X.25 Configuration Basics

X.25 Configuration Basics
Vanguard Managed Solutions
Vanguard Applications Ware
Basic Protocols
X.25 Configuration Basics Manual
Notice
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Notice (continued)
Proprietary Material
Information and software in this document are proprietary to Vanguard Managed
Solutions (or its Suppliers) and without the express prior permission of an officer of
Vanguard Managed Solutions, may not be copied, reproduced, disclosed to others,
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being made available. Use of software described in this document is subject to the
terms and conditions of the Vanguard Managed Solutions Software License
Agreement.
This document is for information purposes only and is subject to change without
notice.
Part No. T0107, Rev J
Publication Code DS
Printing August 1998
Manual is current for Release 6.2 of Vanguard Applications Ware.
To comment on this manual, please send e-mail to [email protected]
Contents
Chapter 1. X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
OSI Layers and X.25 Functionality ..............................................................
Theory of Operation .....................................................................................
Communications Ports ..................................................................................
Vanguard DTE and DCE Ports .................................................................
EIA Connection Types ..................................................................................
SIMP (Simple) Connections ....................................................................
DTR Connections .....................................................................................
DTRD Connections ..................................................................................
DTRP Connections ...................................................................................
DIMO Connections ..................................................................................
EMRI/EMDC Connections ......................................................................
1-2
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-13
1-15
1-23
Chapter 2. Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application .................................................
Configuring the Node Record ..................................................................
Configuring the Port Record ....................................................................
Configuring the LAN Connections ..........................................................
Configuring the Mnemonic Table ............................................................
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface ..................................................................
Booting the Node or Port .........................................................................
X.25 Configuration Parameters ....................................................................
Port Record Configuration Parameters ....................................................
Best Path Routing .....................................................................................
Periodic SVC Billing ................................................................................
Configuring X.25 Options to Prevent Routing Loops .............................
Configuring an X.25 Port for Suppression of Call Rerouting ..................
Limiting Calls Between Ports ..................................................................
D-bit Modification ...................................................................................
Call Redirection .......................................................................................
Call Facility Manipulation for Inbound Calls ..........................................
Call Facility Manipulation for Outbound Calls .......................................
Link Address Negotiation for Dial On Demand ......................................
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-9
2-14
2-15
2-28
2-29
2-30
2-57
2-58
2-60
2-61
2-62
2-63
2-65
2-66
2-69
2-71
v
Contents (continued)
Chapter 3. Configuring Call Translation Functions
Inbound Call Translation Table Record ........................................................
Inbound Call Translation Table Record Parameters .................................
Outbound Call Translation Table Record .....................................................
Outbound Call Translation Table Record Parameters ..............................
Configuring the REGSO Option ..................................................................
Configuring Mnemonic Calls ...................................................................
Searching for and Deleting an Address ....................................................
Calling Address Translation Table Record ...................................................
Calling Address Translation Table Record Parameters ............................
CUD Based Address Translation Table ........................................................
Call Redirection Table ..................................................................................
Call Redirection Table Parameters ...........................................................
3-2
3-4
3-5
3-7
3-9
3-12
3-13
3-16
3-18
3-19
3-21
3-23
Chapter 4. Statistics
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics ..........................................................
Port Statistics Screen ................................................................................
T1/E1 Interface Statistics ..............................................................................
4-2
4-3
4-10
Chapter 5. Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
How Delay Path Tracing Works ...................................................................
Delay Measurement Test ..............................................................................
Accessing Delay Path Tracing .................................................................
Running A Delay Measurement Test .......................................................
Terminating Delay Path Tracing Measurement ........................................
Delay Path Tracing Measurement Reporting ...........................................
Chapter 6. Logical Channel Number Maps
Chapter 7. X.25 Facility Codes
Index
vi
5-4
5-11
5-12
5-16
5-17
5-19
Chapter 1
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
Overview
This chapter provides a brief explanation of the OSI model, as it applies to X.25 and
the basic theory of operation for the X.25 protocol. It explains what the protocol is,
how it works, and defines the port types available when using X.25.
What Is X.25
X.25 is the protocol used to connect devices with DTE and DCE interfaces, such as
the Vanguard family of products, to Packet Switched Data Networks (PSDN). In
X.25, a data stream is segmented (packetized) into small packets, and transmitted
over a physical connection.
X.25 uses a virtual call service which establishes an end-to-end path through the
packet network and permits virtual circuit service to simulate dialed circuit switch
connections. X.25 is capable of multiplexing up to 4096 logical channels (virtual
circuits) on a single access link.
Packet Structure
Each packet contains a header and the data segment, as shown in Figure 1-1.
Header
Data
Trailer
Figure 1-1. The X.25 Packet Structure
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
1-1
OSI Layers and X.25 Functionality
OSI Layers and X.25 Functionality
Introduction
The structure of X.25 follows the seven layer OSI model shown in Figure 1-2, and
roughly corresponds to the lower three layers: Physical, Link, and Network.
Application
The Network layer
manages the connection
end to end, as shown in
Figure 1-3, through a
PSDN.
The Link layer in an OSI model
corresponds to the X.25
function called Link Access
Procedure-Balanced (LAP-B).
LAP-B provides Link
Management, Error and Flow
Control, and Failure Recovery.
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Link
Physical
The Physical layer in an OSI model
allows X.25 to manage transmission
across a physical connection, such
as EIA-232 (RS-232) or X.21bis, in
any PSDN.
Figure 1-2. OSI Model
1-2
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
OSI Layers and X.25 Functionality
OSI/X.25 Example
Figure 1-3 illustrates and example network in which the OSI/X.25 Model is
identified. The Physical layer applies to the connection from one device to a PSDN.
The Link layer (LAP-B) applies to the connections from one device to a second
device such as a DTE port to a DCE port. The Network layer is represented by the
between ports on Vanguard devices.
End To End Management Via Network Layer
Link to Link
Management
via LAP-B Layer
X.25 PSDN
X.25
Node
X.25 DTE
Port
(Sender)
X.25
Node
X.25 DCE Ports
X.25 DCE
Port
(Receiver)
Connection to Connection
Management via the
Physical Layer
Figure 1-3. Network Example of OSI/X.25 Connections
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
OSI Layers and X.25 Functionality
Link Access
Procedure Balanced (LAPD
LAP-B is used to manage the transfer of data using frames. Each frame is divided
into three specific segments: the header, data, and the trailer. Each segment is further
divided into fields as shown in Figure 1-4.
Data
Header
Flag
Address
Control
Trailer
Frame Check
Sequence
User Data
Flag
Figure 1-4. X.25 Segment and Field Structure
Each field contains information generated by the frames sending device. This
information is read by the receiving device to perform the link functions required.
These functions are:
• Link Management. This includes management functions such as accepting or
rejecting data frames, disconnecting the link, and setting link response modes.
These frames contain commands and responses to coordinate and maintain
the link.
• Error Control. LAP-B provides error detection and correction by ensuring that
data is transferred across the link accurately. The sending device sequentially
numbers each frame it sends and fills in the Frame Check Sequence field with
a number it calculates from information derived from the frame contents. The
receiving device performs the same calculation and compares it to the frame
contents. If the frame data is corrupted, the receiver uses the Link
Management frame to tell the sender to resend the corrupted frame. Of course,
the corrupted frame is identified by its sequence number. An acknowledgment
is sent back to the sending device when a correct frame is received.
• Flow Control. This refers to a process in which the receiving device tells the
sender to stop transmitting data when memory (storage or display) limitations
are reached. If the receiving device senses that it is nearing its memory
limitation, it does not send out the acknowledgment signal to the sender. Once
sufficient memory is available, the acknowledgment is send and the sending
device continues to send its data.
• Failure Recovery. LAP-B provides failure recovery through the frame
sequencing and acknowledgment schema. This allows LAP-B to remember
the status of any failed link. Once the failure is corrected, the link will resume
sending and receiving data.
One interesting consideration to take note of is that many private PSDNs
provide multiple paths for data to follow. In these cases, an alternate path is
always available should a link fail. The benefit of these multiple links is that
when a call is in progress and the link fails, the call is not disconnected. The
alternate route is automatically used and the call continues.
1-4
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
Theory of Operation
Theory of Operation
Introduction
This section describes what occurs when you:
• Connect to a Vanguard device
• Enter the Command mode
• Communicate in Data mode
Connecting to A
Vanguard Device
Before you can send commands to a Vanguard Device or pass data, your terminal
must communicate with an APAD or ATPAD port. Refer to the Vanguard Basics
Manual for complete instructions on Accessing the Node, and the APAD/ATPAD
Configuration Manual for further explanation of APAD and ATPAD ports.
Command and
Data Modes
When accessing a node’s CTP, i.e., making a call to the CTP, you see either an
asterisk (if connecting to an APAD port) or an OK prompt (if connecting to an
ATPAD port) your terminal is in what is referred to as the Command Mode. When
your call is accepted, i.e., the CTP Main Menu is displayed, your terminal enters the
Data Mode.
When your terminal is in the Command mode you can send X.28 commands to the
X.28 handler.
One of the commands that can be entered is the Call command. When a call is
established, your terminal is in Data mode. When the call is terminated, your
terminal returns to the Command mode.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Communications Ports
Communications Ports
Introduction
This section describes
• Vanguard DTE and DCE Ports
• EIA Connection Types
Ports
1-6
Vanguard products can be fitted with an internal DIM or a DIM Site Daughtercard to
offer multiple port configurations. Vanguard physical ports can be configured as
either Data Communication Equipment (DCE) or Data Terminal Equipment (DTE).
When a DTE terminal is attached to a port, a straight-through cable should be used.
When a DCE port connects to a modem or other DCE device, a crossover cable is
required.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
Communications Ports
Vanguard DTE and DCE Ports
Introduction
Control signals are used to establish and maintain an electrical connection between
network devices, such as Data Communications Equipment (DCE) or Data Terminal
Equipment (DTE).
How Vanguard
Products Handle
Control Signals
Vanguard products generate these control signals from DCE and DTE ports:
Signals Generated by DCE Port
Signals Generated by DTE Port
Data Carrier Detect (DCD) Pin 8
Request to Send (RTS) Pin 4
Data Set Ready (DSR) Pin 6
Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Pin 20
Clear To Send (CTS) Pin 5
Data Restraint Out (DRO) Pin 14
Ring Indicator (RI) Test Mode Pin 22
N/A
Monitoring Control Vanguard products monitor these control signals from DCE and DTE ports:
Signals
Signals Monitored by DCE Port
Signals Monitored by DTE Port
Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Pin 20
Data Set Ready (DSR) Pin 6
Request To Send (RTS) Pin 4
Data Carrier Detect (DCD) Pin 8
Ring Indicator (RI) Test Mode Pin 22
Ring Indicator (RI) Pin 25
Make Busy (MB) Pin 25
Make Busy (MB) Pin 22
Ring Indicator and
Test Mode
Vanguard products assign dual functions (Ring Indicator and Test Mode) to pin 22 at
the EIA-232 interface. When port 1 or 2 is set as a DCE port, the RI/TM DIP switch
in the front panel (refer to your Installation Manual for the exact location of this DIP
switch) connects an EIA-232 driver to pin 22 so the DCE port can emulate a modem.
When connecting to a DCE device, use a crossover cable with pin 25 from the
modem connecting to pin 22 of the connector. Pin 22 receives the Test Mode signal
from the modem used when running V.54 loopback tests. In this case, the DIP switch
must be set to the TM (Test Mode) to disconnect the EIA-232 output and avoid
contention.
When connecting to a DTE device using a straight-through cable and when the port
connection type is configured as EMRI (Emulate Modem using Ring Indicator), the
front panel DIP switch must be set to the Ring Indicator (RI) position. This connects
the extra EIA-232 output to pin 22 to act as the Ring Indicator.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
1-7
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
EIA Connection Types
Introduction
A device connected to a port can establish and maintain a connection only after a
proper handshake using control signals has occurred. This is called the EIA
connection establishment and should not be confused with the physical connection to
the port. A port's physical level is in an idle state when there is no EIA connection
and when it is disconnected.
Connection Types
Different types of EIA connections can be used depending on the setting of the
Connection Type parameter (in the Port Record):
• SIMP: Simple connection with no control signal handshake. See “SIMP
(Simple) Connections” on page 9 for additional information.
• SIMPv: The modem switches from leased to dial-only mode when leased line
goes down. See “SIMPv” on page 9 for additional information.
• DTR: Connection with DTR control signal handshake. See “DTR
Connections” on page 10 for additional information.
• DTRD: Same as DTR but control signals drop. See “DTRD Connections” on
page 11 for additional information.
• DTRP: When DTR needs to be passed end-to-end. See “DTRP Connections”
on page 13 for additional information.
• DIMO: Dial modem attached to the port and does dial-in/out handshake. See
“DIMO Connections” on page 15 for additional information.
• DIMOa: Same as DIMO except DSR not raised.
• DIMOb: Same as DIMO except DSR follows DTR.
• DIMOv: The port handshakes with attached V.25 bis dial modem.
• EMRI: Port emulates a modem and does dial-in/out handshake with RI. See
“EMRI/EMDC Connections” on page 23 for additional information.
• EMDC: Port emulates a modem and does dial-in/out handshake with DCD.
See “EMDC” on page 23 for additional information.
Disable/Enable
Ports
When a port is disabled, its EIA connection type is changed to NULL and all input
control signals are ignored. All output control signals are dropped. If the parameter
Port Control is set to MB (Make Busy), RI (pin 22) is raised.
When a disabled port is enabled, its EIA connection type changes back to the
configured EIA connection type. If the parameter Port Control is set to MB (Make
Busy), RI (pin 22) is lowered.
Note
Make Busy (MB) is not supported for any port type if the DIM is installed in the
DTE position.
DIMs
1-8
When using V.21, V.35, or V.36 DIMs in either the DTE or the DCE position, use the
Connection Type SIMP. When using EIA-232-D DIMs in the DTE position, do not
select Connection Type EMRI.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
SIMP (Simple) Connections
Introduction
This connection type is used when terminals are connected to a port with a cable that
has minimal conductors. Most control signals are absent because of the lack of
conductors. This kind of cabling provides only ground, transmit and receive data,
transmit and receive clock.
Note
For DCE ports, DCD, DSR, and CTS control signals remain high. For DTE
ports, RTS, DTR, and DRO control signals remain high.
DCE EIA Status for SIMP
Connection - Outbound control signals DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are
held high at all times. On asynchronous PAD ports, if EIA data restraint is enabled,
CTS and RTS (pins 5 and 4) may change according to the requirements of data
restraint. Inbound control signals DTR and MB (pins 20 and 25) are ignored.
DTE EIA Status for SIMP
Connection - Outbound control signals RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are
held high at all times. On asynchronous PAD ports, if EIA data restraint is enabled,
DCD and DRO (pins 8 and 14) may change according to the requirements of data
restraint. Inbound control signals are ignored: DCD, DSR, and CTS
(pins 8, 6, and 5).
SIMPv
This is a combination of SIMP and DIMOv Connection Types. It starts as SIMP and
after the SIMP connection goes down (leased line), the Connection Type switches to
DIMOv (dial line). This is used with dial restoral modems.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
DTR Connections
Introduction
Use this connection type when the device connected to the port provides basic
control signals to maintain the EIA connection. The remote user calling the device
through a PAD port will know if the device is disconnected or powered down
because the call will not be completed. Users connecting to a PAD port will access
the terminal handler. They can manually call or be automatically connected if the
port is configured for autocalling.
DCE Port States
This table describes the conditions during various states for DTR connections on
DCE ports.
State
1-10
DCE Ports
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are held high at all times.
Connection
The port monitors DTR (pin 20). If it is detected high, the EIA
connection is established. RTS is ignored. A device on the
asynchronous PAD port connects to the terminal handler. A call
from the network is accepted if DTR is active. On asynchronous
PAD ports, if EIA data restraint is enabled, CTS (pin 5) may go
low during the connection.
Disconnection
The port monitors DTR (pin 20). If it goes low for more than 1.5
seconds, disconnection occurs. A call clear is sent to the network
if disconnection occurs.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
DTRD Connections
Introduction
Use this connection type only on asynchronous PAD ports. Some devices require
APAD ports to lower the control signals for a short period after the call is terminated.
DCE Port States
This table describes the conditions during various states for DTR connections on
DCE ports.
State
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are held high at all times.
Connection
The port monitors DTR (pin 20). If it is detected high, the EIA
connection is established. RTS is ignored. A device on the
asynchronous PAD port connects to the terminal handler. A call
from the network is accepted if DTR is active. On asynchronous
PAD ports, if EIA data restraint is enabled, CTS (pin 5) may go
low during the connection.
Disconnection
The port monitors DTR (pin 20). If it goes low for more than 1.5
seconds, the port drops DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5)
for one second. A call clear is sent to the network, and the port
returns to the idle state. During the control signal drop, the port
cannot receive calls from the network. If the user clears the call
by entering [CLR] the signals do not drop. If the call is cleared
by an X.29 invitation to clear, the signals remain high when the
parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals are dropped
when the parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
DCE Ports
1-11
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
DTE Port States
This table describes the conditions during various states for DTR connections on
DTE ports.
State
1-12
DTE Ports
Idle
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are held high at all
times.
Connection
The port monitors DSR (pin 6). If it is detected high, the EIA
connection is established. DCD is ignored. A device on the
asynchronous PAD port connects to the terminal handler. A call
from the network is accepted if DSR is active. On asynchronous
PAD ports, if EIA data restraint is enabled, DRO (pin 14) may
go low during the connection.
Disconnection
The port monitors DSR (pin 6). If it goes low for more than 1.5
seconds, the port drops RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14)
for one second. A call clear is sent to the network, and the port
returns to the idle state. During the control signal drop, the port
cannot receive calls from the network. If the user clears the call
by entering [CLR], the signals do not drop. If the call is cleared
by an X.29 invitation to clear, the signals remain high when the
parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals are dropped
when the parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
DTRP Connections
Port States for
DTRP (Originate
End: Autocall
Configured
These tables describe the conditions during various states for DTRP (Originate End:
Auto Calling Configured) connections on DCE and DTE ports.
State
DCE Ports
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low.
Connection
The port monitors DTR (pin 20). If it is high or goes high, the
port makes a network call according to the autocall mnemonic
and waits for the call to be accepted by the remote PAD. If the
call is accepted, the port raises DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6,
and 5) and the connection is established. If the call is not
accepted, the port continues to autocall until it reaches the
autocall limit. DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6,and 5) will remain
low.
Disconnection
The port monitors DTR (pin 20). If it goes low for at least 50
milliseconds, the port drops control signals DCD, DSR, and CTS
(pins 8, 6, and 5), clears the call, and returns to the idle state. If
the call is cleared from the network or by the user entering
[CLR] at the port, the port, immediately drops the controls
signals
This table describes the conditions during various states for DTRP connections on
DTE ports.
State
Idle
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are maintained low.
Connection
The port monitors DSR (pin 6). If it is high or goes high, the port
makes a network call according to the autocall mnemonic and
waits for the call to be accepted by the remote PAD. If the call is
accepted, the port raises RTS and DTR (pins 4 and 20) and the
connection is established. If the call is not accepted, the port
continues to autocall until it reaches the autocall limit. RTS,
DTR and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) remain low.
Disconnection
The port monitors DSR (pin 6). If it goes low for at least 50
milliseconds, the port drops RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20,
and 14), clears the call, and returns to the idle state. If the call is
cleared from the network or by the user entering [CLR] at the
port, the port immediately drops the controls signals.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
DTE Ports
1-13
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
Port States for
DTRP (Answer
End: No Auto
Calling)
These tables describe the conditions during various states for DTRP (For the Answer
End: No Auto Calling) connections on DCE and DTE ports.
State
DTE Ports
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low.
Connection
When a call arrives from the network, the port raises DCD, DSR,
and CTS (pins 8, 6,and 5) and monitors DTR (pin 20). If DTR is
high or goes high, the PAD accepts the call.
Disconnection
The port continues to monitor DTR (pin 20). If it goes low for at
least 50 milliseconds, the port drops DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins
8, 6,and 5), clears the calls and returns to the idle state. If the call
is cleared from the network or by the user entering [CLR] at the
port, the port immediately drops the controls signals. If DTR is
not raised within three seconds after the call arrives from the
network, the port drops the control signals and clears the call.
This table describes the conditions during various states for DTRP connections on
DTE ports.
State
1-14
DTE Ports
Idle
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are maintained low.
Connection
When a call arrives from the network, the port raises RTS, DTR,
and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) and then monitors DSR (pin 6). If
DSR is high or goes high, the PAD accepts the call.
Disconnection
The port continues to monitor DSR (pin 6). If it goes low for at
least 50 milliseconds, the port drops RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins
4, 20, and 14), clears the call, and returns to the idle state. If the
call is cleared from the network or by the user entering [CLR] at
the port, the port immediately drops the controls signals. If DSR
is not raised within three seconds after the call arrives from the
network, the port drops the control signals and clears the call.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
DIMO Connections
Introduction
Use this connection type with a crossover cable to connect a dial modem to the DCE
port. When calls are made, the port handshake uses the modem control signals.
There are several types of operation that can occur with this connection type
including:
• Dial In
• Dial Out
• Dial In/Dial Out Collision
Dial In
When a user dials into a PAD port through a telephone network, the connection
depends on whether the port is configured for manual calling or autocalling. When
the port is configured for manual calling, the user is connected to the terminal
handler when the EIA connection is completed. When the port is configured for
autocalling, the call request must be accepted before the EIA connection is
completed. This prevents users from being charged for the telephone call if the call
cannot be completed.
These tables describe the conditions during various states for DIMO (Dial In, No
Autoconnect).
State
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low.
Connection
The port monitors MB (pin 25) [modem RI]. If it goes high, the
port raises DSR, DCD, and CTS (pins 6, 8, and 5) [modem DTR,
RTS, and DRO (pins 20, 4, and 14)], then waits up to 240
seconds for DTR and RTS (pins 4 and 20) [modem DSR and
DCD] to go high. If the timer expires, DCD, DSR, and CTS
(pins 8, 6, and 5) are dropped, the network call is cleared, and
the port returns to the idle state. The connection is established
when DTR and RTS go high. After the port receives the MB
signal, it cannot receive calls from the network, so the dial
procedure can be completed.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
DCE Ports
1-15
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
State
Disconnection
State
1-16
DCE Ports (continued)
The port monitors DTR and RTS (pins 20 and 4) [modem DSR,
DCD]. If either goes low for at least 50 milliseconds, the port
immediately drops DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6 and, 5)
[modem RTS and DTR] and a call clear is sent to network. A
PAD port also drops the control signals and returns to the idle
state if the user fails to establish a call within the time configured
by the Port Record parameter Call Accept Timeout or makes
three unsuccessful call attempts. If the call is cleared by an X.25
clear from the network, the port immediately drops DCD, DSR,
and CTS [modem RTS, DTR, and DRO]. The port waits for
DTR and RTS [modem DSR, DCD] to go low, at which time the
port returns to idle state, ready for another dial-in sequence. If
the call is cleared from the port by the user entering [CR] at the
port, control signals are not dropped until Call Accept Timeout
expires. The port is unavailable to take network calls while
waiting for the control signals from the modem to drop. If a call
is cleared by an X.29 invitation to clear, the signals remain high
when the parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals
are dropped when the parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD.
DTE Ports
Idle
RTS and DTR (pins 4 and 20) are maintained low.
Connection
The port monitors RI (pin 22). If it goes high, the port raises
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) then waits up to 240
seconds for DSR and DCD (pins 6 and 8) to go high. If the timer
expires, RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are dropped,
the network call is cleared, and the port returns to the idle state.
The connection is established when DSR and DCD go high.
After the port receives the RI signal, it cannot receive calls from
the network so the dial procedure can be completed.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
State
Disconnection
DTE Ports (continued)
The port monitors DSR and DCD (pins 6 and 8). If either goes
low for at least 50 milliseconds, the port immediately drops
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) and a call clear is sent
to network. A PAD port also drops the control signals and
returns to the idle state if the user fails to establish a call within
the time configured by the Port Record parameter Call Accept
Timeout or makes three unsuccessful call attempts. If the call is
cleared by an X.25 clear from the network, the port immediately
drops DTR and RTS. The port waits for DSR and DCD to go
low, at which time the port returns to idle state, ready for another
dial-in sequence. If the call is cleared from the user entering
[CLR] at the port, control signals are not dropped until the Call
Accept Timeout expires. The port is unavailable to take network
calls while waiting for the control signals from the modem to
drop. If a call is cleared by an X.29 invitation to clear, the signals
remain high when the parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWO:
the signals are dropped when the parameter Invitation to clear =
CLRWD.
These tables describe the conditions during various states for DIMO (Dial In, With
Autoconnect).
State
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low.
Connection
The port monitors MB (pin 25) [modem RI]. If it goes high, the
port makes a network call according to the autocall mnemonic.
When the call is accepted, the port raises DCD, DSR, and CTS
(pins 8, 6, and 5) [modem RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and
14)], then waits up to 240 seconds for DTR and RTS (pins 4 and
20) [modem DSR and DCD] to go high. If the timer expires, the
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are dropped, the network
call is cleared, and the port returns to the idle state. If DTR and
RTS go high before the timer expires, the connection is
established.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
DCE Ports
1-17
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
State
Disconnection
State
1-18
DCE Ports (continued)
The port monitors DTR, and RTS (pins 20 and 4) [modem DSR
and DCD]. If either goes low for at least 50 milliseconds, the
port immediately drops DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5)
[modem RTS, DTR and DRO] and a call clear is sent to network.
A PAD port also drops the control signals and return to the idle
state if the user fails to establish a call within the time configured
by the Port Record parameter Call Accept Timeout or makes
three unsuccessful call attempts. If the call is cleared by an X.25
clear from the network, the port immediately drops DCD, DSR,
and CTS [modem RTS, DTR, and DRO]. The port waits for
DTR and RTS [modem DSR and DCD] to go low, at which time
the port returns to idle state, ready for another dial-in sequence.
If the call is cleared from the port, control signals are not
dropped until the Call Accept Timeout expires. The port is
unavailable to take network calls while waiting for the control
signals from the modem to drop. If the call is cleared by an X.29
invitation to clear, the signals remain high when the parameter
Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals are dropped when the
parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD.
DTE Ports
Idle
RTS and DTR (pins 4 and 20) are maintained low.
Connection
The port monitors RI (pin 25). If it goes high, the port makes a
network call according to the autocall mnemonic. When the call
is accepted, the port raises RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and
14) then waits up to 240 seconds for DSR and DCD (pins 6 and
8) to go high. If the timer expires, the RTS, DTR and DRO (pins
4, 20, and 14) are dropped, the network call is cleared, and the
port returns to the idle state. If the DSR and DCD go high before
the timer expires, the connection is established.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
State
Disconnection
Dial Out
DTE Ports (continued)
The port monitors DSR and DCD (pins 6 and 8). If either goes
low for at least 50 milliseconds, the port immediately drops
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) [modem DCD, DSR
and CTS] and a call clear is sent to network. A PAD port also
drops the control signals and returns to the idle state if the user
fails to establish a call within the time configured by the Port
Record parameter Call Accept Timeout or makes three
unsuccessful call attempts. If the call is cleared by an X.25 clear
from the network, the port immediately drops RTS, DTR, and
DRO. The port waits for DSR and DCD to go low, at which time
the port returns to idle state, ready for another dial-in sequence.
If the call is cleared from the port, control signals are not
dropped until the Call Accept Timeout expires. The port is
unavailable to take network calls while waiting for the control
signals from the modem to drop. If the call is cleared by an X.29
invitation to clear, the signals remain high when the parameter
Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals are dropped when the
parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD. If the call is cleared
from the port, control signals are not dropped until Call Accept
Timeout expires.
In this case a modem is connected to a PAD port. Calls from the network connect to
the PAD port and use the modem to call through the telephone network.
These tables describe the conditions during various states for the connection type
DIMO (Dial Out).
State
Idle
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low.
Connection
This is for modems with the autodial feature (the modem can
dial the number when the DTR input goes from inactive to
active). When a call arrives at a port that is idle and available,
the call is accepted. The port raises DSR, [modem DTR]. The
modem autodials the destination and, when a connection is
made, raises its DCD output. The port monitors RTS (pin 4). If it
goes high and if DTR remains high, the port raises DCD, DSR,
and CTS. If RTS and DTR are not raised within three minutes
after the call is accepted (and DSR being raised), the call is
cleared.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
DCE Ports
1-19
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
State
Disconnection
State
1-20
DCE Ports (continued)
The port monitors DTR and RTS (pins 20 and 4) [modem DSR,
DCD]. If either goes low for at least 50 milliseconds, the port
immediately drops DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5)
[modem RTS, DTR, and DRO] and a call clear is sent to
network. A PAD port will also drop the control signals and
return to the idle state if the user fails to establish a call within
the time configured by the Port Record parameter Call Accept
Timeout or makes three unsuccessful call attempts. If the call is
cleared by an X.25 clear from the network, the port immediately
drops DCD, DSR, and CTS [modem RTS, DTR, and DRO]. The
port waits for DTR and RTS [modem DSR and DCD] to go low,
at which time the port returns to idle state, ready for another
dial-in sequence. If the call is cleared from the port, control
signals are not dropped until the Call Accept Timeout expires.
The port is unavailable to take network calls while waiting for
the control signals from the modem to drop. If the call is cleared
by an X.29 invitation to clear, the signals remain high when the
parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals are dropped
when the parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD.
DTE Ports
Idle
RTS, DTR, and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are maintained low.
Connection
This is for modems with the autodial feature (the modem can
dial the number when the DTR input goes from inactive to
active). When a call arrives at a port that is idle and available,
the call is accepted and the port raises DTR. The modem
autodials the destination and, when a connection is made, raises
its DCD output. The port monitors DCD (pin 8). If it goes high
and if DSR remains high, the port raises RTS, DTR, and DRO
(pins 4, 20, and 14). If DCD and DSR are not raised within three
minutes after the call is accepted (and DTR being raised), the
call is cleared.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
State
Disconnection
DTE Ports (continued)
The port monitors DSR and DCD (pins 6 and 8). If either goes
low for at least 50 milliseconds, the port immediately drops
DCD, DSR, and CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) [modem RTS, DTR, and
DRO] and a call clear is sent to network. A PAD port will also
drop the control signals and return to the idle state if the user
fails to establish a call within the time configured by the Port
Record parameter Call Accept Timeout or makes three
unsuccessful call attempts. If the call is cleared by an X.25 clear
from the network, the port immediately drops RTS, DTR, and
DRO. The port waits for DSR and DCD to go low, at which time
the port returns to idle state, ready for another dial-in sequence.
If the call is cleared from the port, control signals are not
dropped until the Call Accept Timeout expires. The port is
unavailable to take network calls while waiting for the control
signals from the modem to drop. If the call is cleared by an X.29
invitation to clear, the signals remain high when the parameter
Invitation to clear = CLRWO: the signals are dropped when the
parameter Invitation to clear = CLRWD.
If the attached modem does not store telephone numbers, or the caller uses standard
AT commands, the modem must be configured so DCD output is always high so the
port can send dial information to the modem. The modem's DSR must be strapped to
follow DTR inputs so that when the network disconnects by dropping all EIA control
signals, the modem will drop DSR to complete the disconnection. (DTR Control on
the modem must be configured as 108.2. This drops the connection when DTR goes
from on to off.)
Dial In/Dial Out
Collision
This is the case of a telephone call causing the MB [modem RI] signal to arrive at the
port at the same time a network call arrives at the port, thus causing the port to raise
DCD, DSR, and CTS [modem RTS, DTR, and DRO]. The port can detect this
circumstance because the MB signal is not the expected response. The port resolves
the collision by clearing the call to the network while the DCD, DSR, and CTS stay
raised at the modem. If DTR and RTS are not raised within one minute, the port
drops DCD, DSR, and CTS [modem RTS, DTR, and DRO]. Call collision is
resolved in favor of the telephone network caller, that is, the call is completed, not
cleared. After the collision is resolved, the call is handled like any other incoming
call from the telephone network.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
1-21
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
Variations of DIMO This table identifies variations of DIMO connections that can be used.
Connections
Type
1-22
Description
DIMOa
This is the same as DIMO, except that the DSR signal is treated
differently. Use DIMOa when modems do not have DSR raised on
incoming calls.
DIMOb
This is the same as DIMO, except that the DSR signal is treated
differently. Use DIMOb when modems have DSR following DTR
on incoming calls.
DIMOv
This connection type provides the capability for interfacing to
V.25 bis type modems and is the same as DIMO as far as EIA
handshaking is concerned.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
EMRI/EMDC Connections
Introduction
This case is for a situation where a PAD port connects to a host computer and
replaces a modem.
Note
Do not use EMRI with hunt groups or autocalls or when using EIA-232-D DIMs
in the DTE position.
DCE Port States for This table describes the conditions during various states for EMRI connections on
EMRI
DCE ports.
State
EMDC
DCE Ports
Idle
The front panel switch RI/TM is set to RI and DCD, DSR, and
CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low.
Connection
When a call arrives from the network, the RI (pin 22) is pulsed
(two seconds on, four seconds off) for up to five cycles (30
seconds). During the ringing, DTR (pin 20) is monitored. If it is
high or goes high, the PAD clears RI (pin 22) and raises DSR
and DCD (pins 6 and 8) and waits for RTS (pin 4) to go high.
When RTS goes high, the PAD raises CTS (pin 5). The PAD
accepts the incoming call from the network only after DTR and
RTS are detected high.
Disconnection
After DTR is detected high, the PAD monitors DTR (pin 20) and
if it is low for at least 50 milliseconds, the call is cleared. DSR
and DCD (pins 6 and 8) are dropped and the PAD returns to the
idle state. If the call is cleared by the network while waiting for
RTS to be raised, DSR and DCD are dropped and the PAD waits
for DTR to drop before completing the disconnect. The PAD
will not accept another dial-out attempt until DTR is lowered. If
RTS is not raised within 30 seconds of RI first being raised, then
DCD and DSR (pins 8 and 6) are dropped and the call is cleared.
If the call is cleared by the network while waiting for DSR to be
raised, RI is immediately dropped. Once the call is connected, if
the call is cleared from the network DCD, DSR, and CTS are
dropped.
This is similar to EMRI, but DCD is used to signal the host about arrival of the call.
Note
Do not use this setting with hunt groups or with autocalls.
Note
A change in a EIA control signal may not be detected for up to 50 milliseconds
(average 25 ms). As a result, the Vanguard ignores data sent to port before the
connection was recognized as valid. To prevent this, before passing data wait at
least 50 milliseconds after the EIA handshake or until the Vanguard sends a
connection prompt.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
1-23
Release 6.2
EIA Connection Types
DCE Port States for This table describes the conditions during various states for EMDC connections on
EMDC
DCE ports.
State
1-24
DCE Ports
Idle
The front panel switch RI/TM is set to TM and DCD, DSR, and
CTS (pins 8, 6, and 5) are maintained low. DTR (pin 20) may be
high.
Connection
When a call arrives from the network, the DCD (pin 8) is raised.
DTR (pin 20) is monitored. If it is high or goes high, the PAD
raises DSR (pin 6) and waits for RTS (pin 4) to go high. When
RTS goes high, the PAD raises CTS (pin 5). The PAD accepts
the call from the network only after DTR and RTS are detected
high.
Disconnection
The PAD monitors DTR (pin 20) and if it is low for at least 50
milliseconds, the call is cleared. The control signals DSR and
CTS (pins 6 and 8) are dropped, and the PAD returns to the idle
state. If the call is cleared by the network, while waiting for RTS
to be raised, and then DSR and DCD (pins 6 and 8) are dropped
and the PAD returns to the idle state for the period after DTR is
lowered. The PAD will not accept another dial-out attempt until
DTR is lowered. If RTS is not raised within 30 seconds of RI
being raised, DCD and DSR (pins 8 and 6) are dropped and the
call is cleared. If the call is cleared by the network while waiting
for DTR to be raised DCD is immediately dropped. Once the call
is connected, if the call is cleared from the network DCD, DSR,
and CTS are dropped.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
EIA Connection Types
DTE Port States for This table describes the conditions during various states for EMDC connections on
EMDC
DTE ports.
State
Idle
The front panel switch RI/TM is set to TM and RTS, DTR, and
DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are maintained low. DSR (pin 6) may
be high.
Connection
When a call arrives from the network, the RTS (pin 4) is raised.
DSR (pin 6) is monitored. If it is high or goes high, the PAD
raises DTR (pin 20) and waits for DCD (pin 8) to go high. The
PAD accepts the call from the network after DSR and DCD are
detected high.
Disconnection
The PAD monitors DSR (pin 6) and if it is low for at least 50
milliseconds, the call is cleared. The control signals RTS, DTR,
and DRO (pins 4, 20, and 14) are dropped, and the PAD returns
to the idle state. If the call is cleared by the network, while
waiting for DCD to be raised. RTS and DTR (pins 4 and 20) are
dropped and the PAD returns to the idle state after DSR is
lowered. The PAD will not accept another dial-out attempt until
DSR is lowered. If DCD is not raised within 30 seconds of MB
being raised, RTS and DTR (pins 4 and 20) are dropped and the
call is cleared. If the call is cleared by the network while waiting
for DSR to be raised, MB is immediately dropped. Once the call
is connected, if the call is cleared from the network RTS, DTR,
and DRO are dropped.
X.25 Protocol Theory Of Operation
T0107, Revision J
DTE Ports
1-25
Release 6.2
Chapter 2
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Overview
Introduction
This Chapter describes the configuration of two Vanguard products in a basic X.25
application, and describes all X.25 configuration parameters.
Example X.25
Application
Figure 2-1 illustrates a basic X.25 application.
Node 100
Node 200
10.10.10.1
Vanguard
6450
X.25 Service
10.10.20.1
Vanguard 320
10.10.20.2
10.10.10.2
Figure 2-1. Basic X.25 Application
If You Want to
Configure this
Application
If you want configure the X.25 application in Figure 2-1, you will need this
equipment:
• A Vanguard 320 and a Vanguard 6450, each loaded with Vanguard
Applications Ware.
• 2 straight-thru cables.
• 1 DB-9 to DB-25 CTP cable.
• 2 personal computers.
• 1 Ethernet LAN hubs and cables.
• Access to X.25 service.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
2-1
What About
Your Vanguard device should be loaded with Vanguard operating software and
Loading Software? operational before you try to connect to the Control Terminal Port. If you require
assistance in connecting to the CTP or accessing a node, refer to the Vanguard
Configuration Basics Guide (Part Number T0113).
Use your Vanguide operator’s guide to set up your Vanguard hardware.
You should also make sure you have the correct software license installed. For the
examples in this manual, the default image shipped with your Vanguard will work
fine. If you need to load new operating software, refer to the Vanguard Software
Installation and Coldloading Manual (Part Number T0028) for details.
You can use Vanguide Software Builder to develop your own operating software
image option for your Vanguard. See the Vanguard Software Builder Manual, (Part
Number T0030 found on the Vanguide CD-ROM) for more details.
2-2
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
What Do I have To
Configure?
This table lists the records you need to configure for the application example shown
in Figure 2-1.
Configure The...
Additional
Information
Node Record on the Vanguard devices.
This gives both nodes a name and
address.
Port Record on the Vanguard 320
(Node 200) and Vanguard 6450
(Node 100).
This will tell the node that the X.25
protocol is used on the selected port.
You are going to have to do this for both
the Vanguard 320 and 6450.
LAN Connections on both devices.
This lets you set up the LAN
connections you need and create the
entries that setup communication
between the LAN interfaces.
Mnemonic Table
This provides a short form name to call
the other node. You only have to
configure the Mnemonic Table in the
node that is making the call. If you want
to initiate a call from both nodes, then
both must have the Mnemonic Table set
up.
Boot the Nodes
Booting the node, after making changes,
saves those changes into the devices
Configuration Memory (CMEM). You
need to do this for both of the nodes in
this example.
This chapter describes how to configure the example application shown in
Figure 2-1. As such, it focuses only on those parameters that must be changed from
the default values in order to make the example work. it is important though, for you
to understand exactly what all of the parameters mean and the implications of
making modifications. Therefore, immediately following the configuration
information for this example, all X.25 configuration parameters (even those that do
not have to be addressed for this example) are identified and defined.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
Result
2-3
Release 6.2
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuring the Node Record
Introduction
The first thing you need to do is configure the Node record on your Vanguard. Use
the CTP to display the Node record and fill out the required parameters.
Configuration
Complete these steps to configure the Node record:
Step
Action
Result/Description
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu will appear.
2
Select Node from the Configure
menu.
The Node record will appear.
3
Fill out these parameters
• Node Name:
This can typically be any name that
you want to assign to your node. In
the case of this example, these node
names are being used:
• VG6450 for the Vanguard 6450
• VG320 for the Vanguard 320
Note
You should always try to follow the
naming conventions used in your
network. If one does not currently
exist, you should create one.
• Node Address:
This can be any number of digits
(to a maximum of 13). In the case
of this example, these node
addresses are being used:
• Vanguard 6450 device uses
address 100
• VG320 for the Vanguard 320
uses address 200
Note
You should always try to follow the
addressing conventions used in
your network.
4
2-4
You can use the default values for
the remaining parameters so type a
semicolon (;) and press Return.
This saves the record.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuring the Port Record
Navigating the CTP Figure 2-2 shows the X.25 port configuration parameters you will find once you
access the CTP port.
Node:
Menu: Configure
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6)
Node
Port
Port Name
Port Number
*Port Type
X.25
Connection Type
Port Control
Clock Source
Clock Speed
Link Address
*Number of PVC Channels
*Starting PVC Channel Number
*Number of Two Way SVC Channels
*Starting Two Way SVC Channel Number
Initial Frame
T1Transmission Retry Timer (1/10 sec)
T4 Poll Timer
N2 Transmission Tries
Frame Sequence Counting
K Frame Window
Packet Sequence Counting
W Packet Window
P Packet Size
Maximum Negotiated Packet Size
Data Queue Upper Threshold
Data Queue Lower Threshold
Restart Timer
Reset Timer
Call Timer
Clear Timer
Facilities to delete from Outbound Calls
Facilities to add to Outbound Calls
Facilities to bar in Outbound Calls
Facilities to bar in Inbound Calls
X25 Options
Number of Routing Digits in Call User Data
Number of prefix Address Digits stripped from Outgoing Calls
Number of prefix Address Digits stripped from Incoming Calls
Number of Prefix Address
Restricted Connection Destination
Port Address
CUG Membership
Billing Records
Number of Subaddress Digits in X.25 Address
Idle Disconnect Timer (sec)
Call Security
*Protection Level
Reconnection Timeout
Reconnection Tries Limit
Facility Subscription Control
Alarm Priority
Charging Information Subscription Control
NUI Verification Timer
Max NUI Violations
Action Type for NUI Violations
Line Idle Mode
Address Translation Options
Conformance Control Options
*Number of One Way Incoming SVC Channels
*Starting One Way Incoming SVC Channel Number
*Number of One Way Outgoing SVC Channels
*Starting One Way Outgoing SVC Channel Number
Figure 2-2. X.25 Port Record
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuration
Guidelines
Use these guidelines to configure X.25 parameters:
When You Configure...
Then...
SVC Channel range
The PVC Channel range should be below the SVC
Channel range with no overlap. The total number of
configured SVCs and PVCs combined must not
exceed 4096.
T1 Transmission Retry
Timer
T4 Poll Timer parameter value must be greater than
T1 Transmission retry timer.
Window size with NORM
(modulo 8) sequence
counting
Window size cannot exceed 7.
Connection Type as SIMPv
or DIMOv
Configure BKUP option.
X.25 Options as PDN+CUD An Outbound Translation Table entry must exist.
2-6
X.25 Options as CUG
Enter a value for CUG Membership.
X.25 Options as CUD
Outbound Translation Table entries must use
OLDA option.
X.25 Options as REGO or
REGI
Port address must not be blank.
X.25 Options INL and PDN
They are mutually exclusive.
X.25 Options as BKUP
Connection Type must be DIMO/a/b, EMRI, or
EMDC.
Idle Disconnect Timer
Connection must be DIMO/a/b with BKUP option
set.
Billing Records as On
Specify Billing Printer Mnemonic in the Mnemonic
Table.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configure the Port
Record on the
Vanguard 320
Follow these steps to configure the Port Record for the Vanguard 320 (Node 200):
Step
Action
Result/Description
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu will appear.
2
Select Port from the Configure
menu.
The port configuration parameters
will start to appear on the screen.
Press return to move through the
list of parameters. Pressing the
Backspace key will display the
previous Port Record parameter.
3
Fill out these parameters
• Port Number:
The port number refers to the
physical port on the back of the
Vanguard 320. This is also the
reference number of the port
record. For this example, enter port
number 3.
• Port Type:
This identifies the type of port you
are configuring. Enter X25 for the
port type. If you are not sure what
port types are available for the port
number you have entered, type a
question mark (?) at the Port Type
prompt and press return. Allowable
types will be displayed and, when
necessary, an explanation given.
• Clock Speed:
This is the speed at which the
selected port will transmit/receive
data. For this example, enter
64000.
Note
The highest speed depends on card
type and the port interface. Refer to
the Installation Guide for your
platform.
4
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
You can use the default values for
the remaining parameters so type a
semicolon (;) after entering the
Clock Speed and press Return.
This saves the record.
2-7
Release 6.2
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configure the Port
Record on the
Vanguard 6450
To complete this configure the Port Record configuration for the Vanguard 6450
(Node 100), you must have the Configure Port menu displayed. Perform Steps 1 and
2 from the previous procedure, and fill out these parameters:
After entering the final parameter, you can use the default values for the remaining
parameters by typing a semicolon (;) and pressing the Return key.
Parameter
Configuration Description
Port Number:
The port number refers to the physical port on the
back of the Vanguard 320. This is also the
reference number of the port record. For this
example, enter port number 3.
Port Type:
This identifies the type of port you are
configuring. Enter X25 for the port type. If you
are not sure what port types are available for the
port number you have entered, type a question
mark (?) at the Port Type prompt and press return.
Allowable types will be displayed and, when
necessary, an explanation given.
Clock Source:
Set this parameter to EXT. This indicates that an
external device (the PC) will be providing
clocking for this node.
Clock Speed:
This is the speed at which the selected port will
transmit/receive data. For this example, enter
9600.
Link Address:
Set this parameter to DTE. Making this selection
sets the port’s logical address to operate with the
X.25 protocol. This means that the port’s logical
address must complement the logical address of
the X.25 port on Node 200.
Note
If the X.25 port on Node 100 is DTE, the X.25
port on Node 200 must be DCE.
W Packet Window:
Set this parameter to 2 to specify the default
packet level window size.
P Packet Size:
Set this parameter to 128. This determines the
maximum default packet size (in bytes) for
inbound and outbound calls on the X.25 link.
Data Queue Upper Threshold:
Set this parameter to 63 since you may want to
use large data packets. This parameter specifies
the maximum number of data packets a channel
on the X.25 port can queue for transmission
before flow control is invoked.
Data Queue Lower Threshold: Set this parameter to 15.
2-8
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuring the LAN Connections
Introduction
Making the LAN connections involves modifying parameters in the two records
shown below and illustrated in Figure 2-3:
• LAN Connection Parameters
• LAN Connection Table
Node:
Address:
Menu: Configure LAN Connections
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6.15)
LAN Connection Parameters
LAN Connection Table
*LAN Forwarder Type:
* Maximum Number of LAN Connection
LAN Connection Type:
*Router Interface Number:
Encapsulation Type:
Autocall Mnemonic:
Autocall Timeout (sec):
Maximum Number of Autocall Attempts:
Remote Connection ID:
Parallel SVCs:
On Demand:
LCON Queue Limit:
Billing Records:
Traffic Priority:
Figure 2-3. Configuring The LAN Connections
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
2-9
Release 6.2
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
LAN Connection
Parameters
The LAN Connection Parameters record lets you configure up to 250 LAN
connections. The default is 32. In a real life application you may require additional
LAN connections, however, for our purposes we only need to configure one LAN
connection. Because the default values for the LAN Connection Table are sufficient
for our example, you must access the table and save it. If you don’t save it, the
connections will not be made because you have not saved your changes to CMEM.
Step
Follow These Steps
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears
2
Select Configure LAN
Connections from the
Configuration menu.
The Configure LAN Connection
menu appears.
3
Select the LAN Connection
Parameters from the Configure
LAN Connection menu.
The LAN Connection Parameters
record appears.
4
Fill out these parameters
Maximum Number of LAN
Connections
5
2-10
Result
Description
This identifies the maximum
number of LAN connections you
want to configure for your node.
For our purposes, we only need
one LAN connection, so the
default value of 32 is okay for
now.
Type a semicolon (;) and press Return. This saves the record.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuring the
VG64500 LAN
Connection Table
Record
This is where configuring the Vanguard gets a little tricky. After you define the
number of maximum LAN connections you want, you need to set up the actual LAN
connections. This mean you need to connect LAN connection entries to actual
interfaces inside the Vanguard so the node knows where to route traffic.
Step
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
Follow These Steps
Result
1
Select Configure from the
CTP Main menu.
The Configure menu appears
2
Select Configure LAN
Connections from the
Configuration menu.
The Configure LAN Connection
menu appears.
3
Select the LAN Connection
Table from the Configure
LAN Connection menu.
The LAN Connection Table appears.
4
Fill out these parameters
Description
Entry Number
This is the entry number used to
reference this record. This entry is
mapped to a particular LAN interface.
Type 1 (if it isn’t already displayed)
and press return.
Interface #
Type 5 and press Return. This means
the LAN Forwarder uses interface #5
to send LAN traffic to the WAN
Adapter.
2-11
Release 6.2
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Step
Follow These Steps
4
LAN Forwarder Type
(Cont’d)
5
2-12
Result (Continued)
This tells the LAN Forwarder how to
pass traffic to the WAN Adapter.
Since we’re basically routing traffic,
the default value ROUT is okay for
our example.
Autocall Mnemonic
This sets up a SVC call between the
LAN interface in the local node and
the WAN interface in the remote
node. You have to set up a SVC call
in one of the nodes, local or remote.
For our purposes, we’ll set up the
local node to do the calling. This
means you need to configure an
autocall name here. Type 320LAN
and press Return. Do not put any
value in this parameter for the remote
node.
Maximum Number of
Autocall Attempts
Set this parameter to zero (0) because
we want the local node to
continuously make SVC calls to give
the link enough time to come up.
When you set this parameter to zero it
overrides the Maximum Number of
Autocall Attempts parameter. Once
you know your configuration works,
you can set this back to a lesser value.
Remote Connection ID
This specifies where the LAN
Connection SVC call in the local
node connects to the WAN Adapter in
the remote node. This points to an
entry number configured in the LAN
Connection table of the remote node
containing the router interface
number for the remote node’s WAN
Adapter. In other words, this is where
you connect your LCON entry in the
local node to the WAN adapter
interface in the remote node.
Use the default value of 1 for the
entry.
Everything else in the record
This saves the record.
can be set to the default values,
so type a semicolon (;) after
the last value and press Return.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Note
The rule for setting a value in the Maximum Number of Autocall Attempts
parameter is that you should determine how long it takes your network to come
up and become operational, and then set the parameters accordingly.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
2-13
Release 6.2
Configuring the Example X.25 Application
Configuring the Mnemonic Table
Introduction
Since you configured a Mnemonic name in the LAN Connection Table for the local
node, you must fill out a Mnemonic Table. The Mnemonic Table lets you configure
short-form names used by the Vanguard to make calls to another node. You can
configure up to 64 Mnemonic names if you need to, but for our purposes we only
need one Mnemonic name.
Configuration
Follow these steps to fill out the Mnemonic Table.
Step
Result
1
Select Configure from
the CTP Main menu.
2
Select Configure
The Configure Network Services menu
Network Services from appears.
the Configuration menu.
3
Select the Mnemonic
The Mnemonic Table record appears.
Table from the Configure
Network Services menu.
4
5
2-14
Follow These Steps
Fill out these
parameters
The Configure menu appears
Description
Entry Number
This identifies the Mnemonic Table entry. Use
the default value 1.
Mnemonic Name
This defines the alphanumeric name used for
calling or autocalling. The Mnemonic name
can be up to eight alphanumeric characters. It
must be the same Mnemonic used in the LAN
Connection Table, so type 320LAN if you’re
following along with the example.
Call Parameters
This defines the call string including the node
address and the subaddress of the node you are
calling. These values are the network address
of the remote node and the subaddress of the
node’s WAN Adapter. Basically, the LAN
connection of one node connects to the WAN
adapter of a remote node. That is what you are
defining here. The default subaddress for a
Vanguard LAN adapter is 94. So, type 20094
to call node 200 and connect to the LAN
Adapter.
Everything else in the
This saves the record.
record can be set to the
default values, so type a
semicolon (;) after the last
value and press Return.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Introduction
This section explains how to configure the parameters in the T1/E1 Interface.
Configuration
Process
Here are the important steps in the configuration process:
Mapping Ports to
Channels
When configuring a T1/E1 interface on a 6400 Series device, refer to this table to
map ports to channels:
• Use the configuration menus to configure the T1/E1 line according to the
Service Provider’s specification.
• Associate time slots to the application ports.
• If:
- no CMEM record exists, a default CMEM record is generated when the
node recognizes a T1./E1 Daughter Card.
- a CMEM Record exists, but is incompatible with the Daughter Card type,
the card is initialized with the appropriate default record.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
T1/E1 Interface
Channel No.
Port No.
1
1
7
1
2
8
1
3
9
2
1
10
2
2
11
2
3
12
3
1
13
3
2
14
3
3
15
2-15
Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Configure T1/E1
Interface
To configure the T1/E1 Interface perform these tasks:
Step
T1/E1 Interface
Menus
Action
1
From the configuration menu, select Configure T1/E1 Interfaces.
2
At the T1/E1 Interface prompt (See Figure 2-4), select the interface.
3
The first T1/E1 parameter appears (Entry Number). Configure the
parameters. Figure 2-5 shows the T1 parameters and Figure 2-6 shows
the E1 parameters. For detailed descriptions of the parameters go to the
“Parameters” section on page 2-18.
This section shows several T1/E1 configuration menus:
• Figure 2-4 shows the T1/E1 Interface selection menu.
• Figure 2-5 shows Configure T1/E1 Interface record and parameters when the
Interface Type = T1.
• Figure 2-6 shows Configure T1/E1 Interface record and parameters when the
Interface Type = E1.
Node:
Address:
Date:
Time:
Menu: Configure T1/E1 Interface
Path: (Main.6.19)
1. T1/E1 Interfaces <- 6450 1,2 or 3, v320 1 or 2
#Enter Selection:
Figure 2-4. T1/E1 Interface Selection Configuration Screen
2-16
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Node:
Menu: Configure
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6)
Configure T1/E1 Interface
Entry Number
Interface Type
First Channel Port
First Channel Time Slot
First Channel DS0 Rate
Second Channel Port
Second Channel Time Slot
Second Channel DS0 Rate
Third Channel Port
Third Channel Time Slot
Third Channel DS0 Rate
Line framing Type
Line Coding Type
Transmit Clock
Line Build Out
Receiver Sensitivity
Facility Data Link
V54 Receive RLBK
Threshold Value - LES
Threshold Value - LCV
Threshold Value - PCV
Threshold Value - CSS
Threshold Value - ES
Threshold Value - BES
Threshold Value - SES
Threshold Value - SEFS
Threshold Value - UAS
Figure 2-5. T1 Interface Configuration Screen
Node:
Menu: Configure
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6)
Configure T1/E1 Interface
Entry Number
Interface Type
First Channel Port
First Channel Time Slot
Second Channel Port
Second Channel Time Slot
Third Channel Port
Third Channel Time Slot
Line framing Type
Line Coding Type
Transmit Clock
Line Impedance
V54 Receive RLBK
Threshold Value - LES
Threshold Value - LCV
Threshold Value - PCV
Threshold Value - CSS
Threshold Value - ES
Threshold Value - BES
Threshold Value - SES
Threshold Value - SEFS
Threshold Value - UAS
Figure 2-6. E1 Interface Configuration Screen
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Parameters
Here are the parameters for configuring the T1/E1 Interface.
Interface Type
Range:
T1, E1
Default:
T1
Description:
Specifies the type of interface you are configuring.
Boot Type:
A change to this parameter requires a node boot to take effect.
First Channel Port
Range:
10, 0
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the first of the Channel/Port associations. Refer to
“Mapping Ports to Channels” section on page 2-15.
Set to 0 (zero) when no data activity is specified on the First
FT1/FE1 Channel
The port must be configured to Bit Oriented Protocol, X25, or
FRI.Also, the first port of each T1 or E1 Interface (ports 7, 10, and
13) must be used if the interface is installed. The other two ports
are optional based on the application.
First Channel Timeslots
Range:
For T1: 0, 1 to 24
For E1: 0, 1 to 31
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the time slot assignments for the first channel. For no
channel, set to 0 (zero).
You can select an individual time slot or time slot ranges (for
example to select 2, 3, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14 enter 2-4, 10, 12-14.)
Note
If a time slot is assigned to more than one channel, CMEM is not
saved and an error message is generated. If you set this parameter
to 0 (zero), the associated port does not receive the clock and is
unusable.
2-18
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
First Channel DSO Rate
Range:
56, 64
Default:
56
Description:
Specifies the DS0 Rate for the first T1 Channel.
Set this parameter as specified by service provider for each end of
the circuit. If one end is set to 56, both ends must be set to 56.
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = T1.
Second Channel Port
Range:
0, 11
Default:
11
Description:
Specifies the second of the Channel/Port associations. Refer to the
“Mapping Ports to Channels” section on page 2-15
Set to 0 (zero) when no data activity is specified on the First
FT1/FE1 Channel.
Note
The port must be configured to Bit Oriented Protocol, X25, or
FRI.Also, the first port of each T1 or E1 Interface (ports 7, 10, and
13) must be used if the interface is installed. The other two ports
are optional based on the application.
Second Channel Timeslots
Range:
0, 1 to 24 for T1
0, 1 to 31 for E1
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the time slot assignments for the second Channel. For no
channel set to 0 (zero).
You can select an individual time slot or time slot ranges
(for example to select 2, 3, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14 enter 2-4, 10, 12-14.)
Note
This parameter does not appear when configuring a Vanguard 320.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Second Channel DSO Rate
Range:
56, 64
Default:
56
Description:
Specifies the DS0 Rate for second T1 Channel.
Set this parameter as specified by service provider for each end of
the circuit. If one end is set to 56, both ends must be set to 56.
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = T1.
Third Channel Port
Range:
0, 12
Default:
12
Description:
Specifies the third of the Channel/Port associations. Refer to the
“Mapping Ports to Channels” section on page 2-15
Set to 0 (zero) when no data activity is specified on the First
FT1/FE1 Channel.
Note
The port must be configured to Bit Oriented Protocol, X25, or
FRI.Also, the first port of each T1 or E1 Interface (ports 7, 10, and
13) must be used if the interface is installed. The other two ports
are optional based on the application.
Third Channel Timeslots
Range:
0, 1 to 24 for T1
0, 1 to 31 for E1
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the time slot assignments for the second Channel. For no
channel set to 0 (zero).
You can select an individual time slot or time slot ranges (for
example to select 2, 3, 4, 10, 12, 13, 14 enter 2-4, 10, 12-14.)
Note
This parameter does not appear when configuring a Vanguard 320.
2-20
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Third Channel DSO Rate
Range:
56, 64
Default:
56
Description:
Specifies the DS0 Rate for the third T1 Channel.
Set this parameter as specified by service provider for each end of
the circuit. If one end is set to 56, both ends must be set to 56.
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = T1.
Line Framing Type
Range:
For T1: ESF, SF
For E1: E1, E1_CRC, E1_CRC_FEBE
Default:
For T1: SF
For E1: E1
Description:
For T1: Specifies the type of framing used by the DS1 circuit.
• ESF: Extended Super Frame
• SF: Super Frame
This parameter is specified by the service provider. SF is also
called D4.
For E1: Specifies the type of framing used by the DS1 circuit.
• E1: D2048S or D2048U.
• E1_CRC: D2048S with CRC.
• E1_CRC_FEBE: D2048S with CRC and Si = FEBE.
The maximum data rate is 1,984 kbps. Framing Type E1 meets the
demands for the TBR13 Structured leased line D2048S, and
TBR12 UnStructured D2048U parameters.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
2-21
Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Line Coding Type
Range:
For T1: B8ZS, AMI
For E1: HDB3, AMI
Default:
For T1: AMI
For E1: HDB3
Description:
For T1: Specifies the type of line coding used for T1 applications.
Selects variety of zero suppression used on the T1 link.
• B8ZS: Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution.
• AMI: Alternate Mark Inversion.
This parameter is specified by the service provider.
Note
The FT1 card supports only the B8ZS and AMI line coding types.
It dos not support the B7 line coding type as the Regional node
T1/E1.
For E1: Used to selects the variety of zero suppression used on the
T1 link.
• AMI: Alternate Mark Inversion.
• HDB3: High Density Bipolar 3
This parameter is specified by the service provider.
Transmit Clock
2-22
Range:
INT, REC
Default:
REC
Description:
Selects the source of the transmit clock.
• INT: Internal Timing, use when timing is not provided by the
Network.
• REC: Received Timing, use when connected to Public or
Private Network.
In most cases set this parameter to REC timing is used. Use INT in
point to point applications, where one unit is set to INT and the
other one to REC. When Loopback tests are run, set the unit
automatically switches to INT.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Line Impedance
Range:
120, 75
Default:
120
Description:
Specifies the line impedance (in Ohms) as 75 or 120 The value is
specified by the service provider.
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = E1.
Note
When switching impedance, you must change the connectors to
BNC/Modular 8 Pin Jack.
Line Build Out
Range:
0 to 7
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the Line Build Out to match the physical interface.
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = T1.
For a DSX Interface, set the number based on the cable length.
• 0: 0 ft. to 133 ft.
• 1: 134 ft. to 266 ft.
• 2: 267 ft. to 399 ft.
• 3: 400 ft. to 533 ft.
• 4: 534 ft. to 655 ft.
For a DS1 Interface, set the number based on signal level.
• 0: 0 dB
• 5: 7.5 dB
• 6: 15 dB
• 7: 22.5 dB
• 4: Not valid for DS1 interfaces
DS1 and DSX interfaces are provided via the same 8 Pin Modular
Jack. For DS1, the service provider specifies the setting. For DSX,
the cable installer can provide the cable length.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Receiver Sensitivity
Range:
LOW, HIGH
Default:
LOW
Description:
Specifies the sensitivity of the receiver:
• HIGH: -36 dB
• LOW: -30 dB
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = T1.
Generally, use -30 dB when connected directly to the T1 line. This
allows for nominal noise immunity. For some marginal cable
lengths and line loss, use the -36 dB setting.
Facility Data Link
Range:
NONE, ANSI, ATT
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies the use of the facility data link channel.
This parameter appears only when Interface Type = T1.
Set this parameter according to carrier specifications.
V54 Receive RLBK
Range:
Disable, Enable
Default:
Disable
Description:
• Enable: Interface will respond to incoming V54 loopback
Request.
• Disable: Interface will not respond to incoming V54
Loopback Request.
Threshold Values - LES
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for the Line Errored Seconds (LES)
report. When this value is exceeded within a 15 minute interval, a
report is generated. There can be only one report per 15 minute
interval.
Note
A Line Errored Second is a second in which one or more Line
Code Violation error events are detected.
2-24
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Threshold Value - LCV
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for the Line Coding Violation (LCV)
report. When this value is exceeded within one 15 minute interval,
a report is generated. There is only one report per 15 minute
interval.
Note
Line Coding Violation is the occurrence of either a Bipolar
Violation (BPV) or Excessive Zeroes (EXZ) Error Event.
Threshold Value - PCV
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for a Path Coding Violation (PCV)
report. When this value is exceeded within a 15 minute interval a
report is generated. There can be only one report per 15 minute
interval.
The Path Coding Violation error event is:
• for D4 and E1 non-CRC formats: frame synchronization bit
error
• for ESF and E1-CRC formats: CRC error.
Threshold Value - CSS
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for Controlled Slip Seconds (CSS)
report. When this value is exceeded within a 15 minute interval, a
report is generated. There can be only one report per 15 minute
interval.
Controlled Slip Seconds is the replication or deletion of an E1/T1
frame.
This parameter is applicable only when the Transmit Clock = INT.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Threshold Value - ES
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for the Errored Seconds (ES) report.
When this value is exceeded within one 15 minute interval, a
report is generated. There can be only one report per 15 minute
interval.
Errored Seconds for D4 and E1 non-CRC formats is a second with
one or more Bipolar Violation. Errored Seconds for ESF and
E1-CRC formats is a second with one or more Path Code
Violation or one or more Out Of Frame or Controlled Slips.
Threshold Value - BES
2-26
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for the Bursty Errored Seconds
(BES) report. When this value is exceeded within one 15 minute
interval a report is generated. There can be only one report per 15
minute interval.
Bursty Errored Seconds is a second with fewer than 320 and more
than one Path Coding Violation error events, and no Severely
Errored Frame defects. Controlled Slips are not included in this
parameter.
Bursty Errored Seconds is not incremented during an Unavailable
Second.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Threshold Value - SES
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for Severely Errored Seconds (SES)
report. When this value is exceeded within one 15 minute interval, a
report is generated. There can be only one report per 15 minute
interval.
Severely Errored Seconds for D4 formats is a second with 1544 or
more Line Coding Violations (LCV) or an OOF defect.
Severely Errored Seconds for ESF formats is a second with 320 or
more Path Code Violations or one or more Out of Frame defects or
a detected AIS defect.
Severely Errored Seconds for E1-CRC formats is a second with 832
or more Path Code Violations or one or more Out of Frame defects.
Severely Errored Seconds for E1 non-CRC formats is a second with
2048 or more Line Coding Violations (LCV).
Controlled Slips are not included in this parameter. Severely
Errored Seconds is not incremented during an Unavailable Second.
Threshold Value - SEFS
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for Severely Errored Framing
Seconds (SEFS) report. When this value is exceeded within one 15
minute interval, a report is generated. There can be only one report
per 15 minute interval.
Severely Errored Framing Seconds is a second with one or more
Out of Frame defects or a detected AIS defect.
Threshold Value - UAS
Range:
1 to 255
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the threshold value for the Unavailable Seconds (UAS)
report. When this value is exceeded within one 15 minute interval, a
report is generated. There can be only one report per 15 minute
interval.
Unavailable Seconds is the number of seconds that the interface is
unavailable. The DS1 interface is said to be unavailable after 10
contiguous SESs.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the T1/E1 Interface
Booting the Node or Port
Introduction
After configuring X.25 parameters, it may be necessary to boot either the port or
node. Some Vanguard Applications Ware configuration parameters are displayed on
your computer screen with an asterisk (*) in the parameter name. Whenever this
occurs, it is an indication that you must perform a Node boot for any changes you
make, to that parameter, to take effect.
This section explains how to perform a node or port boot.
Booting IPX
Parameters
Follow these steps:
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Boot from the CTP Main
menu.
The Boot menu will appear.
2
Select the type of boot operation
you want to perform.
The Boot Router menu will appear.
3
Type Y at the prompt.
The node will reset itself and
implement the changes you have
made to the Vanguard CMEM.
or...
Type N at the prompt
The Boot menu appears.
Note
Refer to the Vanguard Configuration Basics Manual for additional information
on booting Vanguard products.
2-28
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Introduction
This section describes all X.25 configuration parameters and provides you with some
detailed information describing Vanguard Managed Solutions’s implementation of
several X.25 features.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Port Record Configuration Parameters
Introduction
You can configure these parameters from the Configure -> Port menu.
Any parameter title containing an asterisk (*) indicates that a Node boot must be
performed if any changes to that parameter are to take effect.
Note
If you have enabled Ease of Configuration, you need to boot only the port to
make changes to the parameters marked with an asterisk. For more information,
refer to the Ease of Configuration section in the introductory portion of the
Basic Protocols Manual, Part Number T0106.
Connection Type
Range:
SIMP, DTR, DTRD, DIMO, DIMOa, DIMOb, DIMOv, EMRI,
EMDC, SIMPv
Default:
SIMP
Description:
Specifies the type of control signal handshaking that is required
before logical connections can be made to this port. Refer to
Appendix H for additional details on connection types. See
“Connection Types” for more information about each
connection type.
Port Control
Range:
MB, NONE
Default:
NONE (disables the Make Busy feature)
Description:
MB enables the make-busy feature for the specified port; disabling
the port raises pin 22 only when Connection Type = DIMO,
DIMOa, DIMOb, DTR, DTRD, or SIMP.
Clock Source
Range:
EXT, INT
Default:
EXT
Description:
2-30
• INT: Port provides clocking
• EXT: External device provides clocking signals
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Clock Speed
Range:
1200 to 2048000
Default:
9600
Description:
Port speed in bits per second (enabled only when
Clock Source = INT).
Note
The highest speed depends on card type and the port interface.
Refer to the Installation Guide for your platform.
Invert TX Clock
Range:
NO, YES
Default:
NO
Description:
Specifies whether the phase of the transmit clock should be
inverted. This parameter is primarily intended for X.21 electrical
interfaces.
• NO; Don't invert
• YES; Invert
Link Address
Range:
DTE, DCE, Negotiate
Default:
DTE
Description:
Sets the port’s logical address to operate with the X.25 protocol,
which dictates that a port’s logical address must complement the
logical address of the port on the other end of the link.
• If port A is logically defined as DTE, port B must be defined
as DCE.
• Set to DTE when it is connected to a PDN port (because all
PDN ports are defined as DCE).
• Define the port that is topologically closest to the network's
central control site as DCE when configuring X.25 ports for
remote 6500PLUS nodes.
• Define ports facing the next intermediate, or endpoint of the
network, as DTE to let nodes link with adjacent nodes and to
gain control of the remote node should it operate with a
default configuration.
• Use Negotiate to enable the port to modify itself to
complement the link address of the node at the other end of
the link.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
*Number of PVC Channels
Range:
0 to 128
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the maximum number of logical channels used for
Permanent Virtual Circuits. The total number of PVC and SVC
channels on a link should be as small as possible. PVC
connections must be configured in the PVC Table.
*Starting PVC Channel Number
Range:
1 to 4095
Default:
1
Description:
The starting logical channel number for the Permanent Virtual
Circuits on this link.
Note
If *Number of PVC Channels = 0, this parameter is ignored.
*Number of Two Way SVC Channels
Range:
0 to 4096
Default:
16
Description:
Specify the number of logical channels used in Two Way Switched
Virtual Circuit (SVC) channels for this port.
You can configure up to 4096 SVC channels per port. However,
keep the number of configured PVC and SVC channels per port as
small as possible. The total number of configured SVCs and PVCs
combined can not exceed 4096.
If you configure the maximum number of SVC channels on a port,
set the Maximum Simultaneous Calls parameter on the
corresponding Node record to zero (0) to support an unlimited
number of calls, or enter the desired number of calls you expect
pass.
Note
The number of SVCs configured per port on a node is limited by
the mount of available RAM. Eight megabytes (MB) of RAM is
required to support the maximum number of 4096 SVC channels
on one port per node (four MB on-board memory and four MB
SIMM).
2-32
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
*Starting Two Way SVC Channel Number
Range:
0 to 4095
Default:
1
Description:
Specifies the starting logical channel number for the Two Way
SVCs on this link.
Note
If the parameter *Number of Two Way SVC Channels = 0, this
parameter is ignored.
Initial Frame
Range:
NONE, SABM, DISC
Default:
SABM
Description:
Specifies the first frame the other end requires for link startup:
• NONE: Do nothing (the other end starts)
• SABM: Send SABM
• DISC: Send DISC then SABM
T1 Transmission Retry Timer (1/10 sec)
Range:
1 to 254
Default:
30
Description:
Sets the T1 Retry Timer.
• Set to a value less than the parameter T4 Poll Timer.
• Avoid setting the value to less than 10.
• If you use the DCP option, value on all INL or network links
in the network should be the same.
Note
Values are in tenths of a second: 30 = 3.0 seconds.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
T4 Poll Timer
Range:
0, 10 to 255
Default:
40 (values are in tenths of a second: 40 = 4.0 seconds)
Description:
Sets the T4 Poll Timer. This parameter specifies how often an idle
link is probed for assurance of a connection to the remote device.
To disable this parameter, enter a value of 0.
Note
Values are in tenths of a second: 30 = 3.0 seconds.
Note
Set this parameter to a value greater than the parameter T1
Transmission Retry Timer.
N2 Transmission Tries
Range:
1 to 20
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the maximum number of times a node attempts to
complete a transmission.
Frame Sequence Counting
Range:
NORM, EXT
Default:
NORM
Description:
Specifies the type of frame-level sequence numbers the port uses:
• NORM: Normal sequencing (Modulo 8)
• EXT: Extended sequencing (Modulo 128)
Note
Values must be the same for both ends of the link.
2-34
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
K Frame Window
Range:
1 to 63
Default:
7
Description:
Specifies the number of unacknowledged frames that can be
outstanding at X.25 layer 2.
• This parameter should be set relatively high when there is a
high link delay to improve throughput.
• Set this parameter to the same value for the devices on both
ends of the link.
• Set the parameter Frame Sequence Counting = EXT to select
the values to 8 to 63.
Note
To use the extended X.25 Window Size (modulo 128):
• Set the INL option to Disabled.
• Set the T1 Retry Timer to a value larger than your network’s
round trip delay time.
Configure the adjacent port on the node to the X25/Annex G port
as a X25/Annex G port. This is not mandatory, but it should
improve performance with extended Window sizes.
Packet Sequence Counting
Range:
NORM, EXT
Default:
NORM
Description:
Specifies the type of packet level sequence numbers that the port
uses:
• NORM: Normal sequencing (Modulo 8)
• EXT: Extended sequencing (Modulo 128)
Note
Values must be the same for both ends of the link.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
W Packet Window
Range:
1 to 63
Default:
2
7 for the Vanguard 7300 Series
Description:
Specifies the default packet level window size (X.25 layer 3) when
it is not negotiated for the individual call.
Note
Values must be the same for both ends of the link.
Note
Set the parameter Packet Sequence Counting = EXT to select the
values to 8 to 63.
Note
To use the extended X.25 Window Size (modulo 128):
• Set the INL option to Disabled.
• Set the T1 Retry Timer to a value larger than your network’s
round trip delay time.
Note
Configure the adjacent port on the node to the X25/Annex G port
as a X25/Annex G port. This is not mandatory, but it should
improve performance with extended Window sizes.
P Packet Size
Range:
128, 256, 512, 1024
Default:
128
Description:
Specifies the maximum default packet size (in bytes) for inbound
and outbound calls on this X.25 link when packet size is not
negotiated.
Note
Values must be the same for both ends of the link.
Maximum Negotiated Packet Size
2-36
Range:
128, 256, 512, 1024
Default:
1024
Description:
Specifies the maximum negotiated packet size (in bytes) for
inbound and outbound calls on this X.25 link.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Data Queue Upper Threshold
Range:
0 to 63
Default:
5
Description:
Specifies the maximum number of data packets a channel on this
port queues for transmission before it invokes flow control to the
attached channel.
Note
When applications that use large data packets are considered, set
this value to 63.
Note
To use the extended X.25 Window Size (modulo 128):
• Set the INL option to Disabled.
• Set the T1 Retry Timer to a value larger than your network’s
round trip delay time.
Note
Configure the adjacent port on the node to the X25/Annex G port
as a X25/Annex G port. This is not mandatory, but it should
improve performance with extended Window sizes.
Data Queue Lower Threshold
Range:
0 to 63
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the minimum number of data packets a channel on this
port queues for transmission when it releases flow control to the
attached channel.
Note
When applications that use large data packets are considered, set
this value to 63.
Note
To use the extended X.25 Window Size (modulo 128):
• Set the INL option to Disabled.
• Set the T1 Retry Timer to a value larger than your network’s
round trip delay time.
• Configure the adjacent port on the node to the X25/Annex G
port as a X25/Annex G port. This is not mandatory, but it
should improve performance with extended Window sizes.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Restart Timer
Range:
5 to 255 (seconds)
Default:
180
Description:
Specifies the length of time, in seconds, the node waits before an
unacknowledged restart request is sent again.
Reset Timer
Range:
5 to 255 (seconds)
Default:
180
Description:
Specifies the length of time, in seconds, the node S waits before an
unacknowledged reset request is sent again.
Call Timer
2-38
Range:
5 to 255 (seconds)
Default:
200
Description:
Specifies the length of time, in seconds, the node waits for the
response to a call request. A call will clear whenever this timer
expires. After two clear requests, the channel is marked as being
idle.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Clear Timer
Range:
5 to 255 (seconds)
Default:
180
Description:
Specifies the length of time, in seconds, the node waits before an
unacknowledged clear request is sent again. After two clear
requests, the channel is marked as being idle.
Facilities to Delete from Outbound Calls
Range:
NONE, THRO, NUI, CUG, PROP
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies the facilities (which can be summed) that are deleted
from outbound calls:
• NONE: No facilities deleted
• THRO: Delete throughput class negotiation
• NUI: Delete NUI
• CUG: Delete CUG
• PROP: Delete all VanguardMS defined proprietary facilities.
Note
The facility is negotiated to the configured value, not the
maximum value.
Note
Use summing to combine several parameter values. For example,
THRO+NUI.
Facilities to Add to Outbound Calls
Range:
NONE, REV, PACK, WIND
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies the facilities (which can be summed) that are added to
outbound calls:
• NONE: No facilities added
• REV: Reverse Charging added
• PACK: Packet Size negotiation added
• WIND: Window Size negotiation added
Note
Use summing to combine several parameter values. For example,
WIND+PACK.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Facilities to Bar in Outbound Calls
Range:
NONE, REV, FAST, BCUG, DGRAM
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies the facilities that, if present in an outbound call, will
cause the call to be cleared:
• NONE: No facility barred
• REV: Reverse Charging barred
• FAST: Fast select barred
• BCUG: Bilateral Closed User Group barred
• DGRAM: Datagram barred
Note
Use summing to combine several parameter values.
Facilities to Bar in Inbound Calls
Range:
NONE, BCUG, DGRAM, REV
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies the facilities, if present in an inbound call, that clear the
call:
• NONE: No facility Blocked
• BCUG: Bar Bilateral Closed User Group
• DGRAM: Bar Datagram
• REV: Bar Reverse Charging
Note
Use summing to combine several parameter values.
X.25 Options
2-40
Range:
NONE, 1980, NUI, PDN, CUD, IBAR, OBAR, CBCK, CUG,
CAUSE, HOLD, NRST, BKUP, INL, INLA, DELAY, AP, GP,
CNUI, CNGL, CINFO
Default:
NONE
Description:
Defines the X.25 port operating characteristics.
NONE: No options are specified
1980: The port is to operate with X.25/1980 implementation
instead of 1984 or later versions. Post 1980 versions include
changes that the 1980 version considers illegal or is incompatible
with a particular implementation.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
X.25 Options (continued)
Description:
(Continued)
• NUI:
An X.25 port validates an NUI facility for inbound calls. All
inbound calls must have this facility present or the port clears
them.
If a call request successfully passes the NUI check, the NUI
facility is stripped from the call request, which is then
forwarded in the usual manner.
If NUI is not selected, call requests with the NUI facility are
forwarded with the facility intact.
• Public Data Network (PDN): A port is connected to a PDN or
non-VanguardMS router network using different addressing
schemes. The port:
• Selects PDN when these parameters are set to a value other
than 0 (zero):
– Number of Routing Digits in Call User Data.
– Number of Prefix Address Digits Stripped from Outgoing
Calls.
– Number of Prefix Address Digits Stripped from incoming
Calls.
When PDN and CUD are selected, the network address and the
Subaddress in the CUD:
• For inbound calls:
– Implement inbound called address translation using the
Inbound Call Translation Table.
• For outbound calls:
– Implement outbound called address translation using the
Outbound Call Translation Table.
Or:
– Strip the number of prefix digits specified in the port
parameter Address Prefix Digits from the called address if
no suitable entries exist in the Outbound Call Translation
Table.
PDN cannot be summed with INL.
Call User Data (CUD): To specify that the subaddress for the call
is carried in the call request's Call User Data (CUD) field.
IBAR
• Calls coming into the port are to be blocked.
• Do not select IBAR and OBAR for a single port because they
essentially disable the port; no status messages report this
action.
• Blocks calls leaving the port.
• Do not select IBAR and OBAR for a single port because they
essentially disable the port; no status messages report this
action.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
X.25 Options (continued)
Description:
(Continued)
• CBCK
Calls are to be routed back on the same link that received the
call.
The port number and address must be in the Routing Table.
• CUG: Check CUG (Closed User Group) otherwise, call
passes transparently.
• CAUSE
Passes cause codes in outbound packets.
When not selected, cause codes are set to 00 in the Clear
Request Packet. (Many X.25 implementations do not tolerate
cause codes other than zeros in Clear Request Packets.)
• HOLD:
Calls are placed on hold when link level restarts occur.
Individual logical channels can exchange resets, but the calls
stay in place.
Calls are lost, however, when the retransmission attempt
expires, and the link is declared down.
If data loss occurs, an indication is provided; a reset packet is
not sent when the link comes up (after a short disruption); and
the channel does not lock up.
Both ends of the X.25 link must have X.25 Options = HOLD.
• NRST:
Suppresses the restart procedure at link-up time.
Select when X.25 devices interpret the restart packet reception
as a fault condition.
• BKUP:
Defines the port as a backup port that activates if other ports
are down, enabling control signal operation when the link is
idle.
This value cannot be selected if Port Type is set to SIMP.
• Internodal Link (INL):
– Clears calls when call routing loops are detected because a
link is down or an error exists in the route selection table.
– Looks at clear calls and reroutes, improving unidirectional
X.25 traffic. Window size is set to 7 or higher because
internodal receiver readies (RRs) at levels 2 and 3 are
reduced.
– When selected, CAUSE is automatically selected.
– If CAUSE is not selected, a warning message is printed.
– INL cannot be summed with PDN.
• INLA:
When the link is connected to a node running revisions 2.10
and 2.12xx release (except revisions 2.12.05 and 2.13.34).
2-42
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
X.25 Options (continued)
• Delay:
Enable Delay and Path Trace on this link. Link must be
connected to a Vanguard node.
• AP:
To recognize this port as an Access Protocol.
• GP:
To recognize this port as a Gateway Protocol.
• CNUI:
To select centralizd NUI verification.
• CNGL:
To reserve SVCs for NUIC operation.
• CINFO:
For charging Information.
Note
You can select several of these settings by summing the values. Example:
CUG+HOLD.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Conformance Control Options
Range:
None, CHKFAC
Default:
None
Description:
Specifies whether this X.25 will perform Facility Checking:
• None: no Facility Checking is done.
• CHKFAC: The port checks that:
– the facility codes in the packet are valid. If not, the call is
cleared with cause code 0, diagnostic code 65 (Facility/
Registration code not allowed).
– the facility code is allowed in this packet type. If not, with
cause code 0, diagnostic code 65 (Facility/Registration
code not allowed).
The allowed facility codes are listed in this table. An X indicates
that the Facility Code is allowed
Facility Code Can Be Used in These Packet Types
Facility
Call
Request
Incoming
Call
Flow Control
parameter
negotiation:
- packet size
- window size
X
X
Throughput class
negotiation
X
X
Closed User group
selection
- basic format
- extended format
X
X
Closed user group
with outgoing
access selection
- basic format
- extended format
X
Bilateral closed user
group selection
X
X
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Reverse charging
X
X
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Fast Select
X
X
NUI Selection
X
2-44
Call
Call
Accepted Connected
X
Clear
Request
Clear
Indication
DCE
Clear
Confer.
Facility Code
Bits
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
X
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
X
X
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
X
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
X
1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Facility Code Can Be Used in These Packet Types
Facility
(continued)
Call
Request
Charging
Information
- requesting service
- receiving
information
i) monitory unit
ii) segment count
iii) call duration
RPOA selection
- basic format
- extended format
Incoming
Call
X
Call
Call
Accepted Connected
Clear
Request
X
Facility Code
Bits
Clear
Indication
DCE
Clear
Confer.
X
X
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
X
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Call deflection
selection
X
Call redirection or
deflection
notification
1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1
X
Called line address
modified
notification
1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
X
Transit delay
selection and
Indication
X
X
Marker
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
X
X
Reserved for
extension
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Number of Routing Digits in Call User Data
Range:
0 to 12
Default:
5
Description:
Specifies the number of routing digits in the Call User Data
(CUD) field. This is used on X.25 links, attached to a PDN, where
the private network address is carried in the CUD.
Note
Set this parameter to 0 when the X.25 Options is not set to CUD.
When the X.25 Options parameter is set to PDN, a non-zero value
must be entered for this parameter.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Number of Prefix Address Digits Stripped from Outgoing Calls
Range:
0 to 14
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the number of prefix digits that are removed from the
called address when forwarding a call to a PDN.
Note
When the X.25 Options parameter is set to PDN, a non-zero value
must be entered for this parameter.
Number of Prefix Address Digits Stripped from Incoming Calls
Range:
0 to 15
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the number of prefix digits that are removed from the
called address when forwarding a call from a PDN.
Note
When the X.25 Options parameter is set to PDN, a non-zero value
must be entered for this parameter.
Restricted Connection Destination
Range:
0 to 32 alphanumeric characters
Default:
(blank);
Description:
Specifies the port destination of calls inbound from the port. This
parameter overrides the Route Selection Table entries. For
example, to route all calls to X.25 port 3, use X25-3.
Note
Using the default disables this parameter.
Port Address
2-46
Range:
0 to 15 decimal digits
Default:
N/A
Description:
Specifies the address to be inserted into a call packet’s calling
address when the parameter X.25 Options = REGO or REGI.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
CUG Membership
Range:
0 to 8 two-digit numbers
Default:
--,--,--,--,--,--,--,--
Description:
Specifies a port’s membership in up to 8 Closed User Groups
(CUGs). Each CUG membership must be a two-digit number
(00 to 99), separated from other groups by a comma.
Note
To delete a CUG, press the minus key twice for each group
Billing Records
Range:
OFF, ON
Default:
OFF
Description:
Billing Records summarize the data collected on calls to this port.
• ON generates billing records for all calls to and from this port
and for failed calls from this port.
• OFF generates no billing records.
Number of Subaddress Digits in X.25 Address
Range:
0 to 3 digits
Default:
2
Description:
Specifies the number of digits in an X.25 address’s subaddress for
ports connected to a public data network.
Idle Disconnect Timer (sec)
Range:
0 to 3200
Default:
0 (set to 0 to disable)
Description:
Specifies how many seconds the X.25 port must be idle before it is
automatically disconnected. Setting this parameter to 0 will
disable the feature.
Use this parameter only when:
• The parameter Connection Type is set to DIMO, DIMOa, or
DIMOb.
• The parameter X.25 Options is set to BKUP.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Call Security
Range:
DISABLE, ENABLE
Default:
DISABLE
Description:
Specifies whether or not security is used before the port is detected
as being up for ports used as a backup port (for Link Backup):
• DISABLE: Outgoing and incoming calls are allowed.
• ENABLE: Outgoing calls are enabled: incoming calls are
terminated.
Note
This parameter is valid only when the Link Backup Option has
been implemented.
*Protection Level
Range:
NONE, CP_ONLY, FULL_DCP
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies how Data Connection Protection is implemented for this
port.
• NONE: The feature is turned off.
• CP_ONLY: Connection protection only
• FULL_DCP: Full data and connection protection
Note
This parameter is valid only when the Data Connection Protection
Option has been purchased for this node.
Reconnection Timeout
Range:
1 to 128
Default:
2
Description:
Specifies how many seconds the Data Connection Protection
feature waits between reconnection attempts.
Note
This parameter is valid when the Data Connection Protection
Option has been implemented.
2-48
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Reconnection Tries Limit
Range:
0 to 127
Default:
4
Description:
Specifies the number of times that the Data Connection Protection
feature attempts to reconnect before clearing the call. If a zero (0)
is entered, there will be no attempt to reconnect.
Note
Valid only when the Data Connection Protection Option has been
purchased for this node.
Facility Subscription Control
Range:
NONE, FCN_ON, FCN_OFF, TCN_ON, TCN_OFF, DBITMOD,
CUGIA, REDIRECT, BCUG_ON, BCUGOA, BCUG_OFF
Default:
NONE
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Facility Subscription Control (continued)
Description:
2-50
Flow Control Negotiation (FCN), Throughput Control Negotiation
(TCN) and D-bit Modification (DBITMOD) are part of the
facilities defined (in the X.2 standard) for data networks . They are
facilities which can be turned on or off for a network subscriber.
The FCN, TCN and DBITMOD parameters can be implemented
alone or in combination. For instance, you can use FCN_ON,
TCN_OFF, and DBITMOD concurrently.
• NONE: Subscription to facilities not enforced.
• FCN_ON: Flow Control Negotiation enabled. Packet and
Window size negotiation facilities in an inbound call are
allowed. Packet and Window size facilities are always
included in outbound calls and call accepted/connected when
this parameter is set.
• FCN_OFF: Flow Control Negotiation disabled. Inbound calls
containing Packet and Window size facilities are cleared.
Packet and Window size facilities are not present in outbound
calls and calls accepted/connected when this parameter is set.
• TCN_ON: Throughput Class Negotiation enabled. The
throughput class negotiation facility is always included in
outbound calls and call accepted/connected when this
parameter is set. The facility is passed onward to the
destination in the call packet transparently and does not alter
the handling of the SVC data within the node.
• TCN_OFF: Throughput Class Negotiation disabled. Inbound
calls containing the throughput class negotiation facility are
cleared. The throughput class negotiation facility is not
present in outbound calls and call accepted/connected when
this parameter is set.
• DBITMOD: D-bit Modification Facility enabled. This facility
sets the D-bit to 1 in every data packet traversing this port.
Setting the D-bit to 1 enables packet delivery
acknowledgment from the remote end. (When the D-bit is set
to its default, 0, acknowledgment comes from the
intermediary node.)
• CUGIA: Closed User Group Incoming Access enabled. This
facility checks the CUG of incoming calls but allows incoming access from addresses that do not belong to the CUG.
• REDIRECT: Call Redirection enabled. This facility redirects
inbound calls to a disabled or busy port to other ports.
Alternate ports are defined by X.25 addresses in the Call
Redirection table on the node which originated the call.
• BCUG_ON: Subscription to Bilateral Closed User Group
facility enabled.
• BCUGOA: Subscription to Bilateral Closed User Group with
Outgoing Access facility enabled.
• BCUG_OFF: Subscription to Bilateral Closed User Group
facility disabled.
BCUG_ON, BCUGOA, and BCUG_OFF are mutually exclusive
and can be enabled only on Access ports.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Facility Subscription Control (continued)
Description:
(Continued)
• BCUG_OFF: Subscription to Bilateral Closed User Group
related facilities disabled.
Note
BCUG_ON, BCUGOA, and BCUG_OFF options are mutually
exclusive, and may be enabled only on Access ports. Some
combinations of above options are allowed
(e.g. FCN_ON+TCN_ON).
Alarm Priority
Range:
NETWORK, ACCESS
Default:
NETWORK
Description:
Specifies the severity level of LINK UP and LINK DOWN
alarms:
• NETWORK: Severity HIGH alarms are generated.
• ACCESS: Severity LOW alarms are generated.
Charging Information Subscription Control:
Range:
NO, YES
Default:
NO
Description:
Specifies whether Charging Information has to be sent even
without requesting.
• NO: Charging Information will not be sent without Request.
• YES: Charging Information will be sent.
NUI Verification Timer:
Range:
5 to 180
Default:
60
Description:
Specify the NUI verification timer in seconds. The call is cleared
if timer expires.
Max NUI Violations:
Range:
0 to 100
Default:
10
Description:
The maximum number of successive NUI verification failures an
X.25 DTE can tolerate when making verification attempts through
X.25 port.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
Action Type for NUI Violations:
Range:
NONE, DISC, DEGR, LOCK
Default:
NONE
Description:
This specifies the course of action to be taken if the NUI violations
exceed the configured threshold count. This parameter is effective
only if the X25 options parameter is set to CNUI.
• NONE - No action is taken.
• DISC - All connections on the port are broken.
• DEGR - Port is busied-out for one minute then it is
re-enabled.
• LOCK - All connections on the port are broken and the port is
disabled. Operator intervention is required to enable the port.
Line Idle Mode:
Range:
FLAG, MARK
Default:
FLAG
Description:
Specify one of these line idle mode options:
• FLAG - Flag fill between frames
• MARK - Mark idle between frames
Conformance Control Options:
Range:
NONE, CHKFAC
Default:
NONE
Description:
Select any of the following conformance control options:
• NONE - no option specified
• CHKFAC - Checking of facility codes enabled.
Note
Some of these options can be combined.
2-52
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Address Translation Options:
Range:
NONE, DEDO, DEGO, REGO, REGSO, INGO, SAGO, INGI,
REGI, SRGI, CUDR, DADA, DAGA, IADD
Default:
NONE
Description:
Select any of these address translation options:
• NONE - no option specified
Outbound Call Processing:
• DEDO - delete called address
• DEGO - delete calling address
• REGO - replace calling address with configured Port Address
• REGSO - replace calling address with configured Port
Address plus Inbound Subaddress obtained from the Inbound
Call Translation Table entry where Private Network Address
matches the entire calling address
• INGO - replace calling address with configured Port Address
and retain original calling subaddress
• SAGO - strip calling address, but retain subaddress
Inbound Call Processing:
• INGI - replace calling address with configured Port Address
and retain original calling subaddress
• REGI - replace calling address with configured Port Address
• SRGI - select route from the Calling Address Translation
Table by replacing the called address with the Private
Network Address where the Inbound Calling Address
matches the beginning of the calling address This option can
not be summed with CUDR.
• CUDR - CUD based Routing: The CUD string (configured in
the CUD based Address Translation Table) will be searched in
the CUD of the incoming call packet. If found, the called
address will be replaced by the address configured in the CUD
based Address Translation Table. This option can not be
summed with SRGI.
Call Accept Processing:
• DADA - delete called address in inbound/outbound call
accept
• DAGA - delete calling address in inbound/outbound call
accept
• IADD - copy called and calling addresses from call request
into outbound call accepted/connected
Note
Some of these options can be combined.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
*Number of One Way Incoming SVC Channels:
Range:
0 to 4096
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the number of logical channels used in One Way
Incoming Switched Virtual Circuits. The total number of PVC,
One Way Incoming, One Way Outgoing and Two Way SVC
channels should be kept as small as possible and consistent with
needs.
*Starting One Way Incoming SVC Channel Numbers:
Range:
0 to 4096
Default:
0
Description:
This is the starting logical channel number for the One Way
Incoming Switched Virtual Circuits on this link. Not used if the
number of One Way Incoming SVCs = 0.
*Number of One Way Outgoing SVC Channels:
Range:
0 to 4096
Default:
0
Description:
Number of logical channels used in One Way Outgoing Switched
Virtual Circuits. The total number of PVC, One Way Incoming,
One Way Outgoing and Two Way SVC channels should be kept as
small as possible and consistent with needs.
*Number of One Way Outgoing SVC Channel Numbers:
2-54
Range:
0 to 4095
Default:
1
Description:
This is the starting logical channel number for the One Way
Outgoing Switched Virtual Circuits on this link. Not used if the
number of One Way Outgoing SVCs = 0.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Window Subtractor
Range:
0 to 63
Default:
0
Description:
Specifies the point in the receive window that the layer 3
acknowledgment is to be sent when there are not any packets to
send in the reverse direction. The acknowledgment is sent when
the number of packets equivalent to the W Packet Window minus
the Window Subtractor has been received. If the W packet
Window is 32 and the window subtractor is 8, the layer 3
acknowledgment is sent once 24 packets have been received.
Setting the Window Subtractor to a non-zero value when INL or
INL+INLB are set has no impact on the functionality of the
routing loop detection feature of INL. It only effects functionality
when the layer 3 acknowledgment is sent.
If INL is specified and the subtractor is zero, the router uses the
previous setting of 2.
If INL+ INLB is specified and the subtractor is zero, the router
will send an Acknowledgment for every packet received. This is
also what occurs if INL nor INLB are not specified and the
subtractor is zero.
You should increase the value of the subtractor when you are using
high speed end-to-end connections or when path delays are unusually high. This sends the acknowledgements sooner so the remote
window stays open and the remote node can continue to send data
without being stopped (waiting for an acknowledgement).
The "Window Subtractor" Value is dependent on the "W" (packet)
window setting and interacts with many other settings and factors
such as the speed of the line, the "K" (frame) window setting,
circuit propagation delay, etc. Tuning can result in CPU utilization
savings and higher throughput.
Note
Refer to the following table of Recommended Window Settings.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Recommended
Window Settings
Annex G/X.25 Window Guidelines
Link Description Recommended Window Settings
Recommended
Window
Subtractor
K (Frame)
W (Packet)
8 Mbps Serial
63
30
25
4 Bps Serial
30
20
15
2 Mbps Serial
30
20
7
E1
30
20
15
1536 Kbps Serial
25
15
7
T1
30
20
15
512 Kbps
15
10
4
256 Kbps
10
7
4
128 Kbps
10
7
4
64 Kbps
10
7
4
64 Kbps
10
7
4
These recommendations were arrived at in a controlled environment. In links with
long delays adjustments may be required. A general rule would be to be bring the
Window Subtractor value close to or equal with the “W’ Packet window. This
effectively allows the acknowledgments to be sent out faster accommodating the
added delay.
The new Window Subtractor parameter is downward compatible with previous
releases. It can be set independently at one end of the link without effecting the
remote node that may not have this parameter. In addition to the recommendations in
the table above the following two parameters should be always be set as shown
below:
• Data queue upper threshold = 15
• Data queue lower threshold = 4
Note
The Vanguard 7300 W Packet Window parameter’s default has been changed
from 2 to 7.
2-56
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Best Path Routing
Introduction
The 6500 Series uses a best-path algorithm to calculate the best path through the
network.
Arriving at the
Effective Load
Number
To arrive at the Effective Load Number, the algorithm considers the following
factors:
• The number of logical channels in use
• Port speed
• Priority of eligible links
• Eliminates links with 0 (zero) priority
The link with the lowest load number is the optimal link and is used to
forward the call.
The following table shows the algorithm:
Best Path Algorithm
Load Number = (80,000)(Port Priority) (Logical Channels in use + 1)
Port Speed
where Port Priority = the priority configured in the Route Selection Table.
Choosing Port
Priority
When choosing port priority in the Route Selection table, enter a value that
represents the number of node links to the destination if that route is selected.
This can be changed for special circumstances. For example, if two ports go to the
same destination with the same number of links, but one route is tariffed at a higher
rate, this route would be given a lower priority so that it is less likely to be used.
Note
The higher the priority number the lower the priority. For example, a port with a
priority number of 2 has a higher priority than a port with a priority of 3. Also, a port
with a priority of 0 (zero) is a backup port. Calls are not normally routed to a backup
port unless all others to a specific destination are down.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
Periodic SVC Billing
Introduction
Periodic SVC Billing lets you generate billing records at regular intervals, for SVCs
of long duration, without waiting for the SVC to clear.
Navigating the CTP You can generate billing records by configuring the SVC Billing Record Timer
parameter. This parameter is available when you select the Node menu (from the
Configure menu) from the CTP, as shown in Figure 2-7.
Node:
Address:
Menu: Configure
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main)
Node
SVC Billing Record Timer
Figure 2-7. Configure Node Menu
2-58
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Configuring the
Follow these steps to configure the SVC Billing Record Timer.
SVC Billing Record
Timer
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Node.
The Node menu appears.
Move through the list until SVC
Billing Record Timer (minutes)
appears.
3
Select SVC Billing Record
Timer (minutes).
You are prompted to enter a value
that is within a given range.
4
Enter a value.
5
Boot the node with a warm or cold Changes to the parameter take effect.
boot,
or boot the Table and Node Record.
Note
When a Node boot is executed, the
node itself is restarted and
reinitialised with the configuration
for the node record. When a Table
and Node Record boot is executed,
the node is only reinitialised with
the new values. The node is not
restarted.
Parameters
This table shows the SVC Billing Record Timer parameter. You must perform a
Node boot, or a Table and Node Record boot, for changes to this parameter to take
effect.
SVC Billing Record Timer
Range of values:
0 to 65535
Default value:
0
Description:
Specifies the interval at which billing records are gathered
and printed. This applies to all SVCs in the node that have
the Billing parameter turned on.
Note
A value of 0 indicates that the SVC Periodic Billing feature
is disabled. This means that the Billing Records are
generated only after the SVC is cleared.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
Configuring X.25 Options to Prevent Routing Loops
Introduction
Vanguard nodes can prevent routing loops by using the call packet in a unique
application.
What is a Routing
Loop?
When several nodes are connected in a network configuration, several paths may
exist between any two points on that network. If the Route Selection Table is
inadvertently misconfigured so that a call is forwarded through several nodes and
back to its originating point, a Routing Loop exists. These loops prevent calls from
being successfully completed.
Enabling Loop
Detection
You enable Loop Detection when you set the parameter X.25 Options in the X.25
Port Record to Internodal Link (INL).
When a call is made over a link configured for INL, the node places an anti-loop
code (CCITT type D facility, default 200 decimal, C8 hex) in the call packet’s
facility field. The node’s number is also appended to the facility.
Note
You can change the anti-loop code by changing the parameter Hop Count
module Code in the Node record.
How the Call
When a call arrives, the node checks the content of the anti-loop facility for the
Packet Field Works presence of its own node number and operates as described in this table:
When a Call
Arrives
If...
Then...
The node detects its own node The call is cleared with cause code 13 (decimal),
number
diagnostic code 133 (decimal).
This notifies the originating VanguardMS node
that a routing loop has occurred and that it should
try an alternate path.
The node’s own node number
is not present in the call
The node adds its own node number in the facility
and routes the call based on settings in the routing
table.
Note
All Vanguard Product nodes in the network must
use the same anti-loop facility code (i.e. the
parameter Hop Count facility Code in all the
nodes must have the same value).
A call is routed to an X.25 link The anti-loop facility is deleted.
that is not configured with
This ensures that the facility is not sent to a
X.25 Options = INL
non-Vanguard device.
2-60
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Configuring an X.25 Port for Suppression of Call Rerouting
How It Works
You would enable the Suppression of Call Rerouting CSK if you want a port that is
down not to reroute incoming calls to an alternate destination. When Suppression of
Call Rerouting is enabled, incoming calls are cleared back to the originator.
The Suppression of Call Rerouting CSK only effects ports that are configured as
Access Ports. (To configure a port as a Access Port, you must enable the AP option
in the X.25 Option parameter.)
Enabling the CSK
Follow these steps to enter this CSK:
Step
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu will appear.
2
Select Software Key Table from
the Configure menu.
The Software Key Table
Configuration screen will appear.
3
Press Return to access the Key
Value field and enter this CSK
number:
ECR94XYW5K9ZN72QT7B4
The message Storing updated record
in configuration memory appears.
4
Perform a Node boot to implement
your changes.
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
Limiting Calls Between Ports
Introduction
In some applications, you may want to limit calls between ports. You can use the
Closed User Group (CUG) feature to configure ports to receive calls only from
specified ports in the network and to reject calls for all other ports.
Implementing CUG Implementing the CUG feature is a two-part process:
1) To enable Closed User Group, set a Port Record parameter.
- For X.25 ports, X.25 Options = CUGF
- For PAD ports, Terminal Control = CUG
2) To specify Closed User Group membership:
The parameter CUG Membership (in the Port Record for PAD ports and X.25
ports) must identify at least one closed user group for which the port or channel
is a member. A port can be a member of up to eight CUGs.
Call Initiation
This table identifies what happens when a call is initiated from a CUG port:
Step
CUG Incoming
Access
Action
1
The CUG identifier is placed in the CUG field, when the call is initiated
from a terminal attached to a CUG port.
2
A port configured for a CUG checks the facility field of all incoming calls
to see if it contains a CUG identifier.
3
The call is rejected if the field does not contain a CUG identifier.
4
The module is checked against the called port's CUG Membership list, if
the identifier is found. The call is accepted if there is a match between the
CUG identifier and the CUG membership list. The call will be cleared if
there is no match.
5
Ports that are not members of any CUG ignore the CUG facility in
incoming calls. This means that a port that is a member of a CUG can
make calls to ports that are not members of any closed user group (the
parameters X.25 Options and Terminal Control are not set to CUG).
A CUG port will accept incoming calls from other user groups if the CUGIA option
in the Call Subscription Facility parameter is enabled. The CUGIA works with these
specifications:
• Ports can belong to one or more CUGs and can receive incoming calls from
other DTEs belonging to these subscribed CUGs.
• Ports can receive incoming calls from DTEs not belonging to any CUG
(open part of the network).
• Ports can receive incoming calls from other DTEs belonging to different
CUGs (a different CUG is one which is not subscribed to at this node) with
Outgoing Access (CUGOA) capability.
2-62
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
D-bit Modification
Introduction
The D-bit on an X.25 data packet is the signalling bit used to acknowledge packet
delivery. If you want to make sure that data packets are being delivered to the remote
end of an X.25 connection, you can enable the DBITMOD facility in the Facility
Subscription Control parameter available from the X.25 Port Record.
How It Works
The D-bit on a data packet is used to acknowledge packet delivery. It can be set to
either 0 or 1. When set to 0, acknowledgment of a packet is sent from the
intermediary node. When set to 1, acknowledgment of a packet is sent only when it
reaches the remote end.
Most modern terminal application can set the D-bit on data packets to 1. However, if
you have an older terminal application that cannot set the D-bit, it can be set on data
as it travels through a port on A Vanguard Product with the D-bit Modification
facility.
Note
Enabling the D-bit Modification facility may slow down the data transfer rate.
Because only a limited amount of data can be sent across a network without
acknowledgment, the data transfer rate may slow (if window closure occurs).
D-bit Modification
Facility
When the D-bit Modification Facility is enabled on a port, it sets the D-bit on every
packet that goes through the port.
The type of data (X.25 or non-X.25) determines whether you enable the D-bit
Modification Facility access (receiving) port or the network (sending) port. When
X.25 data is transmitted, the D-bit Modification Facility can be set for either the
access port or the network port. However, when non-X.25 data is transmitted, it must
go through a PAD before it can enter the X.25 network, the D-bit modification
facility must be set on the network port.
Figure 2-8 shows the D-bit used with X.25 data:
X.25 Port 3 configured with Facility Subscription
parameter as DBITMOD and X.25 Options set to AP.
Port 3
Port 1
65xx
X.25
X.25
65xx Packet
Network
Host
X.25
X.25 DTE
Node Address 100
Figure 2-8. D-Bit Modification With X.25 Data
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Figure 2-9 shows the D-bit modification facility used with data that must be
processed by a PAD before it can enter the X.25 network:
X.25 Port 1 configured with Facility
Subscription parameter as DBITMOD
Port 2
Port 2
ATM
X.25
Port 1
Port 1
65xx
X.25
Node address 100
SDLC TPAD
Vanguard Packet
Network
X.25
Host
Node address 200
SDLC HPAD
Figure 2-9. D-Bit Modification With Non-X.25 Data
2-64
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Call Redirection
Introduction
If you want an X.25 port to redirect incoming calls when it is busy or disabled, you
must configure it for Call Redirection.
How It Works
The node that places an incoming call must redirect the call. Otherwise, it will be
cleared.
This table identifies how to configure a port for Call Redirection.
Step
Action
1
Set the X.25 Options parameter to INL (in the X.25 port record) on the
port that receives the call. (See “X.25 Options” on page 40.)
2
Set the Call Subscription Facility to REDIRECT (in the X.25 port record)
on the port that originates the call. (See “Facility Subscription Control” on
page 49.)
3
Configure the Call Redirection Table for the port originating the call. For
more information on how to configure the Call Redirection Table, see
“Call Redirection Table”.
Note
Call Redirection is limited to a network consisting of Vanguard devices only. It
will not function across third party X.25 equipment, public networks or Hunt
groups.
Call Redirection
Table
When you configure a port for Call Redirection, inbound calls are sent to alternate
X.25 addresses as they are specified in the Call Redirection Table. The Call
Redirection Table should be configured on the port that the call originates from.
The Call Redirection Table supports wildcarding. Although, both the primary and
redirection addresses may contain wildcard characters, the length of a redirection
address cannot exceed the length of the primary address.
This table shows six redirection addresses with wildcard characters in them and the
new addresses that incoming call would be directed to:
Original
Address
99010001
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
T0107, Revision J
Redirection Address
New Address
9802
9802
9802*
98020
9802**
980200
9802***
9802000
9802****
98020001
9802*******
98020001
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Call Facility Manipulation for Inbound Calls
Introduction
When a call enters the node and when it leaves on the link to which it is forwarded,
the basic routing function is checked by processing the call for facilities. Facilities
are placed in call requests to ask for enhanced services that the network or the
destination might provide.
Facility Checking
These facilities are checked during inbound call processing:
• Packet size negotiation
• Window size negotiation
• Closed User Group (CUG)
• Reverse charging
• Fast Select
• Network User Identification (NUI)
Facilities not listed below remain in the Call Request Packet without modification
and are passed to the destination.
Packet Size
Negotiation
This table describes the packet size negotiation environment for X.25:
If...
Then...
The Call Request Packet
contains the Packet Size
Negotiation facility
The size requested is
checked.
The incoming Packet Size
Negotiation requests a
packet size larger than the
maximum
The node responds with a
packet size equal to the
size in the parameter
Maximum Negotiated
Packet Size.
Result
Only packet sizes of 128,
256, 512, or 1024 bytes
are allowed.
Also, the parameter
Maximum Negotiated
Packet Size determines
the maximum packet size
that the X.25 link is
allowed to negotiate.
The incoming Packet Size The call is changed to 128
Negotiation requests a
bytes.
packet size less than 128
bytes
2-66
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Parameter Settings The parameter Maximum Negotiated Packet Size sets the maximum X.25 layer 3
for Maximum
data packet size at which an FRMR is sent. This table lists the parameter settings and
Negotiated Packet maximum frame sizes.
Size
Parameter Setting Frame Size
Maximum
128 + packet header
128 + frame header
256 + packet header
256 + frame header
512 + packet header
512 + frame header
1024 + packet header
1024 + frame header
The frame header is either 2 bytes (if normal sequencing is configured) or 3 bytes
(if extended sequencing is configured) in length. The packet header is either 3 bytes
(if normal sequencing is configured) or 4 bytes (if extended sequencing is
configured) in length. Selecting 128 allows 256 + headers because a CALL packet
may be 256 bytes.
Window Size
Negotiation
If the Call Request Packet contains the Window Size Negotiation facility, the range
requested is checked. Ranges can be 1 to 7 on ports running normal window
sequencing and 1 to 15 on ports running extended window sequencing. If the
requested window size is greater than 7 (for normal sequencing) or 15 (for extended
sequencing), it is changed to 7 or 15 respectively.
Closed User
Groups
The Closed User Group (CUG) feature lets you configure ports to receive calls only
from specified ports in the network and to reject calls for all other ports. Refer to
Limiting Calls Between Ports on page 62.
Reverse Charging
If the parameter Facilities to Bar in Inbound Calls is set to REV (bar reverse
charging), incoming calls with Reverse Charge Facility are rejected. Otherwise, the
facility is passed transparently to the outbound channel.
Fast Select
Fast Select is not processed during the inbound processing phase. It is passed
transparently to the outbound channel.
Network User
NUI support can be passive or active. Passive NUI support allows calls with the NUI
Identification (NUI) facility to pass without checking the facility’s contents. Active NUI support checks
the contents of the NUI facility and acts on the call based on the results of the check.
All X.25 ports can support passive or active NUI.
Passive NUI
Support
When the X.25 Options port parameter is not set to NUI, it is configured for passive
NUI support. Calls are passed without the NUI facility’s contents being checked.
The NUI facility is passed to the destination unchanged and the destination
equipment checks for valid users.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
Example of Passive A typical example of this is where the destination is the port on a PDN to which the
NUI Support
Vanguard device is attached. The PDN is configured for NUI checking and
passwords and account names are maintained by the PDN. To operate in this manner,
the X.25 Options port parameter must not enable NUI.
Passwords and account name format are not specifically defined by CCITT
recommendations. For this type of arrangement, valid password and account names
must be determined by the PDN to which the node is attached. They are used in the
facility field of calls going to the PDN.
Active NUI Support When the X.25 Options port parameter is set to NUI, it is configured for active NUI
support. A call entering the node has a password in the facilities section of the call
and the node is configured to check the password against a similar set stored in the
node. If there is no match, the call is cleared.
To support this, configure the NUI/Password Table with the appropriate passwords
and account names. Account names are not used in NUI checking; they are used if a
billing record is to be created. By doing NUI validation at the point of attachment,
unauthorized calls are cleared before they enter the network.
Bilateral Closed
User Group
(BCUG)
BCUG options are available in the parameters Facilities to Bar in Outbound Calls
and Facilities to Bar in Inbound Calls (in the X.25 Port record). You must specify
these parameters when the link is connected to a Digital Data Network (DDN).
Datagram (DGRAM) Datagram options are available in the parameters Facilities to Bar in Outbound Calls
and Facilities to Bar in Inbound Calls (in the X.25 Port record). You must specify
these parameters when the link is connected to a DDN.
2-68
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Call Facility Manipulation for Outbound Calls
Introduction
After address processing, the facilities are processed.
• Packet size negotiation
• Window size negotiation
• Closed User Group (CUG)
• Reverse Charging
• Fast Select
• Network User Identification (NUI)
• Throughput Class Negotiation
These facilities are checked during outbound call processing. Any facilities not
mentioned are left intact in the Call Request Packet.
Packet Size
Negotiation
If the Facilities to Add to Outbound Calls parameter specifies PACK, packet size
negotiation is added to the outbound Call Request. The parameter P Packet Size
(in the X.25 Port Record) specifies the value to be negotiated.
Window Size
Negotiation
If the parameter Facilities to Add to Outbound Calls parameter specifies WIND,
window size negotiation is added to the outbound Call Request. The parameter W
Packet Window (in the X.25 Port record) specifies the value to be negotiated.
CUG
CUG can be supported actively or passively:
• Passive Support: The default setting of the X.25 port allows a call with the
CUG facility to pass without checking its contents.
• Active Support: When the parameter X.25 Options is set to CUG, the port
checks the contents of the CUG facility and acts on the call. The action
depends on the setting of the parameter CUG Membership parameter. If the
parameter Facilities to Delete from Outbound Calls is set to CUG, the CUG
facility is removed from the call after any checking is done.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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Release 6.2
X.25 Configuration Parameters
CUG with Outgoing The X.25 Closed User Group with Outgoing Access (CUGOA) facility enables the
Access (CUGOA)
DTE to belong to one or more closed user groups, and to originate virtual calls to
DTEs in the open part of the network and to DTEs belonging to other CUGs with the
incoming access capability. Once the DTE has subscribed to the CUGOA facility,
The Closed User Group with Outgoing Access Selection facility can be used on a per
virtual call basis.
This facility is used by the calling DTE in the call request packet to specify the
closed user group selected for a virtual call, and to indicate that outgoing access is
also needed. The CUGOA facility can be received by a DTE only if the network
supports it and the DTE has subscribed to the CUGIA (Closed User Group with
Incoming Access) facility.
The Terminal Control parameter (under the PAD Port Record) contains a new value:
CUGOA. When Terminal Control is set to CUGOA, the DTE:
• Can belong to one or more closed user groups
• Can originate virtual calls to DTEs in the open part of the network
• Can originate virtual calls to DTEs belonging to other CUGs with the
incoming access capability.
Note
A remote DTE can receive a CUGOA setting only if it is supported by the
network and if that DTE has subscribed to the Closed User Group with Incoming
Access facility.
Reverse Charging
If the parameter Facilities to Bar From Outbound Calls is set to REV (bar reverse
calls), a call with the request for reverse charging included in the packet is cleared.
Fast Select
If the parameter Facilities to Bar From Outbound Calls is set to FAST, the call is
cleared if the fast select facility is in the Call Request Packet. If the parameter is not
set to FAST and if the facility is in the Call Request, the facility is passed
transparently.
NUI
If the parameter Facilities to Delete from Outbound Calls is set to the NUI, the
Network User Identification is removed from the Call Request. If the parameter is
not set to NUI, this facility is passed transparently.
Throughput Class
Negotiation
If the parameter Facilities to Delete from Outbound Calls is set to THRO, this
facility is removed from the Call Request. If the parameter is not set to THRO, the
facility is passed transparently.
BCUG
When an X.25 link is connected to a DDN, the parameters Facilities to Bar in
Outbound Calls and Facilities to Bar in Inbound Calls must be set to the BCUG.
Datagram (DGRAM) When an X.25 link is connected to a DD), the parameters Facilities to Bar in
Outbound Calls and Facilities to Bar in Inbound Calls must be set to the DGRAM.
2-70
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
X.25 Configuration Parameters
Link Address Negotiation for Dial On Demand
Introduction
This section describes Link Address Negotiation for Dial On Demand.
What Is It?
X.25 support for Vanguard products includes dynamic link addressing for Dial On
Demand on nodes connected to an X.25 network. This means that you can configure
your Vanguard device to negotiate the DCE or DTE link addressing at both ends of a
link.
How It Works
As illustrated in Figure 2-10, each time a DOD link is brought up on a node
configured with the Link Address Negotiation feature, the two nodes trying to
establish the link begin an exchange of SABMs and replies to establish proper link
addressing and make a connection. You can configure one or both ends of a link for
negotiation. However, if only one end of the link is configured for negotiation, that
node resets its link address to complement the node at the other end of the link after a
brief exchange of SABMs and replies.
If both ends of a link are configured for negotiation, a series of exchanges occurs
before the nodes settle on complementary link addresses.
This negotiation process may change each time a link is established between the two
nodes.
Example
Figure 2-10 shows an example of a DOD application in which Node B negotiates
link addressing with Node C in order to bring up a new link.
Node A
6520
WAN
DOD
Brings Up
New Link
Node B
Node C
SABM
6520
VG100
This Node
Configured
to Negotiate
This Node
Configured
as DTE
Reply
Figure 2-10. How DOD Negotiate Feature Works
Node B, configured for negotiation, determines that Node C has a DTE link address,
and configures itself to a DCE link address to establish the link.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
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X.25 Configuration Parameters
Configuring the
Negotiate Link
Address Feature
2-72
This table identifies how to configure Link Address Negotiation.
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Port from the Configure
menu.
The Port Configuration record
appears.
3
Configure the Port Number you
want to use and define the Port
Type as X.25.
You are prompted to fill in the next
parameter.
4
At the Link Address: prompt, type
in Negotiate.
This sets the port configuration for
the node to negotiate the link
address each time a link is being
established.
5
Perform a Port boot to implement
your changes.
Configuring the X.25 Protocol
Chapter 3
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Overview
Introduction
This Chapter describes how to configure the X.25 Calling translation functions on
Vanguard products and includes:
•
•
•
•
•
The “Inbound Call Translation Table Record” section on page 3-2.
The “Outbound Call Translation Table Record” section on page 3-5.
The “Configuring the REGSO Option” section on page 3-9.
The “Calling Address Translation Table Record” section on page 3-16.
The “Call Redirection Table” section on page 3-21.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
3-1
Inbound Call Translation Table Record
Inbound Call Translation Table Record
Introduction
The Inbound Call Translation Table Record specifies how the node translates calls
received from a PDN. This record contains parameters that translate inbound calling
subaddresses that match this table entry.
What You See in
This Record
Figure 3-1 shows the Inbound Call Translation Table Record.
Node:
Menu: Configure
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6)
Node
Port
Route Selection Table
Inbound Call Translation Table
Entry Number
Inbound Subaddress
Private Network Address
Figure 3-1. Inbound Call Translation Table
Before You Begin
Before you can configure parameters, you must log on to the local node’s control
terminal port.
Configuration
Guidelines
When you configure the Inbound Call Translation Table Record:
3-2
•
•
•
•
No blank address values are permitted.
No duplicate address values are permitted.
If there are entries in this table, then at least one X.25 link should exist.
An X.25 port must have X.25 Option = PDN to use the Inbound Call
Translation Table.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Inbound Call Translation Table Record
Accessing the
Inbound Call
Translation Table
Record
To access the Inbound Call Translation Table record:
Step
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Inbound Call
Translation Table from the
Configure menu.
The Inbound Call Translation
Table and its parameters appear.
A prompt appears asking you to
configure the next parameter.
3
Enter the parameter values.
4
Press <ESC> to return to the
Configure menu after you have
configured all the parameters.
5
Perform a Table and Node Record
boot.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
Action
The changes you make will be
saved.
3-3
Release 6.2
Inbound Call Translation Table Record
Inbound Call Translation Table Record Parameters
Introduction
This section describes the Inbound Call Translation Table parameters.
Parameters
Configure these parameters from the Inbound Call Translation Table Record:
Entry Number
Range:
1 to 64
Default:
1
Description:
Identifies the particular Inbound Call Translation Table entry
being configured by the other parameters in the record.
Note
You can not modify this value.
Inbound Subaddress
Range:
0 to 3 digits
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Specifies the subaddress contained in an incoming call from
another network, usually a PDN.
This address is translated into a Private Network Address before
the call is forwarded. The variable subaddress length is determined
by the length of the Subaddress in the X.25 Port record.
Note
Use the space bar to blank the parameter value.
Private Network Address
Range:
0 to 15 digits
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Value of this parameter replaces the entire called address if the
subaddress of the incoming called address matches the value of the
Inbound Subaddress (previous parameter).
Note
The Inbound Subaddress (previous parameter) is not appended to
this private network address.
Note
Use the space bar to blank the parameter value.
3-4
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Outbound Call Translation Table Record
Outbound Call Translation Table Record
Introduction
The Outbound Call Translation Table Record specifies how the node translates calls
sent to a PDN. This record contains parameters that translate outbound calling
subaddresses that match the entry for this table.
What You See in
This Record
Figure 3-2 shows the Outbound Call Translation Table Record.
Node:
Menu: Configure
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6)
Node
Port
Route Selection Table
Inbound Call Translation Table
Outbound Call Translation Table
Entry Number
Private Network Address
Outbound Network Address
Options
Figure 3-2. Outbound Call Translation Table
Before You Begin
Before you can configure parameters, you must log on to the local node’s control
terminal port.
Configuration
Guideline
An X.25 port must have the X.25 Option parameter set to PDN to make use of the
Outbound Call Translation Table.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
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Release 6.2
Outbound Call Translation Table Record
Accessing the
Outbound Call
Translation Table
Record
Follow these steps to access the Outbound Call Translation Table record:
Step
3-6
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Outbound Call
Translation Table from the
Configure menu.
The Outbound Call Translation
Table and its parameters appear.
A prompt appears asking you to
configure the next parameter.
3
Enter the parameter values.
4
Press <ESC> to return to the
Configure menu after you have
configured all parameters.
5
Perform a Table and Node Record
boot.
The changes you make will be
saved.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Outbound Call Translation Table Record
Outbound Call Translation Table Record Parameters
Introduction
This section describes the Outbound Call Translation Table Record parameters.
Parameters
Configure these parameters from the Outbound Call Translation Table Record:
Entry Number
Range:
1 to 64
Default:
1
Description:
Identifies the particular Outbound Call Translation Table being
configured by the other parameters in the record.
Note
You can not modify this value.
Private Network Address
Range:
0 to 15 digits
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Specifies the Private Network Address that is contained in an
outbound call to another network, usually a PDN.
The Private Network Address is translated into a Public Network
Address before the call is forwarded. Do not include the
subaddress in this parameter.
Note
Use the space bar to blank the parameter value.
Outbound Network Address
Range:
0 to 15 digits
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Specifies a new called address, if the outgoing PDN called address
matches the value of the Private Network Address.
Note
Any subaddress will be appended unless CUD is used.
Note
Use the space bar to blank the parameter value.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
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Release 6.2
Outbound Call Translation Table Record
Options
3-8
Range:
NONE, OLDA
Default:
NONE
Description:
Specifies options for outbound call address translation:
• NONE: Do nothing.
• OLDA: Insert private network address into outbound Call
User Data (CUD) field starting at the fifth byte of the CUD
after the protocol ID. This address can be a maximum of 12
digits. If it is longer, the least significant digits are deleted.
When the X.25 Options parameter (in the X.25 Port record) is set
for CUD and PDN, the network address and the subaddress are
included in the CUD.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Configuring the REGSO Option
Configuring the REGSO Option
REGSO Access
You access the REGSO option as part of the X.25 Port Record through either the
CTP or through an SNMP manager. This section describes how to configure the
option.
Configuration
Procedure
These tables explain how to configure the REGSO option.
Steps to Configure REGSO
Step
Action
Result
1
Set the X.25 Options field to
REGSO in an X.25 Port record.
The REGSO option is selected.
2
Configure the Inbound Call
The table size is determined.
Translation Table Size in the Node
Record.
3
Configure a translation table entry. A private network address is
uniquely associated with a public
subaddress.
Note
Be sure that the private network
address is a full address.
Setting REGSO
Option
This table describes how to configure the X.25 Record for REGSO.
Step
Result
1
Select Configure from the Main
menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Port from the Configure
menu.
The Port Configuration menu
appears along with a prompt.
3
Enter the number of the port you
want to configure, and press
Return.
The prompt appears to enter
information about the port type.
4
Select X.25 as the port type.
The X.25 Port Record appears.
5
Enter REGSO in the X.25 Options Configures the X.25 node to
field.
replace calling addresses in
outgoing call packets.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
Action
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Release 6.2
Configuring the REGSO Option
Setting the Table
Size
This table describes how to set the number of records in the Inbound Call Translation
Table. REGSO requires one table entry per private network address.
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the Main
menu.
The Configure menu appears on
the screen.
2
Select Node Record from the
Configure menu.
The Node Record appears.
3
Enter a value, in the range 1 to
1000, in the Inbound Call
Translation Table Size field.
The table size is entered.
4
Reboot the node.
The table size is configured.
Adding an Address This table describes how to configure an entry in the Inbound Call Address
Translation Table.
Step
3-10
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the Main
menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Inbound Call
Translation Table.
The Inbound Call Translation
Table Configuration screen
appears.
3
Enter an unused table entry value
A table entry form appears.
4
Enter both:
• An Inbound Subaddress, of 0
to 3 digits (decimal)
• Private Network Address, of 0
to 15 digits (decimal)
The message
Storing updated record in
configuration memory appears.
The new table entry is configured.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Configuring the REGSO Option
Example of
Inbound Call
Translation Table
Configuration
Screen
Figure 3-8 shows the Inbound Call Address Translation Table screen. The compound
Selection entry, 6.4, is equivalent to entering 6, then 4. This example shows table
entry 30.
#Enter Selection: 6.4
Inbound Call Translation Table Configuration
ATTENTION
--------As the maximum size of the Inbound Call Translation Table
has been increased to 1000, another method for choosing an entry
has been introduced.
* An entry can be chosen EITHER by its entry number
OR by specifying either the Public Sub-address or Private Network address
that the entry already contains. If an entry matching the Public Sub-address or Private Network address exists then the entry number will be displayed.
* If more than one entry exists with the specified Public Sub-address or
Private Network address, the entry number of the first match will be displayed with a '*'. Entering '>' will display the other matching entries
one by one.
Entry Number: 1/
Entry with Sub-Address:
Entry with Private Network Address: 10098
Entry Number: 30/ :
[30] Inbound Subaddress: 98/
[30] Private Network Address: 10098/
Figure 3-3. Inbound Call Translation Table Configuration Screen
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the REGSO Option
Configuring Mnemonic Calls
Introduction
To make a call using a mnemonic, you enter:
•
•
•
•
•
Required
Parameters
The configured mnemonic code instead of the X.28 Call command
The network address
The subaddress or group subaddress
Call facilities
User data
You can establish mnemonic calls only if you have properly configured the
parameters in these two records:
Mnemonic Table:
In the node where the call is originating, you must configure a Mnemonic Table
entry for each X.25 address number to be called. That entry must include the
Mnemonic (the parameter Mnemonic Name) and the destination address (the
parameter Call Parameters).
Route Selection Table:
In the same node, you must configure a corresponding entry in the Route Selection
Table representing the destination address (the parameter Address) that is in the
Mnemonic Table entry.
Note
The mnemonic “CTP” is reserved for the control terminal port (default
subaddress 98) in each node. BCST is reserved as the mnemonic for the
Broadcast module (default subaddress 95).
Example of
Mnemonic
Addressing
Figure 3-10 is a simple example of mnemonic addressing. In Node 100, the terminal
at Port 4 is about to make a Mnemonic Call to the terminal at Port 3, Node 200. The
configuration records and parameters that pertain to mnemonic addressing are shown
for Node 100.
Port# 4
6520
Node 100
(Node Address 10000)
6520
Port# 3
Node 200
(Node Address 20000)
Mnemonic Table Record
Entry 1:
1
Mnemonic:
Chicago
Call Parameters: 2000003
Route Selection Table
Address=:
200
Destination:
X25-1
Priority:
1
Figure 3-4. Mnemonic Addressing Example
3-12
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Configuring the REGSO Option
Searching for and Deleting an Address
Address Search
This table describes how you can search for an Inbound Call Address Translation
Table.
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Inbound Call
Translation Table.
The Inbound Call Translation
Table Configuration (Figure 3-9)
appears.
3
At the Entry Number: prompt,
press the ESC key.
This prompt appears:
Entry with Subaddress:
4
Enter the Inbound Subaddress for
which you are searching a Private
Network Address.
• The entry number of the
match appears. If there is
more than one matching entry,
an asterisk appears next to the
entry number.
• When you press the Return
key, the Inbound Subaddress
that you input appears.
• When you press the Return
key again, the matching
Private Network Address
appears.
You can also use the private
network address to get the
Inbound Subaddress.
You can only search one entry at a
time. Press the ESC key to return
to search mode.
If...
Then...
You enter an incorrect subaddress
This error message appears:
Entry with Sub-Address: XXX not
found
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Configuring the REGSO Option
Screen in Search
Mode
Figure 3-9 shows the Inbound Translation Table Configuration in search mode.
#Enter Selection: 6.4
Inbound Call Translation Table Configuration
ATTENTION
--------As the maximum size of the Inbound Call Translation Table
has been increased to 1000, another method for choosing an entry
has been introduced.
* An entry can be chosen EITHER by its entry number
OR by specifying either the Public Sub-address or Private Network address
that the entry already contains. If an entry matching the Public Sub-address or Private Network address exists then the entry number will be displayed.
* If more than one entry exists with the specified Public Sub-address or
Private Network address, the entry number of the first match will be
displayed with a '*'. Entering '>' will display the other matching entries
one by one.
Entry Number: 1/
Entry with Sub-Address:
Entry with Private Network Address: 10098
Entry Number: 30/ :
[30] Inbound Subaddress: 98/
[30] Private Network Address: 10098/
Figure 3-5. Inbound Call Translation Table Configuration in Search
Mode
3-14
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Configuring the REGSO Option
Deleting an
Address
This table describes how to delete an Inbound Call Address Translation Table entry.
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Delete Record from the
Main menu.
The Delete Record appears on the
screen.
2
Select Inbound Call
Translation Table.
The Inbound Call Translation
Table screen appears.
The Entry Number: prompt appears.
3
Enter the number for the entry you This message appears:
want deleted.
Proceed y/n:
Once you enter y, this message
appears:
Record deleted.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Calling Address Translation Table Record
Calling Address Translation Table Record
Introduction
This record contains parameters that are required when configuring an X.25 link for
SRGI+PDN (when the parameter X.25 Options = SRGI in the X.25 Port Record).
The Calling Address Translation Table Record specifies how the node translates
calls received from a PDN.
What You See in
This Record
Figure 3-6 shows the Calling Address Translation Table Record.
Node:
Menu: Configure
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6)
Node
Port
•
•
•
Calling Address Translation Table
Entry Number
Inbound Calling Address
Private Network Address
Figure 3-6. Calling Address Translation Table Record
Before You Begin
3-16
Before you can configure parameters, you must log on to the local node’s control
terminal port.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Calling Address Translation Table Record
Accessing the
Calling Address
Translation Table
Record
Follow these steps to access the Calling Address Translation Table record:
Step
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Calling Address
Translation Table from the
Configure menu.
The Calling Address Translation
Table and its parameters appear.
A prompt appears asking you to
configure the next parameter.
3
Enter the parameter values.
4
Press <ESC> to return to the
Configure menu after you have
configured all parameters.
5
Perform a Table and Node Record
boot.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
Action
The changes you make will be
saved.
3-17
Release 6.2
Calling Address Translation Table Record
Calling Address Translation Table Record Parameters
Introduction
This section describes the Calling Address Translation Record parameters.
Parameters
Configure these parameters from the Calling Address Translation Table Record:
Entry Number
Range:
1 to 64
Default:
1
Description:
Identifies the entry being configured by the rest of the parameters
in the record.
Note
You can not modify this parameter.
Inbound Calling Address
Range:
0 to 15 digits
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Specifies the inbound calling address, which the private network
address (specified in the next parameter) replaces before the call is
forwarded.
Note
Use the space bar to blank the parameter value.
Private Network Address
Range:
0 to 15 digits
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Specifies the private network address that replaces the inbound
called address (specified in the previous parameter).
Note
Use the space bar to blank the parameter value.
3-18
Configuring Call Translation Functions
CUD Based Address Translation Table
CUD Based Address Translation Table
Introduction
Call User Data (CUD) routing can be configured on an X.25 port, if the Address
Translation Option parameter is set to CUDR, to resolve CUD address information.
This updates the called address, of the incoming Call packet from the network,
before routing it to its final destination.
Configuration
Complete these steps to configure the CUD Based Address Translation Table:
Step
What You See In
This Record
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select CUD based Addr
Translation Table from the
Configure menu.
The CUD based Addr Translation
Table menu appears as shown in
Figure 3-7.
3
Press <ESC> to return to the
Configure menu after you have
configured all parameters.
Figure 3-7 shows the CUD based Addr Translation Table menu.
Node:
Address:
Date:
Menu:: CUD based Addr Translation Table
Time:
Path: (Main.6.3)
CUD String
Called Address
Figure 3-7. CUD based Addr Translation Table
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
CUD Based Address Translation Table
Parameters
You must configure these parameters in the CUD based Addr Translation Table.
CUD String
Range
1 to 64 alphanumeric characters
Default
(Blank)
Description
Specifies the sub-string to search in the CUD for the incoming call
for translating it into Called address. For searching from index in
the CUD the name can be specified as:
(7)DADADIFUBBBB
It will skip 7 characters of the CUD and match DADAIFUBBBB
in the CUD starting at Position 8.
Note
Use the space bar to blank this field.
.
Called Address
Range
0 to 15 decimal digits
Default
(blank)
Description
Enter the X.25 Address which will be inserted for called address
of incoming X.25 call packet if the configured CUD string is
matched in the CUD of the incoming X.25 Call packet.
Note
Use the space bar to blank this field.
3-20
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Call Redirection Table
Call Redirection Table
Introduction
This section describes the Call Redirection Table Record parameters. Any parameter
with an asterisk (*) requires a Node boot; changes to other parameters require a
Table and Node Record boot. For more information on configuring a network port
for Call Redirection, see “Call Redirection Table” on page 21.
What You See In
This Record
Figure 3-8 shows the Call Redirection Table menu.
Node:
Address:
Menu: Configure Network Services
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main.6.3)
Route Selection Table
PVC Setup Table
Mnemonic Table
Network Services Features Table
BoD Table
Switched Service Table
Calling Party ID Table
Voice Switch Table
Protocol Priority Profile Table
Redirection Table
Primary Address
#1 Redirection Address
#2 Redirection Address
#3 Redirection Address
#4 Redirection Address
#5 Redirection Address
#6 Redirection Address
#7 Redirection Address
#8 Redirection Address
#9 Redirection Address
#10 Redirection Address
#11 Redirection Address
#12 Redirection Address
Figure 3-8. Call Redirection Table
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
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Release 6.2
Call Redirection Table
Accessing the Call Follow these steps to access the Call Redirection Table record:
Redirection Table
Record
Step
3-22
Action
Result
1
Select Configure from the CTP
Main menu.
The Configure menu appears.
2
Select Configure Network
Services from the Configure
menu.
The Configure Network Services
menu appears.
3
Select Call Redirection Table
from the Configure Network
Services menu.
The Call Redirection Table
appears.
4
Press <ESC> to return to the
Configure menu after you have
configured all parameters.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
Call Redirection Table
Call Redirection Table Parameters
Introduction
This section describes the Call Redirection Table Record parameters
Note
In Vanguard products, six Call Redirection Tables are possible. In the Vanguard
6520 and Vanguard 6560, 12 Tables are possible.
Parameters
You must configure these parameters in the Call Redirection Table.
Primary Address
Range
0-15 decimal digits
Default
blank
Description
Specifies the primary address from which calls are redirected. If
the destination has subscribed to REDIRECT, calls made to this
address are redirected to any of the address against this entry in the
Redirection Address fields.
Note
The primary address can contain wildcard (*) characters. Use
space character to blank field.
#1-#12 Redirection Address
Range
0-15 decimal digits
Default
blank
Description
Specifies the alternate address to which calls are redirected. If the
destination has subscribed to REDIRECT, calls made to the
primary address are redirected to the redirection addresses.
To prevent all calls being redirected to the first alternative address
in the table, the table is scanned each time a call is redirected and
the call is redirected to a different address each time.
Note
A redirection address cannot contain more characters than the
primary address. It can contain wildcard (*) characters. Use space
character to blank field.
Configuring Call Translation Functions
T0107, Revision J
3-23
Release 6.2
Chapter 4
Statistics
Overview
This chapter describes how to access Detailed X.25 Port Statistics and
T1/E1 Interface Statistics, and defines their screen components.
Detailed Port Statistics provide detailed information about a specified port and
illustrates the effectiveness with which that port is operating. The T1/E1 Interface
Statistics provide detailed information about each interface.
Before You Begin
Statistics
Before you can access and use the statistics, you log on to the local node’s Control
Terminal Port. Refer to the Vanguard Configuration Basics Manual for information
on using the CTP.
4-1
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
Introduction
This section describes how to access the Detailed Port Statistics screens.
Detailed Port
Statistics
Use this procedure to access Detailed Port Statistics:
Step
Port Statistics
Screens
4-2
Action
Result
1
Select Status/Statistics from the The Status/Statistics menu appears.
CTP Main menu.
2
Select Detailed Port Stats.
You are prompted to specify a
particular port type.
3
Specify a port type.
A series of screens appears that are
specific to the type of port (PAD or
X.25).
Examples of the X.25 screens are
shown in Figure 4-1 through
Figure 4-4.
4
Scroll through a series of screens
for one port.
You are prompted to display the
detailed port statistics for the next
port.
Once you have accessed Port Statistics, you are presented with a series of up to four
sequential display screens. These pages describe each screen and provide complete
descriptions for each parameter displayed.
Statistics
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
Port Statistics Screen
What You See in
The First Screen
Figure 4-1 shows the first screen of the X.25 Detailed Port Statistics.
Node:
Address:
Date:
Time:
Detailed X.25 Port Statistics:
Port 1 Page: 1 of 5
Port Number: 1
Port Type: X25
Port Status: Down
Port Speed: 336000
Port State: Disc. Phase
Link Address: DCE
Port Utilization In:
0% Port Utilization Out:
0%
Call Summary:
SVC
PVC
Maximum:
0
0
Current:
0
0
Data Summary:
Last Statistics Reset:
1-JAN-1995 0:00:00
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
Characters: 0
0
Characters/sec: 0
0
Packets:
0
0
Packets/sec:
0
0
Frames:
0
0
Frames/sec:
0
0
Number of Packets Queued: 0
Interface Summary: T1-1
Channel 2
Channel State: Normal
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 4-1. Example of Detailed X.25 Port Statistics, First Screen
Description of
Terms — First
Screen
Screen 1 of the Detailed X.25 Port Statistics screen contains this information:
Screen Term
Statistics
T0107, Revision J
Tells You...
Port Number
Number of the port
Port Type
Type of port
Port Status
Status of the port:
• Up: Port is active.
• Down: Port is inactive.
Port Speed
Speed of the port if Clock=Int
Detected clock speed if Clock=Ext
If the Port Speed is 0, and the Clock=Ext, but clocking is
not being received from attached device.
Port State
There are six possible port states that may appear. These
are:
• Disabled: An operator has disabled the port.
• Busy Out: An operator has busied-out the port.
• Remote Busy: The port is receiving RNR frames.
• Send_rej: The port is sending REJ frames.
• Normal: The link is able to pass data.
• Link Setup: The port is sending SABM frames and
waiting for a UA response.
4-3
Release 6.2
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
Screen Term
Tells You... (continued)
Port Utilization: In/Out Percentage of port bandwidth in use
4-4
Call Summary
Maximum/Current (SVC/PVC):
• Number of SVCs and PVCs currently using the port
and the maximum number since the last reset
Data Summary: In/Out
Characters/Packets/Frames:
• Number of characters, packets, and frames sent and
received by the port since the last node, port, or
statistics reset
Number of Packets Queued:
• Number of packets currently queued
• Characters/sec; Packets/sec; Frames/sec
• Summary of the characters, packets, and frames
being sent and received over the port
EIA Summary
Possible states are:
• NULL
• Connected (SIMPLE)
• Idle, Connected (DTR), Wait For Clear (DTR), Wait
for DTR (DTR)
• Idle, (DTRP), Call Detected (DTRP), Connected
(DTRP)
• Idle, Call Detected (DIMO), Incoming Call Detected
(DIMO), Connected (DIMO), Clear Confirm
(DIMO)
• Idle, RI On (EMRI), RI Off (EMRI), Wait for RTS
(EMRI), Connected (EMRI), Wait for DTR (EMRI)
INPUT/OUTPUT: Summary of EIA control signals being
sent and received over the port.
Channel State
When T1/E1 daughtercard is installed. Indicates the
conditions generating status for the T1/E1 channel
associated with this port.
Statistics
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
What You See in
Figure 4-2 shows the second screen of the X.25 Detailed Port Statistics.
the Second Screen
Node:
Address: Date:
Detailed X25 Port Statistics: Port 1
Physical Summary:
Overrun Errors: 0
Non-Octet Aligned: 0
Unknown DLCI Err: 0
Frame Summary:
IN
OUT
Info
0
0
RNR
0
0
SABM
0
23
DM
0
0
FRMR
0
0
Packet Summary:
Data
Receiver Not Ready
Call Request
Clear Request
Interrupt Request
Reset Request
Restart Request
Time:
Page:
2 of 5
Underrun Errors: 0
CRC Errors: 0
Frame Length Err:0
Last Unknown DLCI: 0
IN
RR
REJ
DISC
UA
IN OUT
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
OUT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
IN OUT
Receiver Ready 00
Reject Packet00
Call Accept0 0
Clear Confirm00
Interrupt Conf.00
Reset Confirm00
Restart Confirm00
Figure 4-2. Example of Detailed X.25 Port Statistics, Second Screen
Screen Terms
Statistics
T0107, Revision J
Screen 2 of the Detailed X.25 Port Statistics contains this information:
4-5
Release 6.2
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
Screen Term
4-6
Tells You...
Physical Summary
Number of Overrun, Underrun, and CRC errors
since the last node or statistics reset.
• Overrun Errors: Received data was lost because
it could not be processed by the CPU
• Underrun Errors: Transmission of a frame could
not be completed because all the data had not
been sent to X.25 port
• CRC Errors: Indicates the number of errors
detected by Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
since last node boot or reset of statistics.
Indicates that a frame received contains one or
more corrupted bits.
• Non-Octet Aligned: Indicates an invalid frame
that is not divisible by eight.
• Frame Length Errors: Indicates the number of
frames received with length less than five
characters.
• Unknown DLCI Err: Indicates the number of
frames received with DLCI for which no station
is configured.
• Last Unknown DLCI: Indicates the last
unknown DLCI received in a frame.
Frame Summary
Summary of each frame being sent and received
over the port since the last node, port, or statistics
reset.
Packet Summary
Summary of each packet being sent and received
over the port.
Statistics
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
What You See In
The Third Screen
Figure 4-3 shows the third screen of the X.25 Detailed Port Statistics.
Node:
Address:Date:
Detailed X25 Port Statistics: Port 1
Time:
Page:
3 of 5
Last inbound LCN: 0
Inbound processing status: Processed OK, call passed to ROUT
Last Inbound Call, before processing:
Called Address:
Calling Address:
Facilities:
CUD:
Last Inbound Call, after processing:
Called Address:
Calling Address:
Facilities:
CUD:
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 4-3. Example of Detailed X.25 Port Statistics, Third Screen
Screen Terms
Screen 3 of the Detailed X.25 Port Statistics screen contains this information:
Screen Term
Statistics
T0107, Revision J
Tells You...
Last Inbound LCN
Logical channel number over which the last inbound
call was processed
Inbound Processing Status
Describes how the last inbound call was handled.
Examples include:
• Process OK
• Call Passed to ROUT
• Failed Processing
• Call Cleared
Last Inbound Call, before
processing
Called Address, Calling Address, Facilities, and
CUD of the last inbound call before it was processed
Last Inbound Call, after
processing
Called Address, Calling Address, Facilities, and
CUD of the last inbound call after it was processed
4-7
Release 6.2
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
What You See In
The Fourth Screen
Figure 4-4 shows the fourth screen of the X.25 Detailed Port Statistics.
Node:
Address Date:
Detailed X25 Port Statistics: Port 1
Time:
Page:
4 of 5
Last Outbound LCN: 0
Outbound processing status: Processed OK, call transmitted
Last Outbound Call, before processing:
Called Address:
Calling Address:
Facilities:
CUD:
Last Outbound Call, after processing:
Called Address:
Calling Address:
Facilities:
CUD:
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 4-4. Example of Detailed X.25 Port Statistics, Fourth Screen
Screen Terms
The fourth Detailed X.25 Port Statistics screen contains this information:
Screen Term
4-8
Tells You...
Last Inbound LCN
Logical channel number over which the last inbound
call was processed
Inbound Processing Status
Describes how the last inbound call was handled.
Examples include:
• Process OK
• Call Passed to ROUT
• Failed Processing
• Call Cleared
Last Inbound Call, before
processing
Called Address, Calling Address, Facilities, and
CUD of the last inbound call before it was processed
Last Inbound Call, after
processing
Called Address, Calling Address, Facilities, and
CUD of the last inbound call after it was processed
Statistics
Accessing the Detailed Port Statistics
The fifth detailed X.25 Port Statistics screen displays with Release 6.1 or greater.
Press any key to continue (ESC-exit, 'N'-next sect, 'S'-skip to station)
...
Node: 340_QUAD Address: 200
Date: 8-MAR-2002 Time:
11:05:53
Detailed X.25 Port Statistics: Port 3
Page: 5 of
Monitor control signals on port 01 for 1 change (type: SW56K) on 22-APR1998
Number of
Input
changes
NIS BPV DL C+ C========= ================
1
L
H H H H
2
H
H H H H
3
H
L H H H
4
H
H H H H
Output
RS LL CL IDL CLK
================
H H H
H
H
H H H
H
H
H H H
H
H
H H H
H
H
5
State
Time
===============
========
Connected
03:33:19
Connected
03:33:20
Connected
03:33:23
Connected
03:33:24
Figure 4-5. Example of Detailed X.25 Port Statistics, Fifth Screen
Statistics
T0107, Revision J
4-9
Release 6.2
T1/E1 Interface Statistics
T1/E1 Interface Statistics
Introduction
This section describes the menus and statistics calculated for the T1/E1 Interface.
Detailed T1/E1
Figure 4-6 is an example of a Detailed T1/E1 Interface Statistics screen. Screen
Interface Statistics terms are described in the table.
Node:
Address:
Detailed T1/E1 Interface Statistics
Date:
Time:
Page:
Interface Type: E1 - 2
Time Since Last Stats Reset: 8-FEB-2036
1:24:12
Alarm State: NONE
Channel State: NORMAL | NORMAL | NORMAL
Line Error Count:
24 Hour Totals
LES
LCV
PCV
CSS
ES
BES
SES
SEFS
UAS
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Current 15 Minutes Interval Time Elapsed in Current Interval:
LES
LCV
PCV
CSS
ES
BES
SES
SEFS
UAS
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
1 of
9
0
Figure 4-6. Sample Detailed Interface Statistics Screen - Page 1
4-10
Statistics
T1/E1 Interface Statistics
Screen Term
Statistics
T0107, Revision J
Description
Alarm State
Indicates conditions generating alarms for the T1 and E1
Interfaces.
For T1:
• None: Normal Operation
• Red: Loss of signal
• Yellow: Reception of RAI/Yellow alarm
• Blue: Reception of AIS/Alarm Indication Signal
• Line Loop back: TELCO test
• Payload Loop back: TELCO test
• POWER ON: This state is the starting state after the
unit is powered up and before line activity is detected.
For E1:
• NONE: Normal Operation
• LOS: Loss of Signal (Red)
• FAS: Frame Alignment Signal
• LOF: Loss of Frame
• RAI: Reception of RAI/Yellow alarm (Yellow)
• RAI+E: Reception of RAI with constant FEBE errors
• AIS: Reception of Alarm Indication Signal (Blue)
• POWER ON: This state is the starting state after the
unit is powered up and before line activity is detected
Channel State 1st,
2nd, 3rd
Indicates the current state of the channel:
• NORMAL: Normal operation: T1/E1 line is up
• DOWN: T1/E1 line is down or unavailable, or has no
time slots
• TELCO Loop: Channel is placed in remote loopback
by carrier
• L3 Loop: Channel is placed in remote loopback by
remote unit or BERT test equipment
• L2 Loop: Channel is placed in local loopback
4-11
Release 6.2
T1/E1 Interface Statistics
15 Minutes
Statistics Screen
Figure 4-7 is an example of a T1/E1 15 Minutes Statistics screen which displays
statistics for various errors. Screen terms are described in the table.
Node:
Address:
Date:
Detailed T1/E1 ISDN Interface Statistics
Interface Type: E1 - 2
Page: 2 of 9
Interval:
LES
LCV
PCV
CSS
ES
00:15
0
0
0
0
0
00:30
0
0
0
0
0
00:45
0
0
0
0
0
01:00
0
0
0
0
0
01:15
0
0
0
0
0
01:30
0
0
0
0
0
01:45
0
0
0
0
0
02:00
0
0
0
0
0
02:15
0
0
0
0
0
02:30
0
0
0
0
0
02:45
0
0
0
0
0
03:00
0
0
0
0
0
Time:
BES
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SES
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SEFS
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
UAS
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 4-7. Sample Detailed Interface Statistics 15 Minutes Stats Screen
:
Screen Term
Indicates...
Interval
The time period for which error count statistics are
calculated.
LES
Line Error Seconds count
LCV
Line Coding Violation count
PCV
Path Coding Violation count
CSS
Controlled Slip Seconds count
ES
Errored Seconds count
BES
Bursty Errored Seconds count
SES
Severely Errored Seconds count
SEFS
Severely Errored Framing Seconds count
UAS
Unavailable Seconds count
For details regarding the error types, refer to appropriate parameters
in the “Configuring the T1/E1 Interface” section in Chapter 2.
4-12
Statistics
Chapter 5
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Overview
This chapter describes the Delay Path Tracing feature, a diagnostic test used for
reporting circuit transit delay in the path associated with a selected SVC network
connection.
Introduction
Delay Path Tracing measures the round-trip delay of a connection incurred on the
networking levels to an accuracy expected to be within 40 milliseconds of the actual
delay.
Operation With
Traffic Priority
Delay Path Tracing operates with the Traffic Priority feature. The delay packet is
injected into the specified connection’s data queue. Traffic priority treats the delay
packet the same as other data packets belonging to this priority queue.
How You Use Delay You can use the results of delay path tracing to:
Path Tracing
• Isolate the source of delay to a particular node and link combination.
• Determine whether circuit transit delay is due to network congestion or
latencies in the host computer or terminal equipment.
• Determine the exact path that a given call travels.
• Give the measured delay along each hop of the path, in addition to the delay
for the entire path traced.
Software Release
Requirements
Every network node must have Release 4.0 software or higher to allow the Delay
Path Tracing to function.
If...
Any network node does not have
Release 4.0 or higher
Then...
a)Links that do not support delay
tracing return the delay packet
before the destination is reached.
b)The Delay Module records the
reason for the returning Response
Packet, and the test report shows
delay only on a partial path.
Any 3.X nodes are internal to a 4.X/5.X The delay path trace works, but the 3.X
network
nodes do not report anything back to the
source node.
Adjacent 4.X/5.X nodes span a 3.X set
of nodes
Reports from the 4.X/5.X node record
the transit delay across the 3.X nodes, as
well as their own delay times.
6500 Series release 3.X nodes separate
destination nodes
Only partial delays and path traces are
reported.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-1
Release 6.2
Limitations
Delay Path Tracing does not:
• Report any delay experienced at the connection’s serial protocol, except for
the Delay application itself.
• Include delays at the application protocol level on the source and destination
nodes.
Network
Restrictions
Default for Delay
Path Tracing
Delay Path Tracing can be used only on:
• Vanguard networks with Delay service because of the non-standard Call Set
Up facilities allowing tracing of specific virtual circuits.
• Network links that use the MX25, X.25, XDLC, and FRI-DTE with the Delay
option specified.
Only delay that occurs at all the intermediate nodes and at the network level of the
source and destination nodes is measured.
The default for Delay Path Tracing specifies that ports on a 4.X/5.X node do not
allow delay tracing.
To change the default and allow Delay Path Tracing, you must:
• Specify the links between nodes where Delay Path Tracing will run.
• Turn on the Delay Path Tracing option.
If the end node does not support the delay trace facility, the Delay facility is missing
from an intermediate link.
The last Vanguard node should not allow the delay facility to pass through to the
non-Vanguard equipment.
Note
When connecting to a non-VanguardMS product, do not turn on delay.
To Enable Delay
Path Tracing
To enable Delay Path Tracing on X.25 and Frame Relay Annex G:
For...
Menu Example
5-2
From the Configuration Menu...
X.25
Select the X.25 Port, Select X.25
Options.
Frame Relay Annex G
Configure the FRI Station to set the
X.25 options for Delay Path Tracing.
Figure 5-1 on the following page shows how to access the FRI Station Record and
configurable parameters.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Main Menu
Configure
FRI
Stations
When:
Station Type = Annex G
Stations Circuit Type = SVC
Port Number
Station Number
*Station Type (Annex G)
Station Circuit Type (SVC)
Call Control
Call Retry Interval
Call Attempts Count
AUTD Idle Timer Interval
Information Element Negotiation
Station Subaddress
Called Party Number
Called Party Subaddress
Committed Information Rate
Minimum Committed Information Rate
Committed Burst Size
Excess Burst Size
End-to-End Transit Delay
Congestion Control Mode
Voice Congestion Control Mode
Link Address
Number of PVC Channels
Starting PVC Channel Number
Number of SVC Channels
Starting SVC Channel Number
Number of SVC Voice Channels
Initial Frame
T1 Transmission Retry Timer
T4 Poll Timer
N2 Transmission Tries
K Frame Window
W Packet Window
P Packet Size
Data Queue Upper Threshold
Data Queue Lower Threshold
Restart Timer
Reset Timer
Call Timer
Clear Timer
Peak data link util. monitoring interval size
X.25 Options
Restricted Connection Destination
CUG Membership
Billing Records
End-to-End Segmentation State
End-to-End Segmentation Type
End-to-End Segmentation Size When Voice is Present
End-to-End Segmentation Size When Voice is not Present
End-to-End Segment Delay Timeout
End-to-End Received Packet Size Check
Frame Segmenter
When:
Station Type = Annex G
Stations Circuit Type = PVC
Port Number
Station Number
*Station Type (Annex G)
Station Circuit Type (PVC)
DLCI
Committed Information Rate
Committed Burst Size
End-to-End Transit Delay
Congestion Control Mode
Voice Congestion Control Mode
Link Address
Number of PVC Channels
Starting PVC Channel Number
Number of SVC Channels
Starting SVC Channel Number
Number of SVC Voice Channels
Initial Frame
T1 Transmission Retry Timer
T4 Poll Timer
N2 Transmission Tries
K Frame Window
W Packet Window
P Packet Size
Data Queue Upper Threshold
Data Queue Lower Threshold
Restart Timer
Reset Timer
Call Timer
Clear Timer
Peak data link util. monitoring interval size
X.25 Options
Restricted Connection Destination
CUG Membership
Billing Records
End-to-End Segmentation State
End-to-End Segmentation Type
End-to-End Segmentation Size When Voice
is Present
End-to-End Segmentation Size When Voice
is not Present
End-to-End Segment Delay Timeout
End-to-End Received Packet Size Check
Frame Segmenter
Figure 5-1. Configuration Example
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-3
Release 6.2
How Delay Path Tracing Works
How Delay Path Tracing Works
Introduction
Delay Path Tracing involves these processes:
• Call setup
• Delay data transfer
What Happens
During Call Setup
5-4
Call Setup confirms that delay tracing can occur on the selected SVC using the
exchange of Call Request and Call Accept packets.
Stage
Process
Result
1
The source node sends a Call
Request packet.
• Informs nodes that delay processing
can occur on this connection.
• Sets the Node Context for future
reference when Delay Data packets
arrive.
• Informs each node (with Delay Path
Trace facility) that Delay Tracing
packets will pass through the
selected connection.
2
The end node and
intermediate nodes respond
with a Call Accept packet and
a modified Delay Path Trace
facility code.
• Sets the Delay facility to
acknowledge that Delay Data
packets will be processed.
• Remote Vanguard node insert a
delay trace facility acknowledgment
in the Call Accept packet to be sent
back to the source node.
• Each 4.X/5.X node is ready to
process delay test data as well as
user data, during data transfer
phase.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
How Delay Path Tracing Works
What Happens
During Delay Data
Transfer
When you select Delay Tracing, packets are injected into the data stream at a rate
you specify. Each node forwards the delay packet along the SVC path to reach the
remote node.
Delay data transfer involves this processes:
Stage
Process
1
Establishes the path and link
information
a)The source node issues a Resource
Request packets to identify the
remote nodes and to discover the
available resources.
b)The remote nodes respond to the
source node with a Resource
Response packet, which includes
the name of the remote node, link
number, and specific SVC (possibly
station number).
2
Performs periodic delay
testing
a)The source node issues Delay
Request packets to gather static
information about the nodes and
links involved in the path.
b)The Delay Response packets are
issued to create a delay event at the
source node for round trip timing.
c)Each intermediate node returns the
following to the source node:
• Node name
• Link number
• Resource strings for inbound/
outbound data transfer
• A flag indicating if the packet
came from the end node
d)The Delay module then periodically
sends delay measurement packet
requests.
e)Each intermediate node
immediately returns Response
packets, and the request is
forwarded to the downstream
nodes. (See Figure 5-2.)
f) The source node tracks the time
between the transmission of the
delay measurement request packets
and arrival of responses from each
intermediate and end node.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
Result
5-5
Release 6.2
How Delay Path Tracing Works
Example of
Forwarding Delay
Requests
APAD
Figure 5-2 shows Delay Requests being to the next node in the path. Each node
responds to the source node with the delay data specific to its node.
X.25 (DELAY)
X.25 (DELAY)
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
X.25
Host
Terminal
Figure 5-2. Delay Path Tracing Request/Response Packet Exchange
Relation of Delay
Path Tracing to
Protocol Events
Figure 5-3 shows how Delay Path Tracing processes, such as call setup and periodic
delay testing, map to a sequence of resource and delay trace packet protocol events.
How the Modified Q
Packet Functions
in Delay Path
Tracing
Figure 5-3 also highlights the function played by Q packets in delay path tracing. A
Q packet is normally used to exchange information between two X.25 endpoints and
is not often passed during normal data transfer.
To enable delay trace measurement, a modified Q packet is used to convey
information about the selected connection. Data encapsulation of Q packets
preserves application Q-bit data signalling and allows transmission of Delay Path
Tracing data diagnostic information.
Within a network, encapsulation is added to every Q packet at the point of entry.
The encapsulation is removed before it is forwarded to a node resource or to a
networking link that does not have the Delay option turned on. Encapsulation on the
Q packet allows identification of a normal user Q packet or a delay trace Q packet.
5-6
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
How Delay Path Tracing Works
Source
Node
Call
Setup
65xx Networking Link
Intermediate Nodes and
End-Point Node
Call Request-Delay Facility
(1)
Call Accept-Delay Facility
(2)
Start of Delay-Tracing Test
Establish
Path & Link
Information
Periodic
Delay
Testing
Q-Bit Resource Request
(3)
Q-Bit Resource Response 1
(4)
Q-Bit Resource Response 2
(5) - END
Q-Bit Delay Request
(6)
Q-Bit Delay Response 1
(7)
Q-Bit Delay Response 2
(8) - END
Q-Bit Delay Request
Q-Bit Delay Response 1
Q-Bit Delay Response 2
Figure 5-3. How Delay Path Tracing Processes Relate To Protocol Events
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-7
Release 6.2
How Delay Path Tracing Works
Delay Path Tracing The relationship between delay path tracing processes and protocol events as shown
Processes and
in Figure 5-3 is described as:
Protocol Events
Stage
Protocol Event
Result
5-8
1
Call Request — Delay
Facility issued by source
node
a)Includes the Delay facility.
b)Each node in the network checks for
the presence of this facility and, if
detected, then responds to Q packets.
2
Call Accept — Delay
Facility issued by end
network node
a)Indicates that a remote node
responded to the Call Request.
b)Delay tracing can run on this SVC.
3
Q-Bit Resource Request
a)Tells all nodes along the path to
respond with the network resource
information for the link associated
with the current call.
4
Q-Bit Resource Response
issued by intermediate
Nodes
a)Includes the node name, link resource
names, and indication that the node is
an intermediate node in this
connection.
5
Q-Bit Resource Response
issued by end node
a) Includes the node name, link resource
names, and an indication that this node
is the last in this connection.
6
Q-Bit Delay Request
a)Informs each node to send a response
packet back to the source node.
b)Each node forwards the request to the
next node in the network.
7
Q-Bit Delay Response forwarded by intermediate
nodes
a)The source node receives Q-Bit Delay
Response.
b)The source node time stamps the
arrival of these packets.
c)The source node compares packet
arrival time with the time that the
Request was sent out.
8
Q-Bit Delay Response forwarded by the
intermediate nodes
a)The source node receives Q-Bit Delay
Response.
b)The source node time stamps arrival
of the packet.
c)The source node compares the time
against the time the request was sent
out. Arrival of this end node packet
invalidates any others that arrive out
of sequence from other nodes in the
path.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
How Delay Path Tracing Works
Function of
Network Node
Interface in Delay
Path Tracing
The network node interface, source nodes, intermediate nodes, and end nodes each
perform certain roles and functions in the delay path tracing process.
Stage
Functional Role
1
Each node responds to the Request Delay Path packets sent to it by
forwarding requests to the next downstream 4.X/5.X node.
2
The remote node responses are directed back to the source node for
processing of delay data.
3
The Delay Request acts as an event trigger for the source node, logging
the time of arrival of the delay trace response packets.
Function of Source The source node controls the type of protocol that is run between itself and the
Node in Delay Path endpoint using an exchange of Resource Requests and Resource Responses.
Tracing
Stage
Functional Role
1
The source node sends the initial Resource Request.
2
The remote nodes respond to the source node with this information:
• Name of the remote node
• Link number
• Specific SVC (possibly station number)
3
The source node receives and logs the preceding responses until the End
Node Resource Response arrives at the source node.
4
The source node sends the Delay Trace Request.
5
The source node receives the Delay Responses from the remote nodes
until the End Node Delay Response arrives.
6
The source node compares the Delay Response time stamp with the
Delay Request time stamp to calculate the round trip delay from the
source to each node on the delay trace path.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-9
Release 6.2
How Delay Path Tracing Works
Function of
The intermediate nodes serve these functions in delay path tracing:
Intermediate Nodes
in Delay Path
Stage
Functional Role
Tracing
1
Each intermediate node relays the delay resource request packet and
Delay Trace Request packet to the next node in the SVC path.
Function of End
Nodes in Delay
Path Tracing
5-10
2
Delay resources for the node are sent back to the source node in the
resource response packet.
3
When the source node receives the delay request packet, the node
responds immediately with a delay response packet and a timing event
for round trip delay measurement, including current link speed.
The end nodes serve these functions in Delay Path Tracing:
Stage
Functional Role
1
The end node Resource Response defines the number of nodes in the
delay trace path by counting the delay resource test packets.
2
The end node processes the Resource Request and Delay Response test
packets exactly as in the intermediate node.
3
The end node sends the Resource Request and Delay Response test
packets to the source node; after which the end node does not expect to
receive packets from other nodes.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Delay Measurement Test
Delay Measurement Test
Delay
Measurement Test
Delay Measurement Test (formally called Delay Path Test, prior to 5.3 software)
measures a round trip delay from a source connection to a destination connection.
Proper Syntax
Before running a Delay Measurement Test, you need to find the connection points
proper syntax.
Syntax example: PAD-6, LCON-1, FRA-2S1, and SDLC-3S1
Proper syntax can be found within the nodes statistics:
Step
Action
Result
1
Select Status/statistics for the The menu for
Control Terminal Port (CTP) Main Status/statistics displays.
Menu.
2
Select Network Service Stats
The Network Service Stats
from the Status/statistics Menu menu displays.
3
Select:
SVC Call Summary or
PVC Call Summary
e.g. ATPAD-3, X25-4, FRI-3s4
Note
The SVC or PVC you are testing
must be connected to perform the
test.
Note
The network links along the trace path should have the delay option assigned. For
example, X.25 and FR Annex G have a parameter called X.25 Options. For more
information on this parameter See “X.25 Options” on page 40.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-11
Release 6.2
Delay Measurement Test
Accessing Delay Path Tracing
Introduction
Delay Path Tracing is accessible from the Diagnostics menu.
Limitations for
NMS Users
Delay and Path Trace menus are not currently supported by a network management
system (NMS).
NMS users must open a terminal emulation window and log on to the CTP to use the
Delay and Path Trace commands.
Menu Selections to These selections, which are accessible from the Diagnostics menu screen, support
Enable Delay Path delay path tracing:
Tracing
• Start Delay Measurement
• Stop Delay Measurement
• Display Delay Summary
Accessing the
Diagnostics Menu
Use this procedure to access the Diagnostics menu:
Step
Screen Example
Action
Result
1
Select Diagnostics from the CTP The Diagnostics menu appears.
Main menu.
2
Enter a selection number.
The requested screen appears.
Figure 5-4 shows an example of the Diagnostics menu screen.
Node:
Menu: Diagnostics
Address:
Date:
Time:
Path: (Main)
Local Loopback
V.54 Loopback 2
V.54 Loopback 3
Fatal Error Reports
Logged Alarms
Startup Diagnostics
DSU Internal Loopback
DSU Internal and External Loopback
Start Delay Measurement
Stop Delay Measurement
Display Delay Summary
IP Ping
Figure 5-4. Diagnostics Menu
5-12
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Delay Measurement Test
Function of the
Delay Sub-facility
The Delay subfacility interrogates the adjacent connection to determine:
• If the adjacent link is a networking link.
• If the Delay option is enabled.
• Misconfiguration of a 4.X/5.X node (if Link Delay turned ON, and if end
node is 3.X.
When you turn on the delay option at the outgoing link, the Delay subfacility:
• Is added to every call packet originating at a node.
• Applies to every transit call that comes in from a networking link with the
Delay option disabled.
Start Delay
Measurement
Use this procedure to start Delay Path Tracing measurement:
Step
Start Delay
Measurement
Parameters
Action
Result/Description
1
Log on to the CTP where the
endpoint of the call resides.
An endpoint is either:
a)a local resource of the node
that does not have the Delay
feature enabled.
b)a virtual circuit on a
networking link or station.
2
Specify the name of one of the two
endpoints in the connection.
3
See “Start Delay Measurement
Once the input has been entered,
Parameters” in this table for details the remaining portion of the screen
on individual input parameters.
displays as shown in Figure 5-5 .
Then enter the values for each
input parameters.
The Start Delay Measurement parameters control the setup. Real time statistics are
displayed on the screen for the measured delay for a particular trace.
Channel to Trace
Range:
5 to 16 alphanumeric characters
Default:
(blank)
Description:
Specifies the name of the connection to be traced. Use the space
bar to blank field.
Time Between Test Packets
Range:
2 to 60
Default:
5
Description:
Specifies the number of seconds between test packets.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-13
Release 6.2
Delay Measurement Test
Duration in Minutes
Range:
1 to 9999
Default:
10
Description:
Specifies the duration of the test in minutes.
Start Delay
Figure 5-5 shows an example of Start Delay Measurement Diagnostics screen.
Measurement
Diagnostics Screen
Channel to Trace:
/MX25-2S4(15)
Time between test packets (sec.): 5/20
Duration in minutes: 10/
---------------------------------------------------------Node:
Address:
Date:
Time:
Menu: Start Delay Measurement
Path: (Main.12.6) Page 1 of 1
START TIME:
@
STOP TIME:
CURRENT PATH: END-TO-END
PATH TRACE
MX25-2S4(15)
[TORONTO]
M25-2 (23)
[BOSTON]
X25-2(23)
[CHICAGO]
X25-2 (23) [NEWYORK]
STATUS: RUNNING
PACKETS SENT: 1
X25-1
X25-3
X25-3
X25-3
(23)
(12)
(12)
(12)
@
@
@
@
80000
80000
80000
80000
Last Measured Round Trip Delay: 143 ms @ 8:23:32
PACKETS SENT: 7
Continue to run test in background after exit (Y/N)?__
Press any key to continue (ESC to exit)...
Figure 5-5. Start Delay Measurement Diagnostics Screen
5-14
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Delay Measurement Test
Start Delay
The Start Delay Measurement Diagnostics screen contains this information:
Measurement
Diagnostics Screen
Terms
Screen Term
START TIME
Time when the test was initiated.
STOP TIME
Time when the test is completed or aborted. This
field is blank if the test is still running.
STATUS
PACKETS SENT
• RUNNING: Test is in progress.
• STOPPED: Test is complete.
• ABORTED: Test is stopped due to:
– Call cleared
– Test packets lost, or
– User command.
Current count of the number of delay test packets
sent since test began.
CURRENT PATH
• END-TO-END: The endpoint is a local
resource in the Release 4.0 or later node.
• PARTIAL: The endpoint is not a local resource
but is an intermediate or end node that
terminates with a network resource (PDN,
foreign host, or 3.X network).
PATH TRACE
• Shows the path of the connection:
• The first line shows the name of the end
resource.
• The next line lists all the various network
connections that the call passes through.
• The last item shows the name of the connection
that leaves the last Release 4.X/5.X node.
Last Measured Round Trip
Delay
This field is continually updated in real-time with
the current network round trip delay and the current
time as the delay packets are returned from the
destination node.
Continue to run test in
background?
Responding with either a Y or N causes the CTP to
return to the diagnostics menu.
However, a Y response allows the test to run in
background (even if you log off the CTP) until the
specified duration expires.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
Tells You...
5-15
Release 6.2
Delay Measurement Test
Running A Delay Measurement Test
Running a Delay
Measurement Test
Step
5-16
Follow these steps to run a delay measurement test:
Option
Action
1
Connect to the node you are
performing the test from.
Choose the Source or Destination connection
from the statistics SVC or PVC Call Summary
screen.
2
Begin the test from the nodes
connection point.
Diagnostics->Start Delay Measurement->
Channel to trace
(Enter the current connections syntax from the
call summary screen.)
• Time between test packets: 5 sec
• Duration in minutes: 10
(Enter a time in minutes to run the test 1-9999)
Begin Delay Test
3
The test results continually
update to the screen.
By pressing ESC, you are given the option to
allow the test to run in the background, or you
can cancel the test completely.
4
To stop a test that is running in
the background.
Choose Diagnostics->Stop Delay
Measurement
5
A delay summary screen is also
provided for viewing at any
time.
Choose Diagnostics->Display Delay
Summary.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Delay Measurement Test
Terminating Delay Path Tracing Measurement
Introduction
A delay test may be terminated by the:
• Operator
• System
Effect of Test
Termination
When a delay test is terminated, test results remain in memory:
Operator-initiated
Test Termination
You can terminate a delay test in two ways:
• Until the node is booted.
• You start another test that overwrites the data.
• Press the ESC key within the Start Delay menu.
• Use the Stop Delay measurement menu.
Use this procedure to stop a delay test that is running:
Step
Action
1
From the Diagnostics Menu, select The Stop Delay Measurement
Stop Delay Measurement.
screen appears, shown in
Figure 5-6, detailing a numbered
list of the active connections
traced.
(If a delay trace slot is not actively
performing a delay trace, the
connection field for that particular
field shows “NONE.”)
2
To stop a specific currently active
SVC, enter a selection numbered 1
through 5.
Or:
To stop all currently traced SVCs,
enter selection number 6.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
Result
The message Delay Trace on xxxx
stopped (1 through 5) appears.
The message ALL delay trace
connections stopped (6).
5-17
Release 6.2
Delay Measurement Test
Stop Delay
Measurement
Screen
Figure 5-6 shows an example of the Stop Delay Measurement screen.
Node:
Address:
Menu: Stop Delay Measurement
Date:
Path: (Main.12.7)
Time:
Page 1 of 1
Active Connections Traced:
MX25-21S3 (66)
PAD-6
FRI-5S2 (15)
BSC3270-1S6
NONE
ALL
Select Connection to Stop: 0/2
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 5-6. Stop Delay Measurement Screen
System-initiated
Termination Test
5-18
The system terminates a delay test under the following conditions:
• The call is cleared on the monitored link for any reason, including the case
where the call is taken down due to link or node failure but rerouted to a
different link by DCP.
• The first delay packet to gather path and resource information is not returned
properly.
• One or more of the delay measurement packets are lost in the network, and the
number of times that this occurs on this test exceeds 10.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Delay Measurement Test
Delay Path Tracing Measurement Reporting
Introduction
The Display Delay Summary screen reports on a node-by-node basis the delay
between each node on the patch from source to destination, as well as an overall
end-to-end delay.
Examples of
Display Delay
Summary Screen
Figures 5-7 and 5-8 represent a report that is displayed for a network consisting of
six or more nodes.
For networks with fewer than six nodes, the data on the two pages is combined and
displayed on one screen.
Node:
Address:
Menu: Display Delay Summary
START TIME:
STOP TIME:
CURRENT PATH: END-TO-END
PATH TRACE:
MX25-2S4(15)
M25-2 (23)
X25-2(23)
X25-2 (23)
X25-2 (23)
X25-2 (23)
X25-2 (23)
X25-2 (23)
X25-23 (10)
X25-18 (04)
X25-23 (12)
X25-11 (06)
[TORONTO]
[BOSTON]
[CHICAGO]
[NEWYORK]
[WASH01]
[WASH02]
[RALEIGH]
[BUFFALO]
[ALBANY]
[PITTSB]
[TOLEDO]
[CORNING]
@
@
X25-1 (23)
X25-3 (12)
X25-3 (12)
X25-3 (12)
X25-3 (12)
X25-3 (12)
X25-3 (12)
X25-3 (12)
X25-17 (23)
X25-10 (05)
X25-22 (03)
PAD-6
Date:
Path: (Main.12.8)
Time:
Page 1 of 2
STATUS: RUNNING
PACKETS SENT: 1234
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
80000
80000
80000
80000
80000
80000
80000
9600
80000
80000
80000
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 5-7. Display Data Summary Screen, First Page
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
5-19
Release 6.2
Delay Measurement Test
Node:
Address:
Menu: Display Delay Summary
START TIME:
STOP TIME:
NODE
TORONTO-BOSTON
BOSTON-CHICAGO
CHICAGO-NEWYORK
NEWYORK-WASH01
WASH01-WASH02
WASH02-RALEIGH
RALEIGH-BUFFALO
BUFFALO-ALBANY
ALBANY-PITTSB
PITTSB-TOLEDO
TOLEDO-CORNING
End-End Delay
@
@
Date:
Path: (Main.12.8)
Time:
Page 2 of 2
STATUS: RUNNING
PACKETS SENT: 1234
MEASURED DELAY (ROUND TRIP):
MINIMUM (ms)
MAXIMUM
AVG (ms)
82 @ hh:mm:ss
150 @ hh:mm:ss
110
5 @ hh:mm:ss
112 @ hh:mm:ss
110
45 @ hh:mm:ss
132 @ hh:mm:ss
110
12 @ hh:mm:ss
112 @ hh:mm:ss
110
19 @ hh:mm:ss
198 @ hh:mm:ss
110
36 @ hh:mm:ss
156 @ hh:mm:ss
110
31 @ hh:mm:ss
235 @ hh:mm:ss
110
19 @ hh:mm:ss
349 @ hh:mm:ss
110
23 @ hh:mm:ss
234 @ hh:mm:ss
110
43 @ hh:mm:ss
313 @ hh:mm:ss
110
23 @ hh:mm:ss
131 @ hh:mm:ss
110
820 @ hh:mm:ss
282 @ hh:mm:ss
350
Press any key to continue ( ESC to exit ) ...
Figure 5-8. Display Delay Summary Screen, Second Page
Display Delay
Summary Screen
The Display Delay Summary screen contains this information:
Screen Term
5-20
Tells You...
START TIME
Time when test is initiated.
STOP TIME
Time when test is completed. This field is blank if
the test is still running.
STATUS
Current process status of trace:
• RUNNING: Delay trace still in progress and
the following statistics are intermediate
results only.
• STOPPED: The following test results are the
completed statistic on this trace.
• ABORTED: Test is stopped due to:
– Call cleared
– Test packets lost, or
– User command.
PACKETS SENT
Current count of the number of delay test packets
sent from the time of the start of the test.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
Delay Measurement Test
Screen Term (continued)
CURRENT PATH
• END-TO-END: The destination node echoed
the delay packet, with a local resource string.
• PARTIAL: The destination node returned a
networking resource string (X.25, MX25,
FRI).
PATH TRACE
• Virtual Circuit path from source to destination
node, listing:
• All the intermediate nodes
• The link
• Station
• LCN number
MEASURED DELAY
(ROUND TRIP)
• Lists the measured round trip delay between
nodes that the specified trace passes through.
• Highlights nodes that are performing poorly,
such as those with higher than normal delay
or lower link speeds compared to the rest of
the nodes in the delay trace path.
Troubleshooting with Delay Path Tracing
T0107, Revision J
Tells You...
5-21
Release 6.2
Chapter 6
Logical Channel Number Maps
Overview
CCITT Recommendation X.25 defines the Logical Channel Number (LCN) to be a
12-bit binary number that ranges from 0 to 4095 (decimal). In many instances, these
12 bits are broken into an 8-bit LCN with a range of 0 to 255 (decimal) and a 4-bit
Logical Channel Group Number (LCGN) with a range of 0 to 15 (decimal).
LCGN
Figure 6-1 shows how the 4-bit LCGN is formed from the most significant bits of the
12-bit number:
0
4
12
Logical Channel Number
Logical Channel
Group Number
Logical Channel
Number
Figure 6-1. Forming the LCGN
Logical Channel Number Maps
6-1
8 + 4 Bit Logical
Channel Number
Mapping
When configuring channels on Vanguard X.25 links, you may need to map the 12-bit
full channel number to the equivalent 4-bit Logical Channel Group Number plus the
8-bit Logical Channel Number. This table indicates this mapping.
12-Bit Logical Channel Number
8-Bit
4-Bit Logical Channel Group Number
LCN
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
0
0
256
512
768
102
4
128
0
153
6
179
2
204
8
230
4
256
0
281
6
307
2
332
8
358
4
384
0
1
1
257
513
769
102
5
—
—
—
—
—
—
281
7
307
3
332
9
358
5
384
1
2
2
258
514
770
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
307
4
333
0
358
6
384
2
3
3
259
515
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
333
1
358
7
384
3
4
4
260
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
358
8
384
4
5
5
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
384
5
6
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
255
255
511
767
102
3
127
9
153
5
179
1
204
7
230
3
255
9
281
5
307
1
332
7
358
3
383
9
409
5
6-2
Logical Channel Number Maps
Chapter 7
X.25 Facility Codes
Overview
This chapter describes the packet types and formats commonly found with the X.25
protocol.
X.25 Packet Header Figure 7-1 shows the X.25 packet header.
PACKET
HEADER
(3 bytes)
f
7
6 5
GFI
4
3
2 1
LCGN
A C
I
FCS
f
GFI = General Format Identifier
LCGN = Logical Channel Group Number
LCN = Logical Channel Number
0
LCN
PACKET TYPE
Figure 7-1. X.25 Packet Header
Note
The Packet Header may contain an extra octet when the numbering is
Modulo 128. The GFI format is:
Bit Number 7
6
5
4
Q
D
0
1
sequence numbering Modulo 8
Q
D
1
0
sequence numbering Modulo 128
where 0 = 1 indicates X.29 Data Packet
D = 1 indicates Delivery Confirmation in Call and Data Packets
X.25 Facility Codes
7-1
Packet Type
Formats
This table describes the packet types:
Packet Type
From DCE to DTE
From DTE to DCE
Service
Encoding
Hex
SVC PVC 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Call Set-Up and
Clearing
Incoming Call
Call Request
X
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0B
Call connected
Call Accepted
X
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0F
Clear Indicator
Clear Request
X
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
13
DCE Clear
Confirmation
DTE Clear Confirmation X
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
17
0
xx
xx
Data and Interrupt
DCE Data
DTE Data (Modulo 8)
X
X
P (R)
M P(S)
DCE Data
DTE Data (Modulo 128)
X
X
P (S)
0
P (R)
M xx
DCE Interrupt
DTE Interrupt
X
X
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
23
DCE Int. Confirmation
DTE Int. Confirmation
X
X
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
27
DCE RR
DTE RR (Modulo 8)
X
X
P (R)
0
0
0
0
1
x1
DCE RNR
DTE RNR (Modulo 8)
X
X
P (R)
0
0
1
0
1
x5
DTE REJ (Modulo 8)
X
X
P (R)
0
1
0
0
1
x9
DTE RR (Modulo 128)
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
1
01
0
xx
1
03
0
xx
1
09
0
xx
Flow Control and
Reset
DCE RR
0
0
P (R)
DCE RNR
DTE RNR (Modulo 128) X
X
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
P (R)
DTE REJ (Modulo 128)
X
X
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
P (R)
Reset Indication
Reset Request
X
X
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1B
DCE Reset
Confirmation
DTE Reset Confirmation X
X
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1F
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
FB
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
FF
Restart
Restart Indication
Restart Request
DCE Restart
Confirmation
DTE Restart
Confirmation
7-2
X
X
X.25 Facility Codes
Packet Type (continued)
From DCE to DTE
Service
From DTE to DCE
Encoding
Hex
SVC PVC 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
F1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
F3
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
F7
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
X
Registration
Registration Request
Registration
Confirmation
Packet Types
These tables show various packet types:
7
6
5
4
Octet
1
0Dfs
2
LCN
3
0
4
Calling DTE
Address
Length
0
3
2
1
0
LCGN
0
0
1
0
1
1
Called DTE
Address
Length
7
0
T0107, Revision J
4
0Dfs
2
LCN
3
0
4
Calling DTE
Address
Length
0
3
2
1
0
1
1
LCGN
0
0
1
1
Called DTE
Address
Length
DTE Address(es)
0
0
0
0
Facilities Length
(<109 Bytes)
0
0
0
0
Facilities
Call User Data
Call User Data Fast Select
Call Request/
Indication Packet
Call Accepted/
Connected Packet
6
Octet
1
00fs
2
LCN
3
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
LCGN
0
1
0
1
1
1
7
6
Octet 1
00fs
2
LCN
3
0
0
0
Facilities Length
(<109 Bytes)
Facilities
7
X.25 Facility Codes
0
5
Octet 1
DTE Address(es)
0
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
1
LCGN
1
0
0
0
7-3
Release 6.2
Clear Confirmation
Packet
7
6
Octet
1
00fs
2
LCN
3
0
0
5
4
3
2
Interrupt
Packet
1
0
LCGN
1
0
0
1
1
1
7
6
Octet 1
QD01
2
LCN
3
P(R)
5
4
3
2
1
0
LCGN
M P(S)
0
User Data
Interrupt Confirmation
Packet
7
6
5
4
Data Packet
(Modulo 8)
3
2
1
0
7
6
0
0
0
0
Octet 1
QD10
5
4
3
2
1
0
Octet
1
00fs
LCGN
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
LCN
3
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
3
P(S)
0
4
Diagnostic Code
4
P(R)
M
Diagnostic Explanation
User Data
Diagnostics
Packet
Data Packet
(Modulo 128)
fs = 01 for normal (Modulo 8) sequencing
fs = 10 for extended (Modulo 128) sequencing
7
6
5
4
3
Octet
1
0
0
0
1
LCGN
2
LCN
3
P(R)
0
0
Receiver Ready
(RR) Packet
(Modulo 8)
7-4
2
0
1
0
0
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
Octet 1
0
0
0
1
LCGN
2
LCN
3
P(R)
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
Receiver Not Ready
(RNR) Packet
(Modulo 8)
X.25 Facility Codes
7
6
5
4
3
Octet
1
0
0
1
0
LCGN
2
LCN
3
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
P(R)
0
7
6
5
4
3
Octet 1
0
0
1
0
LCGN
2
LCN
1
3
0
0
0
0
0
4
P(R)
Receiver Ready
(RR) Packet
(Modulo 128)
6
5
4
3
Octet
1
0
0
0
1
LCGN
2
LCN
3
P(R)
1
2
0
1
0
0
6
5
4
1
2
LCN
3
0
4
Resetting Cause
5
Diagnostic Code
T0107, Revision J
2
1
6
5
4
3
Octet 1
0
0
1
0
LCGN
2
LCN
3
0
0
0
1
4
P(R)
0
LCGN
1
Reset Packet
X.25 Facility Codes
3
00fs
0
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
0
1
0
Reject Packet
(Modulo 128)
Octet
1
0
0
0
7
Reject Packet
(Modulo 8)
7
1
1
Receiver Not Ready
(RNR) Packet
(Modulo 128)
7
0
0
2
1
0
1
1
7
6
Octet 1
00fs
2
LCN
3
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
1
LCGN
0
1
1
1
Reset Configuration
Packet
7-5
Release 6.2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
7
6
0
0
0
0
Octet 1
00fs
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
Octet
1
00fs
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
Restarting Cause
5
Diagnostic Code
Restart Packet
Restart Confirmation
Packet
fs = 01 for normal (Modulo 8) sequencing
fs = 10 for extended (Modulo 128) sequencing
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
7
6
0
0
0
0
Octet 1
00fs
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
Octet
1
00fs
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
4
Calling DTE
Address
Length
4
Cause
5
Diagnostic
6
Calling DTE
Address
Length
Called DTE
Address
Length
DTE Address(es)
0
0
0
0
0
Registration Length
Called DTE
Address
Length
DTE Address(es)
Registration
0
0
0
0
0
Registration Length
Registration
Registration Packet
Registration Confirmation
Packet
7
7-6
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X.25 Facility Codes
Octet
1
0Dfs
2
LCN
3
0
4
Clear Cause
5
Diagnostic Code
0
LCGN
0
1
0
Calling DTE
Address
Length
0
1
1
Called DTE
Address
Length
DTE Address(es)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Facilities Length
(<109 Bytes)
Facilities
Call User Data
Clear Request/
Indication Packet
fs = 01 for normal (Modulo 8) sequencing
fs = 10 for extended (Modulo 128) sequencing
Coding for Clearing This table shows the coding for clearing cause field in clear indication packet:
Clearing Cause
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
HEX
DEC
DTE Originated
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00
DTE Originated (refer to Note)
1
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
xx
Number Busy
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
01
1
Out of Order
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
09
9
Remote Procedure Error
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
11
17
Reverse Charge Acceptance Not
Subscribed
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
19
25
Incompatible Destination
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
21
33
Fast Select Not Subscribed
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
29
41
Invalid Facility Request
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
03
3
X.25 Facility Codes
T0107, Revision J
0
7-7
Release 6.2
Access Barred
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0B
11
Local Procedure Error
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
13
19
Network Congestion
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
05
5
Not Obtainable
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0D
13
RPOA Out Of Order
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
15
21
Note
When bit 7 is set to 1, the bits represented by x are those included by the remote DTE in the Clearing or
Restarting Cause field of the Clear or Restart Request packets, respectively.
Cng for Resetting
This table shows the coding for resetting cause field in the reset packet:
Coding for Resetting Cause Field in Reset Packet
Clearing Cause
DTE Originated
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
HEX
DEC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00
1
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
xx
Out of Order
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
01
1
Remote Procedure Error
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
03
3
Local Procedure Error
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
05
5
Network Congestion
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
07
7
Remote DTE Operational (PVC)
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
09
9
Network Operational (PVC)
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0F
15
Incompatible Destination
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
11
17
Network Out Of Order
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1D
29
7-8
00
X.25 Facility Codes
Standard For
Diagnostic Codes
This table shows the standard diagnostic codes in clear, reset, and restart indication,
registration confirmation, and diagnostic packets.
Refer to X.25 Recommendation for details.
Diagnostic
X.25 Facility Codes
T0107, Revision J
HEX
DEC
No Additional Information
00
0
Invalid P(S)
01
1
Invalid P(R)
02
2
Packet Type Invalid
10
16
Other Types (Note 1)
xx
16
Packet Not Allowed
20
32
Unidentifiable Packet
21
33
Call On One-way Logical Channel
22
34
Invalid Packet Type on a PVC
23
35
Packet on an unassigned Logical Channel
24
36
Reject not subscribed to
25
37
Packet too short
26
38
Packet too long
27
39
Invalid GFI
28
40
Restart, or Registration, with non-zero in bits 0-3, 8-15
29
41
Packet type not compatible with facility
2A
42
Unauthorized interrupt confirmation
2B
43
Unauthorized Interrupt
2C
44
Unauthorized Reject
2D
45
Timer Expired
30
48
For Incoming Call
31
49
For Clear Indication
32
50
For Reset Indication
33
51
For Restart Indication
34
52
Call Set-Up, Clearing or Registration Problem
40
64
Facility/Registration Code not allowed
41
65
Facility Parameter not allowed
42
66
Invalid Called Address
43
67
Invalid Facility/Registration length
45
69
Incoming Call barred
46
70
No Logical Channel available
47
71
Call collision
48
72
7-9
Release 6.2
Diagnostic (continued)
7-10
HEX
DEC
Duplicate facility requested
49
73
Non-zero address length
4A
74
Facility not provided when expected
4C
76
Invalid CCITT-specified DTE facility
4D
77
Miscellaneous
50
80
Improper cause code from DTE
51
81
Not aligned octet
52
82
Inconsistent Q-bit setting
53
83
International Problems
70
112
Remote network problem
71
113
International protocol problem
72
114
International link out of order
73
115
International link busy
74
116
Transit network facility problem
75
117
Remote network facility problem
76
118
International routing problem
77
119
Temporary routing problem
78
120
Unknown called DNIC
79
121
Maintenance action
7A
122
Reserved for Public-Network-Specific Information
80
--
Other types (refer to the next table for details)
8x
--
X.25 Facility Codes
6500PLUS Specific
Diagnostic Code
Messages
The following table shows diagnostic code messages for the 6500PLUS.
Diagnostic
X.25 Facility Codes
T0107, Revision J
HEX
DEC
Call limit reached on intermediate node
80
128
Call limit reached on destination node
81
129
No LCN available on node that is not the call destination
82
130
Call disconnected by Control Terminal Port
83
131
Link failure in intermediate node
84
132
Routing loop detected
85
133
Call passed through too many nodes
86
134
Received Restart at Level 3
9A
154
Received DISC at Level 2
9C
156
Received DM at Level 2
9D
157
Received SABM at Level 2
9E
158
Received FRMR at Level 2
9F
159
Received invalid N(R). Transmit FRMR.
A0
160
Received unsolicited F Bit. Transmit FRMR
A1
161
Received unknown command. Transmit FRMR.
A2
162
Received unknown response. Transmit FRMR.
A3
163
Received I field too long for L1. Transmit FRMR.
A4
164
No response after N2 tries. Transmit SABM.
A5
165
Received frame of incorrect size. Transmit FRMR.
AE
174
Address error, sent FRMR
AF
175
Source Port is in Busy Out State
B0
176
Destination Port is in Busy Out State
B1
177
Diag_Reconn-Rejected
B2
178
Invalid Call Request
B3
7-11
Release 6.2
Index
A
D (Continued)
Alarm Priority 2-51, 2-52
Autocall Mnemonic
parameter 2-12
Delay Path Tracing 5-1
accuracy 5-1
call setup 5-4
configuration 5-12
delay sources 5-1
measured delay 5-1
network congestion 5-1
network node interface 5-9
process 5-4
Processes and Protocol Events 5-8
Q packets 5-6
restricted network use 5-2
Software Release Requirements 5-1
version requirements 5-1
Detailed Port Statistics 4-2
Detailed Port Stats
X.25 4-2
Diagnostics Menu 5-12
DIMOv
guidelines 2-6
DIMs 1-8
B
BKUP
setting 2-6
C
Call Facility 2-66, 2-69
Call Security 2-48
Call Setup 5-4
Call Timer 2-38
Clear Timer 2-39
Configuration
inbound call translation table 3-2
outbound call translation table 3-5
PVC broadcast output table 3-16
X.25 Port
guidelines 2-6
X.25 Port Record 2-5
Configuring
Outbound Call Address Translation 3-9
T1/E1 Interface 2-15
Connection Type 2-6
EMDC 2-6
EMRI 2-6
SIMPv guidelines 2-6
X.25 Port 2-30
Control signals
summary 1-7
control signals
DIMO 1-15
DIMS 1-8
port disabled 1-8
CUD 2-45
setting 2-6
CUG 2-47
entering a value 2-6
membership 2-47
CUG (See Closed User Group)
identifier 2-62
D
Data Connection Protection 2-48
Data Queue Lower Threshold 2-37
Data Queue Upper Threshold 2-37
DCP 2-48
Delay Data Transfer 5-5
Delay option 5-13
F
Facilities
to add to Outbound Calls 2-39
to bar in Inbound Calls 2-40
to bar in Outbound Calls 2-40
to delete from Outbound Calls 2-39
Facility
bilateral closed user group 2-70
datagram 2-68, 2-70
fast select 2-67, 2-70
inbound calls 2-66
network user identification 2-67, 2-70
outbound calls 2-69
packet size negotiation 2-66, 2-69
reverse charging 2-67, 2-70
throughput class negotiation 2-70
window size negotiation 2-67, 2-69
Facility Checking 2-44
Facility Codes 2-44
Facility Subscription Control 2-49
Features
CUG 2-62
FRA Station Parameters
Traffic Priority 2-18, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21, 2-22,
2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27
Frame Sequence Counting 2-34
H
Hop Count Facility Code 2-60
How Delay Path Tracing Works 5-4
Index-1
I
P (Continued)
Idle Disconnect Timer 2-47
setting 2-6
Inbound call translation table
configure 3-2
Inbound Calling Address 3-4, 3-18
Inbound/Outbound Call Translation Tables
guidelines 3-2
Packet size 2-36
Parameters
Hop Count Facility Code 2-60
PDN 2-6
setting 2-6
Port address 2-6, 2-46
Port Statistics 4-1
examples 4-2
Private Network Address 3-7, 3-18
Private network address
appending a subaddress 3-4
Protection Level 2-48
PVC broadcast output table
configure 3-16
PVC Channels 2-32
range guidelines 2-6
K
K Frame Window 2-35
L
LAN Connection
table record 2-11
LAN Forwarder Type
parameter 2-12
Limitations 5-2
M
Maximum Negotiated Packet Size 2-36
Maximum Number of Autocall Attempts
parameter 2-12
Mnemonic
Table
specifying Billing Printer Mnemonic 2-6
Mnemonic Name
parameter 2-14
Mnemonic Table Record 3-12
Modified Q Packet 5-6
N
N2 Transmission Tries 2-34
Network address 3-7
Network Restrictions 5-2
Number of Prefix Address Digits
stripped from Outgoing Calls 2-46
Number of Prefix Address Digits stripped from
Incoming Calls 2-46
Number of PVC Channels 2-32
Number of Routing Digits in Call User Data 2-45
Number of Subaddress Digits in X.25 Address 2-47
Number of SVC Channels 2-32
O
OLDA option 2-6
Operator-initiated Test Termination 5-17
Options 3-8
Outbound call translation table
configure 3-5
Outbound Translation Table 2-6
P
Packet Sequence Counting 2-35
Index-2
R
Reconnection Tries Limit 2-49
REGI
setting 2-6
REGO
setting 2-6
Remote Connection ID
parameter 2-12
Request/Response Packet Exchange 5-6
Reset Timer 2-38
Restricted Connection Destination 2-46
Route Selection Table 3-12
Routing
best path 2-57
best path algorithm 2-57
S
SIMPv
guidelines 2-6
Starting SVC Channel Number 2-33
Statistics
T1/E1 4-10
Statistics menu
Port Statistics 4-1
SVC channels 2-32, 2-33
range guidelines 2-6
SVC network connections 5-1
System-initiated Termination Test 5-18
T
T1 Transmission Retry Timer 2-33
guidelines 2-6
T1/E1
statistics 4-10
T1/E1 Interface
configuring 2-15
statistics 4-10
T (Continued)
T4 Poll Timer
guidelines 2-6
Test Termination 5-17
Threshold 2-37
Timer 2-38, 2-39
Traffic Priority 5-1
delay packet 5-1
W
W Packet Window 2-36
Window 2-35, 2-36
size guidelines 2-6
Window Settings
Annex G/X.25 2-56
Window Subtractor Parameter 2-55
X
X.25 D Bit
data transfer rate 2-63
modification facility 2-63
X.25 Port Record 2-63
X.25 options 2-40
INL and PDN 2-6
X.25 Port Record
configure 2-5
Index-3
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