Thunderbolt over Type-C Overcoming Test Challenges

Thunderbolt over Type-C Overcoming Test Challenges
Thunderbolt over Type-C
Overcoming Test Challenges
June, 2016
Juliana Fabricio Freire
Keysight Technologies
Engenheira de Aplicações
juliana.freire@keysight.com
Agenda
– Thunderbolt 3 Overview
– Measurement Challenges
– Tx Testing Solution
– Return Loss Testing
– Power Delivery Testing
– Rx Testing Solution
– Summary
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2
What is Thunderbolt?
– Thunderbolt features two bidirectional (full duplex) channels that run up to
20Gbps each and allows daisy-chaining of up to six devices.
– Passive or active Cable
– Thunderbolt tunnels two protocols (PCI Express and DisplayPort) when
running in native Thunderbolt mode.
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Evolution of Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt 1
4-lane
10 Gbps
2ch 10Gbps
2011
Thunderbolt 2
4-lane
10 Gbps
1ch 20Gbps
2013
Thunderbolt 3
4-lane
20 Gbps
1ch 40Gbps
2015
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Thunderbolt 3 Overview
– Announced in Q2 2015
– Uses the Type-C connector
– Channel aggregation: two independent 20Gbps links into one logical 40Gbps link
– Supports other standards through ALT mode
– Cost competitive vs multi-chip, discrete, mux solutions
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More Speed
– 40Gb/s Thunderbolt™ 3
• Bi-directional, PCI Express and DisplayPort
• Four lanes of PCI Express Gen 3
• Eight lanes of DisplayPort 1.2
– Native USB 3.1 (up to 10Gb/s)
– Native DisplayPort 1.2
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More Possibilities
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Configurations
– Daisy-chain up to six devices if the link is in Thunderbolt mode
– Second device port operates the same as computer port and supports Thunderbolt, USB,
and DisplayPort devices
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Agenda
– Thunderbolt 3 Overview
– Measurement Challenges
– Tx Testing Solution
– Return Loss Testing
– Rx Testing Solution
– Power Delivery Testing
– Summary
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Testing Methodology
– PHY testing approach will be similar to Thunderbolt 2
- Tx, Rx, and Return Loss
- PD for Type-C Alternate Mode
- DP, USB for Type-C
– Keysight can help with pre-compliance testing
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Measurement Challenges
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Measurement Challenges
How do I
ensure the
transmitter is
in spec?I
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Measurement Challenges
How do I
ensure the
transmitter is
in spec?I
Is my receiver
capable to
dectect signal
reliably at
40Gb/s?I
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Measurement Challenges
How do I
ensure the
transmitter is
in spec?I
Do I need to
purchase Test
Equipment for
Thunderbolt, USB
and DisplayPort?I
Is my receiver
capable to
dectect signal
reliably at
40Gb/s?I
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Type-C Design and Test Challenges: Overview
Tx
Tx
Cable
Transmitter Test
Interconnect Test
Rx
Receiver Test
USB 3.1
USB 2.0
Alternate modes
USB 3.1
USB 2.0
Alternate modes
Power Delivery
Power Delivery
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USB 3.1 TX Compliance Application
Keysight solution features:
 Support USB3.1 Gen1/Gen2
 USB-IF Sigtest & Keysight SDA
algorithm
 CTLE Adc scan
 Support live & saved
waveforms
 USB-IF and customer’s
embedded transfer function
 External instrument for
triggering SCD1/2, LBPM and
toggle Compliance Pattern
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Simulation-Measurement Correlation Challenge
Simulation…
Design and simulate
Bridging script generates report
Physical Measurements…
Prototype in lab
≠
Scope compliance application
Type-C Revolution
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Simulation Test Solutions: Advanced Design System
Type-C Revolution
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Physical Layer Testing: High speed data lanes
Transmitter Test
TX
TP2
TP3
Transmitters are tested with testpoints TP2 or TP3Eq
Acquisition is at TP2 or TP3
TP2: fixture(TPA) is connected directly to
device
TP3Eq
TP3Eq:
TP2 acq with cable model + Eq Math, or,
TP3 acq + Eq Math
TPA
TPA
Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope
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Physical Layer Testing: High speed data lanes
Transmitter Testpoints
Acquisition
Standard
TP2
TP3
x
TP3Eq
Y
Y
Comments
USB3.1compliance
USB3.1 pre-comp
USB3.1 has various fixtures
One connection testing.
Test Mode signal compliance patterns
x
TBT3
x
DP1.4
x
Y
D10.2, PRBS7, HBR2CPAT
MHL3.3
x
Y
BIST randomized PRBS
PRBS31 is effectively random data signal.
Each Standard has its own suite of tests each with their own particular
measurement processes.
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Tx: Compliance Test Overview: USB 3.1, MHL, DP, TB
• Multiple Compliance
Applications Releasing
into the Type-C EcoSystem
• USB 3.1 U7243B
• DP 1.3 U7232D
• Thunderbolt N6463B
• MHL 3.3 N6460B
• USB PD N8840A
An Entire Eco-System Enabled
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Tx: Compliance Test Overview: New High Speed Fixture
• Highest signal integrity Type-C test fixture
•
Type-C plug interface fixture handling
connector “flip”
•
Compliance test capability for USB 3.1,
DisplayPort 1.3, Thunderbolt 2/3, MHL
•
Best signal integrity: 20 GHz bandwidth
(at -3 dB), de-embeddable up to 30 GHz
•
Provides test point and probing access
for transmitter and power delivery
measurements
•
Provides the elements to seamlessly
leverage Keysight’s portfolio of compliance
test applications
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Tx: Special Decoders and Triggers for the Type-C Ecosystem
USB Power Delivery Decode
• Industry’s only hardware based triggering
• Time aligned decoding
• Set up the entire trigger in 30 seconds
• Quickly scan through numerous events
USB 3.1 Decode
• Industry’s only USB 3.1 decoder
• Time aligned decoding
• Quickly scan through numerous events
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Physical Layer Testing: High speed data lane control
Standard/
Device
Needed for Control of device under test
All
Power Delivery Controller is required to set VBus setting, current or charge level
if any, consumer or provider and to initiate alternate modes.
USB3.1TX
Compliance Mode by termination and LFPS ping, LBPM testing by LBPM initial
simulation. HSETT for Hosts/Hubs
USB3.1 RX
Link Training Simulation through discovery and equalization processes to get
into loopback.
TBT
TenLira SW from Intel to set up patterns and data rates
DP1.4 TX
Type C to DP adapter, DP Reference Sink, DPCD test modes active
DP1.4 RX
Type C to DP adapter, DP Reference Source, DPCD error counting active
MHL3.3
eCbus Controller and fixtures
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Thunderbolt 3 Transmitter Test
–
–
–
–
–
–
25GHz BW required for compliance testing, more if closer to the silicon
Thunderbolt-specific SW (Imaginarium, TenLira, TCL, scripts)
Crosstalk generator
Type-C test fixture
UI, SSC, Rise/Fall, Jitter, Eye Diagram Near End/Far End
New Preset testing and optimization for 10.3G and 20.6G
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Thunderbolt TX and RX testing setup
Intel T68 Ref Board
TX Lane0/1
RX Lane0/1
TBT
Microcontroller
(put the device
in test mode)
USB to Host
SW
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Type-C Design and Test Challenges: Overview
Tx
Tx
Cable
Transmitter Test
Interconnect Test
Rx
Receiver Test
USB 3.1
USB 2.0
Alternate modes
USB 3.1
USB 2.0
Alternate modes
Power Delivery
Power Delivery
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Type-CTM Cable/Connector Challenges
• Significant loss at higher frequencies require more rigorous approach to removing
fixture effects, to measure the true performance of the device
• Channel response affected by many features in channel (loss, reflection,
crosstalk, mode conversion)
• Managing EMI and RFI levels from the cable assembly
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Type-CTM Cable/Connector Challenges
ENA-TDR Enhanced Time Domain Analysis Option with ECal
Module (N4433A)
• Significant loss at higher frequencies require
more rigorous approach to removing fixture
effects
 2x thru de-embedding, or TRL calibration
• Channel response affected by many features
in channel (loss, reflection, crosstalk, mode
conversion)
 Paradigm shift from traditional parametric
testing to stressed eye testing (Channel
Metrics/Margin)
• Managing EMI and RFI levels from the cable
assembly
 Cable Shielding Effectiveness
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Type-CTM Cable/Connector Challenges
•ENA Mainframe
•E5071C-4D5: 4-port, 300 kHz to 14 GHz
•E5071C-4K5: 4-port, 300 kHz to 20 GHz
•Enhanced Time Domain Analysis Option (E5071C-TDR)
•ECal Module (N4433A)
(*) The list above includes the major equipment required. Please contact our local sales
representative for configuration details.
MOI
(Method of
Implementation)
Step-by-step procedure on
how to measure the
specified parameters in the
specification document
using ENA Option TDR.
•Method of Implementation (MOI)
document and instrument setup file
will be made available for download
on Keysight.com
Test Fixtures
Fixtures are available for purchase
through Luxshare-ICT.
http://web.luxshare-ict.com/en/
ENA Option TDR is a authorized test tool for Cable PHY.
http://www.vesa.org/displayport-developer/certified-components/
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Type-CTM Cable/Connector Challenges
– DUT output PRBS31 on all lanes with SSC turned on
– Setup the Network Analyzer with automated measurements specific to
Thunderbolt 3
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Type-C Design and Test Challenges: Overview
Tx
Tx
Cable
Transmitter Test
Interconnect Test
Rx
Receiver Test
USB 3.1
USB 2.0
Alternate modes
USB 3.1
USB 2.0
Alternate modes
Power Delivery
Power Delivery
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Receiver Testing: High speed data lanes
Review: Link Budget
RX
TX
Channel: a cable with a
worst case loss characteristic
TX: Minimum Signal Fidelity





Minimum and maximum amplitude
TX Pre-Emphasis/Equalization
TX Jitter
Amplitude noise
Transition time/BW




Minimum Amplitude
RX Equalization
Jitter tolerance
Crosstalk
RX: Minimum Eye In (the impaired eye)
Receiver Detector
A link with:
-a transmitter with minimum signal fidelity performance with,
-a cable that exhibits worst case characteristic (or better) and,
-a receiver that passes minimum eye requirement,
-> is guaranteed to work!
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BER Out
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Receiver Testing: High speed data lanes
Receiver Model
Signal In
TPn
TPn
TPn
Equalizer
Detector
Data Out
010001011…
TPnEq
CTLE
Continuous
Time Linear
Equalizer
DFE
Decision
Feedback
Equalizer
TPnEq
The CTLE and
the DFE are
mathematically
implemented
TPnEq
on an
oscilloscope
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Receiver Testing: High speed data lanes
High Quality Coax
JBERT
Adjustable Pattern
Generator
ISI
(i.e. Cable)
TPA
TPA
Mating C fixtures
Oscilloscope
Calibration: acquisition and mathematical processing for Equalization and Eye
measurement to meet impaired eye requirement.
ISI
(i.e. Cable)
TPA
BER Analysis
Adjustable Pattern
Generator
Test: Apply impaired signal, measure BER
BER testing by:
-Loop back and BERT measurement.
-DUT Internal mode reporting BER
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Receiver Testing: High speed data lanes
Standard
USB3.1
CTLE
x
DFE
x
TBT3
DP1.4
x
MHL3.3
x
x
BER Method
Comments
Loopback
Requires sophisticated protocol aware pattern
generator to go through the link training process
Internal
PRBS31
Internal
HBR2CPAT (2520 bit pattern)
Internal
BIST randomized PRBS
Each Standard has its own ‘cocktail’
of jitter components and level
settings to create the impaired eye.
These components of jitter are
measured by oscilloscope during
Impaired
calibration process.
M8020A JBERT
eye
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Thunderbolt - Jitter Impairment Calibration for RX testing
Host / Device 10G & 20G
Inner eye
Voltage
Test Case
(mV peak)
1
350
2
35
Random
Jitter
(UI pp)
0.14
0.14
Periodic
Jitter
(UI pp)
0.17
0.17
Total Jitter
(UI pp)
0.38
0.66
Note:
1. The device should be tested by injecting several different periodic jitter
components, one at a time. The test should include at least the
following sinusoidal jitter frequencies: 1MHz, 2 MHz, 10 MHz,
50MHz, and 100MHz.
2. AC common-mode noise should be added at the pattern-generator for
ensuring worst-case transmitter characteristics. The total commonmode noise should be 100mV peak-to-peak, where the added noise
profile shall be sine-wave at frequency not smaller than 400MHz.
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Thunderbolt – Test Cases and Calibration Points
Test Case 1
Active Cable
Test Case 2
Passive Cable
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Receiver Testing: USB RX Test-Loopback
Powerup
Rx.
Detect.
Reset
Rx.
Detect.
Active
warm reset
de-assert
Compliance
warm
reset
Rx.
Detect.
Reset
Polling.
LFPS
termination
detected
Rx.
Detect.
Active
Polling.
LFPS
Plus
Polling.
Portmatch
SCD1 LFPS SCD2 LFPS
handshake handshake
Polling.
LFPS
Polling.
LFPS
Plus
Polling.
Port
Config
PHY
Capability
LBPM
handshake
Polling.
Portmatch
Polling.
RxEQ
PHY
Ready
LBPM
handshake
Polling.
Port
Config
TSEQ
transmitted
Polling.
RxEQ
Polling.
Configuration
Polling.
Active
TS1
received
Polling.
Active
Polling.
Idle
TS2
received
Polling.
Configuration
Loopback
if directed
Polling.
Idle
Loopback
multiple states
Powerup
The DUT must brought through the whole link training state machine in order to get to
the loopback state.
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Receiver Testing: USB3.1 Loopback Training tool
• USB Link Training Suite is
a trainings sequence
generation tool for USB3.1
Gen1/2
• Easy manipulation of
• SCD1/SCD2/LBPM
cycles
• TSEQ count
• TS1 count
• TS2 count
• LFPS parameters
adjustment:
• tPeriod, tBurst,
tRepeat, tPWM….
M8020A JBERT
• Choice of:
• Power On sequence
• Warm Reset sequence
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Thunderbolt System and testpoints
TBT
ASIC
test board
active cable
m
DP
m
DP
test
board
Tx Eye
Mask
Rx Eye test
board
Mask
Test controller boards and text
fixtures are developed by Wilder
Technologies,
can be procured through Agilent
TBT
ASIC
test board
The active cable provides a very robust channel which doesn’t need any
kind of link training (unlike PCIe 3 for example). Therefore Rx and Tx
physical layer compliance test is rather simple and straight forward.
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Agenda
– Thunderbolt 3 Overview
– Measurement Challenges
– Tx Testing Solution
– Return Loss Testing
– Power Delivery Testing
– Rx Testing Solution
– Summary
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N7016A Type-C low speed signal access and control fixture
•Access to CC1, CC2, SBU1, SBU2, VBUS and
GND
•Controls to terminate CC1, CC2
independently (RA, RP, RD)
•Control to load VCONN
•External power for power consumers
•Type C receptacle to plug into other devices
or cables (Port 2)
•USB2.0 interface for external control from
application or standalone SW on a PC
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N8837A USB-PD Protocol Trigger and Decode
• Support for the USB-PD CC 4b/5b
BMC encoded protocol.
• On-screen serial decode
synchronized with the serial
waveform
• 4b, 5b or Label display formats
• Unique listing-window view of data
transfer information with an
automatic click and zoom and
column sort.
• Serial packet search with navigation
controls
• Software trigger on search for orders
Sets, Control Packets, Data Packets,
and Errors.
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Power Delivery: Physical Layer Compliance Test
• Keysight Infiniium S-Series Oscilloscope
o N2873A Standard Passive Probes for CC and
VBUS
• 1147B Current Probe for Load Current
• GRL-USB-PD Power Delivery SW
• USB-PD Coupon(s) from Wilder-Tech or LuxshareICT (USB3.1-C-PDC or TF21-215G USB-PD
Coupon)
• GRL-USB-PD-C1 Controller
• Keysight Power Supply and Load
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5992-1463EN.pdf
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Power Delivery: Physical Layer Compliance Test
Chapter 5
Page
Power Delivery: Power Supply Profile Test
Chapter 7
• Chapter 7: Power Supply
- Depending on Power Profile 1-5
- Source or Load Requirements
- Considering explicit Watts and Voltage
Page
Power Solutions for Type-C PD
Choose from these instruments that meet the requirements
N6700 series
N6705B
N3301A
N3303A
N6752A
N6705B DC Power Analyzer or N6700 Modular
Power System with N6752A DC power module
Source: 50V, 10A, 100W
N3301A System DC Electronic
Load with N3303A load module
Load: 240V, 10A, 250W
– Sourcing and Loading
N6752A high performance DC source module and N3303A DC electronic load module meet stringent
combination of requirements for slew rate, transient response and power demands of USB PD 2.0
validation testing
– Most ordinary power products do not meet the necessary combination of requirements
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USB-PD Power Integrity Measurements
• Supply drift
• PARD (Periodic and Random
Disturbances)—noise, ripple and
switching transients on power
rails.
• Static and dynamic load
response.
• Programmable power rail
response.
• High frequency transients and
noise.
• Product electrical validation at
extended temperatures.
50
Page
Large DC Offset—Probe Offset or DC Block
USB 5V supply
USB 5V supply
Using Probe Offset
Using a DC Block
(misses DC and low frequency content)
DC Block
51
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N7020A Power Rail Probe
Characteristics and Specifications: N7020A Power Rail Probe
Probe Bandwidth (-3dB)
2GHz
Attenuation Ratio
1:1
Offset Range
± 24V
* Input Impedance @ DC
50kΩ +/-2%
Active Signal Range
± 850mV about offset voltage
Probe Noise
10% increase to the noise of the connected oscilloscope
Probe Type
Single-ended
N7021A—Coaxial Probe Head (qty 3) ($175 us)
Included accessories
N7022A –Main Cable ($240)
Maximum non-destructive input voltage
+/-30V (DC + peak AC)
Output impedance
50Ω
Cable length
N7021A Main Cable: 48”
N7022A Coaxial Probe Head: 8”
Ambient operating temperature
Probe Pod: 0 – 40°C,
N7021A main cable, N7022A coaxial probe head: 0 – 85° C
52
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N8833A Crosstalk Analysis Tool
– Helps in identifying, quantifying and removal of
crosstalk for analysis.
– Analyze up to four signals at once
– Identify the aggressor(s)
– Identify the victim
– NEXT and FEXT
– Power supply analysis (aggressor and victim)
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USB-PD Test Solutions Overview
– N7020A PD Probe
– N7016A PD Test Fixture
– N8837A PD Decode SW
– N8833A Crosstalk Analysis SW
– Portfolio of Power Sources and Loads
– GRL USB-PD PHY Compliance Solution
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Example Device
Your Type C device is USB3.1 Gen2 enabled and has a DP TX alt mode (4
lane) and will be a power provider at 18W profile
You will need to address:
Standard
Protocol
Phy Layer
USBPD2
X
X (PD Comm on cc1 and cc2, I and V
for Vbus)
USB2.0
X
X (RX & TX)
USB3.1
X
X (HSD: RX & TX)
DP1.4
X
X (HSD: TX)/AUX Channel
Focus on the New
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Example Device: Getting Started
First step…..Signal Observation, Access and Control.
– Consider test fixtures N7015A, N7016 and the flexibility they bring.
– Phase matched cables. Adapters etc.
CC1/2 VBus
– Acquire various link partners
SBUs
USB2
TXRX Ports
N7015A USB Type C
High Speed Fixture
N7016A USB Type C
Low Speed Fixture
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Example Device: Power Delivery
Power Delivery
Compliance Software
Test coupon
PDC
S series Oscilloscope
Power Supply/Load
Voltage probe Current probe
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Example Device: USB3.1 RX
Port 1
Plug Fixture RX
TX
RX
TX
Mating
Fixture
V series Oscilloscope
Port 2
CLE1000
Calibration Setup
Plug Fixture
RX
TX
RX
TX
Port 1
Port 2
Signal Access and
Control Fixture
Power Supply/Load
ISI
Test Setup
ISI
CLE1000
PDC
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Example Device: DisplayPort TX
Probe for AUX
channel
Plug Fixture
TX
TX
TX
TX
Port 1
Direct
Or
Diff Probe
Port 2
V series Oscilloscope
DPR100
C-DP cable
Power Supply/Load
Signal Access
And Control Fixture
PDC
alt mode control
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Keysight DisplayPort1.3 Solutions
Source Test Solution
Media Testing
Sink Test Solution
Link Layer
& General
Solutions
Protocol Debug solution
Computer Motherboards,
ICs, Graphic Cards
Cables, PC Boards,
Connectors
V-Series Infiniium
Oscilloscopes
Unigraf DPR-100 U7232D DisplayPort
For automation Compliance Test SW
STD/mDP
USB C
Artek CLE1000
E5071C ENA
M8020A JBERT
Unigraf DPT-200
N4915A-006
for Automation
DP ISI Generation
STD/mDP
STD/mDP
Granite River Labs
GRL-DP-DEC
PC Monitors
USB C
USB C
BIT-DP-RTF-0002 Luxshare Rec
Wilder TPA
N7015A TPA
BIT-DP-CBL-0002
Luxshare Rec
N5990A Rx
Compliance
Test SW
Wilder TPA
N7015A TPA
Main Link
Analysis
16900A w/FS4430
From FuturePlus
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Thunderbolt 3 – Total Solution
Transmitter Test
Return Loss Test
Thunderbolt
Transmitter Test
Software
SW
Receiver Test
N5990A Automatic
SW for TBT
compliance
E5071C
Option TDR
ENA Network
Analyzer
TBT-TPAUGH2
Controller
HW
M8020A J-BERT HighPerformance Serial BERT TBT-TPA-UGH2
Controller
M8062A 32 Gb/s Multiplexer
with De-emphasis
or
V-Series Infiniium
Oscilloscope
86100D
DCA-X
81160A
Common Mode Source
Fixture
DUT
Rx
Tx
Cable
Error
counter
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Keysight USB 3.1/DP Test Solution
Design Simulation, USB-PD, and Channel Characterization
Transmitter Test
SW
Interconnect Test
Receiver Test
N5990A
USB Compliance
Test Software
U7243B
USB Compliance
Test Software
M8020A J-BERT HighPerformance Serial BERT
HW
Fixture
DSAV254A
Infiniium
Scope
E5071C ENA Option TDR
Rx Test Fixture
from USB-IF
N7015A/16A
Tx Test Fixture
Cable/Connector
Test Fixture
DUT
Tx
Tx
Rx
Cable
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Advantages of Keysight Solution
– Keysight is the only vendor approved for Tx, Rx as well as Return Loss
Testing
– Compliance Test Specification conformant test setup, characterization and
test
– Simple, repeatable automated and unattended calibration and test execution
using automation SW for Tx and Rx Test
– All Type-C PHY standards are addressed by Keysight’s Test platform
• Thunderbolt
• USB
• DisplayPort
– Keysight can help with pre-compliance testing
Thunderbolt over Type-C Overcoming Test
Challenges
Page
63
Questions?
Juliana Fabricio Freire
Keysight Technologies
Engenheira de Aplicações
juliana.freire@keysight.com
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