GROUND
position during AUTOMATIC Spoiler opening •
•
The Servo will operate on one hydraulic system, but two are used as a
safety precaution.
Now let's examine one more function of the Spoiler Lever.
Suppose
Hydraulic System Nr 3 isn •t turned ON, when the Spoilers are to be op_ened.
In this case, moving the Spoiler Lever OUT of the CLOSED position turns
Hydraulic System Nr 3 ON.
Select the correct statement below:
•
•
a.
Moving the Spoiler Lever out of the CLOSED position turns ON Hydraulic
System Nr 3, if it isn't already on.
TURN to Pa;e 28.
b.
Lifting the Spoiler Lever turns ON Hydraulic System Nr 3, if it
isn't already on.
TURN to Page 30 •
From Page 27 or 30
Page 28
How right you are.
Moving the Spoiler Lever out of the CLOSED position
turns the Hydraulic System Nr 3 ON, if it isn't already ON.
Let's review.
1.
•
Fill in the bl anks or circle the correct word(s).
The Spoiler Lever is located on the (cont rol pedestal)
(center instrument panel).
2.
Fill in the names of the f our ma rkings located on the Spoi.ler Lever quadrant.
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.
The pilot can select any intermedi ate position of the Spoiler Lever between
CLOSED and (FLT LIMIT) (GROUND) .
4.
The unit which warns the pilot if he tries to open the Spoilers in flight
when the wing flaps are NOT full up is the High Force (Detent) (Stop).
5.
The pilot may remove the High Force Detent in flight if the flaps a r e full
up by lift i ng the Spoiler Lever.
a.
TRUE
b.
FALSE
There a re more questions on Page 28A, don't forget to ANSWER them!
From Page 28
6.
Page 28A
If the High Force Detent is NOT removed, an Indicator
--- protrudes
from the face of the console.
--
7. The pilot may override the High Force Detent by applying approximately
(ten) (fifty) pounds of force to the Spoiler Lever.
8.
9.
10.
The two primary functions of the Servos in the Spoiler Lever mechanism are
to assist the pilot in moving the Spoiler Lever in either direction and
provide AUTOMATIC Spoiler Lever movement toward the GROUND position during
automatic opening.
a.
TRUE
b.
FALSE
The Cable Servos are operated by Hydraulic Systems Nr
Moving the Spoiler Lever out of the closed detent turns the Hydraulic
System Nr
11.
ON if it isn't already ON.
Under NO circumstances should the Spoilers be deployed in flight, unless
the (wing flaps) (landing gear) are full up.
CHECK your answers on Page 29 •
.
and Nr _ .
From Page 28A
Page 29
ANSWERS to the REVIEW.
..
1.
Control Pedestal
2.
a.
3.
GROUND
RESET
b.
CLOSED
c.
FLT LIMIT
d.
GROUND
4. Detent
5.
True
6.
Pin
7.
50
8.
True
9.
2
10.
3
11.
wing flaps
3
If you missed any questions, review the page listed.
1.
Spoiler Lever location:
Page 15.
2.
Spoiler Lever quadrant markings:
3.
Positioning the Spoiler Lever:
4.
High Force Detent purpose:
5.
Removing the High Force Detent:
6.
Indicator Pin:
7.
Overriding the High Force Detent:
8.
Functions of the cable servo:
9.
Hydraulic source to operate the servos:
Page 15.
Page 17.
Page 18.
Page 21.
Page 18.
Page 18.
Page 25.
10.
Turning on Hydraulic System Nr 3:
11.
Spoil,er vs Wing Flap operation:
Page 25.
Page 27.
Page 25.
f
After reviewing as necessary, TURN to Page 31.
From Page 27
Nope.
Not quite.
Page 30
You see; lifting the Spoiler Lever has nothing to do
with turning ON Hydraulic System Nr 3.
It's when the Spoiler Lever is moved
out of the CLOSED position that Hydraulic System Nr 3 is turned ON if it
isn't already on.
TURN to Page 28 •
•
From Page 30
Okay.
Page 31
Let's proceed with the other units in the system.
We will have
to refer back to the Spoiler Lever f r om time to time since it operates in
CONJUNCTION WITH the SPOILER SELECT SWITCH.
Notice the LOCATION of the Spoile r Select Switch and the switch positions.
From the picture, you can determi ne that the Spoiler Select Switch is
located just forward of the Spoiler Lever on the Control Pedestal.
The four positions are RTO, FLT, MAN LAND, and AUTO LAND •
•
a.
FALSE
TURN to Page 32.
b.
TRUE
TURN to Page 33.
From Page 31
Page 32
Sorry, but there are FOUR (4) POSITIONS on the Spoiler Select Switch.
They are:
RTO, FLT, MAN LAND,
and
AUTO LAND.
going to be using them soon •
•
Study the picture and then TURN t o Page 33 •
•
Remember them.
You are
\
From Page 31 or 32
Page 33
You're on the right track.
The Spoiler Select Switch is located on the
Control Pedestal and has four positions.
FLT, MAN LAND and AUTO LAND.
They are:
RTO (Rejected Takeoff),
guring normal flight, the Spoiler Select Switch
should remain in the FLT position.
Let's place the Spoiler Select Switch in the FLT POSITION and see how it
affects Spoiler operation.
The FLT position does two (2) things:
1.
It turns OUT the GROUND LIGHT located on the switch panel.
2.
It places a MECHANICAL STOP at the FLT LIMIT position of the
Spoiler ever.
ARMED Light
GROUND Light
~
The GROUND light
is OUT at this time!
Would you agree that by positioning the Spoiler Select Switch to any
position other than FLT will accomplish two things:
1.
Illuminate the GROUND light.
2.
Remove the Mechanical Stop from the FLT LIMIT position of the
Spoiler Lever.
NO
TURN to Page 34.
YES
TURN to Page 35.
From Page 33
Page 34
Wellll, maybe I misled you by
actually the statement is true.
position other than
FLT,
the
as~ing
Whe~
GROUND
the question the way I did, but
the SPOILER SELECT SWITCH is in ANY
light is ON and the Mechanical Stop is
REMOVED.
When the Spoiler Switch is in the FLT position, the GROUND light is OFF
and the Mechanical Stop is engaged.
TURN to Page 35.
From Page 33 or 34
Yep.
The FLT position of the Spoiler Select Switch is the ONLY position
which turns OUT the GROUND light and positions the Mechanical Stop.
~OUND
Page 35
The
light, when illwninated, notifies the pilot he has the switch in ANY
ONE of the THREE GROUND OPERATING positions and the Mechanical Stop is
•
removed •
TURN to Page 36 •
•
From Page 35
Page 36
The pilot does three things to open the Spoilers in flight .
1.
Positions the SPOILER SELECT SWITCH to FLT.
2.
Lifts the SPOILER LEVER.
3.
Moves the SPOILER LEVER out of the CLOSED position.
How will he know that the Spoilers have opened?
By checking the SPOILER
POSITION INDICATOR located on the PILOTS' CENTER INSTRUMENT PANEL.
You can determine from the picture below, that the SPOILER POSITION
INDICATOR:
a.
Has a poi nter for each wing labeled "L" and "R".
TURN to Page 37.
b.
Has a pointer for each wing la be led "L" and "R'', and
also has a LOCKED-UNLOCKED flag.
TURN to Page 38.
From Page 36
Page 37
Real c lose, but you apparently did NOT see the LOCKED- UNLOCKED flag in
the littl e window under the pointers .
RETURN to Page 36 and l ook again , then select the other answe r .
From Page 36
You' re very observant.
Page 38
You noticed the "L" and "R" pointers AND the
LOCKED-UNLOCKED flag located beneath the pointe rs .
The pointers indicate
the position of their respective Inboard Spoiler Sections - left and right
wing.
•
The LOCKED-UNLOCKED fla
indicates whether or not al
sections
are LOCKED CLOSED .
Let's assume the pilot opens the Spoilers in flight to decelerate.
happens, if anything, to the Spoilers if the a irspeed i s high?
above 250 KCAS Spoiler BLOWDOWN occurs.
What
For one thing,
That is, above 250 KCAS the airflow
(or pressure) against the Spoiler Se ction forces them towards the closed
position .
.
Do you believe that Spoiler ' 1 blowdown" can be observed on the Spoiler
Position Indicator?
YES
TURN to Page 39.
NO
TURN to Page 40.
Page 39
From Page 38 or 40
Sure it can!
-
Spoiler."blowdown" occurs aboye 250 KCAS and w:UJ be 1nd1-
cated on the Spoiler Position Indicator.
on the airspeed.
How far closed they will go depends
As the airspeed decreases, the Spoilers will return to the
selected position.
The
Spoiler Lever ·does NOT move during Spoiler "blowdown."
c.
This is because
the Cable Servo Mechanism contains an irreversible feature to prevent Spoiler
Level movement within the normal "blowdown" limits.
One more
S~r
operating limitation.
The Spoilers are placarded against
_gperation above 350 KCAS OR MACH 0.75.
We now have two limitations placed on Spoiler operation in flight.
They
should not be opened in flight above:
..
a.
250 KCAS OR when the wing flaps are NOT full up.
TURN to Page 41.
b.
350 KCAS OR when the wing flaps are NOT full up.
TURN to Page 42 •
From Page 38
No?
Why not?
Page 40
The Spoi l er Pos it ion Indicator tells the pi lo t the
Spoiler positio n regardless of wha t moved them.
Above 250 KCAS the airflow overcomes the hydraulic pressure to the
Spoile rs, forc i ng them toward the closed position.
The Spoiler Position
Indicator simply does what t h e Spoil ers tel l it t o do .
TURN t o Page 39 .
From Page 39
Page 41
•
.
You said the Spoilers sho uld not be opened above 250 KCAS, but this is
the s pe ed at which Spoiler "blowdown" occurs.
It is NOT a limitation.
The limitation i s placed on Spoiler operation above 350 KCAS .
Of course,
we cannot operate the Spoil ers with the wing flaps in any posit ion other
than fu ll UP in f li ght .
TURN to Page 42.
From Page 39 or 41
Sure.
Page 42
The Spoilers should not be opened in flight above 350 KCAS or Mach
0.75, and they should NOT be opened in flight unless the wing flaps are full UP.
This completes the explanation of NORMAL Spoiler operation IN FLIGHT.
let's review.
1.
Circle the correct word(s) below.
During flight, Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and 3 apply pressure to the inboard and
outboard Spoiler section
2.
(independently) to open and close them.
If one hydraulic system fails, the other will operate the Spoilers but at
a~
3.
Now
(faster) rate of speed.
With the wing flaps full up, lifting the Spoiler Lever removes the High
Force~
(Stop) located at the
~(GROUND)
position of the
Spoiler Lever.
4.
Movement of the Spoiler Lever out of the CLOSED position ls aided by the
~
5.
(Tabs) operated by Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3.
The Spoilers should not be opened in flight if the wing flaps are NOT
full (down)€};)
6.
If Hydraulic System Nr 3 is not already turned on, moving the Spoiler Lever
out of
7.
the~
(GROUND) position turns it on.
A Spoiler Position Indicator located on the pilots• (left)
~
instrument panel indicates Spoiler position and also indicates when the
Spoilers
8.
ar~D - UNLO~ or
(OPEN - CLOSED).
Spoiler "blow-down" occurs above ~ (200) KCAS.
There are more questions on Page 42A, don't forget to ANSWER theml
J
From Page 42
9.
Page 4'2A
The Spoilers should not be opened above (300)
~
KCAS or Mach (1.1)
10.
Insert the names of the Spoiler Select Switch positions •
11.
Moving the Spoiler Select Switch to FLT turns OUT the
~-
•
light and places a Mechanical (Detent)
~
~~
(ARMED)
at the FLT LIMIT position
of the Spoiler Lever.
12.
If the Spoiler Select Switch is in any position other than FLT, the GROUND
light will illuminate and the Mechanical Stop will be (in place at)
~
the FLT LIMIT position of the Spoiler Lever.
CHECK your answers on Page 43 •
.
Page 43
From Page 42A
ANSWERS to the REVIEW.
&\
..
1.
together
2.
reduced
3.
De tent
4.
Servos
5.
up
6.
CLOSED
7.
center
8.
250
9.
350
CLOSED
LOCKED - UNLOCKED
o.75
10.
&ELECT
11.
GROUND
Stop
12.
removed from
Now let's examine Spoiler operation
MAN LAND position.
TURN to Page 44.
wi~h
the Spoiler Select Switch in the
From Page 43
Page 44
As stated before, positioning the Spoiler Select Switch to MAN IAND
(manual land) illuminates the GROUND light and REMOVES the Mechanical Stop
from the FLT LIMIT position of the Spoiler Lever.
We know that the pilot can remove the High Force Detent when the WING
FIAPS are FULL UP by LIFTING the SPOII.ER I.EVER.
Is the following statement true or false?
With the wing flaps FULL UP and the Spoiler Se le ct Swi tch in MAN IAND,
the pilot can now move the Spoilers to the GROUND position in flight, by
lifting the Spoiler Lever and movi ng it to the GROUND position, airspeed
permitting.
TRUE
TURN to Page 45.
FALSE
TURN to Page 46.
From Page 44 or 46
TRUE!
Page 45
The Spoilers can be moved to the ground position under these
conditions.
""··
~,
How is the High Force Detent removed when the wing flaps are NOT full up?
It's accomplished through the Main Landing Gear TOUCHDOWN Switches.
With
t~
Main
Landing Gear Struts compressed, the High Force Detent can be removed even
-;
if the wing flaps are NOT full up.
During MAN LAND operation, how can the pilot remove the High Force Detent
after touchdown if the wing flaps are NOT full up?
a.
Lift the Spoiler Lever.
TUBN to Page 47.
b.
He cannot remove the High Force Detent during MAN LAND
if the wing flaps are NOT full up.
TURN to Page 48.
From Page 44
Page 46
You said false, but let's consider this.
Under these condi tions, what
i s to prevent the pilo t from moving the Spoiler Lever to the GROUND position
in flight?
The Me cha ni cal Stop i s removed by positioning the Spoiler Select
Switch to MAN LAND.
The High Force Detent is removed by liftin.s::, the Spoiler
Lever if the wing flap s are full up .
TURN t o Page 45.
From Page 45 or 48
You're right!
Force Detent.
~gh
Page 47
The pilot must lift the Spoiler Lever to remove the High
Compressing
~he
Main Landing Gear Struts simply allows the
Force Detent to be removed when the wing flaps are not full up :
During the initial touchdown and landing ground roll , not much weight
•
is placed on the landing gear to compress the struts .
To compensate for
this, WHEEL SPIN- UP DETECTORS are installed on the Four (4)
WHEELS ONLY.
FORWARD MAIN
These SPIN-UP DETECTORS allow the pilot to remove the High
Force Detent when the main gear is rotating at 34- 60 knots and above, even
if the struts are NOT compressed.
-----~~~~~--~~~~-"'~-----
34-60 KNOTS OR ABOVE
During landing, either the Landing Gear TOUCHDOWN switches OR the
Landing Gear SPIN-UP detectors on the Four (4) Forward Main Wheels will
allow the pilot to remove the High Force Detent by lifting the Spoiler
Lever.
TRUE
TURN to Page 49.
FALSE
TURN to Page 50.
From Page 45
Oh, oh.
Page 48
Why not?
the High Force Detent.
We said the Spoiler Lever must be lifted to remove
Compressing t he Main Landing Gear Struts will a llow
the High Force Detent to be removed when the wing flaps are NOT full up and
the Spoiler Lever is lifted.
TURN to Page 47.
Page 49
From Page 47 or 50
It's true.
During landing either the Landing Gear Touchdown Switches
or the Landing Gear Spin-Up Detectors will allow the pilot to remove the
•·
High Force Detent by lifting the Spoiler Lever.
Now how about another
short review.
Circle the correct word(s) or fill in the appropriate blank spaces.
1.
Moving the Spoiler Select Switch out of the FLT position turns ON the
(ARMED) (GROUND) light
a~d
removes the Mechanical (Detent) (Stop) from
the FLT LIMIT position of the Spoiler Lever.
2.
If the wing flaps are full UP and·the Spoiler Select Switch is in
MAN-------------'
the pilot can open the Spoilers completely in
flight by lifting t h e - - - - - - - - - - - - - and moving it to
the GROUND position.
3.
After the Touchdown Switches or Wheel Spin-Up Detectors are actuated,
lifting the Spoiler Lever will remove the High Force Detent and Indicator Pin and allow the Lever to be moved to the (FLT LIMIT) (GROUND)
position.
CHECK your answers with those listed below and make any necessary
corrections.
..
~
1.
GROUND
2.
LAND
3.
GROUND
Stop
Spoiler Lever
TURN to Page 51 and we'll waltz through Auro LAND.
From Page 47
Nooo, it's true.
Page 50
Either the Landing Gear TOUCHDOWN SWITCHES or the
Landing Gear SPIN-UP DETECTORS will allow the pilot to remove the High Force
Detent when he lifts the Spoiler Lever.
•
If the weight of the aircraft is
not compressing the touchdown switches, the spin-up detectors will do the
job.
When the aircraft slows down below 34-60 knots, the spin-up detectors
are deactivated because the wheels are not turning fast enougho
However, by
that time the weight of the aircraft is on the struts, compressing them and
closing the touchdown switches.
TURN to Page 49.
From Page 50
Page 51
The AUTO LAND feature provides AUTOMATIC SPOILER OPENING after touchdown.
When the Spoiler Select Switch and Spoiler Lever are properly set, the Spoiler
L~ver
will AUTOMATICALLY move to the GROUND position as soon as Main Landing
Gear WHEEL SPIN-UP occurs.
This is how it operates.
AUTO IAND.
FIRST the Spoiler Select Switch is positioned to
This REMOVES the MECHANICAL STOP from the FLT LIMIT position of the
Spoiler Lever and ILLUMINATES the GROUND light.
Are these two actions (mechanical stop removal and GROUND li ght
illumination) different from those which occur when the Spoiler Select
Switch i s in MAN LAND?
YES
TURN to Page 52.
NO
TURN to Page 53.
From Page 51
Oh?
Page 52
You recall that we said earlier the GROUND light is ON and
the Mechanical Stop is REMOVED from the FLT LIMIT position of the Spoiler
Lever when the Spoiler Select Switch is in any position other than FLT.
Sure you remember .
TURN to Page 53.
From Page Sl or S2
Good! No difference.
Page 53
Any posit i on of the Spoiler Select Switch, other
than FLT illuminates the GROUND l i ght and removes the Mechanical Stop.
Next, LIFT the Spoiler Lever.
This removes the HIGH FORCE DETENT and ARMS
t he system for automatic Spoiler opening .
system is armed?
How do we know that the Spoiler
The ARMED LIGHT l ocated just forward of the GROUND light
illuminates.
Study the picture , then select the M:>ST correct statement below.
a.
The ARMED and GROUND lights are ILLUMINATED because the Spoiler Select
Swi tch is in AUTO LAND.
TURN to Page 54.
b.
The ARMED and GROUND lights are ILLUMINATED because the Spoiler Select
Switch is in AUTO LAND and the Spoiler Lever is LIFTED.
TURN to Page SS.
c.
Statement "b" is corre ct and the High Force Detent Indicator Pin is
RETRACTED.
TURN to Page S6.
From Page 53
Page 54
Almost - The GROUND light ls illuminated because the Spoiler Select
Switch is in AUTO LAND.
But the ARMED light is illuminated because the
Spoiler Select Switch is in AUTO LAND and the Spoiler Lever is LIFrED.
Furthermore, since the High Force Detent is removed, the Indicator Pin
is RETRACTED.
RETURN to Page 53 and make another selection.
From Page 53
Real close.
Page 55
The ARMED and GROUND lights are illuminated because
the Spoiler Select Switch is in AUTO LAND and the Spoiler Lever is
LIFTED, but check the position of the Hi gh Force Detent Indicator Pin •
.
~
--..~~
~
• l'.\fll)
\.~<:)
Retracted isn't it?
YES
TURN TO Page 56.
NO
Look at the picture again. What you probably see is a protector
shield for the Indicator Pin.
From Page 53 or 55
How right you are!
Page 56
Setting the Spoiler Select Switch to AUTO LAND
illuminates the GROUND light and removes the Mechanical Stop.
With the
Spoiler Select Switch in AUTO LAND, LIFTING the Spoiler Lever:
1.
Arms the system.
2.
I lluminates the ARMED light .
3.
Removes the High Force Detent.
4.
Retracts the Indicator Pin.
The next step is the landing.
As soon as WHEEL SPIN-UP is achieved on
the 4 forward main wheels after touchdown (34-60 knots or above), the Spoiler
Lever automatically moves to the GROUND oosition by action of the CABLE SERVO
Automatic Spoiler openi ng will be achi eved during AUTO LAND operation, when
the Main Landing Gear struts compress and actuate the touchdown swi t ches .
TRUE
TURN to Page 57.
FALSE
TURN to Page 58.
Page 57
From Page 56
Oh, oh.
You say it's true, but that isn't what we said.
We said
WHEEL SPIN-UP will cause the Spoiler Lever to go to the GROUND position and
NOT the touchdown switches.
Automatic Spoiler opening is provided even
if the weight of the aircraft is not on the Main Landing Gear.
is all that is necessary.
TURN to Page 58.
WHEEL SPIN-UP
From Page 56 or 57
You're RIGHT.
Page 58
The Main Landing Gear struts do NOT need tQ be compressed.
!he wheel SPIN-VP detectors cause automatic Spoiler opening during AUTO LAND
operation.
The touchdown switches have nothing to do with automatic Spoiler
--
deployment.
.....
However, the touchdown switches turn out the ARMED light after
touchdown, but that's all they do as far as Spoiler operation using -AUTO LAND
•
is concerned.
We have one very important precaution to observe when landing.
A WARNING
in T.O. 1C-141A-l tells us:
THE SPOILER HANDLE WILL NOT BE ARMED
UNTIL AFTER THE LANDING GEAR IS SAFELY
ON THE RUNWAY.
If the Spoilers are armed with the Spoiler Select Switch in AUTO LAND,
the Spoilers will open to the full ground position in flight provided the
forward main gear is rotating above auto Spoiler deployment speed.
Thus,
the reason for the WARNING stated above.
We have one more position on the Spoiler Select Switch:
Take-Off).
RTO (Rejected
RTO provides automatic Spoiler opening if the pilot decides
to reject during the takeoff roll.
TURN to Page 59 and we'll see how RTO works.
From Page 58
Page 59
First, turn the Spoiler Select Switch to RTO.
This illuminates
the GROUND light and removes the MECHANICAL STOP from the FLT LIMIT
position of the Spoiler Lever.
/flf(X/MO •
--
.,,...._
These two actions are the same as those which occur when the Spoiler
Select Switch is in AUTO LAND or MAN LAND.
TRUE
TURN to Page 60.
FALSE
TURN to Page 61.
From Page 59 or 61
You are soooo right!
Page 60
Three of the four positions of the Spoiler Select
Switch (MAN LAND, AUTO LAND and RTO) will illwninate the GROUND light and
remove the Mechanical Stop.
Next, LIFT the Spoiler Lever.
..
retracts the Indicator Pin.
deployment when desired.
This removes the High Force Detent and
It also ARMS the system for Automatic Spoiler
Study the picture.
From the picture, you can determine that:
..
a.
Only the GROUND light is i lluminated.
TURN to Page 62.
b.
Both the ARMED and GROUND lights are illuminated.
TURN to Page 63 •
From Page 59
Page 61
You must have momentarily forgotten.
Remembe r we said:
Sure the two actions are the same.
the FLT po s ition of the Spoiler Select Switch turns OUT
the GROUND light and positions the Mechanica l Stop.
Any position other than
FLT illuminates the GROUND light and r emoves the Mechanical Stop.
TURN to Page 60 •
•
..
From Page 60
Page 62
Better go back and look aga in , because the ARMED light is also ON, then
select the other answe r.
TURN to Page 60 .
It
.
From Page 60
Yep.
Page 63
Both the ARMED and GROUND lights are ILLUMINATED.
Moving the
Spoiler Select Switch out of the FLT position illuminates the GROUND light •
.......
Placing the Spoiler Select Switch in RTO and "lifting" the Spoiler Lever
illuminates the ARMED light.
----
-
The ARMED light notifies you when the system
is. set for AUTOMATIC Spoiler deployment should you initiate a Rejected Takeoff.
(The ARMED light will NOT illuminate in ftight with the system set for
RTO, due to the action of the Landing Gear TOUCHDOWN Switches.)
If everything is set up for an RTO, how do we achieve AUTOMATIC Spoiler
deployment?
Well, two more operations must occur.
First, the Main Landing
Gear WHEEL SPIN-UP Detectors must be actuated (34-60 knots and above);
secon~,
any two symmetPio throtttes must be moved to the PeVePse idle Pange OP beyond.
-a::
By saying any two symmetPio throttles must be reversed, means Nr .1 and
Nr 4 throttles or Nr 2 and Nr 3 throttles.
•
TRUE
TURN to Page 64.
FALSE
TURN to Page 65 •
From Page 63 or 65
Excellent!
Page 64
Reversing either the INBOARD throttles or the OUTBOARD throttles
during a Rejected Takeoff will cause Spoiler deployment if:
•
1.
The Spoiler Select Switch is set to RTO.
2.
The Spoiler Lever is LIFTED.
3.
Main Landing Gear Wheel Spin-up has occurred.
How does reversing the throttles a ccomplish AUTOMATIC Spoiler opening
duri ng a Rejected Takeoff?
Let' s TURN to Page 66 and find out.
From Page 63
No, it's true.
Page 65
Symmetric means baZanaed.
We want baZanaed power
during a Rejected Takeoff to maintai n aircraft directional control.
is why either the inboard or the outboard throttles must be moved to
REVERSE IDLE or beyond before the Spoilers will open automa tically •
.
.
Check the picture.
TURN to Page 64.
Thi s
From Page 64
Page 66
Automatic Spoiler deployment duri ng a Rejected Takeoff is accompl ished
through the Spoiler Lever
Cable Servo Mechanism. When the Spoiler Select Switch
and Spoiler Lever are properly set for a Rejected Takeoff, revers ing both OUT-
which AU'IUMATICALLY moves the Spoiler Lever to the GROUND position.
..c::::::
Reversing
>
both INBOARD throttles causes Hydraulic System Nr 3 t o actuate the Spoiler Lever
Hydraulic System Nr 2 actuates
Hydraulic System Nr 3 actuates
the Spoiler Lever Servo .
the Spoiler Lever Servo.
---
If Hydraulic System Nr 2 fails during a Rejected Takeoff and ONLY the
OUTBOARD throttles are reversed, the Spoilers will NOT automatically open be-
•
•
cause the SERVO is not actuated.
Now answer this •
Do you believe the Spoiler Lever can be manually moved to the GROUND position
to open the Spoilers under these conditions?
YES
TURN to Page 67 .
NO
TURN to Page 68.
From Page 66
I'll buy that.
Page 67
In this case (Hydraulic System Nr 2 failure and OUTBOARD
throttle reversal), the Spoilers can be manually opened if they do not
automatically open during a Rejected Takeoff.
The Cable Servo Mechanism will
still operate from Hydraulic System Nr 3, and the Spoilers will also operate.
Is the opposite true?
That is, if the Hydraulic System Nr 3 fails and
only the INBOARD throttles are reversed, can we manually open the Spoilers?
•
e
NO
TURN to Page 69.
YES
TURN to Page 70 •
From Page 66
Oh, oh.
Page 68
You boo-booed.
In this case (Hydraulic System Nr 2 failure
and OUTBOARD throttle reversal), the Spoilers can be manuaZZy opened if
they do not automatically open during a Rejected Takeoff.
The Cable Servo
Mechanism will still operate from Hydraulic System Nr 3, and the Spoilers
will also operate.
Is the opposite true?
That is, if the Hydraulic System Nr 3 fails during
a Rejected Takeoff and only the INBOARD throttles are reversed, can we
manually open the Spoilers?
NO
TURN to Page 690
YES
TURN to Page 70.
From Page 67 or 68
Oh, yes it is true!
Page 69
Hydraulic System Nr 2 is still available to operate
the Cable Servo Mechanism and also the Spoiler Actuating Mechanisms.
TURN to Page 70 •
..
r}!
From Page 67, 68 or 69
You've got the point.
Page 70
Of course, if bC?_th hydraulic systems fail during
a Rejected Takeoff, "you are in deep trouble" as far as Spoiler operation is
concerned.
Now let's review AUTO LAND and RTO operation.
Fill in the blank
spaces or circle the correct word(s) in the statements below •
•
1.
With the Spoiler Select Switch in AUTO LAND or RTO, lifting the Spoiler
Lever will:
2.
a.
Turn on the (ARMED) (GROUND) light indicating that the system is armed.
b.
Remove the High Force. (Stop} (Detent).
c.
Retract the High Force Detent Indicator (Pin) (Stop).
During AUTO LAND operation with the Spoilers armed, they will open as
soon as Main Landing Gear Wheel - - - - - ____ occurs.
3.
The Spoilers are opened during AUTO LAND and RTO by action of the Spoiler
Lever (Servo) (Reversing) Mechanism.
4.
During Rejected Takeoff operation, the Spoilers will NOT OPEN until Main
Landing Gear Wheel Spin-Up occurs and
---~-----------------------
throttles
are moved to REVERSE IDLE or beyond.
5.
If Hydraulic System Nr 3 has failed during a Rejected Takeoff, the Spoilers
will NOT automatically open unless the outboard throttles are reversed or
the Spoiler Lever is (manually) (automatically) moved to the GROUND position •
•
•
Check your answers on Page 71, make any necessary corrections, and
START on Page 72 •
From Page 70
Page 71
ANSWERS to the REVIEW.
1.
..
a.
ARMED
b.
De tent
c.
Pin
2.
Spin-Up
3.
Servo
4.
symmetric
s.
manually
If you missed any questions review the page listed.
1.
Lifting the Spoiler Lever during AUTO LAND and RTO operation:
2.
Main Landing Gear Wheel Spin-Up during AUTO LAND:
3.
Spoiler Lever Servo operation:
4.
Throttle reversal during RTO:
5.
Hydraulic system failure during RTO:
TURN to Page 72.
Pages 56, 66.
Page 63.
Page 66.
Page 58.
Pages 53, 60.
From Page 71
Page 72
What would happen if the Spoilers on one wing were to open and those on
the other did not open?
tend to roll .
•
The answer is obvious, i sn't it?
To pr event this f r om happening, an
The aircraft would
ASYMMETRY PROTECTION SYSTEM
is installed on the Spoilers .
This
ASYMMETRY PROTECTION SYSTEM
detect s uneven OUTBOARD Spoiler opening
during approximately the first 2 1/2 inches of Spoiler operation.
The asymmetry
detectors are located on the out board end of each OUTBOARD Spoiler sec tion.
If one OUTBOARD Spoiler Actuator moves 2 1/2 inches while the other OUTBOARD
ac t uator moves less than 3/4 inch during the initial operation , TWO things
happen.
~
1.
Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 drive the Spoiler s closed.
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL-LEFT SIDE
I f the Nr 2 SPOI LER INOP and the Nr 3 SPOILER INOP lights illuminate ,
the instrumen t to check would be the :
a.
Hydraulic Pressure Gage.
TURN to Page 73.
b.
Spoiler Position Indicator.
TURN to Page 74.
From Page 72
Page 73
Well, if the Nr 2 SPOILER INOP and the Nr 3 SPOILER INOP li ghts were to
illumina t e , t he Hydraulic Pressure Gage may f luctua te as the Spoi le r s go
closed, but wouldn't the SPOILER POS I TION INDI CATOR gi ve us a more positive
indication that the Spo ilers have cl osed?
~ ~ ~: ::
•
Sure it would.
::::::::::::::::::::;::::::::::::::i :; ~ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~ ::::::;:::::::::::::~=~! ;:::::::::::::;:::::::;::::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::~:: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
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=.=...= =
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~ - aj~~~:~~~ :.1 ~-~•'.:~-~~~:::~:::~~:~~~~:~~~~~~~~~~•'.::~~~:~-~~-~::•
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---~-:~~~~~~~~~~~~-~~,~~~
;
;
•
• • •
•• ••••• •• • • • ••••• • •
•
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•• •
•• •
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•·•·····••··•··••·••·••·•• • •• • ••· ·
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··::··:·:·::::::::::::: : :::::::::
i .:~~~~~ ,;.,~~:: ·. ,j:~~~:~:~:~:jj ·. ~!~~~~~ , I:;;: : : ::~::::::::;!1 . ': :;;:;:;:;:~:: ;
•.
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. ~~~~~~'.'ffl:: .. .1~~~~~~W:~:m. ~?.;~t~~lllf. :::::::::::~~:: :::::::::1 .. .: :::~:~!~J'~,9~~::
.. .
!1. :1f:t~j~$jr,;)~t n~ ·nnn~~~i~~nrnn n·mw.~~~~~;~~, 1 2 SPOILER !NOP
l 3 SPOILERS INOP
•
.
~ ~ ::: :: ::::::::::::: :: ::::::::: :::::::::::~:::::::::::::::: : : :: ::::::::::::: :::: :::~ ~:::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::;:::::I~::::::::::::::::::: : :::::::::::.;: . .:::~~: : :: ::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::=~= :: ~
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL-LEFT SIDE
c~
-~
SPolLER
TURN to Page 74.
Page 74
From Page 72 or 73
Sure.
closed.
The Spoiler Position Indicator should indicate that the Spoilers have
If the Nr 2 SPOILER INOP and the Nr 3 SPOILER INOP lights illuminate
and the Spoilers go closed, we know that an asynnnetric condition has existed.
Remember!
•
~symmetry
protection is available on OUTBOARD sections only, and.
then only during the first 2 1/2 inches of Spoiler operation •
So far all Spoiler operation has been accomplished through the action of the
cable SERVO Mechanism.
It operates differently during an asymmetric condition.
When the Spoilers go closed during an asymmetric condition, the Spoiler Lever
remains in position.
For example, if the Spoiler Lever was placed to the FLT
LIMIT position and an asymmetric condition occured, it would remain there and
Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 would apply pressure to the Spoiler Actuating
Mechanisms located in the wings.
The corrective action for an asymmetric condition is to move the Spoiler
Lever forward to the RESET position.
This RESETS the Asymmetry Protection
System.
When the Spoiler Lever is moved to RESET, do you believe the Nr 2 SPOILER
INOP and the Nr 3 SPOILER INOP lights will go out?
YES
TURN to Page 75.
NO
TURN to Page 76.
From Page 74 or 76
Real good.
Page 75
Moving the Spoiler Lever to RESET after an asymmetric cond i tion
RESETS the system for operation and turns the Nr 2 SPOI LER INOP and the Nr 3
SPO ILE R INOP lights out.
NOTE:
The Spoiler Lever is spring loaded from the RESET
to the CLOSED position.
An electrical. malfunction exists if only one SPOILER !NOP light illuminates.
In this case, the Spoilers will remain fully operational but the Asymmetry
Protection System ma y be inoperative.
-----
---.....
J
l:::: :: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::g::::::::::::::: ;::: :::::: ::: ::: :::: ::::: ~::::::: :: : : : : : : : : : : :..::.:.:;:::::: ..:::. ::;::::::: :::::::::::::::: :::::::::; : : : : : : ~;::::::::::::::::::::: : :::::::::: ! : : : : : ~
::: :: :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::
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~ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ~ ~::: : : ~:: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ; ~:: :.: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : =: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ~ ~ i::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:r:; : : : l~: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::I
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL-LEFT SIDE
Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE?
If the Spoiler Lever is moved to the FLT LIMIT position and only Nr 3
SPOILER !NOP light illuminates, the Spoiler Position Indicator will indicate
the Spoilers are closed.
TRUE
TURN to Page 77.
FALSE
TURN to Page 78.
From Page 74
They will too.
Page 76
When the system is RESET, that means everything is back
to normal and ready for use again.
TURN to Page 75 •
•
From Page 75
Not necessarily.
Page 77
Remember
tha~
the Spoilers will remain
fuZZy
operational even though just one (1) SPOILER INOP light illuminates;
therefore, the Spoiler Position Indicator should indicate that the Spoilers
I
are opened to the FLT LIMIT position even with one (1) SPOILER INOP
•
light on •
Should the left wing Spoilers stop approximately half way open and
the right wing Spoilers continue to open, would the Asymmetry Protection
System function?
YES
TURN to Page 79.
NO
TURN to Page 80.
From Page 75
You're soooo rightl
Page 78
One SPOILER INOP light does NOT affect Spoiler
operation; therefore, the Spoiler Position Indicator will indicate that
the Spoilers .are open to the FLT LIMIT position.
Should the left wing Spoilers stop approximately half way open, and
the right wing Spoilers continue to open, would the Asymmetry Protection
System function?
•
YES
TURN to Page 79.
NO
TURN to Page 80 •
From Page 77 or 78
No.
Page 79
The Asymmetry Protection System will NOT function unless it is
initiated during the first two and one half
(2~)
inches of Spoiler operation.
One last but very important item about the Asymmetry Protection System
and then we'll waltz on to something else.
Let's assume that the LEFr
IN~ARD
Spoiler operation and the others
•
TURN to Page 81.
NO
TURN to Page 82 •
DID NOT open during
DID open. Would the Asymmetry Protection
System function under this condition?
YES
Spoiler Section
From Page 77 or 78
Page 80
You're really getting the point now.
The Asymmetry Protection System
will NOT function unless it is initiated during the first two and one half
(2~)
inches of Spoiler operation •
•
One last but very important item about the Asymmetry Protection System
and then we'll waltz on to something else.
Let's assume that the LEFr INBOARD Spoiler Section
Spoiler operation and the others
DID
System function under this condition?
•
YES
TURN to Page 81.
NO
TURN to Page 82:
open.
DID NOr
open during
Would the Asymmetry Protection
From Page 79 or 80
Page 81
No, because the Asymmetry Detectors are located on the
OUTBOARD
Spoilers
only.
If an asynnnetric condition exists on the INBOARD Spoiler Sections, the
aircraft will tend to roll.
The Spoiler Position Indicator TRANSMITTERS
are located on the INBOARD Spoiler Sections.
Position Indicator will
than the other.
aZ~~
Therefore, the Spoiler
tell us if one inboard Spoiler is open more
Of course, the corrective action in this situation is
to close the Spoilers.
The next unit to discuss in this book is the EMERGENCY RETRACT/EMERGENCY
OFF Switch.
Let's FLIP OVER to Page 83 and see what it's all about.
From Page 79 or 80
Excellent!
the
Page 82
You remembered that the
asymmetry detectors are located on
OUTBOARD Spoilers only.
If an asynnnetric condition exists on the INBOARD Spoiler Sections, the
aircraft will tend to roll.
The Spoiler Position Indicator TRANSMITTERS
are located on the INBOARD Spoiler Sections.
Therefore, the Spoiler
Position Indicator will also tell us if one inboard Spoiler is open more
than the other.
Of course, the corrective action in this situation is
to close the Spoilers.
The next unit to discuss in this book is the EMERGENCY RETRACT/EMERGENCY
OFF Switch.
Let's FLIP OVER to Page 83 and see what it's all about.
From Page 81 or 82
The
~mergency ~etract/!mergency
Page 83
Qff Switch (hereafter referred to as
the EREO Switch) is used to bypass the Normal Contro l System, CLOSE the
Spoilers and DEACTIVATE the Spoi ler Sys tem in the event of a MALFUNCTION .
Look at the picture and then sele c t the cor rect statement below •
•
EMERGENCY RETRACT/
FAIERGENCY OFF SWITCH
SPOIL£f<>S
£MER PETl<ACT
NOllM
OFF
a.
The EREO Switch is located on the Pi lots' Center Instrument Panel
and has three positions marked: EMER RETRACT - NORM - EMER OFF.
TURN to Page 84.
b.
The EREO Switch i s located by the Spoiler Lever and has three
positions marked: EMER RETRACT - NORM - EMER OFF.
TURN to Page 85.
From Page 83
Page 84
You had better go back and look a gain.
EREO Switch is l ocated by the
RETURN to Page 83 •
..
.
.Notice thi s time that the
Spoi ler Lever.
From Page 83
That's it.
three positions:
Page 85
The EREO Switch i s located by the Spoiler Lever and has
EMER RETRACT - NORM - EMER OFF.
The EREO Switch is normally l e ft in the NORM position.
is a momentary position that is SPRING LOADED back to NORM.
•
EMER RETRACT
EMER RETRACT
position SIMULATES an ASYMMETRICAL CONDITION.
NO~M
£MER OFT
Since moving the EREO Swi tch to EMER RETRACT -simulates an asymmetrical
condition, is the following statement correct?
When the EREO Switch is momentarily placed to EMER RETRACT, Hydraulic
Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 drive the Spoilers CLOSED and Nr 2 SPOILER !NOP and
Nr 3 SPOILER !NOP lights illuminate.
•
YES
TURN to Page 86.
NO
TURN to Page 87 •
From Page 85 or 87
CORRECT.
Page 86
The EMER RETRACT position causes Hydraulic Systems Nr 2
and Nr 3 to drive the Spoilers CLOSED and turns on the Nr 2 SPOILER INOP
and the Nr 3 SPOILER !NOP lights.
Is this statement correct?
Since EMER RETRACT simulates an asymmetrical condition, moving the
Spoiler Lever to RESET will turn out the.SPOILER !NOP lights and Peset
the system.
•
YES
TURN to Page 88.
NO
TURN to Page 89 •
From Page 85
Page 87
,.,
Sor r y, but it 's true .
Placing the EREO Switch to EMER RETRACT will
produce the same results as an asymmetr ical condition produces.
Hydraul ic
Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 drive the Spo i lers CLOSED and the Nr 2 SPOILER INOP
and the Nr 3 SPOILER INOP lights illuminate .
TURN to Page 86 •
..
From Page 86
Page 88
Right again .
The system can be RESET and SPOILER INOP lights can be
<:!::b
extinguished by moving the Spoi ler Lever to RESET.
..
Then the system is
back in operat i on .
When the EREO Switch is placed t o
EMER OFF,
it will stay in posi tion
and the Spoilers cannot be opened.
SP01l£RS
£MER RETl<ACT
If t he Spoilers are already OPEN when the EREO Switch is placed to
EMER OFF, several events occur.
1.
2.
----
Nr 2 hydraulic pressure is shut off at the Spoiler Actuating Mechanisms.
Hydraulic System Nr 3 drives the Spoilers CLOSED and then automatically
shuts off at the Spoiler Actuating Mechanisms.
3.
('ft'J
~ ~ ~~J
Nr 2 SPOILER INOP and Nr 3 SPOILER INOP lights illuminate.
Is this statement correct?
Before the Nr 3 hydraulic PUMPS will stop operating, the Spoiler Lever
•
will have to be moved to the CLOSED position •
YES
TURN to Page 90.
NO
TURN to Page 91.
Page 89
From Page 86
Apparently you have forgotten that the system can be reset after an
asynmetrical condition has occurred by moving the Spoiler Lever to RESET.
Since EMER RETRACT simulates an asymmetrical condition and since the EREO
Switch is spPing Zoaded to NORM
in the nonnal manner.
TURN to Page 88 •
•
fro~
EMER RETRACT, the system can be RESET
From Page 88
How true.
Page 90
You recall that Hydraulic System Nr 3 will be turned ON
any time the Spoiler Lever is moved out of the CLOSED position.
off the pressure at the
entire system.
Shutting
Spoiler Actuating Mechanism does NOT shut off the
Before the Nr 3 hydraulic PUMPS can be turned OFF, the
Spoiler Lever must be placed in the CLOSED position.
Which of the following statements do you believe is correct?
1.
Before the Spoilers can be used after the EREO Switch is placed in
EMER OFF, the Spoiler Lever must be moved to RESET.
TURN to Page 92.
2.
Before the Spoilers can be used after the EREO Switch is placed in
EMER OFF, the EREO Switch must be returned to NORM and the Spoiler
Lever moved to RESET.
TURN to Page 93.
From Page 88
Page 91
I guess you must have forgotten that Hydraulic System Nr 3
wi~l
be
turned ON any time the Spoiler Lever is moved out of the CLOSED positiono
Shutting off the pressure at the Spoiler Actuating Mechanism does NOT· shut
of the encire system.
0
Before the Nr 3 hydraulic PUMPS can be turned OFF,
the Spoiler Lever must be placed in the CLOSED positiono
Which of the following statements do you believe is correct?
1.
Before the Spoilers can be used after the EREO Switch is placed in
EMER OFF, the Spoiler Lever must be moved to RESET.
TURN to Page 92.
2.
Before the Spoilers can be used after the EREO Switch is placed in
EMER OFF, the EREO Switch must be returned to NORM and the Spoiler
Lever moved to RESET.
TURN to Page 93.
Page 92
From Page 90 or 91
You're partially cqrrect.
The Spoiler Lever must be moved to RESET.
But since the EMER OFF position is
NOT spPing loaded,
it will stay in
position; therefore, the EREO Switch must be returned to NORM befoPe the
system can be RESET.
TURN to Page 94.
•
•
From Page 90 or 91
Page 93
•
Absolutely right!
stay there.
When the EREO Switch is placed to EMER OFF, it will
Before the Spoiler Lever is moved to RESET, the EREO Switch
must be moved to NORM.
TURN to Page 94.
If it is not, the sys tem can not be RESET .
Page 94
From Page 92 or 93
The last unit we will discuss in t his book is the UNDER SPLR SPEED (UNDER
SPOILER SPEED) light located on the .A nnunciator Panel-Left Side.
The UNDER
WARNS the pilot if Spoiler operation is att empted at an
SPLR SPEED light
airspeed and aircraft attitude bordering on STALL conditions.
:·!::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::w;;:: : :: : ::: :: : ::: ::: :::: : :: ::: : :: ::: ::: ::: : ::: : :: ::: : :: : :: : :: : :: : ::: : :: ::: : :: : :: : :: : :: : ::: : :: : :: : ::
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..~. .:. .=:. .:=. .=
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UNDER SPLR SPEED
,~Ul,J~
.,_.:_: _. _:·:·:·~·:·:·:·:~:. : .>:N~==
:..,.
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::::: .. .......................... '' .................................
: ::::::H:~HH:::·11
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i. ~:~:~:~r::. :I Tn!f:~~!~!n:n:: I fH~~9:~'"~~; !!!#H~~~!~~H lif~i~~!!~![I
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! : : : : : : : : : : : : '. '.
~:
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'. : '. '. : '. :.: : '. '. : : '. : :.: '. '. : : '. '. : '. : '. '. : '. '. '. '. '. : : '. : : : i : :Ti;
;..~: : : ~ ~ : '.: '. : : : : : : : : : : : : '. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ~ ~
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL- LEFT SIDE
The UNDER SPLR SPEED light will i l luminate and an Audible Warning Horn will
sound when the following conditions exis t.
2.
1.
The Spoile r Select
Switch is positioned
to FLT.
3.
The aircraft approaches a stall wa rning attitude.
The Spoiler
Lever is
LIFTED.
Do you think the UNDER SPLR SPEED l ight will illuminate and the Audible
Warning Horn sound if the above conditions were met and the Spoilers are al r eady
set to the FLT LIMIT position?
NO
TURN t o Page 95.
YES
TURN to Page 96.
From Page 94
Sure they would .
Page 95
That' s what t he system is designed to do.
If the air-
craft approaches a stall in flight with the Spoilers open, the UNDER SPLR SPEED
light and Audible Warning Horn will tell you to close t he Spo i lers.
Of course,
the Spoiler Select Switch must be set to the FLT position before the warning
s ystem will operate .
Thus, we have three (3) conditions under wh ich we should NOT open the
Spoilers in flight.
1.
Any time the wing flaps are NOT full up.
2.
Above 350 KCAS or Mach 0.75 .
3.
When approaching a stall.
TURN to Page 97.
From Page 94
Page 96
t
Excellent!
When the Spoilers are al ready open and a stall is approached,
the UNDER SPLR SPEED light will illuminate and the Audi ble Warning Horn will
sound if the Spoiler Select Swi tch i s positioned to FLT.
This notifies the
pilot to close the Spoilers.
Thus, we have three ( 3) condi tions under which we should NOT open the
Spoilers in f light .
1.
Any time the wing flaps are NOT full up.
2.
Above 350 KCAS or Mach 0.75.
3.
When approach ing a stall.
TURN to Page 97.
~
From Page 95 .or 96
Page 97
Fill in the blank spaces or circl e the correct word(s) below.
1.
The Asymmetry Protection System detects uneven (inboard) (outboard) Spoiler
operation during the first
2.
2~
inc hes of Spoiler (operation) (closing).
If only one SPOILER INOP light i l luminates, the asymmetry protection
system may not be operative.
3.
a.
Troe
b.
False
The Asymmetry Protection System will NOT detect an asymmetric condition
on the (inboard) {outboard) Spoi l er sections.
4.
The EREO Switch is used to bypass Normal Control System, close the
Spoilers and deactivate the system in the event of a
during Spoiler operation.
5.
List the three positions of the EREO Switch.
CONTINUE on Page 98.
~~~~~--~~~~-
~
From Page 97
Page 98
EMERGENCY RETRACT OPERATION
6.
EMER RETRACT, a momentary position that is spring loaded back to
NORMAL, simulates an asymmetrical condition which, in turn, causes:
a.
Hydraulic Systems Nr 2 and Nr 3 to drive the Spoilers (closed) (open).
b.
Nr 2 and Nr 3 SPOILER !NOP lights to
----------------~-
7. Moving the Spoiler Lever to RESET will turn (on) (out) the SPOILER !NOP
lights and RESET the system for operation.
EMERGENCY OFF OPERATION
8.
With the EREO Switch in EMER OFF, the Spoilers cannot be (opened) (closed).
9.
If the Spoilers are already open, placing the EREO Switch to EMER OFF
will cause:
a.
Hydraulic pressure Nr 2 to be shut off at the Spoiler (Lever)
(Actuating) Mechanisms.
b.
Hydraulic System Nr 3 to drive the Spoilers --------------- by
applying pressure to the Spoiler Actuating Mechanisms.
c.
Hydraulic System Nr 3 (pressure) (pumps) to be shut off at the
Spoiler Actuating Mechanism as soon as the Spoilers reach the
closed position.
d.
10.
Nr 2 and Nr 3 SPOILER !NOP lights to (go out) (illuminate).
The Spoiler Lever must be moved to CLOSED before the Hydraulic System
Nr 3 (pressure) (pumps) can be shut off.
CONTINUE on Page 99.
From Page 98
11.
Page 99
The EREO Switch must be returned to (OFF) (NORM) and the Spoiler Lever
moved to RESET to turn out the SPOILER INOP lights and render the
system operational.
UNDER SPOILER SPEED LIGHT
12.
The UNDER SPLR SPEED light illuminates and the Audible Warning Horn
sounds when:
a.
The Spoiler Select Switch is positioned to (FLT) (RTO).
b.
The Spoiler Lever is lifted or the Spoilers are (locked) (unlocked).
c.
The aircraft approaches a - - - - - - - - warning attitude.
CHECK your answers with those listed below and correct any errors.
~
operation
1.
outboard
2.
True
3.
inboard
4.
malfunction
5.
a.
EMER RETRACT
6.
a.
closed
7.
out
8.
opened
9.
a.
b.
pumps
11.
NORM
12.
a.
FLT
b.
closed
unlocked
TURN to Page 100.
NORM
EMER OFF
c.
illuminate
b.
Actuating
10.
b.
c.
c.
pressure
stall
d.
illuminate
From Page 99
Page 100
This completes this discussion of the Spoilers.
helpful to you in understanding how they operate.
We hope it has been
For the sake of brevity,
no circuit breakers have been mentioned, nor has the Spoiler Test Panel
been discussed.
These units will probably be included in another book.
An index is included on Page 101 for ready reference and review.
0
Page 101
PAGE(S)
Spoilers
Location, Purpose, and Sources
of Hydraulic Pressure
'
1 - 12
Spoiler Lever
Positions
Mechanical Stop
High Force Detent and Indicator Pin
High Force Detent Removal
Cable Servo Mechanism
15
33
18
21
Spoiler Select Switch Positions
31
Spoiler Position Indicator
36
25
System Operation
MAN !AND
33 - 42
44 - 49
AUTO LAND
RTO
51 - 58
59 - 70
FLT
Asymmetry Protection System
72 - 82
Emergency Retract/Emergency Off Switch
Emergency Retract Operation
Emergency Off Operation
88 - 93
Operating Limitations
Spoilers vs Wing -Flaps.
Spoilers vs Airspeed
Under Spoiler Speed
39
94 - 96
Warning Units
High Force Detent and Indicator Pin
GROUND Light
ARMED Light (AUTO LAND Operation)
ARMED Light (RTO Operation)
Nr 2 and Nr 3 SPOILER !NOP Lights
Operation During:
Asymmetry Protection
Emergency Retract
Emergency Off
UNDER SPLR SPEED Light
Audible Warning Hom
83 - 87
25
18 - 21
33
53
63
72
85
88
94 - 96
94
6
lo~
r
'
l_
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