1-100 Transistor circuits

1-100 Transistor circuits
save on your computer as .pdf:
1-100 Transistor circuits.pdf
Go to: 101 - 200 Transistor Circuits
Go to: 100 IC Circuits
email Colin Mitchell: [email protected]
This e-book contains 100 transistor circuits. The second part of this e-book will contain a further
100 circuits.
Most of them can be made with components from your "junk box" and hopefully you can put
them together in less than an hour.
The idea of this book is to get you into the fun of putting things together and there's nothing
more rewarding than seeing something work.
It's amazing what you can do with a few transistors and some additional components. And this
is the place to start.
Most of the circuits are "stand-alone" and produce a result with as little as 5 parts.
We have even provided a simple way to produce your own speaker transformer by winding turns
on a piece of ferrite rod. Many components can be obtained from transistor radios, toys and
other pieces of discarded equipment you will find all over the place.
To save space we have not provided lengthy explanations of how the circuits work. This has
already been covered in TALKING ELECTRONICS Basic Electronics Course, and can be obtained on
a CD for $10.00 (posted to anywhere in the world) See Talking Electronics website for more
details: http://www.talkingelectronics.com
Transistor data is at the bottom of this page and a transistor tester circuit is also provided.
There are lots of categories and I am sure many of the circuits will be new to you, because
some of them have been designed recently by me.
Basically there are two types of transistor: PNP and NPN.
We have labelled the NPN transistor as BC547. This means you can use ANY NPN transistor, such
as 2N2222, BC108, 2N3704, BC337 and hundreds of others. Some circuits use TUN for Transistor
Universal NPN and this is the same as our reasoning - the transistor-type is just to let you know
it is not critical.
BC557 can be replaced by: 2N3906, BC327 and many others.
Don't worry too much about the transistor-type. Just make sure it is NPN, it this is the type
If it is an unknown transistor-type, you need to identify the leads then put it in the circuit.
You have a choice of building a circuit "in the air," or using an experimenter board (solderless
breadboard) or a matrix board or even a homemade printed circuit board. The choice is up to
you but the idea is to keep the cost to a minimum - so don't buy anything expensive.
If you take parts from old equipment it will be best to solder them together "in the air" (as they
will not be suitable for placing on a solderless breadboard as the leads will be bent and very
This way they can be re-used again and again.
No matter what you do, I know you will be keen to hear some of the "noisy" circuits in
Before you start, the home-made Speaker Transformer project and Transistor Tester are the
first things you should look at.
If you are starting in electronics, see the World's Simplest Circuit. It shows how a transistor
works and three transistors in the 8 Million Gain project will detect microscopic levels of static
electricity! You can look through the Index but the names of the projects don't give you a full
description of what they do. You need to look at the circuits. And I am sure you will.
Talking Electronics supplies a kit of parts that can be used to build the majority of the circuits in
this book.
The kit costs $15.00 plus postage.
Kit for Transistor Circuits $15.00
A kit of components to make many of the circuits presented in this
eBook is available for $15.00 plus $7.00 post.
Or email Colin Mitchell: [email protected]
The kit contains the following components:
(plus extra 30 resistors and 10 capacitors for
experimenting), plus:
3 - 47R
5 - 220R
5 - 470R
5 - 1k
5 - 4k7
5 - 10k
2 - 33k
4- 100k
4 - 1M
1 - 10k mini pot
1 - 100k mini pot
2 - 10n
2 - 100n
5 - 10u electrolytics
5- 100u electrolytics
5 - 1N4148 signal diodes
6 - BC547 transistors - NPN - 100mA
2 - BC557 transistors - PNP - 100mA
1 - BC338 transistor - NPN - 800mA
3 - BD679 Darlington transistors - NPN - 4amp
5 - red LEDs
5 - green LEDs
5 - orange LEDs
2 - super-bright WHITE LEDs - 20,000mcd
1 - 3mm or 5mm flashing LED
1 - mini 8R speaker
1 - mini piezo
1 - LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)
1 - electret microphone
1m - 0.25mm wire
1m - 0.5mm wire
1 - 10mH inductor
1 - push button
5 - tactile push buttons
1 - Experimenter Board (will take 8, 14 and 16 pin chips)
5 - mini Matrix Boards: 7 x 11 hole,
11 x 15 hole, 6 x 40 hole, surface-mount 6 x 40 hole board or others.
Photo of kit of components.
Each batch is slightly different:
There are more components than you think. . . plus an extra bag of
approx 30 components. The 8 little components are switches and the
LDR and flashing LED is hiding.
In many cases, a resistor or capacitor not in the kit, can be created by
putting two resistors or capacitors in series or parallel or the next higher
or lower value can be used.
Don't think transistor technology is obsolete. Many complex circuits have one or more transistors
to act as buffers, amplifiers or to connect one block to another. It is absolutely essential to
understand this area of electronics if you want to carry out design-work or build a simple circuit to
carry out a task.
We also have an eBook: THE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER with over 100 different transistor circuits
. . . proving the transistor can be connected in so many ways.
Read the full article HERE (the Transistor Amplifier eBook)
The first thing you will want to know is: HOW DOES A TRANSISTOR WORK?
Diagram "A" shows an NPN transistor with the legs covering the symbol showing the name for
each lead.
The transistor is a "general purpose" type and and is the smallest and cheapest type you can get.
The number on the transistor will change according to the country where the circuit was designed
but the types we refer to are all the SAME.
Diagram "B" shows two different "general purpose" transistors and the different pinouts. You
need to refer to data sheets or test the transistor to find the correct pinout.
Diagram "C" shows the equivalent of a transistor as a water valve. As more current (water) enters
the base, more water flows from the collector to the emitter.
Diagram "D" shows the transistor connected to the power rails. The collector connects to a
resistor called a LOAD and the emitter connects to the 0v rail or earth or "ground."
Diagram "E" shows the transistor in SELF BIAS mode. This is called a COMMON EMITTER
stage and the resistance of the BASE BIAS RESISTOR is selected so the voltage on the collector
is half-rail voltage. In this case it is 2.5v.
To keep the theory simple, here's how you do it. Use 22k as the load resistance.
Select the base bias resistor until the measured voltage on the collector 2.5v. The base bias will
be about 2M2.
This is how the transistor reacts to the base bias resistor:
The base bias resistor feeds a small current into the base and this makes the transistor turn on
and create a current-flow though the collector-emitter leads.
This causes the same current to flow through the load resistor and a voltage-drop is created
across this resistor. This lowers the voltage on the collector.
The lower voltage causes a lower current to flow into the base and the transistor stops turning on
a slight amount. The transistor very quickly settles down to allowing a certain current to flow
through the collector-emitter and produce a voltage at the collector that is just sufficient to allow
the right amount of current to enter the base.
Diagram "F" shows the transistor being turned on via a finger. Press hard on the two wires and
the LED will illuminate brighter. As you press harder, the resistance of your finger decreases. This
allows more current to flow into the base and the transistor turns on harder.
Diagram "G" shows a second transistor to "amplify the effect of your finger" and the LED
illuminates about 100 times brighter.
Diagram "H" shows the effect of putting a capacitor on the base lead. The capacitor must be
uncharged and when you apply pressure, the LED will flash brightly then go off. This is because
the capacitor gets charged when you touch the wires. As soon as it is charged NO MORE
CURRENT flows though it. The first transistor stops receiving current and the circuit does not keep
the LED illuminated. To get the circuit to work again, the capacitor must be discharged. This is a
simple concept of how a capacitor works. A large-value capacitor will keep the LED illuminated for
a longer period of time.
Diagram "I" shows the effect of putting a capacitor on the output. It must be uncharged for this
effect to work. We know from Diagram G that the circuit will stay on when the wires are touched
but when a capacitor is placed in the output, it gets charged when the circuit turns ON and only
allows the LED to flash.
1. This is a simple explanation of how a transistor works. It amplifies the current going into the
base about 100 times and the higher current flowing through the collector-emitter leads will
illuminate a LED.
2. A capacitor allows current to flow through it until it gets charged. It must be discharged to see
the effect again.
Read the full article HERE
You can change the voltage of many circuits from 6v to
12v or 3v to 6v without altering any of the values. I can
see instantly if this is possible due to the value of the
components and here's how I do it:
Look at the value of the resistors driving the load(s).
Work out the current entering each load and see if it is
less than the maximum allowable.
Then, take a current reading on the lower voltage.
Increase the voltage to the higher value and take
another reading.
In most cases the current will increase to double the
value (or a little higher than twice the original value).
If it is over 250% higher, you need to feel each of the
components and see if any are getting excessively hot.
If any LEDs are taking excessive current, double the
value of the current-limiting resistor.
If any transistor is getting hot, increase the value of the
load resistor.
In most cases, when the voltage is doubled, the current
will will crease to double the original. This means the
circuit will consume 4 times the original energy.
This is just a broad suggestion to answer the hundreds
of emails I get on this topic.
circuits in red are in 101-200 Circuits
Note: All circuits use 1/4 watt resistors unless specified on the diagram.
Adjustable High Current Power
Aerial Amplifier
Alarm Using 4 buttons
Amazing LED Flasher - for Bikes
Ammeter 0-1A
Amplifier uses speaker as
AM Radio - 5 Transistor
Amplifying a Digital Signal
Arc Welder Simulator for Model
Audio Amplifier (mini)
Automatic Battery Charger
Automatic Bathroom Light
Automatic Garden Light
Automatic Light - see also Night Light
Automatic PIR LED Light
Automatic Solar Light
Battery Capacity
Battery Charger - 12v Automatic
Battery Charger MkII - 12v trickle
Battery-Low Beeper
Battery Monitor MkI
Battery Monitor MkII
Bench Power Supply
Bike Flasher Bike Flasher - amazing
Bike Turning Signal
Beacon (Warning Beacon 12v)
Beeper Bug
Blocking Oscillator
Blown Fuse Indicator
Book Light
Boom Gate Lights
Bootstrap Amplifier
Breakdown Beacon
Bright Flash from Flat Battery
Buck Converter for LEDs 48mA
Buck Converter for LEDs 170mA
Buck Converter for LEDs 210mA
Buck Converter for LEDs 250mA
Buck Converter for 3watt LED
Buck Regulator 12v to 5v
Microphone Pre-amplifier
Mobile Phone Alert-2
Model Railway Point Motor Driver
Model Railway time
Motor Speed Controller
Motor Speed Control (simple)
Movement Detector
Multimeter - Voltage of Bench Supply
Music On Hold
Music to Colour
Nail Finder
NiCd Charger
Night Light - see also Automatic Light
On-Off via push Buttons
OP-AMP -using 3 transistors
Passage PIR LED Light
Phaser Gun
Phase-Shift Oscillator - good design
Phone Alert
Phone Alert-2 (for mobile phone)
Phone Bug
Phone Tape-1
Phone Tape-2
Phone Tape-3
Phone Tape-4 - using FETs
Phone Transmitter-1
Phone Transmitter-2
Phone Transmitter-3
Phone Transmitter-4
Phase-shift Oscillator
Plant Needs Watering
PIC Programmer Circuits 1,2 3
Piezo Buzzer - how it works
PIR Detector
Point Motor Driver
Powering a LED
Power ON
Power Supplies - Fixed
Power Supplies - Adjustable LMxx
Power Supplies - Adjustable 78xx
Power Supplies - Adjustable from 0v
Power Supply - Inductively Coupled
Cable Tracer
Camera Activator
Capacitor Discharge Unit MkII (CDU2)
Capacitor Tester
Car Detector (loop Detector)
Car Light Extender MkII
Car Light Alert
CFL Driver (Compact Fluorescent) 5w
Charge-current without a multimeter
Chaser 3 LED 5 LED Chaser using
Charger - NiCd
Charging Battery via Solar Panel
Chip Programmer (PIC) Circuits 1,2 3
Circuit Symbols Complete list of
Clock - Make Time Fly
Clap Switch - see also VOX
Clap Switch - turns LED on for 15
Code Lock
Code Pad
Coin Counter
Colour Code for Resistors - all
Colpitts Oscillator
Combo-2 - Transistor tester
Constant Current
Constant Current Drives two 3-watt
Constant Current for 12v car
Constant Current Source Cct 2 Cct 4
Constant Current 1.5amp
Continuity Tester
Courtesy Light Extender for Cars MkII
Crossing Lights
Crystal Tester
Dancing Flower
Dancing Flower with Speed Control
Dark Detector for Project
Dark Detector with beep Alarm
Darlington Transistor
Decaying Flasher
Delay Before LED turns ON
Delay Turn-off - turns off circuit after
Power Zener
Project can turn ON when DARK
Push-On Push OFF
PWM Controller
Quiz Timer
Radio - AM - 5 Transistor
Railway time
Random Blinking LEDs
Rechargeable Battery Capacity
Rectifying a Voltage
Relay Chatter
Relay OFF Delay
Relay Protection
Resistor Colour Code
Resistor Colour Code - 4, 5 and 6
Reversing a Motor
Robo Roller
Robot Man - Multivibrator
Safe 240v Supply
Schmitt Trigger
SCR with Transistors
Second Simplest Circuit
Shake Tic Tac LED Torch
Signal by-pass
Signal Injector
Simple Flasher
Simple Logic Probe
Simple Touch-ON Touch-OFF Switch
Simplest Transistor Tester
Soft Start power supply
Solar Engine
Solar Engine Type-3
Solar Light - Automatic
Solar Panel - charging a battery
Solar Photovore
Sound to Light
Sound Triggered LED
Speaker Transformer
Speed Control - Motor
Spy Amplifier
Strength Tester
"Divide-by" Circuit
Door-Knob Alarm
Driving a LED
Drive 20 LEDs
Dynamic Microphone Amplifier
Dynamo Voltage Doubler
Electronic Drums
Electronic Filter
Emergency Light
Fading LED
Ferret Finder
FET Chaser
Field Strength Meter for 27MHz
Flasher (simple)
Flashing 2 LEDs
Flash from Flat Battery
Flashing Beacon (12v Warning Beacon)
Flashing LED - See Flasher Circuits on
see: 3 more in: 1-100
see Bright Flash from Flat
see Flashing 2 LEDs
see LED Driver 1.5v White
see LED Flasher
see LED Flasher 1-Transistor
see LEDs Flash for 5 secs
see White LED Flasher
see Dual 3v White LED
see Dual 1v5 White LED
see 1.5v LED Driver
see 1.5v LEDFlasher
see 3v White LED flasher
Flashing tail-light (indicator)
Fluorescent Inverter for 12v supply
FM Transmitters - 11 circuits
Fog Horn
FRED Photopopper
Fridge Alarm
Fuse Inidicator
Gold Detector
Sun Eater-1
Sun Eater-1A
Super Ear
Super-Alpha Pair (Darlington
Supply Voltage Monitor
Switch Debouncer
Sziklai transistor
Telephone amplifier
Telephone Bug see also Transmitter1 -2
Telephone Taping - see Phone Tape
Testing A Transistor
Ticking Bomb
Time Delay Circuits
Toggle a Push Button using 2 relays
Toggle A Relay
Toroid - using a toroid Inductor
Touch Switch
Touch-ON Touch-OFF Switch
Touch Switch Circuits
Tracking Transmitter
Track Polarity - model railway
Train Detectors
Train Throttle
Transformerless Power Supply
Transistor Amplifier
Transistor Pinouts
Transistor tester - Combo-2
Transistor Tester-1
Transistor Tester-2
Transistor and LED Tester - 3
Transistor and Capacitor Tester- 4
Trickle Charger 12v
Turn Indicator Alarm
Vehicle Detector loop Detector
VHF Aerial Amplifier
Vibrating VU Indicator
Voice Controlled Switch - see VOX
Voltage Doubler
Voltage Multipliers
VOX - see The Transistor Amplifier
Voyager - FM Bug
Wailing Siren
Walkie Talkie
Guitar Fuzz
Hartley Oscillator
Hex Bug
Headlight Extender & see Light
Extender Cars
Heads or Tails
Hearing Aid Constant Volume
Hearing Aid Push-Pull Output
Hearing Aid 1.5v Supply
Hee Haw Siren
High Current from old cells
High Current Power Supply
High-Low Voltage Cutout
IR LED Driver
IC Radio
Increasing the output current
Increasing the Voltage - see above
Inductively Coupled Power Supply
Latching A Push Button
Latching Relay Toggle A Relay Toggle
LED Detects Light
LED Detects light
LED Driver 1.5v White LED
LED Driver for 12v car IR LED Driver
LED Flasher - and see 3 more in this
LED Flasher 1-Transistor
LED and Transistor Tester
LED Flashes 3 times when power
LED 1-watt
LED 1.5 watt
LED Fader
LED flasher 3v White LED
LEDs for 12v car
LEDs on 240v
LED Strip - passage Light
LED Torch
LED Torch with Adj Brightness
LED Torch with 1.5v Supply
LED Turning Flasher
Lie Detector
Walkie Talkie with LM386
Walkie Talkie - 5 Tr - circuit 1
Walkie Talkie - 5 Tr- circuit 2
Warning Beacon
Water Level Detector
Worlds Simplest Circuit
White LED Flasher
White LED Flasher - 3v
White LED with Adj Brightness
White Line Follower
White Noise Generator
Xtal Tester
Zapper - 160v
Zener Diode (making)
Zener Diode Tester
0-1A Ammeter
1 watt LED - a very good design
1-watt LED - make your own
1.5 watt LED
1.5v to 10v Inverter
1.5v LED Flasher
1.5v White LED Driver
3-Phase Generator
3v White LED flasher
3 watt LED Buck Converter for
3v3 from 5v Supply
5v from old cells - circuit1
5v from old cells - circuit2
5v Regulated Supply from 3v
5 LED Chaser
5 Transistor Radio
6 to 12 watt Fluoro Inverter
8 Million Gain
9v Supply from 3v
10 LEDs on 9v
10 Second Delay
12v Battery Charger - Automatic
12v Flashing Beacon (Warning
12v Relay on 6v
12v Trickle Charger
12v to 5v Buck Converter
12v Supply
18 LEDs using a 3.7v Li-Ion CELL
20 LEDs on 12v supply
20watt Fluoro Inverter
Light Alarm-1
Light Alarm-2
Light Alarm-3
Light Extender for Cars
Limit Switches
Listener - phone amplifier
Logic Probe - Simple - Simple with
Logic Probe with Pulse
Low fuel Indicator
Low Mains Drop-out
Low Voltage cut-out
Low-High Voltage Cutout
Low Voltage Flasher
Mains Detector
Mains Hum Detector
Mains Night Light
Make any capacitor value
Make any resistor value
Make Time Fly!
Make you own 1watt LED
Making 0-1A Ammeter
Mains Night Light
Make any capacitor value
Make any resistor value
Metal Detector Metal Detector MkII
Metal Detector - Nail Finder
20 LEDs on 12v supply
24v to 12v for charging
27MHz Door Phone
27MHz Field Strength Meter
27MHz Transmitter
27MHz Transmitter - no Xtal
27MHz Transmitter-Sq Wave
27MHz Transmitter-2 Ch
27MHz Transmitter-4 Ch
27MHz Receiver
27MHz Receiver-2
240v Detector
240v - LEDs
303MHz Transmitter
When working on any project that connects to the "mains," it
is important to take all precautions to prevent electrocution.
This project provides 240v AC but the current it limited to
60mA if a 15 watt transformer is used. Although the output
can produce a nasty shock and the voltage will kill you, the
circuit provides isolation from the mains and if a short-circuit
occurs, it will not blow a fuse, but the transformers will get
very hot as start to buzz.
You can use any two identical transformers and the wattage
of either transformer will determine the maximum output
If you don't use identical transformers, the output voltage will
be higher or lower than the "mains" voltage and the wattage
will be determined by the smaller transformer.
This arrangement is not perfectly safe, but is the best you can
get when working on projects such as switch-mode power
supplies, capacitor-fed down-lights etc.
This simple circuit tests the capacity of a rechargeable cell.
Connect a 4R7 (yellow-purple-gold-gold) resistor across the
terminals of a clock mechanism and fit a fully charged
rechargeable cell. Set the hands to 12 O'Clock and the clock
will let you know how long the cell lasted until the voltage
reached about 0.8v.
Now fit another cell and see how long it lasts. You cannot
work out the exact capacity of a cell but you can compare one
cell with another. The initial current is about 250mA for a 1.2v
This circuit indicates when a fuse is
This circuit indicates when the soil is dry and the plant needs watering.
The circuit does not have a current-limiting resistor because the base
resistor is very high and the current through the transistor is only 2mA. Don't
change the supply voltage or the 220k as these two values are correct for
this circuit.
This will clear-up a lot of mysteries of the solar panel.
Many solar panels produce 16v - 18v when lightly loaded, while other
12v solar panels will not charge a 12v battery.
Some panels say "nominal voltage," some do not give any value other
than 6v or 12v, and some specify the wrong voltage. You can't work
with vague specifications. You need to know accurate details to
charge a battery from a solar panel.
There are 3 things you have to know before buying a panel or
connecting a panel to a battery.
2. The voltage of the panel when delivering the rated current. Called
1. The Unloaded Voltage is the voltage produced by the panel when
it is lightly loaded. This voltage is very important because a 12v
battery will produce a "floating voltage" of about 15v when it is fully
charged and it will gradually rise to this voltage during the charging
period. This means the panel must be able to deliver more than 15v so
it will charge a 12v battery.
Sometimes there is a diode and a charging circuit between the panel
and battery and these devices will drop a small voltage, so the panel
must produce a voltage high enough to allow for them.
The Unloaded Voltage can sometimes be determined by counting the
number of cells on the panel as each cell will produce 0.6v.
If you cannot see the individual cells, use a multimeter to read the
voltage under good illumination and watch the voltage rise. You can
place a 100 ohm resistor across the panel to take readings.
2. The RATED VOLTAGE is the guaranteed voltage the panel will
deliver when full current is flowing. This can also be called the
Nominal Voltage, however don't take anything for certain. Take
readings of your own. The Rated Voltage (and current ) is produced
when the panel receives bright sunlight. This may occur for only a
very small portion of the day.
You can clearly see the 11 cells of this panel and it produces 6.6v
when lightly loaded. It will barely produce 6v when loaded and this is
NOT ENOUGH to charge a 6v battery.
This panel claims to be 18v, but it clearly only produces 14.4v. This is
not suitable for charging a 12v battery. When you add a protection
diode, the output voltage will be 13.8v. A flat battery being charged
will reach 13.8v very quickly and it will not be charged any further.
That's why the output voltage of a panel is so important.
This is a genuine 18v panel:
The panel
needs to
17v to 18v
so it will
have a
when the
14.4v and
it will still
be able to
energy into
the battery
3. The Rated Current is the maximum current the panel will produce when
receiving full sunlight.
The current of a panel can be worked out by knowing the wattage and
dividing by the unloaded voltage.
A 20 watt 18v panel will deliver about 1 amp.
A solar panel can be used to directly charge a battery without any other
components. Simply connect the panel to the battery and it will charge when
the panel receives bright sunlight - providing the panel produces a voltage
least 30% to 50% more than the battery you are charging.
Here's some amazing facts:
The voltage of the panel does not matter and the voltage of the battery
does not matter. You can connect any panel to any battery - providing
the panel produces a voltage least 30% to 50% more than the battery you
are charging.
The output voltage of the panel will simply adapt to the voltage of the
battery. Even though there is a voltage mismatch, there is NO "lost" or
wasted energy. An 18v panel "drives into" a 12v battery with the maximum
current it can produce when the intensity of the sun is a maximum.
To prevent too-much mismatch, it is suggested you keep the panel voltage
to within 150% of the battery voltage. (6v battery - 9v max panel, 12v
battery - 18v max panel, 24v battery - 36v max panel).
But here's the important point: To prevent overcharging the battery, the
wattage of the panel is important.
If the wattage of an 18v panel is 6watts, the current is 6/18 = 0.33 amps =
To prevent overcharging a battery, the charging current should not be more
than one-tenth its amp-hr capacity.
For instance, a 2,000mAhr set of cells should not be charged at a rate
higher than 200mA for 14 hours. This is called its 14-hour rate.
But this rating is a CONSTANT RATING and since a solar panel produces
an output for about 8 hours per day, you can increase the charging current
to 330mA for 8 hours. This will deliver the energy to fully charge the cells.
That's why a 6 watt panel can be directly connected to a set of (nearly fully
discharged) 2,000mAhr cells.
For a 12v 1.2AHr battery, the charging current will be 100mA for 12 hours or
330mA for 4 hours and a regulator circuit will be needed to prevent
For a 12v 4.5AHr battery, the charging current will be 375mA for 12 hours
and a larger panel will be needed.
Some solar panels will discharge the battery (a small amount) when it is not
receiving sunlight and a diode can be added to prevent discharge. This
diode drops 0.6v when the panel is operating and will reduce the maximum
current (slightly) when the panel is charging the battery. If the diode is
Schottky, the voltage-drop is 0.35v.
Some panels include this diode - called a BYPASS DIODE.
There are two ways to prevent overcharging the battery.
1. Discharge the battery nearly fully each night and use a panel that will only
deliver 120% of the amp-hour capacity of the battery the following day.
Here is the simplest and cheapest regulator to charge a 12v battery.
Full details of how the circuit works and setting up the circuit is HERE.
The solar panel must be able to produce at least 16v on NO LOAD. (25-28
cells). The diagram only shows a 24 cell panel - it should be 28 cells.
The only other thing you have to consider is the wattage of the panel. This
will depend on how fast you want to charge the battery and/or how much
energy you remove from the battery each day and/or the amp-Hr capacity of
the battery.
For instance, a 12v 1.2A-Hr battery contains 14watt-hours of energy. An
6watt panel (16v to 18v) will deliver 18watt-hours (in bright sunlight) in 3
hours. The battery will be fully charged in 3 hours.
The pot is adjusted so the relay drops-out at 13.7v
The charger will turn ON when the voltage drops to about 12.5v.
The 100R Dummy LOAD will absorb 3.25 watts and that is the
maximum wattage the panel will produce with 100R load.
Here is a very clever circuit to find the charging current, if you don't have a
Connect a 22R 0.25 watt resistor in series with the battery and hold your
finger on the resistor. The resistor will get very hot if 100mA or more is
This resistor will indicate ONE WATT of energy is flowing into the battery,
but we are using a 0.25 watt resistor to measure the heat as this represents
"LOST ENERGY" and we want to keep the losses to a minimum.
To get some idea of 0.25watt of heat, place a 560R 0.25watt resistor across
the terminals of a battery.
This is 250mW of heat and is your reference.
A 1.2A-Hr 12 volt battery has 14 watts of energy and if you are charging at
ONE WATT, it will take about 16 hours to fully charge the battery.
This circuit can be used when charging a battery from your car, from a solar
panel, a battery charger or a pulsed solar-charging circuit. It is also a
SAFETY CIRCUIT as it will limit the current to 100mA. If the current is
higher than 130mA, the resistor will hot and start to smell.
Note: when the 22R is removed, the current flowing into the battery WILL
The increase may be only 10% from some chargers, but can be as high as
100% OR MORE if the battery is connected to the cigarette lighter plug in
your car.
This circuit will turn off the relay when the voltage is above
or below the "set-points.";
You need either a variable power supply or a 12v battery
and an extra 1.5v battery.
Turn the LOW voltage cutout trim pot to mid way and
connect the 13.5v supply. Turn the HIGH voltage trim pot to
the high end and the relay will turn off.
Now turn the 1.5v battery around the other way and adjust
the LOW voltage trim pot to the 10.5v supply.
See resistors from 0.22ohm to 22M in full colour at bottom of this page and another
resistor table
The first thing you may want to do is test an unknown transistor for
COLLECTOR, BASE AND EMITTER. You also need to know if it is NPN or PNP.
You need a cheap multimeter called an ANALOGUE METER - a multimeter with
a scale and pointer (needle).
It will measure resistance values (normally used to test resistors) - (you can also
test other components) and Voltage and Current. We use the resistance settings.
It may have ranges such as "x10" "x100" "x1k" "x10"
Look at the resistance scale on the meter. It will be the top scale.
The scale starts at zero on the right and the high values are on the left. This is
opposite to all the other scales. .
When the two probes are touched together, the needle swings FULL SCALE and
reads "ZERO." Adjust the pot on the side of the meter to make the pointer read
exactly zero.
How to read: "x10" "x100" "x1k" "x10"
Up-scale from the zero mark is "1"
When the needle swings to this position on the "x10" setting, the value is 10
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x100" setting, the value is 100 ohms.
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x1k" setting, the value is 1,000 ohms =
When the needle swings to "1" on the "x10k" setting, the value is 10,000 ohms =
Use this to work out all the other values on the scale.
Resistance values get very close-together (and very inaccurate) at the high end
of the scale. [This is just a point to note and does not affect testing a transistor.]
Step 1 - FINDING THE BASE and determining NPN or PNP
Get an unknown transistor and test it with a multimeter set to "x10"
Try the 6 combinations and when you have the black probe on a pin and the red
probe touches the other pins and the meter swings nearly full scale, you have an
NPN transistor. The black probe is BASE
If the red probe touches a pin and the black probe produces a swing on the other
two pins, you have a PNP transistor. The red probe is BASE
If the needle swings FULL SCALE or if it swings for more than 2 readings,
the transistor is FAULTY.
Set the meter to "x10k."
For an NPN transistor, place the leads on the transistor and when you press hard
on the two leads shown in the diagram below, the needle will swing almost full
For a PNP transistor, set the meter to "x10k" place the leads on the transistor
and when you press hard on the two leads shown in the diagram below, the
needle will swing almost full scale.
The simplest transistor tester uses a 9v battery, 1k resistor and a LED (any
colour). Keep trying a transistor in all different combinations until you get one of
the circuits below. When you push on the two leads, the LED will get brighter.
The transistor will be NPN or PNP and the leads will be identified:
The leads of some transistors will need to be bent so the pins are in the same
positions as shown in the diagrams. This helps you see how the transistor is
being turned on. This works with NPN, PNP and Darlington transistors.
Transistor Tester - 1 project will test all types of transistors including
Darlington and power. The circuit is set to test NPN types. To test PNP
types, connect the 9v battery around the other way at points A and B.
The transformer in the photo is a 10mH choke with 150 turns of 0.01mm
wire wound over the 10mH winding. The two original pins (with the red and
black leads) go to the primary winding and the fine wires are called the
Connect the transformer either way in the circuit and if it does not work,
reverse either the primary or secondary (but not both).
Almost any transformer will work and any speaker will be suitable.
If you use the speaker transformer described in the Home Made Speaker
Transformer article, use one-side of the primary.
The 10mH choke with 150
turns for the secondary
Here is another transistor tester.
This is basically a high gain amplifier
with feedback that causes the LED to
flash at a rate determined by the 10u
and 330k resistor.
Remove one of the transistors and insert
the unknown transistor. When it is NPN
with the pins as shown in the photo, the
LED will flash. To turn the unit off,
remove one of the transistors.
Here is another transistor tester. And it also tests LEDs. See the full project:
Transistor Tester
This circuit is basically a Joule Thief design with the coil (actually a transformer)
increasing the 1.5v supply to a higher voltage to illuminate one or two LEDs in
series. The "LED Test" terminals uses the full voltage produced by the circuit and
it will test any colour LED including a white LED. The two "coils" are wound on a
10mm dia pen with 0.1mm wire (very fine wire). All the components fit on a small
PC board. A kit of parts for the project is a available from Talking Electronics for
$4.00 plus $3.00 postage.
This circuit will test transistors and electrolytic capacitors from 1u to 220u
for leakage, open, shorts and approx capacitance.
Build the circuit on a strip of PC board as shown in Transistor Tester-2 so
the transistors can be replaced with a suspect transistor and an electrolytic
can be fitted in place of the link for the capacitor.
When an electrolytic is fitted to the circuit, it will produce a wailing and
eventually stop. If the tone continues, the electrolytic is leaky.
If the tone is not produced, the electrolytic is open. If the tone does not
change, the electrolytic is shorted.
This is the simplest circuit you can get. Any NPN transistor can
be used.
Connect the LED, 220 ohm resistor and transistor as shown in
the photo.
Touch the top point with two fingers of one hand and the lower
point with
fingers of the other hand and squeeze.
The LED will turn on brighter when you squeeze harder.
Your body has resistance and when a voltage is present, current
will flow though your body (fingers). The transistor is amplifying
the current through your fingers about 200 times and this is
enough to illuminate the LED.
This the second simplest circuit in the
world. A second transistor has been
added in place of your fingers. This
transistor has a gain of about 200 and
when you touch the points shown on the
diagram, the LED will illuminate with the
slightest touch. The transistor has
amplified the current (through your
fingers) about 200 times.
This circuit is so sensitive it will detect "mains hum."
Simply move it across any wall and it will detect
where the mains cable is located. It has a gain of
about 200 x 200 x 200 = 8,000,000 and will also
detect static electricity and the presence of your hand
without any direct contact. You will be amazed what it
detects! There is static electricity EVERYWHERE!
The input of this circuit is classified as very high
Here is a photo of the circuit, produced by a
constructor, where he claimed he detected "ghosts."
This simple circuit will detect if a cable is carrying the "Mains." The piezo
diaphragm is will let you hear the hum: Do not touch the copper wire. Only
place the detector near the plastic covering. It will work at 2cm from the
The diagrams show that a North Pole will
be produced when the positive of a
battery is connected to wire wound in the
direction shown. This is Flemmings Right
Hand Rule and applies to motors,
solenoids and coils and anything wound
like the turns in the diagram.
One of the most difficult things to find is
a box for a project. Look in your local
"junk" shop, $2.00 shop, fishing shop,
and toy shop. And in the medical
section, for handy boxes. It's surprising
where you will find an ideal box.
The photo shows a suitable box for a
Logic Probe or other design. It is a
toothbrush box. The egg shaped box
holds "Tic Tac" mouth sweeteners and
the two worm reduction twists a
"Chuppa Chub." It cost less than $4.00
and the equivalent reduction in a hobby
shop costs up to $16.00!
A two-worm reduction gearbox producing a reduction of
12:1 and 12:1 = 144:1 The gears are in the correct
positions to produce the reduction.
The speaker transformer is made
by winding 50 turns of 0.25mm wire on a
small length of 10mm dia ferrite rod.
The size and length of the rod does not
matter - it is just the number of turns that
makes the transformer work. This is
called the secondary winding.
The primary winding is made by winding
300 turns of 0.1mm wire (this is very fine
wire) over the secondary and ending with
a loop of wire we call the centre tap.
Wind another 300 turns and this
completes the transformer.
It does not matter which end of the
secondary is connected to the top of the
It does not matter which end of the
primary is connected to the collector of
the transistor in the circuits in this book.
This circuit is a very
sensitive 3-transistor
amplifier using a
speaker transformer.
This can be wound
on a short length of
ferrite rod as show
above or 150 turns on
a 10mH choke. The
biasing of the middle
transistor is set for 3v
supply. The second
and third transistors
are not turned on
during idle conditions
and the quiescent current is just 5mA.
The project is ideal for listening to conversations
or TV etc in another room with long leads
connecting the microphone to the amplifier.
The circuit uses a flashing
LED to flash a super-bright
20,000mcd white LED
This is a novel flasher circuit using a single driver transistor
that takes its flash-rate
from a flashing LED. The
flasher in the photo is
3mm. An ordinary LED
will not work.
The flash rate cannot be
altered by the brightness
of the high-bright white
LED can be adjusted by
altering the 1k resistor
across the 100u
electrolytic to 4k7 or 10k.
The 1k resistor discharges the 100u so that when the
transistor turns on, the charging current into the 100u
illuminates the white LED.
If a 10k discharge resistor is used, the 100u is not fully
discharged and the LED does not flash as bright.
All the parts in the photo are in the same places as in the
circuit diagram to make it easy to see how the parts are
Arc Welder Simulator for Model Railways
This very simple circuit replaces a very complex circuit (one of our previous projects)
because all the random flashing is done via a microscopic microcontroller inside the
flickering LED.
These LEDs can be purchased on eBay and you can contact Colin Mitchell for the link.
The super-bright white LED flashes much more than the flickering LED because the
transistor and the 1u electrolytic picks up the pulses (the waveform) across the 470R
resistor and only the main changes in the signal are transferred to the white LED. The 10k
is very important as it discharges the 1u to help produce the OFF portion of the waveform.
These two circuits will flash a LED very bright and consume less than 2mA average current.
Both circuits can use a transistor with a larger current capability for the second transistor.
The first circuit needs a PNP transistor and the second circuit needs an NPN transistor if a
number of LEDs need to be driven. The second circuit is the basis for a simple motor speed
See the note on how the 330k works, in Flashing Two LEDs below.
These two circuits will flash two LEDs very bright and consume less than 2mA average
current. They require 6v supply. The 330k may need to be 470k to produce flashing on 6v as
330k turns on the first transistor too much and the 10u does not turn the first transistor off a
small amount when it becomes fully charged and thus cycling is not produced.
1.5v LED
Here is my circuit copied by Eleccircuit.com:
This will flash a
LED, using a
single 1.5v cell.
It may even flash
a white LED
even though this
type of LED
needs about
3.2v to 3.6v for
The circuit takes
about 2mA but
produces a very
bright flash.
My circuit has
been copied by
but my layout
makes it much
easier to see
how the circuit
LED on 1.5v
A red LED requires
about 1.7v before it
will start to illuminate
- below this voltage NOTHING! This
circuit takes about
12mA to illuminate a
red LED using a
single cell, but the
interesting feature is
the way the LED is
The 1u electrolytic
can be considered to
be a 1v cell.
(If you want to be
technical: it charges
to about 1.5v - 0.2v
loss due to collectoremitter = 1.3v and a
lost of about 0.2v via
collector-emitter in
diagram B.)
It is firstly charged by the 100R resistor and the 3rd transistor (when it is fully turned
ON via the 1k base resistor). This is shown in diagram "A." During this time the
second transistor is not turned on and that's why we have omitted it from the
diagram. When the second transistor is turned ON, the 1v cell is pulled to the 0v rail
and the negative of the cell is actually 1v below the 0v rail as shown in diagram "B."
The LED sees 1.5v from the battery and about 1v from the electrolytic and this is
sufficient to illuminate it. Follow the two voltages to see how they add to 2.5v.
This will flash a white LED,
on 3v supply and produce a
very bright flash. The
circuit produces a voltage
higher than 5v if the LED is
not in circuit but the LED
limits the voltage to its
characteristic voltage of 3.2v
to 3.6v. The circuit takes
about 2mA an is actually a
voltage-doubler (voltage
incrementer) arrangement.
Note the 10k charges the
100u. It does not illuminate
the LED because the 100u is
charging and the voltage
across it is always less than
3v. When the two transistors
conduct, the collector of the
BC557 rises to rail voltage
and pulls the 100u HIGH.
The negative of the 100u
effectively sits just below the
positive rail and the positive
of the electro is about 2v
higher than this. All the
energy in the electro is
pumped into the LED to
produce a very bright flash.
This circuit will flash a white LED, on a supply from 2v to 6v
and produce a very bright flash. The circuit takes about 2mA
and old cells can be used. The two 100u electros in parallel
produce a better flash when the supply is 6v.
This circuit will flash a white LED (or 2,3 4 LEDs in
parallel) at 2.7Hz, suitable for the rear light on a
This bike flasher uses a single transistor to flash two white LEDs from a single cell. And
it has no core for the transformer - just AIR!
All Joule Thief circuits you have seen, use a ferrite rod or toroid (doughnut) core and
the turns are wound on the ferrite material. But this circuit proves the collapsing
magnetic flux produces an increased voltage, even when the core is AIR. The fact is
this: When a magnetic filed collapses quickly, it produces a higher voltage in the
opposite direction and in this case the magnetic field surrounding the coil is sufficient to
produce the energy we need.
Wind 30 turns on 10mm (1/2" dia) pen or screwdriver and then another 30 turns on top.
Build the first circuit and connect the wires. You can use 1 or two LEDs. If the circuit
does not work, swap the wires going to the base.
Now add the 10u electrolytic and 100k resistor (remove the 1k5). The circuit will now
flash. You must use 2 LEDs for the flashing circuit.
The original 30 turns + 30 turns coil is shown on the right. The circuit took 20mA to
illuminate two LEDs.
The secret to getting the maximum energy from the coil (to flash the LEDs) is the
maximum amount of air in the centre of the coil. Air cannot transfer a high magnetic flux
(density) so we provide a large area (volume) of low flux (density) to provide the energy.
The larger (20mm) coil reduced the current from 20mA to 11mA for the same brightness.
This could be improved further but the coil gets too big. The two 30-turn windings must
be kept together because the flux from the main winding must cut the feedback winding
to turn ON the transistor HARD.
When the transistor starts to turn on via the 100k, it creates magnetic flux in the main
winding that cuts the feedback winding and a positive voltage comes out the end
connected to the base and a negative voltage comes out the end connected to the 100k
and 10u. This turns the transistor ON more and it continues to turn ON until fully turned
ON. At this point the magnetic flux is not expanding and the voltage does not appear in
the feedback winding.
During this time the 10u has charged and the voltage on the negative lead has dropped
to a lower voltage than before. This effectively turns OFF the transistor and the current
in the main winding ceases abruptly. The magnetic flux collapses and produces a
voltage in the opposite direction that is higher than the supply and this is why the two
LEDs illuminate. This also puts a voltage through the feedback winding that keeps the
transistor OFF. When the magnetic flux has collapsed, the voltage on the negative lead
of the 10u is so low that the transistor does not turn on. The 100k discharges the 10u
and the voltage on the base rises to start the next cycle.
You can see the 100k and 1k5 resistors and all the other parts in a "birds nest" (in the
photo above), to allow easy experimenting.
This is the first circuit you should build to flash a white LED from a single cell.
It covers many features and shows how the efficiency of a LED increases when it is
pulsed very briefly with a high current.
The two coils form a TRANSFORMER and show how a collapsing magnetic field
produces a high voltage (we use 6v of this high voltage).
The 10u and 100k form a delay circuit to produce the flashing effect.
You can now go to all the other Joule Thief circuits and see how they "missed the boat"
by not experimenting fully to simply their circuits. That's why a "birds nest" arrangement
is essential to encourage experimenting.
Note: Changing the turns to 40t for the main winding and 20t for the feedback (keeping
the turns tightly wound together by winding wire around them) reduced the current to 89mA.
The circuit can be made small by using a ferrite slug 2.6mm diam x 7.6mm long.
The inductance of this transformer is quite critical and the voltage across the LEDs must
be over 6v for the circuit to work. It will not work with one or two LEDs. It needs THREE
LEDs !!!
If the author not not keep experimenting, he would have missed this amazing feature !!
This circuit alternately
flashes two white LEDs, on a
3v supply and produces a
very bright flash. The
circuit produces a voltage
higher than 5v if the LED is
not in circuit but the LED
limits the voltage to its
characteristic voltage of 3.2v
to 3.6v. The circuit takes
about 2mA and is actually a
voltage-doubler (voltage
incrementer) arrangement.
The 1k charges the 100u and
the diode drops 0.6v to
prevent the LED from
starting to illuminate on 3v.
When a transistor conducts,
the collector pulls the 100u
down towards the 0v rail and
the negative of the electro is
actually about 2v below the
0v rail. The LED sees 3v +
2v and illuminates very
brightly when the voltage
reaches about 3.4v. All the
energy in the electro is
pumped into the LED to
produce a very bright flash.
This circuit alternately flashes
two white LEDs, on a 1.5v
supply and produces a very
bright flash. The circuit
produces a voltage of about
25v when the LEDs are not
connected, but the LEDs
reduce this as they have a
characteristic voltage-drop
across them when they are
illuminated. Do not use a
supply voltage higher than
1.5v. The circuit takes about
The transformer consists of 30
turns of very fine wire on a
1.6mm slug 6mm long, but any
ferrite bead or slug can be
used. The number of turns is
not critical.
The 1n is important and using
any other value or connecting it
to the positive line will increase
the supply current.
Using LEDs other than white
will alter the flash-rate
considerably and both LEDs
must be the same colour.
This circuits uses a FLASHING LED - not an ordinary LED.
When the circuit turns ON, the electrolytic is uncharged and the
charging-current turns on the transistor. This makes the LED flash.
The value of the 47u and 100k will depend on how many times you
want the LED to flash.
The 1N4148 diode discharges the electrolytic when the power is
turned off so the circuit will start immediately the power is applied.
This diode is not needed if the circuit is turned off for a long time.
This circuits uses a FLASHING LED - not an ordinary
When the switch is pressed, the LEDs flash for about
5 seconds when the switch is released. and turn off.
The circuit takes NO CURRENT after the LEDs have
turned OFF.
You can experiment with the value of the electrolytics,
the 4k7 and 10k to get the result you want. Use red or
green LEDs. Only 2 white LEDs can used in each
string for 9v supply
This circuit was taken from a
dancing flower.
A motor at the base of the
flower had a shaft up the stem
and when the microphone
detected music, the bent shaft
made the flower wiggle and
The circuit will respond to a
whistle, music or noise.
The Dancing Flower circuit can be combined with the Motor Speed Control circuit to produce
a requirement from one of the readers.
This circuit can be used for
a toy car to follow a white
line. The motor is either a
3v type with gearing to
steer the car or a rotary
actuator or a servo motor.
When equal light is
detected by the photo
resistors the voltage on the
base of the first transistor
will be mid rail and the
circuit is adjusted via the
2k2 pot so the motor does
not receive any voltage.
When one of the LDR's
receives more (or less)
light, the motor is activated.
And the same thing
happens when the other
LDR receives less or more
All LEDs give off light of a particular colour but
some LEDs are also able to detect light. Obviously
they are not as good as a device that has been
specially made to detect light; such as solar cell,
photocell, photo resistor, light dependent resistor,
photo transistor, photo diode and other photo
sensitive devices.
A green LED will detect light and a high-bright red
LED will respond about 100 times better than a
green LED, but the LED in this position in the
circuit is classified as very high impedance and it
requires a considerable amount of amplification to
turn the detection into a worthwhile current-source.
All other LEDs respond very poorly and are not
worth trying.
The accompanying circuit amplifies the output
of the LED and enables it to be used for a number
of applications.
The LED only responds when the light enters the
end of the LED and this makes it ideal for solar
trackers and any time there is a large difference
between the dark and light conditions. It will not
detect the light in a room unless the lamp is very
This circuit allows a 12v relay to operate on a
6v or 9v supply. Most 12v relays need about
12v to "pull-in" but will "hold" on about 6v. The
220u charges via the 2k2 and bottom diode.
When an input above 1.5v is applied to the
input of the circuit, both transistors are turned
ON and the 5v across the electrolytic causes
the negative end of the electro to go below the
0v rail by about 4.5v and this puts about 10v
across the relay.
Alternatively you can rewind a 12v relay by
removing about half the turns.
Join up what is left to the terminals. Replace
the turns you took off, by connecting them in
parallel with the original half, making sure the
turns go the same way around
Connect this circuit to an old electronic clock mechanism
and speed up the motor 100 times!
The "motor" is a simple "stepper-motor" that performs a
half-rotation each time the electromagnet is energised. It
normally takes 2 seconds for one revolution. But our circuit
is connected directly to the winding and the frequency can
be adjusted via the pot.
Take the mechanism apart, remove the 32kHz crystal and
cut one track to the electromagnet. Connect the circuit
below via wires and re-assemble the clock.
As you adjust the pot, the "seconds hand" will move
clockwise or anticlockwise and you can watch the hours
"fly by" or make "time go backwards."
The multivibrator section needs strong buffering to drive
the 2,800 ohm inductive winding of the motor and that's
why push-pull outputs have been used. The flip-flop circuit
cannot drive the highly inductive load directly (it upsets the
waveform enormously).
From a 6v supply, the motor only gets about 4v due to the The crystal removed and a "cut track" to
voltage drops across the transistors. Consumption is about the coil. The 6 gears must be re-fitted for
the hands to work.
The rotor is a magnet with the north pole shown with the
red mark and the south pole opposite.
The electromagnet actually produces poles. A strong North
near the end of the electromagnet, and a weak North at the
bottom. A strong South at the top left and weak South at
bottom left. The rotor rests with its poles being attracted to
the 4 pole-pieces equally.
Voltage must be applied to the
electromagnet around the
correct way so that repulsion
A close-up of the clock motor
occurs. Since the rotor is sitting
equally between the North
poles, for example, it will see a Another clock motor is shown below. Note
strong pushing force from the
the pole faces spiral closer to the rotor to
pole near the electromagnet and make it revolve in one direction. What a
this is how the motor direction is clever design!!
determined. A reversal of
voltage will revolve the rotor in
the same direction as before.
The design of the motor is much
more complex than you think!!
This circuit provides a constant current to the LED. The LED
can be replaced by any other component and the current
through it will depend on the value of R2. Suppose R2 is
560R. When 1mA flows through R2, 0.56v will develop
across this resistor and begin to turn on the BC547. This will
rob the base of BD 679 with turn-on voltage and the transistor
turns off slightly. If the supply voltage increases, this will try to
increase the current through the circuit. If the current tries to
increase, the voltage across R2 increases and the BD 679
turns off more and the additional voltage appears across the
BD 679.
If R2 is 56R, the current through the circuit will be 10mA. If R2
is 5R6, the current through the circuit will be 100mA although you cannot pass 100mA through a LED without
damaging it.
LED driver for 12v CAR
Here is a simple circuit that will drive any
number of LEDs in a single string with a
constant 25mA without having to work out
the value of the dropper resistor. You can
use up to 6 red LED or up to 3 white LEDs
with the same circuit.
The supply can be 12v to 16v without the
brightness altering.
LED driver IR LEDs in a 12v CAR
This circuit will drive up to 7 IR LEDs at a
constant current of 70mA from a 12v supply.
These LEDs will illuminate ultra-violet
sensitive paint to produce a white glow.
circuits 2 & 3
By rearranging the components in the circuit
above, it can be designed to turn ON or OFF via
an input.
The current through the LED (or LEDs) is
determined by the value of R.
5mA R = 120R or 150R
10mA R = 68R
15mA R = 47R
20mA R = 33R
25mA R = 22R or 33R
30mA R = 22R
SOURCE circuit 4
The output will be limited to 100mA by
using a red LED and 10R for Re.
The output will be limited to 500mA by
using a red LED and 2R2 for Re.
BC328 - 800mA max
Use a BD140 in the first circuit and the
output will be limited to 1A by using a
red LED and 1R0 for Re.
5watt LEDs (sometimes called "White
Big Chip LEDs") have a characteristic
voltage across them of 3.2v and draw
1, 2 or 3 can be connected in series to
the second circuit using a heatsinked
BD140 transistor.
- see Also Push-ON Push-OFF (in 101-200
This circuit will supply current to the load RL. The
maximum current will depend on the second
transistor. The circuit is turned on via the "ON"
push button and this action puts a current through
the load and thus a voltage develops across the
load. This voltage is passed to the PNP transistor
and it turns ON. The collector of the PNP keeps the
power transistor ON.
To turn the circuit OFF, the "OFF" button is pressed
momentarily. The 1k between base and emitter of
the power transistor prevents the base floating or
receiving any slight current from the PNP transistor
that would keep the circuit latched ON.
The circuit was originally designed by a Professor
of Engineering at Penn State University. It had 4
mistakes. So much for testing a circuit!!!! It has
been corrected in the circuit on the left.
This circuit produces a wailing or siren
sound that gradually increases and
decreases in frequency as the 100u
charges and discharges when the
push-button is pressed and released.
In other words, the circuit is not
automatic. You need to press the
button and release it to produce the
up/down sound.
This circuit produces a sound similar to a
loud clicking clock. The frequency of the tick
is adjusted by the 220k pot.
The circuit starts by charging the 2u2 and
when 0.65v is on the base of the NPN
transistor, it starts to turn on. This turns on
the BC 557 and the voltage on the collector
rises. This pushes the small charge on the
2u2 into the base of the BC547 to turn it on
This continues when the negative end of the
2u2 is above 0.65v and now the electro
starts to charge in the opposite direction until
both transistors are fully turned on. The BC
547 receives less current into the base and it
starts to turn off. Both transistors turn off
very quickly and the cycle starts again.
This circuit detects the resistance between your
fingers to produce an oscillation. The detectionpoints will detect resistances as high as 300k and
as the resistance decreases, the frequency
Separate the two touch pads and attach them to
the back of each hand. As the subject feels
nervous, he will sweat and change the frequency
of the circuit.
The photos show the circuit built on PC boards
with separate touch pads.
This circuit detects the resistance
between your fingers to turn on
the FALSE LED. The circuit sits
with the TRUE LED illuminated.
The 47k pot is adjusted to allow
the LEDs to change state when
touching the probes.
This circuit detects the
resistance between your
fingers to turn the 4 LEDs. As
you press harder, more LEDs
are illuminated.
This circuit detects the resistance between
your fingers to turn the 3LEDs. As you press
harder, more LEDs are illuminated. The
circuit is simpler than Lie Detector-3.
This circuit detects the skin resistance of a finger to deliver a very small current to the superalpha pair of transistors to turn the circuit ON. The output of the "super transistor" turns on the
BC 557 transistor. The voltage on the top of the globe is passed to the front of the circuit via
the 4M7 to take the place of your finger and the circuit remains ON.
To turn the circuit OFF, a finger on the OFF pads will activate the first transistor and this will
rob the "super transistor" of voltage and the circuit will turn OFF.
This project is available as a kit of parts from Talking Electronics for $6.00 plus $4.00
This circuit turns a LED on and off.
TOUCH SWITCH - LED - modification by Mike Grozak
To make the circuit come ON with the LED not illuminated, you need to put a "set"
on the circuit.
A "set" is a particular condition that may be ON or OFF but the fact is the circuit
ALWAYS starts in a particular way.
The 10n prevents a voltage appearing on the base of the BC557 transistor when the
circuit is turned ON and this means the transistor is OFF. The feedback line will not
have any voltage on it and thus the second and third transistor will not be turned ON.
Thus the circuit will come ON with the LED not illuminated.
This circuit detects the skin resistance of a
finger to turn the circuit ON for about 1 second.
The output can be taken to a counting circuit.
The circuit consumes no current when in
quiescent mode:
This circuit stays ON.
Here is a simple CODE PAD to add to your alarm. It consists of 10 buttons and they must be
pressed in a certain order for the output to change. You can see from the circuit how the
buttons are pressed and two buttons must be pressed at the same time, the two other
buttons at the same time, to gain entry. The operation of this type of pad is very unusual as
anyone pressing the buttons by incrementing numbers will not be able to produce the code.
This circuit is rich in harmonics and is ideal for testing
amplifier circuits. To find a fault in an amplifier, connect
the earth clip to the 0v rail and move through each
stage, starting at the speaker. An increase in volume
should be heard at each preceding stage. This Injector
will also go through the IF stages of radios and FM
sound sections in TV's.
This circuit operates when the Light
Dependent Resistor receives light.
When no light falls on the LDR, its resistance
is high and the transistor driving the speaker is
not turned on.
When light falls on the LDR its resistance
decreases and the collector of the second
transistor falls. This turns off the first transistor
slightly via the second 100n and the first 100n
puts an additional spike into the base of the
second transistor. This continues until the
second transistor is turned on as hard as it can
go. The first 100n is now nearly charged and it
cannot keep the second transistor turned on.
The second transistor starts to turn off and
both transistors swap conditions to produce
the second half of the cycle.
This circuit is similar to Light Alarm -1
but produces a louder output due to the
speaker being connected directly to the
The circuit is basically a high-gain
amplifier that is turned on initially by the
LDR and then the 10n keeps the circuit
turning on until it can turn on no more.
The circuit then starts to turn off and
eventually turns off completely. The
current through the LDR starts the
cycle again.
This circuit is very sensitive and can be placed in a room to detect the movement of a
person up to 2 metres from the unit.
The circuit is basically a high-gain amplifier (made up of the first three transistors) that is
turned on by the LDR or photo Darlington transistor. The third transistor charges the
100u via a diode and this delivers turn-on voltage for the oscillator. The LDR has equal
sensitivity to the photo transistor in this circuit.
This circuit turns on a LED when the
microphone detects a loud sound.
The "charge-pump" section consists of
the 100n, 10k, signal diode and 10u
electrolytic. A signal on the collector of
the first transistor is passed to the 10u
via the diode and this turns on the
second transistor, to illuminate the LED.
This circuit consumes no current when
the probe is not touching any circuitry.
The reason is the voltage across the
green LED, the base-emitter junction of
the BC557, plus the voltage across the
red LED and base-emitter junction of the
BC547 is approx: 2.1v + 0.6v + 1.7v +
0.6v = 5v and this is greater than the
supply voltage.
When the circuit detects a LOW, the
BC557 is turned on and the green LED
illuminates. When a HIGH (above 2.3v) is
detected, the red LED is illuminated.
PROBE with
This circuit consumes
no current when the
probe is not touching
any circuitry and the
input has a surprisingly
Keep the probe away
from stray signals
(especially mains hum)
as the orange LED will
When the red LED
illuminates, the HIGH
is passed through the
1N4148 diode and the
third transistor is an
emitter-follower. It
increases the currentcapability of the pulse
and charges a 2u2.
The 4th transistor
increases the capacity
of the 2u2 by about
100 times to make it a
220u electro to keep
the orange LED
illuminated for a few
milliseconds after the
pulse has ceased.
The voltage-drop
across the diode and
base-emitter junctions
of the transistors
reduces the voltage on
the emitter of the 4th
transistor to less than
1v and an extra 1.5v is
needed from the
supply to illuminate the
orange LED.
This circuit has the advantage of providing a PULSE LED to show when a logic
level is HIGH and pulsing at the same time. It can be built for less than $5.00
on a piece of matrix board or on a small strip of copper clad board if you are
using surface mount components. The probe will detect a HIGH at 3v and thus
the project can be used for 3v, 5v and CMOS circuits.
This circuit has the advantage of providing a beep when a short-circuit is
detected but does not detect the small voltage drop across a diode. This is
ideal when testing logic circuits as it is quick and you can listen for the beep
while concentrating on the probe. Using a multimeter is much slower.
This circuit is for model train
enthusiasts. By adding this
circuit to your speed controller
box, you will be able to
simulate a train starting slowly
from rest.
Remove the wire-wound
rheostat and replace it with a
1k pot. This controls the base
of the BC547 and the 2N3055
output is controlled by the
BC547. The diodes protect
the transistors from reverse
polarity from the input and
spikes from the rails.
The output of a guitar is
connected to the input of the
Fuzz circuit. The output of
this circuit is connected to
the input of your amplifier.
With the guitar at full
volume, this circuit is
overdriven and distorts. The
distorted signal is then
clipped by the diodes and
your power amp amplifies
the Fuzz effect.
This is a simple
"staircase" circuit in which
the LEDs come on as the
resistance between the
probes decreases.
When the voltage on the
base of the first transistor
sees 0.6v + 0.6v + 0.6v =
1.8v, LED1 comes on.
LEDs 1&2 will come on
when the voltage rises a
further 0.6v. The amount
of pressure needed on
the probes to produce a
result, depends on the
setting of the 200k pot.
When the push-button is
pressed, the 100u will take
time to charge and this will
provide the rising pitch and
volume. When the pushbutton is released, the
level and pitch will die
away. This is the
characteristic sound of a
ship's fog horn.
When the push-button is pressed, the
circuit will oscillate at a high rate and
both LEDs will illuminate. When the
push button is released, one of the
LEDs will remain illuminated. The 50k
is designed to equalise the slightly
different values on each half of the
circuit and prevent a "bias."
This multivibrator circuit will
flash the Robot Man's eyes
as shown in the photo. The
kit of components is
available from Talking
Electronics for $8.50 plus
postage. Send an email to
find out the cost of postage:
[email protected]
This circuit takes the place of an
electret microphone. It turns an ordinary
mini speaker into a very sensitive
Any NPN transistors such as BC 547
can be used. The circuit will work from
3v to 9v. It is a common-base amplifier
and accepts the low impedance of the
speaker to produce a gain of more than
This circuit is a BOOTSTRAP
design. It turns an ordinary mini
speaker into a very sensitive
Any NPN transistors such as BC
547 can be used. The circuit will
work from 6v to 12v. It has been
taken from our Stereo VU Meter
The SCR in circuit A produces a 'LATCH.' When the button is pressed, the LED
remains illuminated.
The SCR can be replaced with two transistors as shown in circuit B.
To turn off circuit A, the current through the SCR is reduced to zero by the action
of the OFF button. In circuit B the OFF button removes the voltage on the base of
the BC547. The OFF button could be placed across the two transistors and the
circuit will turn off.
The circuit consists of two multivibrators. The first multi-vibrator operates at a low
frequency and this provides the speed of the change from Hee to Haw. It modifies
the voltage to the tone multivibrator, by firstly allowing full voltage to appear at the
bottom of the 220R and then a slightly lower voltage when the LED is illuminated.
This circuit consists of
two directly coupled
transistors operating as
The ratio of the 10k
resistor to the 100R
sets the gain of the
circuit at 100.
The Hartley Oscillator is characterised
by an LC circuit in its collector. The
base of the transistor is held steady
and a small amount of signal is taken
from a tapping on the inductor and fed
to the emitter to keep the transistor in
The transformer can be any speaker
transformer with centre-tapped
The frequency is adjusted by changing
the 470p.
The Colpitts Oscillator is
characterised by tapping the midpoint of the capacitive side of the
oscillator section. The inductor
can be the primary side of a
speaker transformer. The
feedback comes via the inductor.
The Phaseshift Oscillator is characterised by 3
high-pass filters, creating a 180° phase shift.
The output is a sinewave. Take care not to load
the output - this will prevent reliable start-up
and may stop the circuit from oscillating.
Reduced the 3k3 load resistor if the load
prevents the circuit oscillating. See Phase Shift
Oscillator in second section of 200 Transistor
Circuits for a better design.
This circuit can be used
to detect when someone
touches the handle of a
door. A loop of bare wire
is connected to the point
"touch plate" and the
project is hung on the
door-knob. Anyone
touching the metal doorknob will kill the pulses
going to the second
transistor and it will turn
off. This will activate the
The circuit will also work
as a "Touch Plate" as it
does not rely on mains
hum, as many other
circuits do.
This circuit is better than reducing the RPM of a
motor via a resistor. Firstly it is more efficient. And
secondly it gives the motor a set of pulses and
this allows it to start at low RPM. It's a simple
Pulse-Width circuit or Pulse-Circuit.
Most simple motor speed
controllers simply reduce the
voltage to a motor by
introducing a series
resistance. This reduces the
motor's torque and if the
motor is stopped, it will not
start again.
This circuit detects the pulses
of noise produced by the
motor to turn the circuit off
slightly. If the motor becomes
loaded, the amplitude of the
pulses decreases and the
circuit turns on more to deliver
a higher current.
The circuit consists of
two "twin-T" oscillators
set to a point below
oscillation. Touching a
Touch Pad will set the
circuit into oscillation.
Different effects are
produced by touching
the pads in different
ways and a whole
range of effects are
The two 25k pots are
adjusted to a point just
before oscillation.
A "drum roll" can be
produced by shifting a
finger rapidly across
adjacent ground and
drum pads.
This circuit is a Courtesy Light Extender for
cars. It extends the "ON" time when a door is
closed in a car, so the passenger can see
where he/she is sitting.
When the door switch is opened, the light
normally goes off immediately, but the circuit
takes over and allows current to flow because
the 22u is not charged and the first BC 547
transistor is not turned ON. This turns on the
second BC547 via the 100k and the BD679 is
also turned on to illuminate the interior light.
The 22u gradually charges via the 1M and the
first BC547 turns on, robbing the second
BC547 of "turn-on" voltage and it starts to turn
off the BD679.
The 1N4148 discharges the 22u when the
door is opened. A 2k2 may needed to be
added to completely turn off the globe.
This circuit is a simpler Courtesy Light
Extender for cars. It extends the "ON" time
when a door is closed in a car. Both circuits
perform exactly the same. This circuit is
slightly simpler.
It uses only a single BC557 and BD679
A Kit for this project is available from Talking
Electronics for $5.20 plus postage. Click
Here .
This circuit will drive a 40 watt fluoro
or two 20-watt tubes in series.
The transformer is wound on a
ferrite rod 10mm dia and 8cm long.
The wire diameters are not critical
but our prototype used 0.61mm wire
for the primary and 0.28mm wire for
the secondary and feedback
Do not remove the tube when the
circuit is operating as the spikes
produced by the transformer will
damage the transistor.
The circuit will take approx 1.5amp
on 12v, making it more efficient than
running the tubes from the mains. A
normal fluoro takes 20 watts for the
tube and about 15 watts for the
A Kit for this project is available
from Talking Electronics called
Fluorescent Lamp Inverter for
$12.50 plus postage. Click Here
This circuit will drive a 40 watt fluoro
or two 20-watt tubes in series but
with less brightness than the circuit
above and it will take less current.
2 x 20 watt tubes = 900mA to 1.2A
and 1 x 20 watt tube 450mA to
900mA depending on pot setting.
The transformer is wound on a
ferrite rod 10mm dia and 8cm long.
The wire diameter is fairly critical
and our prototype used 0.28mm
wire for all the windings.
Do not remove the tube when the
circuit is operating as the spikes
produced by the transformer will
damage the transistor. The pot will
adjust the brightness and vary the
current consumption. Adjust the pot
and select the base-bias resistor to
get the same current as our
prototype. Heat-sink must be
greater than 40sq cm. Use heat-sink
see also:
"100 IC circuits"
LOCATOR in "100 IC circuits"
This very simple circuit will detect
gold or metal or coins at a distance
of approx 20cm - depending on the
size of the object.
The circuit oscillates at approx
140kHz and a harmonic of this
frequency is detected by an AM
Simply tune the radio until a squeal
is detected.
When the search coil is placed near
a metal object, the frequency of the
circuit will change and this will be
heard from the speaker.
The layout of the circuit is shown
and the placement of the radio.
The TRUTH about Metal
(GOLD) Detectors.
A Gold Detector's club in the US
created a challenge with 12 members
with skills ranging from 12 months
detection to over 25 years. They used
5 different detectors to find 30
different items, hidden in sand and
under pieces of cardboard.
The results were these: All detectors
performed almost equally but the
interpretation of the beeps, sounds
and readings on the detector were
quite often mis-read and the winner
was a member with 1 year
The moral of the story is to dig for
anything that is detected as it may
not be a "ring-pull."
With these findings you can clearly
use a very simple, cheap, detector
and get results equal to the most
expensive equipment.
The only thing you have to remember
is this: You need the right frequency
for the type of soil to cancel out the
effects of minerals etc.
That's why there is a range of
frequencies from 6kHz to 150Hz.
All the other modes of producing and
injecting the pulse add only a very
small improvement to the detection
The energy put into the injecting
pulse also has an influence of the
depth of detection.
Buying Metal Detector kit:
Even though this circuit is the simplest
you can get, it performs just like the
$50.00 metal detectors because you
use an ordinary AM radio to produce
the tone. It will detect a small coin at
Metal Detector-1 kit: $14.00 FREE
Log in to your PayPal account and
send a payment to:
[email protected] for $14.00 AUD
METAL DETECTOR MkII - see the full project: Metal Detector MkII
Metal Detector kit MkII $15.00 plus postage
This is a self-contained metal detector with about the same performance as Metal Detector-1
All Metal detectors having the principle of detecting a metal object with a coil of about 12cm dia
and operating at 100kHz, will have the same performance, no matter how complex the circuit.
They all rely on detecting the change in frequency as small as 1Hz or a voltage-change across a
coil as small as 1uV.
The secret is to produce the largest waveform while loading the coil as lightly as possible. This
allows the coil to detect metal at the furthest distance. See more details on Metal Detector MkII
Nail Finder - see the full project: Metal Detector MkII
Kits for Metal Detector kit - Nail Finder $17.00 plus postage
This project is an extension of Metal Detector MkII, with a small detecting head to find tiny
components such as nails and lost components.
This is an essential tool for servicemen and anyone trying to find a metal object hidden or buried in
timber, soil or mud.
The Nail Finder head
The Nail Finder project is HERE
This is a very effective circuit. The sound is amazing. You have to build it to appreciate the range of
effects it produces. The 50k pot provides the frequency of the sound while the switch provides fast
or slow speed.
Hear the sounds: (built by a reader)
This circuit contains an IC but it looks like a 3-leaded transistor and that's why we have included it
The IC is called a "Radio in a Chip" and it contains 10 transistors to produce a TRF (tuned Radio
Frequency) front end for our project.
The 3-transistor amplifier is taken from our SUPER EAR project with the electret microphone
The two 1N 4148 diodes produce a constant voltage of 1.3v for the chip as it is designed for a
maximum of 1.5v.
The "antenna coil" is 60t of 0.25mm wire wound on a 10mm ferrite rod. The tuning capacitor can be
any value up to 450p.
Note: The YS414 IC is identical to ZN414. See above.
If you are not able to get the ZN414 IC, this circuit uses two transistors to take the
place of the chip.
This circuit automatically turns on a light when illumination is removed from the LDR. It remains ON for the delay
period set by the 2M2 pot.
The important feature of this circuit is the building blocks it contains - a delay circuit and Schmitt Trigger. These
can be used when designing other circuits.
This circuit activates a relay when illumination falls below a preset level
on the Light Dependent Resistor (Photo Cell).
This circuit will drive 30cm strips to 5m strips. Two 5m strips have been
tested with this circuit.
PIR detectors make a wonderful detector to turn on LEDs to
illuminate a passage, doorway or path.
It has an LDR that only allows the circuit to turn ON at night.
This circuit can use old cells as it requires less than 20mA to
illuminate the 4 LEDs and less than 0.4mA when sitting around.
There are a number of different PIR detectors and most of them take
1 minute to settle before detecting IR and turn ON for a short period
of time. The 100u increases the turn-ON time to about 4 seconds and
some detectors keep outputting a signal while you are in front of the
The first transistor increases the current from the PIR module so the
100u can be charged via the 1k and the second transistor acts as a
buffer to deliver current to turn on the LEDs.
The 100R and red 100u prevent the PIR re-triggering.
This is a great project for "using up" old batteries.
A kit for this project is available from Talking Electronics for $6.00
plus $4.50 postage.
It is built on a small piece of Matrix Board and includes 4 x superbright LEDs. Email Colin Mitchell for details.
This circuit uses a home-made transformer, wound on a nut and bolt,
and a 12v LED Strip or LED Panel.
You can use almost any nut and bolt and any wire from 0.2mm to
0.5mm diameter.
The main winding has 100 turns and the feedback winding has 30
All these LED panels have inbuilt
resistors so they can be connected
to 12v supplies. We do not need
the inbuilt resistors in this circuit
however the resistors cannot be
The LED strip shown in the circuit
above contains 9 LEDs in groups
of 3 with an inbuilt current liming
resistor. The current-limiting
resistor is not needed in this
design but cannot be removed.
You can make your own LED strip
by connecting three white LEDs in series (NO current-limiting resistor
is needed). You can have a total of 9 LEDs. (3 strings of 3 LEDs) or
you can use any of the 12v LED panels available on eBay.
If the circuit does not work, connect the feedback wires around the
other way.
The LDR is included to turn the circuit ON only at night and the
emitter-follower transistor increases the ON-time to about 4 seconds.
You can use old cells and make sure the supply is not higher than 9v
as the LED Strip will remain illuminated because you will be
supplying enough voltage to illuminate it !!
You will need to experiment with the 2k2 resistor and 2n2 to get the
best illumination with the transformer you use and the supply voltage.
3-LED CHASER by Faraday
[email protected]
The LEDs in this circuit produce a chasing pattern similar the running LEDs display in video
In fact the effect is called: "Running Hole." All transistors will try to come on at the same time
when the power is applied, but some will be faster due to their internal characteristics and some
will get a different turn-on current due to the exact value of the 22u electrolytics. The last 22u will
delay the voltage-rise to the base of the first transistor and make the circuit start reliably. It is very
difficult to see where the hole starts and that's why you should build the circuit and investigate it
yourself. The circuit can be extended to any number of odd stages as shown in the next circuit,
using 5 transistors.
Video by Faraday: 3-LED Chaser mp4 128KB
This is an extension of the 3-LED Chaser above.
The following circuit produces a slightly different effect because the LEDs are in the
emitter. You cannot mix the LED colours.
This circuit uses FETs. This circuit has been tested with the following two
FETs on 6v to 12v with red and white LEDs. The 1M resistor must be
reduced to 47k for the 2N7000. Note the different pin-outs for the two FETs.
his power supply can be built in less than an hour on a piece of copper-laminate.
The board acts as a heat-sink and the other components can be mounted as shown
in the photo, by cutting strips to suit their placement.
The components are connected with enamelled wire and the transistor is bolted to
the board to keep it cool.
The Bench Power Supply was designed to use old "C," "D" and lantern batteries,
that's why there are no diodes or electrolytics. Collect all your old batteries and cells
and connect them together to get at least 12v -14v.
The output of this power supply is regulated by a 10v zener made up of the
characteristic zener voltage of 8.2v between the base-emitter leads of a BC547
transistor (in reverse bias) and approx 1.7v across a red LED. The circuit will deliver
0v - 9v at 500mA (depending on the life left in the cells your are using). The 10k pot
adjusts the output voltage and the LED indicates the circuit is ON. It's a very good
circuit to get the last of the energy from old cells.
A voltmeter can be added to the Bench Power Supply by using a very low
cost multimeter. For less than $10.00 you can get a mini multimeter with 14
ranges, including a 10v range. The multimeter can also be used to monitor
current by removing the negative lead and making a new RED lead, fitting it
to the "—" of the multimeter and selecting the 500mA range as shown in the
photo below:
MAKING 0-1Amp meter for the BENCH POWER SUPPLY
The item in the photo
is called a
"Movement." A
movement is a
moving coil with a
pointer and no
resistors connected to
the leads.
Any Movement can
be converted to an
ammeter without any
Simply solder two 1R
resistors (in parallel)
across the terminals
of any movement and
connect it in series with an ammeter on the output of the Bench Power Supply. The
second ammeter provides a reference so you can calibrate the movement. Connect
a globe and increase the voltage.
At 500mA, if the pointer is "up scale" (reading too high) add a trim-resistor. In our
case it was 4R7.
The three shunt resistors can be clearly seen in the photo. Two 1R and the trim
resistor is 4R7.
You can get a movement from an old multimeter or they are available in electronics
shops as a separate item. The sensitivity does not matter. It can be 20uA or 50uA
FSD or any sensitivity.
Sometimes a zener diode of the required voltage is not available. Here are a
number of components that produce a characteristic voltage across them.
Since they all have different voltages, they can be placed in series to produce
the voltage you need. A reference voltage as low as 0.65v is available and
you need at least 1 to 3mA through the device(s) to put them in a state of
conduction (breakdown).
A POWER ZENER can be made from an
ordinary zener and a transistor. The final
power-zener voltage will be 0.6v higher than
the zener and the wattage of the whole circuit
will depend on the type of transistor used.
Of course, constant use of this circuit will
represent a waste of 20 watts and there are
better ways to design a circuit, but it can be
used to prevent a rail rising above a certain
voltage and will only be used for short
The 12v Trickle Charger circuit uses a TIP3055 power transistor to limit the current to
the battery by turning off when the battery voltage reaches approx 14v or if the current
rises above 2 amp. The signal to turn off this transistor comes from two other transistors
- the BC557 and BC 547.
Firstly, the circuit turns on fully via the BD139 and TIP3055. The BC557 and BC 547 do
not come into operation at the moment. The current through the 0.47R creates a
voltage across it to charge the 22u and this puts a voltage between the base and
emitter of the BC547. The transistors turn on slightly and remove some of the turn-on
voltage to the BD139 and this turns off the TIP3055 slightly.
This is how the 2 amp max is created.
As the battery voltage rises, the voltage divider made up of the 1k8 and 39k creates a
0.65v between base and emitter of the BC557 and it starts to turn on at approx 14v.
This turns on the BC 547 and it robs the BD136 of "turn-on" voltage and the TIP3055 is
nearly fully turned off.
All battery chargers in Australia must be earthed. The negative of the output is taken to
the earth pin.
1.5v to 10v INVERTER
This very clever circuit will convert 1.5v to 10v to take the place of those expensive 9v
batteries and also provide a 5v supply for a microcontroller project.
But the clever part is the voltage regulating section. It reduces the current to less than
8mA when no current is being drawn from the output. With a 470R load and 10v, the
output current is 20mA and the voltage drop is less than 10mV. The pot will adjust the
output voltage from 5.3v to 10v.
The circuit starts by the 100k turning on the BC547 and the BC557 gets turned ON via
the 33k resistor.
This turns ON the BC337 via the 100R resistor. You will notice the "current-limiting"
resistors are getting small and smaller. This is because the transistor-current is getting
larger and larger and we want the resistor to pass this higher current.
Current flowing through the collector-base of the BC337 causes current to flow through
the inductor. This current creates expanding flux that cuts all the turns of the inductor
and produces a voltage in the OPPOSITE DIRECTION. This voltage OPPOSES the
incoming voltage and very little current flows.
Over a period of microseconds, this voltage drops a microscopic amount and thus a
slightly higher current will flow.
The voltage on the collector drops and this change is passed through the 330p to turn
on the BC557 MORE.
This continues until the BC337 is fully turned ON (by the action of the 330p).
The 330p now charges a little more and this reduces the base current in the BC557 and
it starts to turn OFF.
This action starts to turn OFF the BC337 and very soon we have both transistors fully
turned OFF.
The BC337 is effectively removed from the circuit and the current flowing through the
inductor stops increasing. The magnetic flux stops increasing and the voltage it
produces stops IMMEDIATELY.
The magnetic flux now does not have any voltage opposing it and it starts to collapse
and cut all the turns of the inductor. It does this very quickly because there is no voltage
opposing its collapse.
The result is a very high voltage in the opposite direction to the applied voltage. What
this means is the lower terminal of the inductor produces a voltage that is ADDED to the
supply voltage.
This voltage can be as high at 100v or more, and is passed through the diode.
Even though this voltage is very high, it actually consists of a very high voltage with a
very small current.
The combination of these two is called ENERGY and it flows into the 100u to charge it.
As the voltage on the 100u increases, its voltage is detected by the 4th transistor and
when it reaches 10v, the 3rd transistor is turned OFF slightly so the first two transistors
are not driven as hard.
This is how a stable 10v is produced.
This circuit will produce a
5v regulated output from 2
cells (3v). The output
current is limited to 50mA
but will be ideal for many
microcontroller circuits.
The output voltage is set to
5v by the 3k9 and 560R
resistors, making up a
voltage divider network.
Here are 3 ways to generate
a 3.3v supply:
Circuit "A" uses two 1.5v
cells. This is the cheapest
and best way to create a 3v
Circuit "B" uses 3 x 1N448
signal diodes to drop 1.8v
and produce 3.2v on the
output. The 5v supply must
be regulated.
Circuit "C" produces 3.3v
from a 3v3 zener. The 47R
limits the output to about
30mA. The 5v can have a
small ripple as the zener will
create a stable 3v3 output.
You can replace a 9v battery
with this circuit.
The output is about 10.4v on
no load and 9.6v @30mA .
The advantage is the voltage
stays over 9v for the life of the
A normal 9v battery drops to
7v very quickly.
The output voltage is set to 910v by the 6k8 and 390R
resistors. The 470R gives the
circuit an idling current of
about 20mA and the spikes
are about 75mV.
By increasing the 470R, the
quiescent current decreases
but the voltage drops more
when the current is 30mA.
27MHz Field Strength Meter
This circuit will test 27MHz transmitters and show the transmitter is
operating when the antenna is connected to point 1 and the actual
frequency of transmission when the antenna is connected to point 2.
See the full project HERE.
The transmitter is a very
simple crystal oscillator. The
heart of the circuit is the tuned
circuit consisting of the primary
of the transformer and a 10p
capacitor. The frequency is
adjusted by a ferrite slug in the
centre of the coil until it is
exactly the same as the
crystal. The transistor is
configured as a common
emitter amplifier. It has a 390R
on the emitter for biasing
purposes and prevents a high
current passing through the
transistor as the resistance of
the transformer is very low.
The "pi" network matches the
antenna to the output of the
circuit. See full description in
27MHz Links article.
The 27MHz receiver is really a transmitter. It's a very weak transmitter and delivers a low level
signal to the surroundings via the antenna. When another signal (from the transmitter) comes in
contact with the transmission from the receiver it creates an interference pattern that reflects down
the antenna and into the first stage of the receiver.
The receiver is a super-regenerative design. It is self-oscillating (or already oscillating) and makes
it very sensitive to nearby signals. See full description in 27MHz Links article.
A 27MHz transmitter without a
crystal. When a circuit does not
have a crystal, the oscillator is said
to be "voltage dependent" or
"voltage controlled" and when the
supply voltage drops, the frequency
If the frequency drifts too much, the
receiver will not pick up the signal.
For this reason, a simple circuit as
shown is not recommended. We
have only included it as a concept
to show how the 27MHz frequency
is generated. It produces a tone
and this is detected by a receiver.
See full description in 27MHz Links
The circuit consists of two blocks. Block 1is a multivibrator and this has an equal
mark/space ratio to turn the RF stage on and off. Block 2 is an RF oscillator. The
feedback to keep the stage operating is provided by the 27p capacitor. The
frequency-producing items are the coil (made up of the full 7 turns) and the 47p
air trimmer. These two items are called a parallel tuned circuit. They are also
called a TANK CIRCUIT as they store energy just like a TANK of water and pass
it to the antenna. The frequency of the circuit is adjusted by the 47p air trimmer.
See full description in 27MHz Links article.
This circuit matches with the 27MHz Transmitter with Square-wave Oscillator. See full description
on Talking Electronics website: 27MHz Links article.
The receiver frequency is fixed. The transmitter is adjusted to suit the receiver. The 3-27p trimmer
is adjusted for maximum gain (10p trimmer and 5p6 in our case) and this is a critical adjustment.
The base-emitter junction of the first BC547 sets 0.7v (as it is heavily turned on by the 10k) on the
base of the oscillator Q1, and this is fixed. Q1 is very lightly turned on (due to the emitter resistor),
and this makes it very sensitive when it is oscillating. Any 27MHz signal from the surroundings will
upset the oscillator and any tone in the signal will be passed to the stages for amplification. The
coil is 13 turns. It can be replaced with 11 turns of 0.25mm wire on 3mm dia slug 7mm long.
Although the original Russian product worked very well, our prototype did not have very good
sensitivity. The circuit was very difficult to set-up.
Note: When making the 27uH inductor and checking its value on an inductance meter; if the meter
does not read low values accurately, put two inductors in series. Measure the first inductor, say
100uH. The two inductors in series will be 127uH as inductors combine just like resistors in series!
The result is the addition of the individual values.
Nearly all the components in the 4-transistor circuit are used for both transmitting and receiving.
This makes it a very economical design. The frequency-generating stage only needs the crystal
to be removed and it becomes a receiver. Next is a three transistor directly coupled audio
amplifier with very high gain. The first transistor is a pre-amplifier and the next two are wired as
a super-alpha pair, commonly called a Darlington pair to drive the speaker transformer. See full
description in 27MHz Links article.
This circuit does not use a crystal
but has a clever feature of using
the two push buttons to turn the
circuit on when it is required to
The frequency of the
multivibrator is determined by the
value of resistance on the base
of each transistor. The
multivibrator is driven directly
from the supply with the forward
button and via a 150k for the
reverse frequency.
The receiver requires a 1kHz
tone for forward and 250Hz for
See full description in 27MHz
Links article.
This circuit uses the same number
of components as the 2-Channel
circuit above but has 4 channels.
The frequency of the multivibrator
is determined by the value of
resistance on the base of each
A 4 channel receiver has been
designed by talking Electronics
using a PIC12F628 micro to detect
the different frequencies.
See P4 of:
2 Digit Up/Down Counter (see
left index on Talking Electronics
2 Digit Up/Down Counter has
the receiver section.
A = 500Hz B = 550Hz C =
660Hz D = 1kHz
The transmitter circuit
is made up of two
building blocks - the
303MHz RF oscillator
and the 32kHz crystal
controlled oscillator to
generate a tone so the
receiver does not falsetrigger.
The 303MHz oscillator
consists of a selfoscillating circuit made
up of the coil on the PC
board and a 9p (9 puff)
See full description in
Wireless Doorbell
140 to
600 0.75v
This simple circuit will produce flashing lights for
your model railway crossing. It uses one flashing
LED and one normal red LED, with a green LED
hidden in the background. It can be used
somewhere else on your layout but it is needed
to produce a voltage drop so the two red LEDs
will flash.
You cannot get a simpler circuit.
The second circuit produces the same effect but
the flash-rate is more even.
The 1/10th watt resistors used in this circuit,
compared with 0.25watt resistors.
This walkie talkie circuit does not have a crystal or speaker transformer, with the board measuring
just 3cm x 4cm and using 1/10th watt resistors, it is one of the smallest units on the market, for just
$9.50 to $12.00. The wires in the photo go to the battery, speaker, call-switch and antenna. The
most difficult component in the circuit to duplicate is the oscillator coil. See the photo for the size
and shape. The coil dia is 5mm and uses 0.25mm wire. The actual full-turn or half turn on the coil is
also important. Almost all 5 transistor walkie talkies use this circuit or slight variations. See the
article: 27MHz Transmitters for theory on how these transmitters work - it is fascinating.
Here is another walkie talkie circuit, using slightly different values for some of the components.
See the article: 27MHz Transmitters for theory on how these transmitters work.
Here is a more up-to-date version of the walkie talkie, using an LM 386 amplifier IC
to take the place of 4 transistors.
This simple circuit will detect very faint sounds and deliver them to a 32 ohm earpiece.
The circuit is designed for 1.5v operation and is available from $2.00 shops for less than
$5.00 The photo shows the surface-mount components used in its construction.
This simple circuit will detect
very faint sounds and deliver
them to an 8 ohm earpiece.
The circuit is designed for
1.5v operation.
This circuit will detect very
faint sounds and deliver
them to an 8 ohm
earpiece. It is designed for
3v operation.
This is a very handy circuit as it provides constant volume. It is designed for 3v operation.
This circuit is called Type-1 SE. Low current from a solar cell is stored in a
large capacitor and when a preset voltage-level is reached, the energy from
the capacitor is released to a motor.
For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
An improved design over Solar Engine circuit above. It has a clever 2transistor self-latching arrangement to keep the circuit ON until the
voltage drops to 1.5v. The circuit turns on at 2.8v. This gives the motor
more energy from the electrolytic at each "pulse." For full details on how
the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
This circuit is an improvement on the Sun Eater I shown above. It works exactly the same
except the slight re-arrangement of the components allows an NPN power transistor to be
used. One less resistor is needed and one less capacitor but two extra diodes have been
added to increase the upper turn-on voltage.
For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
Type-3 circuits are current controlled or currenttriggered. This is another very clever way of
detecting when the electrolytic has reached its
maximum charge.
At the beginning of the charge-cycle for an
electrolytic, the charging current is a maximum. As
the electrolytic becomes charged, the current drops.
In the type-3 circuit, the charging current passes
through a 100R resistor and creates a voltage drop. This voltage is detected by a transistor (Q2) and
the transistor is turned ON.
This action robs transistor (Q1) from turn-on voltage and the rest of the circuit is not activated. As the
charging current drops, Q2 is gradually turned off and Q1 becomes turned on via the 220k resistor on
the base.
This turns on Q3 and the motor is activated. The voltage across the storage electrolytic drops and the
current through the 100R rises and turns the circuit off. The electrolytic begins to charge again and the
cycle repeats. For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
The green LEDs cause the Solar Engine on the opposite side to fire and the Solar Photovore turns
toward the light source. The motors are two pager "vibe" motors with the weights removed. The 100k
pot on the "head" balances the two Solar Engines. If you cannot get the circuit to work with green LEDs,
use photo-transistors. For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
FRED Photopopper (Flashing LED)
It is a Photopopper using low-cost components. It uses two red or green flashing LEDs to turn the
circuit on when the voltage across the electrolytic has reached about 2.7v. The flashing LEDs change
characteristics according to the level of the surrounding light and this turns the circuit into phototropic.
For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
The circuit consists of two building blocks. The
Photopopper circuit and a voltage multiplying (or
voltage increasing) circuit from a Solar Charger
For full details on how the circuit works and how to modify it, see:
This circuit allows a class-A amplifier to drive a low
impedance speaker and has a low quiescent current. The
220R in series with the speaker limits the "wasted" current
to about 20mA max as the transistor is generally biased at
mid-voltage. However the transistor will be almost directly
driving the speaker when a signal is being processed and
the only limitation is the ability of the 220R to discharge the
100u during each cycle.
The circuit is called a signal by-pass as the signal bypasses the 220R and drives the speaker directly (via the
The LED illuminates when the piezo diaphragm detects sound.
Some piezo diaphragms are very sensitive and produce 100mV when whistling at
50cm. Others produce 1mV. You must test them with a CRO.
The sensitivity of the diaphragm will determine the sensitivity of the circuit.
The following circuit uses an electret microphone:
CLAP SWITCH - see also VOX
By re-arranging the components slightly from the previous circuit, we
create a 15 second illumination of the LED. It will be illuminated with
the clap of the hands.
The quiescent current is about 20uA, allowing 4 AA cells to last a
long time.
The circuit takes about 20 seconds to reset after the LED goes out.
The 100u discharges through the 27k, 100k and 10k resistors.
The circuit can also be designed to accept an electret microphone:
This circuit turns the LED ON with a clap or short whistle. And a
further clap turns it OFF. It uses a speaker as a microphone and the
fourth output of the 4017 is used to reset the chip. The 100u on pin 2
upsets the amplifier and prevents it clocking the chip, until the electro
either charges or discharges. A buffer transistor can replace the LED
to operate a relay. It only requires 2mV signal to activate the circuit.
Above: A 3.5mm switched stereo plug and socket wiring.
The LED illuminates when the circuit detects a high amplitude waveform. It can be
connected to a "Walkman" or mini radio with earphones. A second channel can be
connected to produce a stereo effect. Circuit A consumes less current as the LED is off
when no audio is detected. Circuit B pulses the LED brighter when audio is detected.
The transmitter is built on a small length of PC board, cut into lands with a file. The photo clearly
shows how all the components are mounted and how the board is fitted into a toothbrush holder. The
flashing LED shows the unit is ON and serves to control the beep-beep-beep of the circuit. The
flashing LED is not an ordinary LED.
You cannot use an ordinary LED. It must be a FLASHING LED as this type of LED has a built-in
resistor and a chip to make the LED flash.
The circuit does not make the LED flash, the LED makes the circuit beep-beep-beep due to the onoff from the chip inside the LED.
One constructor used an ordinary LED - and BANG! That's why we are the first in the world to create
a symbol for a flashing LED. The extra bar represents the chip inside the LED.
This is the professional unit
The receiver circuit is a high-gain
amplifier and produces constant
background noise so the slightest
magnetic field can be detected.
The 10mH choke can be any
value but the largest number of
turns on the core is best.
The mini speaker can be a 16R
earpiece but these are not as loud
as a mini speaker.
Quiescent current is 50mA so the
on-off switch can be a pushbutton.
Why pay $100 for a cable tracer when you can build one for less than $10.00! This type of tracer is used
by telephone technicians, electricians and anyone laying, replacing or wiring anything, using long cables,
such as intercoms, television or security.
Our cable tracer consists of two units. One unit has a multivibrator with an output of 4v p-p at approx
5kHz. This is called the transmitter. The other unit is a very sensitive amplifier with capacitive input for
detecting the tone from the transmitter and a magnetic pickup for detecting magnetic lines of force from
power cables carrying 240v. This is called the receiver. The circuit also has an inductive loop, made up of
a length of wire, to pick up stray signals from power cables, so if one detector does not detect the signal,
the other will. Our circuit is nothing like that in the professional unit shown above.
This simple circuit will illuminate a super-bright
white LED to full brightness with 28mA from a
1.5v cell. The LED is 20,000mcd (20cd @ 15°
viewing angle) and has an output of approx
The transformer is wound on a small ferrite slug
2.6mm dia and 6mm long. It is made from F29
ferrite material as the circuit operates at a high
frequency (100kHz to 500kHz).
The efficiency of the circuit revolves around the
fact that a LED will produce a very high output
when delivered pulses, but the overall current will
be less than a steady DC current.
BC 337 has a collector-emitter voltage of 45v.
(BC338 has 25v collector-emitter voltage rating.)
The voltage across the transistor is no more than
4v as the LED absorbs the spikes. Do not
remove the LED as the spikes from the
transformer will damage the transistor.
The circuit will drive 1 or 2 while LEDs in series.
This circuit will flash a super-bright
white LED from a 1.5v cell.
The transformer is wound on a small
ferrite slug 2.6mm dia and 6mm long
as shown in a project above.
The circuit uses the zener
characteristic of the reverse-baseemitter junction of a BC 547 to pass
current and flash the LED.
Most of our circuits use a ferrite rod and NOT a
TOROID. A toroid is a circular core (sometimes
called a doughnut or torus or ring or annulus)
and is actually the most efficient type of ferrite
core because none of the flux is lost to the
outside surroundings.
BUT if you use a toroid, you MUST work out the
amount of flux you will be generating when the
transistor is turned ON and this will give you the
flux density in the toroid.
But this is a very difficult thing to do.
If you deliver more flux than the toroid can
accept, the expanding flux will not increase at
this point in time and the current taken (supplied
or delivered) by the transistor will increase
ENORMOUSLY and the transistor will be
If you use a ferrite rod, the flux will be lost to
the outside air (out the end of the rod) and
the abrupt saturation-point will NOT be
This means a ferrite rod is a much-more
"sloppy" or "loose" or "accommodating"
component and is much easier to
incorporate into a circuit that has not been
mathematically designed.
If you want to use a toroid, the only way to
"design a circuit" that does not "selfdestroy" is
to add a lot more turns and gradually
remove a few of the turns while feeling the
output transistor for temperature-rise or
measure the current taken by the circuit.
Sometimes the number of turns will be
reduced to 7 turns plus 7 turns for some of
the circuits driving LEDs in the boost
converters shown below.
Why only 7 turns for a toroid?
As the transistor turns ON, the 7 turns
produces much less flux than 30 turns and
the transistor can turn on for a much longer
period of time. When it is fully turned ON,
the core is just at the point of being fully
saturated. At this instant, the flux no-longer
expands (increases) and thus the voltage produced in the feedback winding ceases. This is when the
"increasing" part of the cycle stops, and the "turn-off" part of the cycle starts.
This means the current through the transistor is only a maximum for a very short period of time.
That's why you have to experiment yourself and it's only when you get the circuit to work perfectly, that you
The workings of an inductor are much more complex than you think.
If you do not have a ferrite slug,
the inductor can be made from a
machine screw 10mm long and
about 3-4mm dia. Wind 150 turns
of 0.25mm wire. Or you can use
This circuit will drive a super-bright white LED from a 1.5v cell.
a brass ferrule 20mm long x
The 60 turn inductor is wound on a small ferrite slug 2.6mm dia and 6mm 5mm. Wind 150 turns.
long with 0.25mm wire.
RESULTS for the same
The main difference between this circuit and the two circuits above is the
use of a single winding and the feedback to produce oscillation comes
from a 1n capacitor driving a high gain amplifier made up of two
Brass Spacer: 18mA
Machine screw: 14mA
The feedback is actually positive feedback via the 1n and this turns on the Isn't this a SURPRISE!
two transistors more and more until finally they are fully turned on and no
more feedback signal is passed though the 1n. At this point they start to
turn off and the signal through the 1n turns them off more and more until
they are fully turned off.
The 33k turns on the BC557 to start the cycle again.
LED TORCH - 3v Supply
This circuit will drive up to 3 high-bright
white LEDs from a 3v supply. (It will also
work from 1.5v)
The inductor consists of 50 turns on a
1.6mm dia ferrite slug using 0.1mm
enamelled wire.
This circuit can use a ready-made 33uH
choke, making it suitable for mass
This circuit will drive up to 3 highbright white LEDs from a 3v supply.
The circuit has a pot to adjust the
brightness to provide optimum
brightness for the current you wish to
draw from the battery.
The transformer is wound on a ferrite
slug 2.6mm dia and 6mm long as
shown in the LED Torch with 1.5v
Supply project.
This circuit is a "Boost Converter"
meaning the supply is less than the
voltage of the LEDs. If the supply is
greater than the voltage across the
LEDs, they will be damaged.
48mA to 90mA
Inductor: 60 turns
on 10mm ferrite
rod, 15mm long.
This circuit is a "Buck Converter"
meaning the supply is greater than
the voltage of the LED. It will drive 1
high-power white LED from a 12v
supply and is capable of delivering
48mA when R = 5R6 or 90mA when R
= 2R2.
The LED is much brighter when using
this circuit, compared with a series
resistor delivering the same current.
But changing R from 5R6 to 2R2 does
not double the brightness. It only
increases it a small amount.
The inductor consists of 60 turns of
0.25mm wire, on a 15mm length of
ferrite rod, 10mm diameter.
Frequency of operation: approx
The circuit is not designed to drive
one 20mA LED.
This circuit draws the maximum for a
BC 338.
LED 170mA
This circuit is slightly simpler than above but it does
not have the feature of being able to adjust the drivecurrent.
The inductor is the same as the photo above but has
a feedback winding of 15 turns.
Connect the circuit via a 220R resistor and if the LED
does not illuminate, reverse the feedback winding.
The driver transistor will need a small heatsink.
LED 210mA
This circuit will drive 1 high-power white LED from a
12v supply and is capable of delivering 210mA.
The driver transistor is BD 139 and the details of the
inductor are shown above.
The voltage across the LED is approx 3.3v - 3.5v
The driver transistor will need a small heatsink.
The 2R2 can be increased if a lower drive-current is
- 1watt LED
Designed 12-8-2011
This circuit will drive 1watt white
LED from a 12v supply and is
capable of delivering 300mA.
The driver transistor is BC 327 and
the inductor is 70 turns of 0.25mm
wire wound on the core of a 10mH
See Inductor to learn how the
inductor works.
The voltage across the LED is
approx 3.3v - 3.5v
The 1R is used to measure the mV
across it. 300mV equals 300mA
LED current.
The diode MUST be high speed. A
non-high-speed diode increases
current 50mA!
This circuit is the best design as it
does not put peaks of current
though the LED. Reduce 390R
slightly to increase max. current.
The transformer consists of 50 turns
0.25mm wire connected to the pins.
The feedback winding is 20 turns
0.095mm wire with "fly-leads."
15 LEDs on Matrix board
This circuit drives 15 LEDs to produce the same brightness as a 1-watt LED. The circuit
consumes 750mW but the LEDs are driven with high-frequency, high-voltage spikes, and
become more-efficient and produce a brighter output that if driven by pure-DC.
The LEDs are connected in 3 strings of 5 LEDs. Each LED has a characteristic voltage of 3.2v
to 3.6v making each chain between 16v and 18v. By selecting the LEDs we have produced 3
chains of 17.5v Five LEDs (in a string) has been done to allow the circuit to be powered by a
12v battery and allow the battery to be charged while the LEDs are illuminating. If only 4 LEDs
are in series, the characteristic voltage may be as low as 12.8v and they may be over-driven
when the battery is charging. (Even-up the characteristic voltage across each chain by
checking the total voltage across them with an 19v supply and 470R dropper resistor.) The
transformer is shown above. It is wound on a 10mH choke with the original winding removed.
This circuit is called a "boost circuit." It is not designed to drive a single 1-watt LED (a buck
circuit is needed).
The LEDs in the circuit are 20,000mcd with a viewing angle of 30 degrees (many of the LED
specifications use "half angle." You have to test a LED to make sure of the angle). This
equates to approximately 4 lumens per LED. The 4-watt CREE LED claims 160 lumens (or 40
lumens per watt). Our design is between 50 - 60 lumens per watt and it is a much-cheaper
18 LEDs using a 3.7v Li-Ion CELL
This circuit drives 18 white LEDs from a 3.7v Li-Ion cell. It has been designed by Samuel
Budiyanto [email protected] using components from an old Compact
Fluorescent Lamp. No data is available on the 1mH inductor and the circuit has been
provided for experimentation purposes ONLY.
It is an interesting circuit because the two transistors provide a constant brightness and the
BC547 provides feedback to keep the circuit oscillating.
The 10k base resistor seems very high but the circuit has been tested for 12 hours on a
1200mA-Hr cell and the brightness remained constant.
The brightness is determined by how hard you drive the 2SD882 transistor.
It is turned on by the 10k resistor and this will deliver very little current, but since the transistor
has a gain of 100 to 300, the collector current will be up to about 100mA.
Basically the circuit will over-drive the LEDs and the BC547 will limit the current to the
required brightness level.
The BC547 transistor has the effect of turning OFF the 2SD at a particular instant in each
cycle to reduce the time when it is turned ON. The BC547 gets its "timing" from the 10k and
1k resistors, by the fact that these resistors form a voltage divider to produce a voltage on the
base. When the 2SD turns ON, a voltage is developed across the 10R that adds to this
voltage but it is delayed slightly by the 1n capacitor. The 1n determines the frequency at
which the circuit will oscillate. By experimenting with these 4 components you get the required
brightness and this remains constant for the life of the cell.
All the LEDs are in series on each string and the brightness will depend on matching each
string. By swapping some of the LEDs you will be able to adjust the brightness to make them
all emit equally.
1-WATT LED - a very good designn
This circuit has been specially designed for
a 6v rechargeable battery or 5 x 1.2v NiCad
cells. Do not use any other voltage.
It has many features:
The pulse-operation to the two 1-watt LEDs
delivers a high current for a short period of
time and this improves the brightness.
The circuit can drive two 1-watt LEDs with
extremely good brightness and this makes
it more efficient than any other design.
The circuit is a two-transistor highfrequency oscillator and it works like this:
The BD139 is turned ON via the base,
through the white LED and two signal
diodes and it amplifies this current to
appear though the collector-emitter circuit.
This current flows though the 1-watt LED to
turn it ON and also through the 30-turn
winding of the inductor. At the same time
the current through the 10R creates a
voltage-drop and when this voltage rises to
Circuit takes 70mA on LOW brightness 0.65v, the BC547 transistor starts to turn
ON. This robs the base of the BD139 of
and 120mA on HIGH Brightness
"turn-on voltage" and the current through
see MOD below
the inductor ceases to be expanding flux,
but stationary flux.
The 1n capacitor was initially pushing against the voltage-rise on the base of the BC547 but it now
has a reverse-effect of allowing the BC547 to turn ON.
This turns off the BD139 a little more and the current through the inductor reduces.
This creates a collapsing flux that produces a voltage across the coil in the opposite direction. This
voltage passes via the 1n to turn the BC547 ON and the BD139 is fully turned OFF.
The inductor effectively becomes a miniature battery with negative on the lower LED and positive at
the anode of the Ultra Fast diode. The voltage produced by the inductor flows through the UF diode
and both 1-watt LEDs to give them a spike of high current. The circuit operates at approx 500kHz and
this will depend on the inductance of the inductor.
The circuit has about 85% efficiency due to the absence of a current-limiting resistor, and shuts off at
4v, thus preventing deep-discharge of the rechargeable cells or 6v battery.
The clever part of the circuit is the white LED and two diodes. These form a zener reference to turn
the circuit off at 4v. The 10k resistor helps too.
The circuit takes 70mA on low brightness and 120mA on HIGH brightness via the brightness-switch.
The LEDs actually get 200mA pulses of current and this produces the high brightness.
The Inductor
The coil or inductor is not critical. You can use a broken antenna rod from an AM radio (or a flat
antenna slab) or an inductor from a computer power supply. Look for an inductor with a few turns of
thick wire (at least 30) and you won't have to re-wind it.
Here are two inductors from surplus outlets:
- 50 cents
http://www.allelectronics.com/make-a-store/item/CR-345/345-UH-TOROIDAL-INDUCTOR/1.html 40cents
Here are the surplus inductors:
The cost of surplus is from 10 cents to 50 cents, but you are sure to find something from a computer
power supply.
Pick an inductor that is about 6mm to 10mm diameter and 10mm to 15mm high. Larger inductor will
not do any damage. They simply have more ferrite material to store the energy and will not be
saturated. It is the circuit that delivers the energy to the inductor and then the inductor releases it to
the LEDs via the high speed diode.
By using the following idea, the current reduces to 90mA and 70mA and the illumination over a
workbench is much better than a single high-power LED. It is much brighter and much nicer to work
Connect fifteen 5mm LEDs in parallel (I used 20,000mcd LEDs) by soldering them to a double-sided
strip of PC board, 10mm wide and 300mm long. Space them at about 20mm. I know you shouldn't
connect LEDs in parallel, but the concept works very well in this case. If some of the LEDs have a
characteristic high voltage and do not illuminate very brightly, simply replace them and use them later
for another strip.
You can replace one or both the 1-watt LEDs with a LED Strip, as shown below:
No current-limit resistor. . . why isn't the LED damaged?
Here's why the LED isn't damaged:
When the BD139 transistor turns ON, current flows through the LEDs and the inductor. This current
gradually increases due to the gradual turning-on of the transistor and it is also increasing through the
inductor. The inductor also has an effect of slowing-down the "in-rush" of current due to the expanding
flux cutting the turns of the coil, so there is a "double-effect" on avoiding a high initial current. That's
why there is little chance of damaging the LEDs.
When it reaches 65mA, it produces a voltage of .065 x 10 = 650mV across the 10R resistor, but the
1n is pushing against this increase and it may have to rise to 150mA to turn on the BC547. LEDs can
withstand 4 times the normal current for very short periods of time and that's what happens in this
case. The BD139 is then turned off by the voltage produced by the inductor due to the collapsing
magnetic flux and a spike of high current is passed to the LEDs via the high speed diode. During each
cycle, the LEDs receive two pulses of high current and this produces a very high brightness with the
least amount of energy from the supply. All the components run "cold" and even the 1-watt LEDs are
hardly warm.
Charging and Discharging
This project is designed to use all your old NiCad cells and mobile phone batteries.
It doesn't matter if you mix up sizes and type as the circuit takes a low current and shuts off when the
voltage is approx 4v for a 6v pack.
If you mix up 600mA-Hr cells with 1650mA-Hr, 2,000mA-Hr and 2,400mA-Hr, the lowest capacity cell
will determine the operating time.
The capacity of a cells is called "C."
Normally, a cell is charged at the 14 hour-rate.
The charging current is 10% of the capacity. For a 600mA-Hr cell, this is 60mA. In 10 hours it will be
fully charged, but charging is not 100% efficient and so we allow another 2 to 4 hours.
For a 2,400mA-Hr cell, it is 240mA. If you charge them faster than 14-hr rate, they will get HOT and if
they get very hot, they may leak or even explode. But this project is designed to be charged via a
solar panel using 100mA to 200mA cells, so nothing will be damaged.
Ideally a battery is discharged at C/10 rate. This means the battery will last 10 hours and for a
600mA-Hr cell, this is 60mA. If you discharge it at the "C-rate," it will theoretically last 1 hour and the
current will be 600mA. But at 600mA, the cells may only last 45 minutes. If you discharge is at C/5
rate, it will last 5 hours.
Our project takes 120mA so no cell will be too-stressed. A 600mA-Hr cell will last about 4-5 hours,
while the other cells will last up to 24 hours. Try to keep the capacity of each cell in a "battery-pack"
[email protected]
The 390R changed to 1k. The 1n changed to 470p. Replaced the UF4004 with 4 x 1N4148 in
The result is amazing, much brighter! I can't believe it.
I put 20 white LEDs in a LED strip... and it works nicely.
Much brighter than two 1 Watt LEDs.
Colin: If the length of a ferrite rod is too short, the magnetic material will saturate and it will not
accept any more current and it will start to produce losses by heating-up. A toroid may work better
because it will accept a higher flux density because the magnetic path does not have an air gap. (a
ferrite rod is said to have an air-gap at the ends of the rod). That's why a toroid will be smaller than a
The circuit below can be modified to drive up to 30
white LEDs.
The effectiveness of a LED array increases when
they are spread out slightly and this makes them
more efficient than a single 1 watt or 2 watt LED.
The two modifications to the circuit make the BC337
work harder and this is the limit of the inductor. The
current consumption is about 95mA.
The winding details for the transformer are shown
30 LEDs on Matrix board
DRIVE 20 LEDs FROM 12v - approx 1watt circuit
This is another circuit that drives a number of LEDs or a single 1 watt LED. It is a "Buck Circuit"
and drives the LEDs in parallel. They should be graded so that the characteristic voltage-drop
across each of them is within 0.2v of all the other LEDs. The circuit will drive any number from 1 to
20 by changing the "sensor" resistor as shown on the circuit. The current consumption is about
95mA @ 12v and lower at 18v. The circuit can be put into dim mode by increasing the drive resistor
to 2k2. The UF4004 is an ultra fast 1N4004 - similar to a high-speed diode. You can use 2 x
1N4148 signal diodes.
The circuit will not drive two LEDs in series - it runs
out of voltage (and current) when the voltage across
the load is 7v. It oscillates at approx 200kHz. Build
both the 20 LED and 1 watt LED version and
compare the brightness and effectiveness.
The photo of the 1 watt LED on the left must be
heatsinked to prevent the LED overheating. The
photo on the circuit diagram shows the LED
mounted on a heatsink and the connecting wires.
A 1-watt demo board showing the complex step-up circuitry.
This is a Boost circuit to illuminate the LED and is completely different to our design. It has been
included to show the size of a 1 watt LED.
The reason for a Boost or Buck circuit to drive one or more LEDs is simple. The voltage across a
LED is called a "characteristic voltage" and comes as a natural feature of the LED. We cannot alter
it. To power the LED with exactly the correct amount of voltage (and current) you need a supply
that is EXACTLY the same as the characteristic voltage. This is very difficult to do and so a resistor
is normally added in series. But this resistor wastes a lot of energy. So, to keep the loses to a
minimum, we pulse the LED with bursts of energy at a higher voltage and the LED absorbs them
and produces light. With a Buck circuit, the transistor is turned on for a short period of time and
illuminated the LEDs. At the same time, some of the energy is passed to the inductor so that the
LEDs are not damaged. When the transistor is turned off, the energy from the inductor also gives a
pulse of energy to the LEDs. When this has been delivered, the cycle starts again.
This circuit drives a 3watt LED. You have to be careful not to damage the LED when setting up the
circuit. Add a 10R to the supply rail and hold it in your fingers. Make sure it does not get too hot and
monitor the voltage across the resistor. Each 1v represents 100mA. The circuit will work and nothing
will be damaged. If the resistor "burns your fingers" you have a short circuit.
The BC557 multivibrator has a "mark-to-space ratio" determined by the 22n and 33k, compared to the
100n and 47k, producing about 3:1 The BD679 is turned ON for about 30% of the time. This
produces a very bright output, and takes about 170mA for 30% of the time. You cannot measure this
current with a meter as it reads the peak value and the reading will be totally false. The only way to
view the waveform is on a CRO, and calculate the current.
The 100-turn inductor allows the BD679 turn turn ON fully and "separates" the voltage on the emitter
of the BC679 from the voltage on the top of the 3watt LED.
When the BD679 turns ON, the emitter rises to about 10v. But the top of the LED NEVER rises above
3.6v. The inductor "buffers" or "separates" these two voltages by producing a voltage across the
winding equal to 6.4v and that's why the LED is not damaged.
When the transistor turns off (for 60% of the time), the magnetic flux produced by the current in the
inductor collapses and produces a voltage in the opposite direction. This means the inductor now
becomes a miniature battery and for a very short period of time it produces energy to illuminate the
LED. The top of the inductor becomes negative and the bottom is positive. The current flows through
the LED and through the Ultra High-Speed 1N4004 diode to complete the circuit. Thus the circuit
takes advantage of the energy in the inductor.
A 500R pot is placed across the LED and a voltage is picked off the pot to turn on a BC547 transistor.
This transistor "robs" some of the "turn-on" for the BD679 transistor to reduce the brightness of the
Because the circuit is driving the LED with pulses, very high brightness is obtained with a low current.
Our eyes detect peak brightness and you can compare the performance of this circuit with a DC
driven LED.
This constant current circuit is designed to drive two 3-watt Luxeon
LEDs. The LEDs require 1,000mA (1Amp) and have a characteristic
voltage-drop across them of about 3.8v. Approximately 4v is dropped
across the LM317T regulator and 1.25v across the current-limiting
resistors, so the input voltage (supply) has to be 12.85v. A 12v battery
generally delivers 12.6v.
The LM 317T 3-terminal regulator will need to be heatsinked.
This circuit is designed for the LM series of regulator as they have a
voltage differential of 1.25v between "adj" and "out" terminals.
This circuit automatically turns on and illuminates the LEDs when the solar panel does not detect
any light. It switches off when the solar panel produces more than 1v and charges the battery
when the panel produces more than 1.5v + 0.6v = 2.1v
by Samuel Budiyanto [email protected]
This circuit is for all those who experience black-outs and "power-outs."
It uses a 5v charger from an old mobile phone to trickle charge a 3.6v cell or 2 x lead acid cells.
Use a small toroid about 40mm diameter or a 10mm ferrite rod 40mm long and 0.25mm wire.
Keep the charge to 10mA to 20mA and the LEDs will come on every time the power fails. My
circuit has been working for the past 7 months. If the LEDs don't illuminate with equal brightness,
change them around and they will equalise.
This circuit automatically turns on and illuminates the LEDs when the solar panel does not
detect any light. It switches off when the solar panel produces more than 0.5v above the battery
You can use any number of white LEDs. LEDS should not be connected in parallel, however
they work if you selects LEDs that produce the same brightness. Any dull LEDs can be used in
another circuit.
When the solar panel receives sunlight, the voltage on the base of the transistor keeps it turned
OFF. When the panel receives no illumination, the 470R and 1k resistors turn the transistor ON.
You can use a 6v 0.5watt or 1 watt solar panel and the first circuit uses an NPN transistor while
the second circuit uses a PNP transistor.
The output of the solar panel automatically adjusts to the voltage of the battery and as more
light is detected by the panel, the current increases.
A 0.5watt panel contains 100mA cells and a 1watt panel contains 200mA cells. The battery can
have any capacity from 600mAHr to 1800mAHr.
We are assuming the battery is used all night and is flat in the morning.
A 600mAHr battery will take 6-8 hours to fully charge with a 0.5watt panel and a 1800mAHr
battery will take 2 days to charge with a 1 watt panel.
Each white LED requires about 20mA for good brightness and the 47R resistor will have to be
adjusted to suit the battery voltage and the number of LEDs.
The third circuit uses a 12v 0.5watt or 1 watt solar panel and the circuit is much more efficient
as 3 white LEDs can be connected in series for each 20mA of current.
This circuit turns a walkie talkie into a handy wireless door phone. It saves wiring and the receiver
can be taken with you upstairs or outside, without loosing a call from a visitor.
A 5-Transistor walkie talkie can be used (see circuit above) and the modifications made to the
transmitter and receiver are shown below:
Only three sections of the transmit/ receive
switch are used in the walkie talkie circuit
and our modification uses the fourth
section. Cut the tracks to the lands of the
unused section so it can be used for our
There are a number of different printed
circuit boards on the market, all using the
same circuit and some will be physically
different to that shown in the photo. But
one of the sections of the switch will be
Build the 2-transistor delay circuit and
connect it to the walkie talkie board as
shown. When the "push-to-talk" switch is
pressed, the PC board will be activated as
the delay circuit effectively connects the
negative lead of the battery to the negative
rail of the board for about 30 seconds.
The 100u gradually discharges via the 1M
after the "press-to-talk" switch is released
and the two transistors turn off and the
current drops to less than 1 micro-amp that's why the power switch can be left
on. .
The transmitter walkie talkie is placed at
the front door and the power switch is turned on. To call, push the "push-to-talk" switch and the
"CALL" button at the same time for about 5 seconds. The circuit will activate and when the "pushto-talk" switch is released, the circuit will produce background noise for about 30 seconds and you
will hear when call is answered.
The "push-to-talk" switch is then used to talk to the other end and this will activate the circuit for a
further 30 seconds. If the walkie talkie does not have a "CALL" switch, 3 components can be added
to provide feedback, as shown in the circuit below, to produce a tone.
The receiver circuit needs modification and a 2-transistor circuit is added. This circuit detects the
tone and activates the 3-transistor direct-coupled amplifier so that the speaker produces a tone.
The receiver circuit is switched on and the 2-transistor circuit we connect to the PC board
effectively turns on the 3-transistor amplifier so that the quiescent current drops from 10mA to
about 2-3mA. It also mutes the speaker as the amplifier is not activated. The circuit remains on all
the time so it will be able to detect a "CALL." When a tone is picked up by the first two transistors in
the walkie talkie, it is passed to the first transistor in our "add-on" section and this transistor
produces a signal with sufficient amplitude to remove the charge on the 1u electrolytic. This
switches off the second transistor and this allows the 3-transistor amplifier to pass the tone to the
speaker. The operator then slides a switch called "OPERATE" to ON (down) and this turns on the
3-transistor amplifier. Pressing the "push-to-talk" switch (labelled T/R) allows a conversation with
the person at the door. Slide the "OPERATE" switch up when finished.
The receiver walkie talkie with the 2-transistor "add-on"
A Schmitt Trigger is any circuit that has a fast change-over from one
state to the other. In our case we have used 2 transistors to produce this
effect and the third is an emitter-follower buffer.
The circuit will drive a LED or relay and the purpose is to turn the LED
ON quickly at a particular level of illumination and OFF at a higher level.
The gap between ON and OFF is called the HYSTERESIS GAP.
The following circuit is a Schmitt Trigger made with NPN and PNP
The following circuit is another Schmitt Trigger made with NPN and PNP
transistors. The 100k "stop resistor" on the 100k prevents the circuit
turning ON when the pot is near the supply rail.
This simple circuit will allow you to tape-record a conversation from a phone line.
It must be placed between the plug on the wall and the phone.
The easiest way is to cut an extension lead. Wind 300-500 turns of 0.095mm wire on a
plastic straw and place the reed switch inside. Start with 300 turns and see if the reed
switch activates, Keep adding turns until the switch is reliable.
Fit two 100n capacitors to the ends of the winding for the audio. Plug the Audio into "Mic"
on tape recorder. Plug the remote into "remote" on the tape recorder and push "record."
The tape recorder will turn on when the phone is lifted and record the conversation.
The circuit is turned off when the phone line is 45v as the voltage divider
made up of the 470k, 1M and 100k puts 3.5v on the base of the first
BC557 transistor. If you are not able to cut the lead to the phone, the
circuit above will record a conversation from an extension lead. The
remote plug must be wired around the correct way for the motor to
Two circuits are available to show when a phone is being used. The first circuit must be placed
between the socket on the wall and the phone - such as cutting into the lead and insert the bridge
and diode.
But if you cannot cut the lead to the phone, you will have to add an extension cord and place the
second circuit at the end of the line. You can also connect a phone at the end if needed.
PHONE ALERT-2 (for mobile phone)
This circuit detects the RF when the phone is communicating with the tower during the
hand-shaking prior to it ringing.
The 1SS86 is a Silicon Schottky Barrier Diode for UHF circuits and is 100 times more
sensitive than a 1N4148 signal diode. Many of the "clone" 1SS86 diodes (fake or really
another type of diode) sold on eBay NOT NOT WORK. The characteristics of the 1SSS86
are really amazing.
This is an ideal circuit to test different diodes.
The first transistor is biased ON and the signal (waveform) developed across the coil
takes the cathode end of the diode NEGATIVE for part of the cycle and this puts a slightly
lower voltage on the left lead of the 10n capacitor. The right-lead follows and a slightly
lower voltage is applied to the base of the transistor. The transistor turns OFF slightly and
this effect is passed to the other two transistors to flash the LED.
With 1N4148, the phone must be 10cm from the project. With a 1SS86 it can be one
metre away. The circuit takes about 1mA.
A kit is available from Talking Electronics for $3.00 plus $4.50 postage. The project is built
on Matrix Board as shown in the drawing above. Phone Alert kit
This circuit consists of a 4-transistor amplifier and a 3-transistor "switch" that detects when the
phone line is in use, and turns on the amplifier. The voltage divider at the front end produces about
11v on the base of the first BC557 and this keeps the transistor off. Switch the unit off when
removed from the phone line.
PHONE TRANSMITTER - 1 see also Phone Bug circuit in: 101-200 circuits
The circuit will transmit a phone conversation to an FM radio on the 88-108MHz band. It uses energy from the
phone line to transmit about 100metres. It uses the phone wire as the antenna and is activated when the phone is
picked up. The components are mounted on a small PC board and the lower photo clearly shows the track-work.
PHONE TRANSMITTER - 2 see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)
The circuit will transmit a phone conversation to an FM radio on the 88-108MHz
band. It uses energy from the phone line to transmit about 200metres. It uses
the phone wire as the antenna and is activated when the phone is picked up.
PHONE TRANSMITTER - 3 see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)
This circuit has poor features but you can try it and see how it performs. It uses
a PNP transistor and requires a separate antenna. It also has a supply of less
than 1.9v, via the red LED. It would be better to put 2 LEDs in series to get a
higher voltage. It is activated when the phone is picked up.
see also Phone Bug (101-200 circuits)
The circuit was originally designed by me and presented in Poptronics magazine. It will
transmit a phone conversation to an FM radio on the 88-108MHz band. It uses energy
from the phone line to transmit about 200metres and uses the phone wire as the antenna.
It is activated when the phone is picked up. The 22p air trimmer is shown as well as the 3
coils. Q2 is a buffer transistor between the oscillator and phone line and will provide a
higher output than the previous circuits.
This simple circuit delivers audio to the phone
line from the "audio-out" of a tape recorder or
Adjust the volume control of the radio to
produce a suitable level of audio.
Use 400v capacitors to be on the safe-side.
A simple robot can be made with 2 motors and two light-detecting circuits, (identical to the circuit above).
The robot is attracted to light and when the light dependent resistor sees light, its resistance decreases.
This turns on the BC547 and also the BC557. The shaft of the motor has a rubber foot that contacts the
ground and moves the robot. The two pots adjust the sensitivity of the LDRs. This kit is available from
Velleman as kit number MK127.
Thus is one of the simplest and cleverest circuits ever produced (by Ron:
Ron says: It produces a complete pulse every time the button is pressed.
When the button is pressed, the output goes low for 3uS and produces a
pulse to activate the clock-line of a chip. Our circuit produced 100%
reliability and the cap takes 0.1sec to discharge.
The circuit does not have any filtering to prevent switch noise as it relying on
the fact that a single pulse is produced in 3uS and the circuit assumes no
switch noise can be produced in that time-interval.
100 more transistor circuits:
101-200 Circuits
Go to Talking Electronics website: HERE
for "new page" format click:
All the resistor colours:
See 101-200 Circuits for resistors in parallel and series and
capacitors in parallel and series. You can make ANY VALUE by simply
connecting resistors in parallel or series. And the same with capacitors.
Live Traffic Stats
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF