Level 3 VRQ`s in Music Technology and Sound

Level 3 VRQ`s in Music Technology and Sound
Level 3 VRQ's in Music
Technology and Sound
Engineering (7603)
Qualification handbook
7603-31 - Awards
7603-32 - Certificates
7603-33 - Diplomas
www.cityandguilds.com
September 2012
Version 2.2
About City & Guilds
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Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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[email protected]
2
Level 3 VRQ's in Music
Technology and Sound
Engineering (7603)
www.cityandguilds.com
September 2012
Version 2.2
Qualification handbook
7603-31 - Awards
7603-32 - Certificates
7603-33 - Diplomas
Qualification title
Qual
Number
Accreditatio
n number
Level 3 Award in Audio Mastering, Restoration and Editing
7603-31
500/8892/0
Level 3 Award in Advanced audio electronics and Connectivity
7603-31
500/8891/9
Level 3 Award in Live Sound and Performance Technology
7603-31
500/8890/7
Level 3 Certificate in Music Technology and Sound Engineering
7603-32
500/8896/8
Level 3 Certificate in Multitrack Recording and Microphone Techniques
7603-32
500/8897/X
Level 3 Certificate in Multitrack Recording and Composition
7603-32
500/8895/6
Level 3 Certificate in Software Sound Manipulation and Composition
7603-32
500/8893/2
Level 3 Certificate in Multitrack Recording and Automation
7603-32
Level 3 Certificate in Sound Engineering Development
7603-32
500/8894/4
500/9121/9
Level 3 Extended Diploma in Music Technology and Sound Engineering
7603-33
500/8804/X
Level 3 Diploma in Music Technology and Sound Engineering
7603-33
500/9211/X
Level 3 Diploma in Sound Engineering
Level 3 Diploma in Professional Sound Engineering Skills
7603-33
7603-33
500/9350/2
500/9067/7
Level 3 Diploma in Professional Sound and Composition Techniques
7603-33
500/8889/0
Version and date
2.1 February 2012
Change detail
Removed End dates and replaced with a
reference to the City & Guilds Catalogue.
Sections
Introduction to the
qualification
2.2 September 2012
NOS references added to units and
appendix
7 Units
8 Appendix
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
3
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Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
4
Contents
1
Introduction to the qualification
7
2
About the qualifications
9
3
Candidate entry and progression
14
4
Centre requirements
16
5
Course design and delivery
27
6
Assessment
29
7
Unit summary
30
Unit 301
Professional development for music and sound industries
31
Unit 302
Multitrack recording and mixing
40
Unit 303
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
51
Unit 304
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
56
Unit 305
Tape and tape-less editing
62
Unit 306
Stereo microphone techniques
69
Unit 307
Composition skills for music and sound industries
75
Unit 308
Software sound manipulation
80
Unit 309
Surround sound film audio
86
Unit 310
Live sound and performance technology
93
Unit 311
Digital broadcast and network media
98
Unit 312
Audio mastering and restoration
104
Unit 313
Sound studio facility design
110
Unit 313
Sound studio facility design
115
Unit 314
Advanced audio electronics
116
8
Appendix 1 NOS Mapping
121
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
5
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Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
6
1 Introduction to the qualification
This document contains the information that centres need to offer the following qualifications:
Qualification titles
City & Guilds
qualification
numbers
Ofqual
accreditation
numbers
Last
registration
date
Last
certification
date
Level 3 Award in Audio
Mastering, Restoration and
Editing
7603-31
500/8892/0
Consult the Walled Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
Level 3 Award in Advanced
audio electronics and
Connectivity
7603-31
500/8891/9
Level 3 Award in Live Sound
and Performance Technology
7603-31
500/8890/7
Level 3 Certificate in Music
Technology and Sound
Engineering
7603-32
500/8896/8
Level 3 Certificate in
Multitrack Recording and
Microphone Techniques
7603-32
500/8897/X
Level 3 Certificate in
Multitrack Recording and
Composition
7603-32
500/8895/6
Level 3 Certificate in Software
Sound Manipulation and
Composition
7603-32
500/8893/2
Level 3 Certificate in
Multitrack Recording and
Automation
Level 3 Certificate in Sound
Engineering Development
DIPLOMAS
7603-32
500/8894/4
7603-32
500/9121/9
Level 3 Extended Diploma in
Music Technology and Sound
Engineering
7603-33
500/8804/X
Level 3 Diploma in Music
Technology and Sound
Engineering
7603-33
500/9211/X
Level 3 Diploma in Sound
Engineering
Level 3 Diploma in
Professional Sound
Engineering Skills
Level 3 Diploma in
Professional Sound and
Composition Techniques
7603-33
500/9350/2
7603-33
500/9067/7
7603-33
500/8889/0
AWARDS
CERTIFICATES
Consult the Walled Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
Consult the Walled Garden/Online
Catalogue for last dates
This document includes details and guidance on:
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
7
•
•
•
•
•
centre resource requirements
candidate entry requirements
information about links with, and progression to, other qualifications
qualification standards and specifications
assessment requirements.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
8
2 About the qualifications
2.1 Aim of the qualifications
These qualifications will appeal to a wide range of learners who wish to develop their knowledge
and skills in Sound Engineering and Music Technology, suitable for learners who wish to enter into
or progress in employment or who wish to progress into education and training. These
qualifications are flexible and can be delivered either part-time or full-time.
This suite of Level 1 qualifications will replace the existing ones.
Accreditation details
These qualifications are accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority at Level 3 of the
QCF.
The aims of these qualifications are to:
• meet the needs of learners who wish to develop their Sound and Music skills and techniques
• meet the needs of learners who work or want to work in the Sound and Music industry
• allow learners to learn, develop and practise the skills required for employment and/or career
progression in the Sound and Music industry
• to provide bite size chunks of learning, allowing learners to progress at their own pace
• be flexible in terms of delivery as they can be delivered either part-time or full-time
• to encourage progression by providing a framework for learners
• to meet the needs and objectives of those employed in the industry wishing to broaden their
knowledge and skills
• to support the skills required within the Sound and Music industry
• contribute to the knowledge and understanding towards the related Level 3 VRQ in Sound and
Music, whilst containing additional skills and knowledge which go beyond the scope of the NOS.
See the N/SVQ Relationship mapping in 6.1 for further details.
• to increase participation and retention in education and training and to help overcome social
exclusion
• to widen and increase participation in lifelong learning
• to combat fears of failure by ensuring that all achievement is recognised.
Specialist Learning (SL) offers young people the opportunity to study a particular topic in more
depth or broaden their studies through complementary learning. This qualification has been
approved as SL by the SSC/DDP and OfQual for the Certificate/Diploma in Creative and Media. It has
been designed to:
•
complement principal learning within the Foundation/Higher/Advanced Diploma in Creative
and Media.
•
provide a broad background understanding of the Creative and Media sector and an
introduction to the practical skills and knowledge required
•
provide an awareness of the range of jobs and work settings in the Creative and Media
sector
•
enable learners to make an informed assessment of their own aptitude for work in this
sector and to make informed decisions about careers
•
encourage learners to reach a level of knowledge and skills that will facilitate progress into
further vocational learning or to potential employment in the sector
•
introduce learners to the discipline of the working environment and to encourage mature
attitudes to the community in general
•
encourage learners to value continued learning and remain in the learning process
•
allow learners to learn, develop and practise selected skills required for progression in the
sector
•
provide opportunities for progression to the Foundation/Higher/Advanced Diploma in
Creative and Media. and other related qualifications in the sector.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
9
2
About the qualificationss
2.2 Units
City &
Guilds
unit
number
Unit title
Credit
GLH
WBA No
301
Professional development for music and sound
industries
5
50
Y601309
302
Multitrack recording and mixing
8
80
D6013092
303
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
5
50
T6013132
304
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
6
60
A6013133
305
Tape and tape-less editing
6
60
L6013136
306
Stereo microphone techniques
8
60
D6013139
307
Composition skills for music and sound industries
8
60
R6013140
308
Software sound manipulation
8
60
D6013173
309
Surround sound film audio
6
60
K6013175
310
Live sound and performance technology
8
60
M6013176
311
Digital broadcast and network media
6
60
T6013258
312
Audio mastering and restoration
6
60
F6013201
313
Sound studio facility design
8
60
H6013207
314
Advanced audio electronics
6
60
H6013210
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
10
2
About the qualifications
2.3 The structure of the qualifications
To obtain the full certificate for the Level 3 VRQ’s in Sound Engineering and Music Technology,
candidates must achieve one of the combinations outlined below:
Ofqual No:
Qualification title
AWARDS
Structure
Credit
GLH
Cert Claim
unit
500/8892/0
Level 3 Award in Audio Mastering,
Restoration and Editing
Two mandatory units 305
and 312 (12 credits)
12
120
901
500/8891/9
Level 3 Award in Advanced audio
electronics and Connectivity
Two mandatory units 303
and 314 (11 credits)
11
110
902
500/8890/7
Level 3 Award in Live Sound and
Performance Technology
One mandatory unit 310 (8
credits)
8
60
903
Ofqual No:
Qualification title
CERTIFICATES
Structure
Credit
GLH
Cert Claim
unit
500/8896/8
Level 3 Certificate in Music
Technology and Sound Engineering
Four mandatory units 301304 (24 credits)
24
240
904
500/8897/X
Level 3 Certificate in Multitrack
Recording and Microphone
Techniques
Two mandatory units 302
and 306 (16 credits)
16
140
905
500/8895/6
Level 3 Certificate in Multitrack
Recording and Composition
Two mandatory units 302
and 307 (16 credits)
16
140
906
500/8893/2
Level 3 Certificate in Software
Sound Manipulation and
Composition
Two mandatory units 307
and 308 (16 credits)
16
120
907
500/8894/4
Level 3 Certificate in Multitrack
Recording and Automation
Level 3 Certificate in Sound
Engineering Development
Two mandatory units 302
and 304 (14 credits)
14
140
908
Four mandatory units
301,302,306 & 307 (29
credits)
29
250
909
500/9121/9
Ofqual No:
Qualification title
DIPLOMAS
Structure
Credit
GLH
Cert Claim
unit
500/8804/X
Level 3 Extended Diploma in Music
Technology and Sound Engineering
Four mandatory units 301304 (24 credits), plus six
optional from 305-314 (38-46)
62-70
600
910
500/9211/X
Level 3 Diploma in Music
Technology and Sound Engineering
Four mandatory units 301304 (24 credits), plus four
optional from 305-314 (24-32)
48-56
480
911
500/9350/2
Level 3 Diploma in Sound
Engineering
Five mandatory units 301304, 306(32 credits), plus one
optional from 305 - 312 (6-8
credits)
38-40
360
912
500/9067/7
Level 3 Diploma in Professional
Sound Engineering Skills
Six mandatory units
301,302,303,304, 305 and
306 (38 credits) plus either
312 or 313 (6-8 credits)
44-46
420
913
500/8889/0
Level 3 Diploma in Professional
Sound and Composition Techniques
Six mandatory units
302,303,304, 307,308, 309
(41 credits) plus either 312
or 313
(6-8 credits)
47-49
430
914
Certificate Claim Unit Numbers
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
11
The pathways for the certificates have the same qualification number therefore to ensure you
receive the right certificate when you register your learners please use the certificate claim
numbers listed in the tables’ far right hand column.
You must enter the relevant Certificate Claim Number as a P or X in Walled Garden in order to claim
the correct Certificate. For example, enter Cert Claim Unit 901 if you are entering your learners for
the Level 3 Award in Audio Mastering, Restoration and Editing.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
12
2
About the qualifications
2.4 Relevant sources of information
Support Materials
City & Guilds also provides the following publications and resources specifically for these
qualifications:
Description
How to access
Qualification Handbook
www.cityandguilds.com
Assessment pack for centres
www.cityandguilds.com
Sample work
www.cityandguilds.com
Learner Guides
www.cityandguilds.com
Contacting City & Guilds by e-mail
The following e-mail addresses give direct access to our Customer Relations team.
e-mail
Query types
[email protected]
All queries related to this suite of qualificaitons
[email protected]
all learner enquiries, including
• requesting a replacement certificate
• information about our qualification
• finding a centre.
[email protected]
all centre enquiries
[email protected]
all enquiries relating to the Walled Garden,
including
• setting up an account
• resetting passwords.
City & Guilds websites
Website
Address
Purpose and content
City & Guilds
main website
www.cityandguilds.com
This is the main website for finding out about the
City & Guilds group, accessing qualification
information and publications.
Walled Garden
www.walled-garden.com
The Walled Garden is a qualification
administration portal for approved centres,
enabling them to register candidates and claim
certification online.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
13
3 Candidate entry and progression
Candidate entry requirements
Candidates should not be entered for a qualification of the same type, content and level as that of a
qualification they already hold.
There are no formal entry requirements for candidates undertaking these qualifications. However,
centres must ensure that candidates have the potential and opportunity to successfully gain the
qualifications.
Age restrictions
There are no age limits attached to candidates undertaking the qualifications unless this is a legal
requirement of the process or the environment.
Other legal considerations
Data protection and confidentiality
Data protection and confidentiality must not be overlooked when planning the delivery of this
qualification.
Centres offering these qualifications may need to provide City & Guilds with personal data for staff
and candidates. Guidance on data protection and the obligations of City & Guilds and centres are
explained in Providing City & Guilds qualifications.
Protecting identity
It is extremely important to protect the identity of the service users encountered by candidates in
the work setting, eg customers and clients.
Confidential information must not be included in candidate portfolios or assessment records.
Confidential information should remain in its usual location, and a reference should be made to it in
the portfolio or assessment records.
Images of minors being used as evidence
If videos or photographs of minors (those under 18) are used as the medium to present evidence as
part of the qualifications, both centre and candidate have responsibilities for meeting child
protection legislation.
It is the responsibility of the centre to inform the candidate of the
• need to obtain permission from the minor’s parent/guardian prior to collecting the evidence
• reasons and restrictions for using photographs or video recordings as evidence
• period of time for which the photographs or video recordings may be kept
• obligation to keep photographs or video recordings secure from unauthorised access
• secure electronic storage requirements of photographs or video recordings
• associated child protection legislation.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
14
Progression
On completion of this qualification candidates may progress into employment or to the following
City & Guilds qualifications:
• Level 3 VRQ Qualifications in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603-03)
• Level 4 Higher Professional Diploma in Creative Arts (4440)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
15
4 Centre requirements
4.1 Obtaining centre and qualification approval
This section outlines the approval processes for Centres to offer these qualifications and any
resources that Centres will need in place to offer the qualifications including qualification-specific
requirements for Centre staff.
Centres not yet approved by City & Guilds
To offer these qualifications, centres will need to gain both centre and qualification approval.
Please refer to our website for further information.
Existing City & Guilds centres
To offer these qualifications, centres already approved to deliver City & Guilds qualifications will
need to gain qualification approval. Please refer to our website for further information.
Centres already offering City & Guilds qualifications in this subject area
Centres approved to offer Level 3 7503 qualifications may apply for approval for the equivalent
qualifications in Sound Engineering and Music Technology (7603) using the fast track approval
form, available from the City & Guilds website:
The 7603 Sound Engineering and Music Technology qualifications are the 7503 Sound Engineering
and Music Technology migrated onto the QCF (Qualifications and Credit Framework). If you
currently offer a L3 7503 Sound Engineering and Music Technology qualifications you can apply for
free fast-track approval for the equivalent in 7603 Level 3 Sound Engineering and Music
Technology.
Centres may apply to offer the new qualifications using the fast track form
• providing there have been no changes to the way the qualifications are delivered, and
• if they meet all of the approval criteria specified in the fast track form guidance notes.
Fast track approval is available for 12 months from the launch of the qualification. After this time,
the qualification is subject to the standard Qualification Approval Process. It is the centre’s
responsibility to check that fast track approval is still current at the time of application.
The standard form is called Form FTAP, and is available from the City & Guilds website:
www.cityandguilds.com or email [email protected]
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
16
4 Centre requirements
4.2 Resource requirements
Physical resources
Centres must have access to sufficient equipment in the centre or workplace to ensure candidates
have the opportunity to cover all of the practical activities. It is acceptable for centres to use
specially designated areas within a centre for some of the units. Centres must have a
software/hardware facility to be able to convert .wav audio files supplied by City & Guilds for
assignments 106, 209 and 211 and create playback audio CDs for candidates use.
Unit
301
Legislation and regulation, fiscal and legal (including PAYE/NI/ERC calculations)
documentation/information, career development planiing,union and legal
documentation, updated act amendments, industry links, examples of industry staff
employment contracts, examples of freelance/short term contracts, producer/mix
engineer contractual terms, (points/advances breakdown) terms of payments, royalties,
intellectual property (IP) and copyright law,copyright agencies, collection agencies,
media publications, example CV for media industries, breakdown mapping of sound,
music,media, promotional, legal, live sound, agency, management, recording publishing
and touring industries, employer sectors, industry links, website information, personal
career and skills review. Business plan and projection research.
Unit
302
Access to a full fitted recording and performance studio with ability to record, overdub
and mix 8-16 discrete signals on 24 track machine for band and artist session. Access to
digital, split or inline recording and mixing console to include gain structure, phantom
power, mic/line input, mic/line trims, console block design diagrams, routing and
patching, bussing routing matrix, channel solo’s, pans, mutes, EQ sections, sub, master
and VCA group layouts, phase, metering, faders, monitor section, aux’s, channel strip,
signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects and assigns, groups, busses, amps,
monitors, 2 track stereo returns, layout of digital,split or inline console Full range of
professional analogue and digital recording equipment, cables/wiring, microphones and
montioring, dynamics and effects units, Access to professional dynamic processing
including compressor, noise gate and limiter hardware units and access to delay, reverb,
chorus, flanging, phasing hardware effects units. Software plug-ins of processing and
effects units must also be available for use, patchbay system and recording mixing
console with insert circuit, aux sends and returns routing system, ability to connect
equipment and match signals with un-normalled, semi-normalled, normalled patchbay(s)
system(s), recording chain signal path, monitoring and meterage in place, stereo
mastering machinery. Archiving/storage facility. Would suit recommended installed kit
list 3 (see below).
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
17
Unit
303
Access to full range of professional meterage and testing equipment to include PPM and
Vu readings, Use of PPM and Vu meter based test gear to measuring gain, frequency
response, bandwidth, signal to noise ratio, distortion (total harmonic), distortion
(intermodulation), +4dBu professional signal levels, -10dB consumer signal levels, Vu
meter, PPM, 0Vu, PPM 5, 0dBF, Microphones and cabling,DI (direct inject) boxes. SDIF 1,
SDIF 2, AES-EBU, SPDIF, MADI, current proprietary systems, electrical interconnect,
optical interconnect, access to IT equipment and office software. Handouts and detailed
information regarding: mains distribution, the function of grounding/earthing, electrical
safety and fuse rating, Electricity at Work regulations, earth/hum loops, analogue to
digital (ADC), digital to analogue (DAC), sample frequency, Nyquist theory, anti alias filter,
quantisation, signal to quantisation noise ratio (SQNR), dither, sample and hold, 0dBFS,
basic error correction, sources of energy and power, voltage, current, resistance and
impedance, conductors and insulators, electronic components and the construction of
electronic equipment and different types of electrical measurements, synchronous data
transfer, asynchronous data transfer, data buffer, master clock system, word clock, jitter,
13 amp wiring, plugs, fuses, sockets, tools and equipment, handouts and safety
awareness, isolated safe working maintenance area, full peripheral cleaning and
maintenance kit , electrical pro-audio toolkit including full range of test equipment, ability
to make different types of electrical measurements, IT resources including design and
office software, online research, access to electrical circuit symbol library. Would also
suit recommended installed kit list 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for
this unit is Kit list 2, with the various inclusion above.
Unit
304
Access to sophisticated professional software-based mixing system eg: Logic Pro, Protools, Cubase/Nuendo, SSL Duende (with assignable control surfaces eg Mackie
Universal, Pro-Control, M-Audio Project Mix, Behringer BCF2000/BCR2000, Kenton
Control Freak, Dedicated: Yamaha 02R, Tascam DM24) and/or professional Hardwarebased mixing system eg: Neve, SSL, Euphonic, Yamaha, Amek, IZ Radar, Alesis
HD24,Tascam, access and ability for candidates to make audio mix snapshots, the
storing and naming/labelling of all user snapshots, snapshot mute/cut/fader recall,
editing, compiling and archiving/saving snapshots, produce instant and discrete effects,
muting and level-riding of track or groups of tracks from an arrangement saving and
recalling snapshots, Level, mute, pan, insert in/out switch, aux send on/off switch, effects
type, effects parameters, surround pan parameters, EQ in/out, EQ parameters, sample
accurate or quantised automation data streams, saving all automation data, general
professional practice and ability to manage and edit full automation modes, draw/edit
mix automation, voltage controlled amplifier (VCA) automation, moving-fader
automation, voltage-controlled-fader (VCF), SMPTE and other forms of time-based
synchronisation signal, read, write, auto-off, auto-read, auto-write, automation
tracks/subtracks or playlists, muting automation subtracks, automation safe/lock, hiding
and displaying automation tracks or groups of automation tracks. Would also suit
recommended installed kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement
for this unit is Kit list 2 with suitable controller surface and mix automation in place.
Access to full range of stereo mastering equipment including full stereo montioring
system.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
18
Unit
305
Access to full range of stereo mastering equipment including professional ¼’’ or ½’’ tape
machine running at 15/30ips, full stereo montioring system, chinagraph, blade,(sharps
disposal box), block, full range of splicing tape(s), tools and equipment, noise and noise
reduction (NR), Dolby A/SR encoding/decoding units, handouts and safety awareness, full
peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, isopropyl alcohol (with safe storage), cotton
buds, test tapes/reference recordings for centre stereo mastering analogue machine,
MRL reference tapes, oscillator, test tones, signal generator, electrical pro-audio toolkit
including full range of test equipment. access to destructive, non-destructive, linear, nonlinear editing processes, DAW workstation, professional editing and mastering
software/hardware eg: Pro-tools, SADiE, Pyramix, storage, archiving, access to nearfield, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo, monitoring and amplification systems and
professional headphone units are required for aural assignments/outcomes and ability
and access to configure control room or listening environment monitoring equipment as
required. Access to recording studio environments to analyse design fundamentals.
Ability to play and monitor frequency ranges (20-20,000Hz) test tones through
professional monitoring systems, good selection of mono and stereo sound sources
such as CD, CD-R, DAT, DVD, DVD-R, analogue tape, digital media, studio monitor test
CD’s. Would suit recommended installed kit list 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 2.
Unit
306
Access to array of professional industry range of dynamic, ribbon, condenser, boundary
(pressure) microphones, particular benefits for access to matched stereo pairs, with a
range of Polar patterns to include(omni directional, bidirectional/figure of eight, cardioid,
hypercardioid) flexible range of professional microphone stands, ability to be able to set
up Coincident, near coincident, spaced pairs, Decca Tree, mid-side (sum and difference)
handouts for psychoacoustic processes and effects on microphone techniques,
frequency responses, sensitivity and proximity effects, polar patterns, examples of good
practice for stereo microphone placements and various performance related
considerations, software processing (analogue emulation), access to full range of stereo
mastering equipment including full stereo monitoring system, access to IT equipment
and office software, access and exposure to public acoustic venues and performances.
Would also suit recommended installed kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the
minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 2.
Unit
307
Access to GM, XG and GS MIDI equipment hardware and plug-in software sound sources,
professional DAW/MIDI software, access to subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, FM
synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, wavetable synthesis, granular synthesis, , sampleand-synthesis, physical modelling would help create a larger range of timbre variation
and manipulation from user, access to broad selection of main music genres for
comparative reference including: rock, urban, classical, acoustic, blues,
indie/alternative, electro, electronica, dance, reggae, dub, jazz, world music,
instrumental, live recordings, access to acoustic instruments, electro-acoustic
instruments, sampled instruments, other samples, synthesisers, decks, drum machines,
other MIDI based sound sources, vocals, handouts on song composition and
arrangements, re-arrangement, hooks, melody considerations and construction, access
to IT equipment and office software, Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2
and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
Unit
308
Access to Mac, PC, Linux OS platform with professional DAW/MIDI software, access to
diverse resources of commercial, freeware, shareware, donation-ware, licensed, open
source effects, dynamics, audio editing and sequencing software, with provision for
VST, DirectX, TDM, AU, RTAS plug-in formats, access to IT/internet equipment and office
software, software resources, access to full mono, stereo mastering and monitoring and
amplification systems and professional headphone units are required, ability to produce
A/B comparison reference recordings, would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2
and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1.
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Unit
309
Access to professional DAW/MIDI software, access to 5.1,6.1,7.1 surround monitoring
system, access to near-field, mid-field, far-field, mono, stereo mastering to include good
selection of stereo mastering formats including HD, DAT, DVD, DVD-R and stereo
monitoring and amplification systems and professional headphone units, 5.1 playback
test audio signals for verification of L, R, C, LFE, LS, RS speakers, automatic dialogue
replacement (ADR) software, ability to encode 5.1 mix to DVD-A and DTS, 5.1 encoding
and decoding software/hardware, composition synchronisation and monitoring systems
access and recording for film, SDDS, DTS), Dolby stereo (LCRS), 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, DVD-A
hardware or software, access to hardware or software to render 5.1 mix into a matrixed
stereo audio file capable of playback on standard stereo audio systems or decoding into
a surround sound format, access to a full fitted recording and performance studio with
ability to record, overdub and mix all discrete signals on 24 track machine for surround
sound purposes. access to digital,split or inline recording and mixing console, routing
and patching, bussing routing matrix, channel solo’s, pans, mutes, EQ sections, sub,
master and VCA group layouts, phase, metering, faders, monitor section, Aux’s, channel
strip, signal routing, PFL, AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects and assigns, groups, busses,
amps, monitors, 2 track stereo returns, full range of professional analogue and digital
recording equipment, cables/wiring, microphones and montioring, dynamics and effects
units, access to professional dynamic processing including compressor, noise gate and
limiter hardware units and access to delay, reverb, chorus, flanging, phasing hardware
effects units. Software plug-ins of processing and effects units must also be available for
use, patchbay system and recording mixing console with insert circuit, aux sends and
returns routing system, stem mixing capability, access to IT equipment and office
software, the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 3 with full surround sound
encoding/decodinghardware/software system in place.
Unit
310
Handouts and website research on information outlining importance of health and safety
implementation for live public performances, acoustics and venue research with a focus
on remedial solutions for surfaces, materials, fabrics, seating, audience, reverberation
time (RT60), room constant, diffusion reflection, absorption coefficient, inverse square
law, standing waves, spectrum analysis, considerations of PA versus performance
requirements, delay lines, centre cluster, side fills, wedges, IEM, mono, stereo, active
crossover networks, limiters the roles of Director, Promoter, Producer, Stage Manager,
Tour Manager, Production Manager, ASM, DSM, Operators, Designers, Lighting crew,
FoH Engineer, Foldback Engineer, Stage Technician, access to accommodate Technical
rehearsals, performers needs, plot/cue scripts, choreography, production meetings,
access and exposure to PA/Venues and performances, ability to configure and rig PA for
a live performance, identify and use professional equipment, three phase intake, flying,
delay lines, centre cluster, side fills, wedges, IEM, mono, stereo, active crossover
networks, EQ, identify and rectify any problems during the installation, set the optimal
sound levels for the mix (eg: feedback control, headroom, distortion, limiting),
compensate for acoustical changes due to audience impact, ability to record (video)
performance, ability for venue to meet legal requirements: COSHH regulations, LOLER
regulations, PUWER regulations, risk assessment, hazardous noise, environmental health
(eg: sanitation, noise pollution), lifting, electricity, crowd safety, first aid, security,
floorplans, access to IT equipment and office software, public performance must have
clear lines of responsibity and event mentor/organisor in place at all times. Would also
suit recommended installed kit list 2 and 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 2 with access to a regulated public performance
venue.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit
311
Access to professional audio-and video recording equipment and audio-and video
DAW/MIDI software and workstations with universal DAW platforms SDII, wav, BWAV,
AAF and OMF, DTRS, Open Media Framework Interchange (OMFI) AES31, OPEN TL,
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), access to
read/write/publish audio files, video files, joint broadcast/network media files, file types
(eg MPG, AVI, WMV, Windows Media, DV, VOB, MPEG-4, DivX and XviD, MPEG-2 Super
VCD, MPEG-2 DVD, MPEG-1, MPEG-1 VCD, codec read/write and conversion software,
access to professional hardware and software to read/write/convert and manage the
following codecs and audio file extensions: Digital video media: MPEG-1, MPEG-2, AVI
(uncompressed), AVI (compressed), WMV, VCD, SVCD, DVD image input files (eg BMP,
EMF, GIF, J2K, JPG, PCX, PNG, RAS, TGA, TIF, WMF) Video codecs: FFD Show MPEG-4,
DivX 6.5.1, Koepi's XviD Codec, DivX Free, DScaler MPEG Filters, OggDS / OGM Codec,
Nic's XviD Codec, Ligos Indeo Codec, MJPGPIC Video, Audio codecs: PCM, u-law, MPEG
Audio Layer-III & audio layer IV, Proprietary (Microsoft), Proprietary (Apple Computer),
Proprietary (Real Networks), OggVorbis, Audio file extensions: .aif, .aiff, .au, .mp3, .wma,
.qt, .ra, .ram, .wav, .ogg. Podcast publishing and web based uploading/publishing
capability and management,web publishing software, access to interactive web site
media, access to professional near-field, mono, stereo, monitoring and amplification
systems, professional headphone units, access to IT equipment and office software.
Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below), however the
minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1 with above IT/OS software and ability to
manage media file and codec requirements as outlined above.
Unit
312
Handouts and detailed information outlining important stages of hardware and historical
recorded format development from late 1877 to current and emerging technology, with
a particular focus on the rapid technical development period of the 1950s – present,
access to full range of stereo mastering equipment including professional ¼’’ or ½’’ tape
machine running at 15/30ips, full stereo monitoring system, chinagraph, blade,(sharps
disposal box), block, full range of splicing tape(s), tools and equipment, noise and noise
reduction (NR), Dolby A/SR encoding/decoding units, handouts and safety awareness, full
peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, isopropyl alcohol (with safe storage), cotton
buds, test tapes/reference recordings for centre stereo mastering analogue machine,
MRL reference tapes, oscillator, test tones, signal generator, electrical pro-audio toolkit
including full range of test equipment. access to destructive, non-destructive, linear, nonlinear editing processes, DAW workstation, professional editing and mastering
software/hardware eg: Pro-tools, SADiE, Pyramix, storage, archiving, high quality
ADC/DAC, connections, interfaces, routing, DAW’s, sync, wordclock, metering,
mastering EQ’s, compressors, expanders, single ended noise reduction (eg analogue,
digital, hardware, software), monitoring systems, access to near-field, mid-field, far-field,
mono, stereo, monitoring and amplification systems and professional headphone units
are required for critical aural assignments/outcomes and ability and access to configure
control room or listening environment monitoring equipment as required. Access to full
range of PPM/Vu metering, ability to play and monitor frequency ranges (20-20,000Hz)
test tones through professional monitoring systems, good selection of mono and stereo
recording and playback machinery such as CD, CD-R, DAT, DVD, DVD-R, analogue tape,
digital media, studio monitor test CD’s, ability to compile source material formats eg:
analogue tape, HD, SACD, DSD, DAT, CD, AIFF, WAV, SDII, ability to compile audio
sources into sequential order, editing, spacing, top and tailing, noise clean-up, fades,
crossfades, PQ coding, access and ability to produce one of the following Production
master: DDP (disc description protocol) on Exabyte, PCM 1630, BWAV,CDR, CD-ROM,
DVD-ROM, DDP-files, PQ lists, analogue tape, vinyl production masters, labelling, backups, safety copies, archived library copy, access to IT equipment and office software.
Would suit recommended installed kit list 3 (see below), however the minimum
requirement for this unit is Kit list 2.
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Unit
313
Access to IT equipment and office software graphic 2D/3D CAD or similar ability,
(standard graphic/icon library access for floorplans ie: doors, windows, fusebox, seating,
stairwells, HVAC, power etc) access to recording facility environments to analyse design
fundamentals, website research for studio design layouts, access to full health and safety
knowledge and resources with particular regard for building and planning regulations,
construction and public access responsibilities, handouts and access to resources for
building materials, furnishings, fittings, power requirements, health and safety
implementation, room surfaces, building location, wall, floor construction, ceiling,
window and door construction, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), storage,
telecommunications, decorations, aesthetics, supply sources, absorption coefficients,
isolation/separation, noise reduction coefficient (NRC) treatment, noise control (NC)
considerations, Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2 and 3 (see below),
however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1 with above resources in
place.
Unit
314
Handouts and detailed information regarding sources of energy and power, voltage,
current, resistance and impedance, conductors and insulators, electronic components
and the construction of electronic equipment and different types of electrical
measurements, 13 amp wiring, plugs, fuses, sockets, ability to measure voltage gain,
frequency response, bandwidth, total harmonic distortion, inter-modulation distortion,
signal to noise ratio, equivalent input noise, dynamic range, headroom, output power,
quiescent current, ability to contruct breadboard/stripboard component layout, with
input/output sockets, power switch, battery enclosure, labelling, soldering tools and
equipment, handouts and safety awareness, isolated safe working maintenance area,
full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit , electrical pro-audio toolkit including full
range of test equipment, ability to make different types of electrical measurements, IT
resources including design and office software, online research, access to electrical
circuit symbol library, Parameter measurements, graphs, circuit board layout,
construction report, circuit schematic for simple op amp microphone amplifier, active DI
box, IC based stereo headphone amp. Would also suit recommended installed kit list 1, 2
and 3 (see below), however the minimum requirement for this unit is Kit list 1, with the
relevant resources and electrical components and contructional items.
Kit List Level 1
IT basic editing and recording workstations
Per learner per class to include: PC/MAC keyboard/mouse, 17”+ screens, 350mb-1Gb of RAM, proaudio software licences for: Logic, Pro-tools and Cu-Base (loop based software is not approved for
linear based audio editing), speakers, amplification, 8 channel mixing console, 8 track recording
device, headphones, dynamic microphones, AD-DA breakout box, MIDI sound modules/software,
synthesis, samplers, instruments, cables, amplification and the means to record single pass or solo
parts, DI boxes mastering and archiving (safety copy back-up equipment), APRS/SPARS tape label
system in place. DJ equipment, full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, maintenance
electrical/audio toolkit including test equipment, soldering tools and equipment, oscilloscope, test
tones. I.T online access with basic office software for learners.
Kit List Level 2
Per learner per class to include: K1 list plus addition of studio recording area including minimum 24
channel recording and mixing console, 24 track hardware recording machine with remote, selection
of transformer balanced, electronic, active, passive DI boxes, SMPTE/MIDI synchronisation
equipment, 6 –10 MIDI sound modules/units, several virtual software plug-in, synthesis, samplers,
un-normalled, semi-normalled, normalled patch-bay system, processing equipment, effects/FX
units, good selection of professional dynamic, condenser and ribbon microphone types,
oscilloscope, professional monitoring speaker and amplification equipment, professional mastering
equipment, APRS/SPARS tape label system in place. Ownership or access to a public address (PA)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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sound/DJ system, full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, maintenance electrical/audio toolkit
including test equipment, soldering tools and equipment, oscilloscope, test tones.
Kit List Level 3
Per learner per class to include: K1 & K2 list plus addition of centre area/equipment ideally to be
incorporated into fully floated and AC fitted recording environment to include acoustically designed
live performance area, vocal booth, additional live area/separation booths, isolated from control
room, 24-96 channel pro recording/mixing console (see unit range lists), 24-48 track software and
hardware recording machines plus remotes and full break-out AD-DA hardware, full range of
professional monitoring speaker and amplification system, equipment broad selection of
professional transformer balanced, electronic, active, passive DI boxes/racks, fold-back systems,
professional processing equipment (see unit range lists), broad range of industry virtual software
plug-ins, synthesisers and good range of synthesis types, samplers, professional effects/FX units
(see unit range lists),broad selection of professional dynamic, condenser and ribbon microphones
(see unit range lists), 6-10 professional studio headphones, AV software and synchronisation
equipment to AV edit within logic pro, pro-tools and Cu-Base, DVI screen, AV EDL off-line pre & post
editing. Ownership or access to a public address (PA) sound system and DJ system, professional
range of digital and analogue mastering stereo equipment, APRS/SPARS tape label system in place.
Full peripheral cleaning and maintenance kit, full maintenance electrical/audio toolkit including test
equipment, soldering tools and equipment, oscilloscope, test tones. Ability for learners to control,
record, mix and master solo artist, band or orchestral and ensemble pieces professionally within
recording environment is an ideal equipped facility standard. Professional audio/visual recording
and editing software/DAW or hardware.
Human resources
Staff delivering these qualifications must be able to demonstrate that they meet the following
occupational expertise requirements. They should:
•
•
•
•
be technically competent in the areas for which they are delivering training and/or have
experience of providing training. This knowledge must be at least to the same level as the
training being delivered
have verifiable and relevant current industry experience and competence of their occupational
working area at or above the level being assessed.
have recent relevant experience in the specific area they will be assessing
have credible experience of providing training.
Centre staff may undertake more than one role, eg tutor and assessor or internal verifier, but must
never internally verify their own assessments.
Assessors and internal verifiers
Assessors’ and Quality Assurance Co-ordinators’ experience and competence could be evidenced
by:
• curriculum vitae and references
• possession of a relevant NVQ/SVQ
• corporate membership of a relevant professional institution
• continuing professional development (CPD).
While the Assessor/Verifier (A/V) units are valued as qualifications for centre staff, they are not
currently a requirement for the qualifications.
Continuing professional development (CPD)
Centres are expected to support their staff in ensuring that their knowledge remains current of the
occupational area and of best practice in delivery, mentoring, training, assessment and verification,
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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and that it takes account of any national or legislative developments.
External quality assurance
External quality assurance for the qualifications will be provided by City & Guilds external
verification process.
External Verifiers are appointed by City & Guilds to approve centres, and to monitor the assessment
and internal quality assurance carried out by centres. External verification is carried out to ensure
that assessment is valid and reliable, and that there is good assessment practice in centres.
To carry out their quality assurance role, External Verifiers must have appropriate occupational and
verifying knowledge and expertise. City & Guilds External Verifiers attend training and development
designed to keep them up-to-date, facilitate standardisation between verifiers and share good
practice.
External Verifiers:
The role of the External Verifier is to:
• provide advice and support to centre staff
• ensure the quality and consistency of assessments within and between centres by the use of
systematic sampling
• regularly visit centres to ensure they continue to meet the centre and qualification approval
criteria
• provide feedback to centres and to City & Guilds.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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4
Centre requirements
4.3 Quality assurance
Internal quality assurance
Approved centres must have effective quality assurance systems to ensure optimum delivery and
assessment of qualifications.
Quality assurance includes initial centre approval, qualification approval and the centre’s own
internal procedures for monitoring quality. Centres are responsible for internal quality assurance,
and City & Guilds is responsible for external quality assurance.
National standards and rigorous quality assurance are maintained by the use of:
• City & Guilds online examinations
• City & Guilds assignments, marked by the centre according to externally set marking criteria
• internal (centre) quality assurance
• City & Guilds external verification.
Full details and guidance on the internal and external quality assurance requirements and
procedures, are provided on the website.
In order to fully support candidates, centres are required to retain copies of candidates’ assessment
records for three years after certification.
External quality assurance
External verifiers are appointed by City & Guilds to approve centres, and to monitor the assessment
and internal quality assurance carried out by centres. External verification is carried out to ensure
that assessment is valid and reliable, and that there is good assessment practice in centres.
To carry out their quality assurance role, external verifiers/moderators must have appropriate
occupational and verifying knowledge and expertise. City & Guilds external verifiers attend training
and development designed to keep them up-to-date, to facilitate standardisation between verifiers
and to share good practice.
External verifiers:
The role of the external verifier is to:
• provide advice and support to centre staff
• ensure the quality and consistency of assessments within and between centres by the use of
systematic sampling
• regularly visit centres to ensure they continue to meet the centre and qualification approval
criteria
• provide feedback to centres and to City & Guilds.
External quality assurance for the qualification will be provided by the usual City & Guilds external
verification process. This includes the use of an electronically scannable report form which is
designed to provide an objective risk analysis of individual centre assessment and verification
practice.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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4
Centre requirements
4.3 Quality assurance
Internal quality assurance
Approved centres must have effective quality assurance systems to ensure optimum delivery and
assessment of qualifications.
Quality assurance includes initial centre approval, qualification approval and the centre’s own
internal procedures for monitoring quality. Centres are responsible for internal quality assurance,
and City & Guilds is responsible for external quality assurance.
National standards and rigorous quality assurance are maintained by the use of:
• City & Guilds assignments, marked by the centre according to externally set marking criteria
• internal (centre) quality assurance
• City & Guilds external verification.
Full details and guidance on the internal and external quality assurance requirements and
procedures, are provided in Providing City & Guilds qualifications together with full details of the
tasks, activities and responsibilities of quality assurance staff.
In order to fully support learners, centres are required to retain copies of learners’ assessment
records for three years after certification.
External quality assurance
External verifiers are appointed by City & Guilds to approve centres, and to monitor the assessment
and internal quality assurance carried out by centres. External verification is carried out to ensure
that assessment is valid and reliable, and that there is good assessment practice in centres.
To carry out their quality assurance role, external verifiers/moderators must have appropriate
occupational and verifying knowledge and expertise. City & Guilds external verifiers attend training
and development designed to keep them up-to-date, to facilitate standardisation between verifiers
and to share good practice.
External verifiers
The role of the external verifier is to:
• provide advice and support to centre staff
• ensure the quality and consistency of assessments within and between centres by the use of
systematic sampling
• regularly visit centres to ensure they continue to meet the centre and qualification approval
criteria
• provide feedback to centres and to City & Guilds.
External quality assurance for the qualification will be provided by the usual City & Guilds external
verification process. This includes the use of an electronically scannable report form which is
designed to provide an objective risk analysis of individual centre assessment and verification
practice.
Further details of the role of external verifiers are given in Providing City & Guilds qualifications.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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5 Course design and delivery
Recommended delivery strategies
Centre staff should familiarise themselves with the structure, content and assessment requirements
of the qualification before designing a course programme.
In particular, staff should consider the skills and knowledge related to the national occupational
standards.
Provided that the requirements for the qualification are met, centres may design course
programmes of study in any way that they feel best meets the needs and capabilities of their
candidates. Centres may wish to include topics as part of the course programme, which will not be
assessed through the qualification.
Relationship to other qualifications and the wider curriculum
City & Guilds recommends centres address the wider curriculum, where appropriate, when
designing and delivering the course. Centres should also consider links to the National Occupational
Standards, Key/Functional Skills and other related qualifications.
Health and safety
The requirement to follow safe working practices is an integral part of all City & Guilds qualifications
and assessments, and it is the responsibility of centres to ensure that all relevant health and safety
requirements are in place before candidates start practical assessments.
Should a candidate fail to follow health and safety practices and procedures during an assessment,
the assessment must be stopped. The candidate should be informed that they have not reached the
standard required to successfully pass the assessment and told the reason why. Candidates may
retake the assessment at a later date, at the discretion of the centre. In case of any doubt, guidance
should be sought from the external verifier.
Data protection and confidentiality
Centres offering this qualification may need to provide City & Guilds with personal data for staff and
candidates. Guidance on data protection and the obligations of City & Guilds and centres are
explained in Providing City & Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre and qualification (scheme)
approval.
Images of minors being used as evidence
It is the responsibility of the approved centre to inform the candidate of the:
• need for the candidate to obtain permission from the minor’s parent/guardian prior to collecting
the evidence
• purpose of the use of photographs or video recordings
• period of time for which the photographs or video recordings are to be kept
• obligation to keep photographs or video recordings secure from unauthorised access
• storage of the photographs or video recordings which are kept electronically, and the
associated security of using electronic systems
• associated child protection legislation.
Initial assessment and induction
Centres will need to make an initial assessment of each candidate prior to the start of their
programme to ensure they are entered for an appropriate type and level of qualification.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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The initial assessment should identify any specific training needs the candidate has, and the support
and guidance they may require when working towards their qualification.
City & Guilds recommends that centres provide an induction programme to ensure the candidate
fully understands the requirements of the qualification they will work towards, their responsibilities
as a candidate, and the responsibilities of the centre. It may be helpful to record the information on
a learning contract.
Equal opportunities
It is a requirement of centre approval that centres have an equal opportunities policy (see Providing
City & Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre and qualification (scheme) approval ).
The regulatory authorities require City & Guilds to monitor centres to ensure that equal opportunity
policies are being followed.
The City & Guilds equal opportunities policy is set out on the City & Guilds website, in Providing City
& Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre and qualification (scheme) approval, in the Directory of
qualifications, and is also available from the City & Guilds Customer Relations department.
Access to assessment
City & Guilds’ guidance and regulations on access to assessment are designed to facilitate access
for assessments and qualifications for candidates who are eligible for adjustments to assessment
arrangements. Access arrangements are designed to allow attainment to be demonstrated. For
further information, please see Access to assessment and qualifications, available on the City &
Guilds website.
Appeals
Centres must have their own, auditable, appeals procedure that must be explained to candidates
during their induction. Appeals must be fully documented by the quality assurance co-ordinator and
made available to the external verifier or City & Guilds.
Further information on appeals is given in Providing City & Guilds qualifications – a guide to centre
and qualification (scheme) approval. There is also information on appeals for centres and learners
on the City & Guilds website or available from the Customer Relations department.
JAMES Industry Accreditation
The industry organisation JAMES represents education matters for the Association of Professional
Recording Services (APRS), the Music Producer’s Guild and the UKScreen Association. These are the
recognised industry organisations representing the recording, music production, music technology
and audio post-production for film industries.
At JAMES we have been extremely pleased to work with City & Guilds on the development and
update of these new qualifications and will continue to be involved with their effective evolution.
Our professional contributions have helped to ensure that the qualifications will be relevant to our
industry for years to come.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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6 Assessment
For these qualifications, candidates will be required to complete the following assessments:
• one assignment for each unit
Time constraints
The following time constraint must be applied to the assessment of this qualification:
• It is anticipated that an assignment should take no longer than fifteen hours, in total, to
complete. Centre staff should guide candidates to ensure excessive evidence gathering is
avoided. Centres finding that assignments are taking longer, should contact the external verifier
for guidance.
Grading and marking
Assessments will be graded pass, credit or distinction. Detailed marking and grading criteria are
provided in the Marking Criteria section of each assignment in the assessment pack.
Accreditation of prior learning and experience (APEL)
Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) and Accreditation of Prior Experience and Learning (APEL) are
approaches used to recognise the contribution a person’s previous experience might contribute to
a qualification.
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7 Unit summary
Availability of units
The units for this qualification follow.
They may also be obtained from the centre resources section of the City & Guilds website.
Structure of units
The units in this qualification are written in a standard format and comprise the following:
• level
• credit
• title
• unit reference number
• rationale
• statement of guided learning hours
• connections with other qualifications, eg NVQs
• assessment details
• learning outcomes in detail expressed as practical skills and/ or underpinning knowledge
• range
• notes for guidance.
The units in this qualification are:
City &
Guilds unit
numbers
Unit title
Unit 301
Professional development for music and sound industries
Unit 302
Multitrack recording and mixing
Unit 303
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
Unit 304
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
Unit 305
Tape and tape-less editing
Unit 306
Stereo microphone techniques
Unit 307
Composition skills for music and sound industries
Unit 308
Software sound manipulation
Unit 309
Surround sound film audio
Unit 310
Live sound and performance technology
Unit 311
Digital broadcast and network media
Unit 312
Audio mastering and restoration
Unit 313
Sound studio facility design
Unit 314
Advanced audio electronics
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 301
Level:
Professional development for music and
sound industries
3
Credit value: 5
Rationale
This unit develops learners’ knowledge of employment roles, regulation and professional
development within music and sound industries. In this unit learners will investigate freelance roles
within the industry, continuous professional development and the legal and regulatory frameworks
in which the industry operates.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain sound and music rights and regulation
• Explain freelance working practices
• Describe the importance of continuous professional development
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged learners will require 50 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly achieve
this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT4 Research relevant occupational roles and employment in music and sound
recording sectors
• CCSMT5 Evaluate personal skills to work with others in the music and sound industries
• CCSMT27 Develop your professional knowledge of intellectual property (IP), copyright,
revenue streams, contracts and royalties
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 301
Outcome 1
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Explain sound and music rights and regulation
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. describe current legislation and regulation
2. explain how intellectual property rights and copyright relate to the industry
3. explain the role of personal legal representation
4. identify relevant documentation to be completed to meet legislative requirements
Range
Legislation and regulation
Data Protection Act , Copyright Designs and Patents Act , Health and Safety at Work Act, Race
Relations Act, Sex Discrimination Act, Freedom of Information Act, Mechanical Copyright Protection
Society (MCPS), Performing Right Society (PRS ), Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL),
Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), Ofcom, Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMC), UK Digital
Economy Bill (DEB), Affiliated global collection agencies
Intellectual property rights and copyright
Evidence of creation date, originality, establishing ownership, compositional/mechanical rights,
broadcast rights, licensing, transfer of rights, synchronisation rights, cessation of copyright
Personal legal representation
Entertainment lawyers, Union bodies/professional associations (for initial advice)
Relevant documentation
Copyright control (new works, live and broadcast), membership forms, PRS forms, PPL
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
32
Unit 301
Outcome 2
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Explain freelance working practices
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Plan and prepare a personal business plan
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe freelance working practice in different roles
2. Describe personal skills required for freelance work
3. Describe fiscal and legal aspects of freelance work
4. Describe the main purpose and components of a personal business plan
Range
Personal business plan
CVs, business cards, demo tapes, dealing with clients, contact list and networking, commissioning,
presentation, promotional materials Contracts, invoices/financial records, taxation, national
insurance, loans/cash flow, pay rates, insurance packages (personal/3rd party/indemnity), health
and safety, deadlines, transport and equipment costs, working capital, SWOT analysis
Freelance working practice
Negotiating contracts, networking, advertise services, maintain quality of provision, CPD,
outsourcing, project management, cash flow, financial recording, terms of completion/signing off
Roles
eg Producer, production manager, production assistant, researchers, sound operator, sound
technician, sound recordist, sound assistant, boom operator, sound supervisor, grams operator,
sound editor, mixer, re-recording mixer, dubbing mixer, foley artist, A & R, web designer, graphic
designer, talent, sales and marketing, archiving, distribution, hire company, service engineer,
broadcasting, installation
Personal skills
Personal responsibility, commitment and enthusiasm, decision making, team working skills,
qualifications, training, professional practice and work ethic, responsiveness to change, IT literate,
career planning, work experience, specialist knowledge, deadlines
Fiscal and legal
National Insurance, income tax, personal and third party insurance, pension rights, VAT, bank
accounts
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
33
Unit 301
Outcome 3
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Describe the importance of continuous
professional development
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Devise a continuous professional development (CPD) strategy
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the necessity for continuous professional development
2. Identify sources and potential for skills development
3. Describe the elements of a continuous personal development strategy
Range
Continuous professional development (CPD)
Technical, creative and management skills, career pathways, skills updates
Necessity
To keep up with technological developments, interact with other sector professionals, up-skill,
multi-skill, gain new skills, transferable skills, network, increase earnings
Sources and potential for skills development
In house, manufacturers, educational establishments, Internet, Regulatory bodies, advisory bodies,
trade associations, trade journals, career websites, networking, membership associations, trade
unions, production companies, trade fairs, exhibitions, equipment manufacturers, sector skills
councils
Strategy
Career planning, current technical skills and knowledge, current and future industry trends, current
and future technology, continuous update of skills and knowledge, funding for training, CV updates,
promotion of technical and managerial ability either working individually or as part of a team
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
34
Unit 301
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The unit will focus on and clarify common specific technical and creative job roles in the sound and
music industry sectors. Learners will be asked to research and provide evidence of such. It is
important that changes in legislation and any updating of legal guidelines and copyright issues are
monitored regularly by all centres.
Learners will be encouraged to analyse the skills required for a range of industry sectors and
particular job roles associated with these skills. Learners will be encouraged to evaluate their own
interests and current skills prior to any pathways and multi-skilling options. They will be given
resources for applying for specific part-time or full-time employment posts within the sound and
music industry.
Collection agencies
PRS for Music (Both PRS and MCPS services)
Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL),
Video Performance Limited (VPL)
Irish Music Rights Organisation (IMRO)
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP)
The Performing Artists' Media Rights Association Ltd (PAMRA)
The Association of United Recording Artists (AURA)
The Authors’ Licensing and Collecting Society (ALCS)
Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners' Society (AMCOS)
Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA)
Bureau International des Sociétés Gérant les Droits d'Enregistrement et de Reproduction
Mécanique (BIEM)
Broadcast Music Inc (BMI),
Societe d'Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de Musique-ISRAEL (ACUM)
Vereniging Buma (the Buma Association) & Stemra Foundation-GERMANY (BUMA/STEMRA)
Private US profit making collection society (SESAC)
Sociedad General de Autores de Espana - SPAIN (SGAE)
Societa Italiana degli Autori ed Editori –ITALY (SIAE)
Agencia Cubana de Derecho de Autor Musical – CUBA (ACDAM),
Sociedad Argentina de Autores y Compositores de Musica SADAIC
Associacao Brasileira de Regentes, Arranjadores E Musicos (ABRAMUS)
Centruum voor Dienstverlening Auteurs- en anverwante Rechten-NETHERLANDS (CEDAR),
The Canadian Musical Reproduction Rights Agency (CMRRA)
German Authors' Rights Society (GEMA)
Collecting Society in Norway for Musicians, Performing Artists and Record Producers (GRAMO)
German version of UK PPL collects royalties for performers/session musicians (GVL)
Composers and Authors Society of Hong Kong Ltd (CASH)
Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers (JASRAC)
Harry Fox Agency- USA (HFA)
Denmark and Greenland collection society- Denmark (KODA)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
35
Unit 301
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Notes for guidance
Collection agencies (continued)
Nordisk Copyright Bureau- NORWAY (NCB)
European Grouping of Societies of Authors and Composers (GESAC)
International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers - FRANCE (CISAC)
The Belgian Society of Authors, Composers, and Publishers (SABAM)
French Society of Authors and Composers (SACD)
France's Society of Authors, Composers, and Music Publishers (SACEM)
Swedish Artists and Musicians Interest Group (Union affiliated collection) (SAMI)
Dutch Collection Society-NETHERLANDS (SENA)
The Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada (SOCAN)
The Society for the Reproduction Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers in Canada (SODRAC)
Slovak Performing & Mechanical Rights Society (SOZA)
Societe Suisse Pour Les Droits Des Auteurs D'Oeuvres Musical-SWEDEN (SUISA)
Svenska Tonsattares Internationella Musikbyra-SWEDEN (STIM)
Norway's Performing Rights Society (TONO)
Russian Authors Society (RAO)
Copyright agencies and associated parties
PRS for Music (Both PRS and MCPS services)
UK Music
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI)
The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC)
Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL)
Phonographic Performance Ireland (PPI)
Broadcasting Complaints Commission (BCC)
Intellectual Property Institute (IPI)
Intellectual Property Awareness Network (IPAN)
Intellectual Property Associates Network (IPAN)
Bureau International des Sociétés Gérant les Droits d'Enregistrement et de Reproduction
Mécanique (BIEM)
Irish Music Rights Organisation (IMRO)
New Music in Scotland (NEMIS)
British Phonographic Industry (BPI)
International Confederation of Music Publishers (ICMP)
Recorded Artists and Performers (RAAP)
Northern Irish Music Industry Commission (NIMIC)
Music Publishers' Association (MPA)
The Performing Artists' Media Rights Association Ltd (PAMRA)
Association of Independent Music (AIM)
British Music Rights (BMR)
Music Business Forum (MBF)
Irish Independent Music Producers' Association (IIMPA)
Alliance Against Counterfeiting and Piracy (AACP)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
36
Unit 301
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Notes for guidance
Copyright agencies and associated parties (continued)
Music Managers Forum (MMF)
Music Producers Guild (MPG)
The Association of United Recording Artists (AURA)
The Association of Professional Recording Services (APRS)
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP)
Alliance Against Counterfeiting and Piracy (AACP)
The Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA)
Entertainments Retailers Association (ERA formerly BARD)
Musicians Union (MU)
Music Producers Guild of the Americas (MPGA)
British Academy of Composers and Songwriters (BAC&S)
British Video Association (includes all visual formats DVD,HD etc) (BVA)
Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd (CLA)
Design and Artists Copyright Society (DACS)
Digital Content Forum (DCF)
World Intellectual Property Rights Organisation (WIPO)
International Copyright Institute (ICI)
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
Creative Industry Network (CIN)
Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS)
European Music Office (EMO)
Learner Radio Association (SRA)
International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC)
UK Copyright Service (UKCS)
Swedish Music Publishers' Association (SMFF)
The Independent Music Companies Association (IMPALA)
Irish Recorded Music Association (IRMA)
Campaign for Digital Rights (CDR)
Digital Data Exchange (DDEX)
Music Education Council (MEC)
Music Industry Association (MIA)
Marché international de l'édition musicale (MIDEM)
Music of Black Origin (MOBO)
National Entertainment Agents Council (NEAC)
National Music Council (NMC)
Producers and Composers of Applied Music (PCAM)
Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI)
Scottish Music Industry Association (SMIA)
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
Association of British Jazz Musicians (ABJM)
Association of Business to Business Agencies (ABBA)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
37
Unit 301
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Notes for guidance
Branded Content Marketing Association (BCMA)
Country Music Association (CMA)
British Interactive Media Association (BIMA)
Broadcast Music Inc (BMI)
Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA)
American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA)
Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT)
Intellectual Property Owners (IPO)
Cross Party Group on Contemporary Music (CPG)
International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (AIPPI)
The International Trademark Association (INTA)
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Chartered Institute of Patent Agents (CIPA)
Commercial Radio Companies Association (CRCA)
Incorporated Society of Musicians (ISM)
International Publishers Association (IPA)
International Songwriters Association (ISA)
Music Publishers Association (MPA)
International Recording Media Association (IRMA)
Official UK Charts Company (OCC)
Media Research Information Bureau (MRIB)
National Sound Archive (NSA)
National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA)
Radio Joint Audience Research Limited (RAJAR)
The Scottish Music Information Centre (SMIC)
Private US profit making collection society (SESAC)
Computer Patent Annuities (CPA)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
38
Unit 301
Professional development for music and
sound industries
Notes for guidance
Suggested resources
There are a range of resources available to support the delivery of this unit and it would be
impossible to create a definitive list. Tutors should use those they feel most comfortable with.
However, in the fast moving music and sound industry it is imperative to ensure that the latest
edition of any resource is utilised.
All You Need to Know About the Music Business (Donald S. Passmore ISBN (10): 0141018453)
Legal and Business Issues in the Music Industry (P. Isherwood ISBN (10): 1854180983)
Start and Run Your Own Business: The Complete Guide to Setting Up and Managing a Small Business
(Alan Le Marinel ISBN(10): 1857039882)
The Secrets of Self Employment: Starting Your Own Business (Terry Burrows ISBN (10): 1842223704)
Teach Yourself Understanding Tax for Small Businesses (Sarah Deeks ISBN (10): 0340927410)
Be Prepared! Getting Ready for Job Interviews: Have the Confidence to Succeed at Any Interview
(Julie-Ann Amos ISBN (10): 1857039467)
http://www.musiciansunion.org.uk
http://www.prsformusic.com
http://www.ppluk.com/
http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/
http://www.bpi-med.co.uk
http://www.ukmusic.org
http://www.jamesonline.org.uk
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
39
Unit 302
Level:
Multitrack recording and mixing
3
Credit value: 8
Rationale
Whilst mixing or remixing a project in a professional recording studio environment, recording
engineers and record producers will have particular preferences relating to how the audio material
is balanced, equalised and mixed. In each case, however, their overall aim is to represent and define
all instruments and performances clearly into an acceptable stereo image often referred to as the
mix.
The aim of this unit is to give learners a good preparatory understanding of the standards required
to prepare and complete an original mix that can be used as a demo disc or included within a
promotional portfolio. It is intended that learners learn to make decisions on signal balancing, types
of sounds and textures, dynamics and effects processing.
In this unit they will identify the key areas of recording and balancing audio and the creative use of
equalisation, dynamics and effects processing.
Learners will consider the overall balance and equalisation characteristics of a stereo mix and make
complex and often creative decisions to adjust these parameters. Learners are required to use both
technical and creative skills to record create and mix a multitrack recording.
Learning outcomes
There are four learning outcomes to this unit. The candidate is able to:
• Create a multitrack recording
• Process and clean up audio signals
• Creatively and technically enhance audio signals
• Use balancing and equalisation
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged learners will require 80 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly achieve
this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
40
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT17 Carry out advanced analogue and digital equalisation for music and audio
industries
• CCSMT18 Operate analogue and digital Dynamics and effects equipment for music and
audio industries
• CCSMT19 Operate analogue and digital mixing and recording consoles
• CCSMT23 Carry out multi track and stereo tape machine alignment and maintenance
• CCSMT26 Apply techniques for archiving and recalling audio materials – session
management
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
41
Unit 302
Outcome 1
Multitrack recording and mixing
Create a multitrack recording
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Manage recording sessions
2. Create a multitrack recording
3. Critically evaluate the quality of the recording
4. Create a balanced monitor mix
5. Create a track sheet
6. Complete recording session with overdubs for project
7. Evaluate the recording process
8. Reset and tidy studio environment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain reasons for keeping or deleting audio recordings
Range
Manage
Teamwork, studio psychology, communication skills
Multitrack recording
Operate and set up a recording session on a digital or analogue recording device to facilitate the
recording of instruments and live performances on to 8-16 discrete tracks, hardware based 24-track
recording device, microphones, cabling, multitrack looms, auxiliaries, amplifiers, fold-back, talkback, studio monitoring, mixing and recording consoles, multitrack hardware machines, line-up,
reset, amplification, headphones, signal routing, metering, levels, assemble a variety of equipment
to prepare recordings with a digital or analogue recording device, cables and wiring looms, prepare
and select wiring and connectivity for each instrument or source being used - microphone and
piano/keyboard or guitar/other, operate and control digital or analogue recording devices in ways
that prepare all recorded material for archiving, list discrete track titles and content, title and
version of recording, dates and times, source of recording, session sheet, scratch sheets, song title,
working title, artist, producer, engineer, studio room, date, time, format, machines used, tape
speed (ips) , digital recording/sampling rates , master, slave, type of session, recording , overdub,
mixing, programming, vocals, spoken word, stereo, mono, groups, effects, any session activities,
booking of musicians, detailed reference to session recall information
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
42
Quality
Tracks recorded at optimum level, minimum of 8-16 tracks recorded, track is backed up and
archived
Monitor mix
Level, pan, balance
Overdubs for project
General vocals, backing vocals, guitars, drums, percussion, sampled and synthesised musical parts,
general instruments and performances, drop-in and drop-out/punch-in, punch-out recording of
entire small performances
Reset and tidy
Health and safety, good practice, reset, clean and tidy environment and recording equipment,
remove and store equipment (ie cables, wiring looms, instruments, stands, microphones)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
43
Unit 302
Outcome 2
Multitrack recording and mixing
Process and clean up audio signals
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Process audio signals using dynamics units
2. Clean up audio signals
3. Improve audio signals quality
4. Manipulate dynamics units parameters
5. Critically analyse the impact of dynamics processing
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe problems that may occur with audio material
2. Describe the methods used to clean up audio signals
Range
Process audio signals
Creatively review all mixed and balanced content, observe the stereo positioning, monitor in all
sound fields, monitor from two track tape returns, record any notes to session sheet
Dynamics units
Compressors, limiters, de-essers, noise gates, expanders
Clean up audio signals
Routing, implementing system, adjusting parameters, A/B comparison
Improve audio signals
Produce an A/B recording, reflect dynamic levels of balance, equalisation and improvement,
dynamically balance signals
Critically analyse
Peaks, limits, levels, performances, aural observation, listen, cue, monitor, analyse, rewind, check,
specify area, observe dynamic processing use through use of professional studio monitoring (2
fields), professional headphones, stereo, mono, left right speaker cut/mute
Problems
Noise, buzz, hum, power supply pollution, background interference, general ambience, wind,
external interruptions, phasing, coughing, sneezing, bad recordings, pops, clicks, furniture noise,
jewellery noise, bleed through, spill, crosstalk
Methods used to clean up audio materials
Ducking, limiting, side chain, key trigger, frequency conscious gating, noise gating
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
44
Unit 302
Outcome 3
Multitrack recording and mixing
Creatively enhance audio signals
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Creatively enhance audio signals
2. Manipulate effects units parameters
3. Critically analyse the impact of effects processing
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe problems that may occur with audio material
2. Describe the methods used to alter audio signals
Range
Creatively enhance audio signals
Time-based effects (reverb, delay, echo), timbre-based effects (phaser, flanger, chorus, distortion,
exciter, pitch shift/automatic double tracking (ADT)), spatial effects (auto pan, stereo width)
Effects units
Delay, reverb, chorus, flanging, phasing, echo
Critically analyse
Peaks, limits, levels, performances, aural observation, listen, cue, monitor, analyse, rewind, check,
specify area, observe dynamic processing use through use of professional studio monitoring (2
fields), professional headphones, stereo/mono compatibility, left right speaker cut/mute
Problems
Noise, buzz, hum, power supply pollution, background interference, general ambience, wind,
external interruptions, phasing, coughing, sneezing, bad recordings, pops, clicks, furniture noise,
jewellery noise, bleed through, spill, crosstalk, studio psychology, teamwork
Methods used to alter audio materials
Routing, implementing system, adjusting parameters, A/B comparison
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
45
Unit 302
Outcome 4
Multitrack recording and mixing
Use balancing and equalisation
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Balance and mix multitrack recordings
2. Equalise and improve multitrack recordings
3. Monitor and review multitrack recordings
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe additive or subtractive equalisers
Range
Balance and mix
Review all mixed and balanced content, check dynamics, equalisation, level balancing, and stereo
positioning, monitor in all sound fields, monitor from two track tape returns, record any notes to
session sheet
Equalise
Use professional EQ section on multitrack recorded audio content such as drums, instruments,
vocals, spoken word
Improve
Produce an A/B recording, reflect dynamic levels of balance, equalisation and improvement,
dynamically balance signals
Equalisers
Graphic equalisers, parametric equalisers, semi-parametric equalisers, valve equalisers, paragraphic
equalisers, shelving and notch filters, active and passive equaliser circuits
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
46
Unit 302
Multitrack recording and mixing
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The candidate must have access to industry standard equalisation hardware and software and are
required to use a minimum of 8-24 discrete audio sources and balance all the sources.
Whilst recording and mixing a project in a recording studio environment recording engineers and
record producers will have particular preferences relating to how the audio material is balanced,
equalised and mixed. In each case however, their overall aim is to represent and define all
instruments and performances clearly into an acceptable stereo image often referred to as the mix.
It is not within the scope of any unit to cover all of these potential preferences over multiple music
genres but this unit will give learners a good preparatory understanding of the basic mix
requirements of certain common instruments and combinations in order to produce overall mixes.
The standard of these mixes will need to be acceptable to be sent off as a demonstration disc or
included within a promotional portfolio.
The mix engineer will have to adopt many different strategies to record and integrate a range of
diverse sound sources within the final mix but there is a substantial level of skill required in
establishing the basic and common constituents of a mix such as a solid drum kit and bass guitar
section. Generic procedures for recording and mix-down are established in recording practice but
performers have a variety of playing styles and will come to the studio with many different models
of instruments and other pieces of equipment.
One of the mix engineer’s many skills is the creative use of equalisation, effects and dynamics
processing to manage and enhance sound sources and to give them a distinct character in the mix.
The intention of this unit is not to create a perfect mix but to focus learners on the creative decisions
which can be made with reference to effects and dynamics processing in order to compliment the
interaction between different audio elements in the mix.
Learners will combine listening and analysis observations with practical experimentation to gain
important experience in the utilisation of equalisation, dynamics and effect units for creative
purposes.
Learners are required to examine a variety of audio operations while managing sound within the
mixing process. For example they will be shown why guitars and drums may require the
manipulation of different ranges of equalisation and why it is important a guitar part should not
overpower a vocal performance. They will show how this can be avoided and to understand that, in
fact, it is not always necessary to use equalisation on audio material.
Learners will study common instrument characteristics and will make use of frequency tables in
order to refine their abilities in balancing a mix. This unit should help learners make critical
decisions regarding audio manipulation. Learners will improve their understanding of the
relationship between good and bad equalisation practice and the mixing process.
In this unit learners will gain expertise in the mixing processes of many types of instruments while
taking into account the range of frequencies associated with both acoustic instruments and
electrical instrument sources. Learners will balance a series of acoustic instruments and additional
audio sources with reference to frequency tables and instrument characteristics.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
47
Unit 302
Multitrack recording and mixing
Notes for guidance
This unit will further inform learners about the focus and placement of instruments and MIDI
sources within a stereo mix. They will consider the overall balance and characteristics of a stereo
mix and make complex decisions to adjust many parameters.
This unit will challenge learners are required to use a minimum of 8-24 discrete audio sources and
balance all sources to make creative use of audio content that requires creative use of dynamic and
effects units.
The unit allows learners to practically access a recording studio environment to take part in
productive engineering and have the opportunity to evaluate the tools and problems faced during
complex tasks. Learners will therefore familiarise themselves with day to day mixing tasks and show
recorded evidence that they have the ability to solve those problems.
Learners will develop increased confidence with the practical use of various items of studio
recording equipment and will gain an appreciation of what can be produced in a basic recording
session when working is such an environment. Learners will be required to maintain good record
keeping and archiving practices.
Suggested equipment for this unit
In this unit learners will gain informed expertise in the uses of equalisation, dynamics and effects
processing of many types of recorded instruments and live performances prior to mixing or
remixing a project. Learners will balance and treat a series of acoustic instruments and additional
audio sources. Learners will consider the overall balance and equalisation characteristics of a stereo
mix and make complex decisions to adjust these parameters. Learners are required to use a
minimum of 24 discrete audio signals.
Dynamic units manufacturers
Audient, Avalon, Calrec, Buzz Audio, Crane song, Oram, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon,
API,TLA, Millenia, GML, Shepstone, Prism, Chandler, Pultec, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley
Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro, Joe Meek. Yamaha, DRS, Smart Research, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer,
Roland, Orban, Langley, Aphex, Antares, Summit Audio, TC Electronics, Empirical Labs, SPL
Noise gate unit manufacturers
LA audio, BSS, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, API,TLA, Klotz, harrison, blue valley, MTA, Manley Labs,
Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro, Joe Meek, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer, TC Electronics, SPL, Samson
Effects unit manufacturers
Alesis, Eventide, Antares, Digitech, TC Electronics, SPL,, Lexicon, Bel, Kurzweil, , SSL, AMS Neve,
Lexicon, API, TLA, Millenia, GML, DRS, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS,
Yamaha, Behringer, Dbx, Drawmer, Roland, Orban, Langley
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
48
Unit 302
Multitrack recording and mixing
Notes for guidance
Software manufacturers
Cedar Audio, Summit, TL Audio,IK Multimedia, Aphex Sound, Black Water Music, Bismark, Universal
Audio, Camel Audio, Lone Electron, Mathons, Creed, Waldorf, Super Destroy FX, Drawmer,
Wavemachine Labs, Prosoniq Audioware, Line 6, Emagic, Music Foundation, FabFilter,
Levelground Media, Analog Industries, Focusrite, MC DSP, GleetchPlug, Laidman & Katsura, Ten by
Ten, Heizenbox, Sound and Form, Massenburg, DesignWorks, TriTone Digital, Sonomatics,
Elemental Audio, JK Audio, Lexicon, Luxonix, DUY TDM, McDSP, MDA-VST, Antares, ApulSoft, Arne
Knup, Audio Ease, Elemental Audio, Sonic Studio, Sony Oxford, Bitshift, Audio Expert sleepers,
Yamaha, Cycling '74, Wave Arts PSP, Ohmforce, Db Audioware, Sonicflavours, Plogue, Eventide,
Tobybear, Nomad Factory, Audio Ease, Audio Damage, Prosoniq, SpinAudio Software, Akai,
Silverspike, Serato, SFX Machine, Electronic Music Foundation (GRM), Sound and Form, SonicBirth,
Sound designers, Spectral Suite, PowerFX, BIAS App, Pro BIAS, Source Elements, MHC, Greenoak,
Metric Halo, Tom Erbe, PolyFractus, Izotope, SoundToys, Airy André, Native Instruments, Jonas
Norberg, VST Pro, SRS Labs, Princetondigital, Smartelectronix, Waves, Sonalksis, Digidesign, TC
Electronic, Bomb Factory, Ndc Plugs, Digitalfishphones, Trillium Lane Labs, sonic foundry, m-audio,
URS, Arboretum, Access Music GmbH, Kind of Loud, Mark of the Unicorn, SPL, CreamWare, TC
Works, Zero G
24 channel professional mixing and recording consoles
SSL, AMS NEVE, API, AMEK, Trident, Soundtracs, MTA, Euphonics, Studer, DDA, Audient, TLA, Allen
& Heath, Harrison, Oram, Calrec, Neotek, Yamaha, Tascam, Behringer, Panasonic, Sony,
Professional, Mackie, Logic hui
Professional equalisation units
Audient, Avalon, Calrec, Oram, Focusrite, SSL, AMS Neve, Lexicon, API,TLA, Millenia, GML,
Shepstone, Chandler, Pultec, Tubetec, Amek, Prism, MTA, Manley Labs, Klark Teknic, BSS, Tfpro,
Joe Meek. Crane song, Drawmer, Summit audio, Prism, DBx
Recorded evidence
Stereo balanced mix-down, implement actions to safely secure and save entire mixed and balanced
content, via balanced stereo mix to DVD-R, DVD, DAT, ½’’ analogue tape, ¼’’ analogue tape, CD-R,
CD, MD, Wav. AIFF. MP3, digital recording/sampling rates, work to APRS/SPARS tape label system
(TLS), session tape, original master, production master, production master copy/clone, PQ encoded
tape master, safety copy/clone, not for production, media version, storing of all session mix
information, Label and title all archived content, session sheet, scratch sheets, song title, working
title, artist, producer, engineer, studio room, date, time, format, machines used, tape speed (ips) ,
digital recording/sampling rates , master, slave, type of session, recording , overdub, mixing,
programming, vocals, spoken word, stereo, mono, groups, effects, detailed reference to session
recall information
Recording session areas
Vocal booths, isolated booths, live performance areas for accommodation of recording situations,
vocal, guitar, digital, analogue, overdubs, control room
Recording equipment
Microphones, cabling, multitrack looms, auxiliaries, amplifiers, fold-back, talk-back, studio
monitoring, mixing and recording consoles, multitrack hardware machines, amplification,
headphones, ¼’’Jacks, XLR
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 302
Multitrack recording and mixing
Notes for guidance
Safe and secure archive
Implement actions to safely secure and save entire recorded content via multitrack tape, DVD, DVD
RAM, Digital removable HD CADDY,TAPE, DAT, CD, External HD, Wav. AIFF. MP3,. Label and title all
archived content, session sheet, scratch sheets, song title, working title, artist, producer, engineer,
studio room, date, time, format, machines used, tape speed (ips) , digital recording/sampling rates ,
master, slave, type of session, recording , overdub, mixing, programming, vocals, spoken word,
stereo, mono, groups, effects, detailed reference to session recall information
Engineering decisions
Cut, copy, paste, deletion of unwanted audio content, drop-in, drop-out, time constraints, format,
machines used, tape speed (ips) , digital recording/sampling rates , master, slave, type of session,
recording , overdub, mixing, programming, vocals, spoken word, stereo, mono, groups, assigns,
effects, scratch sheets, programmed music and beats, mixing balance, frequency balance, volume
monitoring/foldback balances, any effects usage, any dynamics usage (gating & compression)
stereo imaging, instrument placement, panned audio, movement and position of audio, levels,
orders of recording, recording approaches, acoustic, live, lo-fi, stereo, mono, over dubbed,
microphones, samples, edited materials
Keeping or deleting audio
Unwanted, better performances recorded, free up space, grouped and bounced to mono/stereo
compiled track(s), select all audio content that reflect session aims and styles, uncluttered image,
clarity of content, arrangement of content, order of content, introduction of instruments and
performances
Objective analysis
Tutor, project team, self, problems can occur so don’t leave things to be fixed in the mix, re-record
any errors if in doubt, collaborators such as performers have limited time to work and collaborate
with learners, be objective at all times toward project work and recorded content, with respect
towards others,
Critical observation
Aural stereo observation, listen, cue, monitor, analyse, rewind, check, specify area, observe
through use of professional studio monitoring (2 fields), professional headphones, stereo, mono,
left right speaker cut/mute
Useful terminology
Take, track lay, print, insert, level, gain structure, phantom power, mic/line input, mic/line trims,
console routing and patching, bussing matrix, pans, solo’s, mutes, EQ sections, sub, master and
VCA groups, phase, metering, fader, monitor section, auxiliaries, channel strip, signal routing, PFL,
AFL, SIP, cuts, mutes, selects and assigns, groups, busses, amps, monitors, 2 track stereo returns,
monitor section, channel strip, compile, keep, clean-up, tidy, song pointers, quiet please
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 303
Level:
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
3
Credit value: 5
Rationale
This unit develops learner’s knowledge of the connection of signals and signal paths, both digital
and analogue, and the factors that affect signal quality. They will learn the techniques and criteria
used to confirm a clean signal path. They will develop an understanding of the importance of
operating levels in analogue signal chains. Learners will identify and rectify simple faults in audio
systems. They will obtain an understanding of safe wiring practices with particular regard to
electrical safety and develop fault finding techniques utilising the central patchbay system. The
learner will gain knowledge of basic digital audio processes and common digital interface systems.
NB. Reference to signal quality is specified as: frequency response, bandwidth, signal to noise ratio,
signal to quantisation noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, intermodulation distortion, dynamic
range, headroom.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Create and test analogue balanced and unbalanced wiring systems
• Safely test signals to find faults
• Explain digital conversion and the use of interconnects
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged learners will require 50 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly achieve
this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT6 Identify, test and use basic professional audio equipment connections and
interfaces
• CCSMT20 Carry out advanced studio routing and wiring for music and audio industries –
patchbays & tie lines
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 303
Outcome 1
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
Create and test analogue balanced and unbalanced
wiring systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Interface and test cable for active and passive balanced wiring systems to and from
unbalanced wiring systems
2. Interface and test professional and consumer signal levels
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the differences between balanced and unbalanced wiring systems
2. Explain the differences between professional and consumer signal levels
3. Describe electronic changes to signal
4. Describe the signal qualities of both professional and consumer signal levels from an
electronic process perspective
Range
Active and passive balanced / unbalanced
Passive and active balanced outputs and inputs, "servo" active outputs and their action when
unbalanced, unbalanced inputs
Interface and test
Use of PPM and Vu meter based test gear to measuring gain, frequency response, bandwidth,
signal to noise ratio, distortion (total harmonic), distortion (intermodulation), +4dBu professional
signal levels, -10dB consumer signal levels, Vu meter, PPM, 0Vu, PPM 5, 0dBFS
Signal levels
0.775v rms, 1.228v rms, 0dBu, +4 dBu, -10 dBv
Signal qualities
Frequency response, signal to noise ratio, total harmonic distortion, intermodulation distortion,
dynamic range, headroom, line up level, alignment, implications of interface between different
methods of balanced and unbalanced input/outputs
Electronic process perspective
Input and output impedance, cable reactive elements, capacitive and inductive reactance, basic low
pass and high pass filters created in interfacing, signal gain, microphone output impedance,
microphone amp input impedance, line amp input and output impedance, use of D.I. box, earth lift
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 303
Outcome 2
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
Safely test signals to find faults
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify faults in signal flow using a professional patchbay system
2. Follow correct earthing practice when interfacing and connecting equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe signal flow organisation in a professional patchbay
2. Describe how to identify faults
3. Describe the use of earthing practice and potential signal problems
Range
Identify faults
Use a professional patchbay system, divisionary fault finding techniques, insertion of test signals,
monitoring of test signals, utilisation of system monitoring facilities/external input monitor points
Signal flow
Insert send and return jack, use of parallel connections
Earthing practice
Mains distribution, the function of earthing, electrical safety and fuse rating, Electricity at Work
regulations, earth/hum loops, creation and remedial action, earthing, one-end earthing, technical
earth
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 303
Outcome 3
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
Explain digital conversion and the use of
interconnects
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Interface devices with different digital interconnects
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the digital conversion process and common problems
2. Describe the common digital audio interconnects and all data carried
3. Describe the synchronisation of audio data
Range
Digital conversion
Analogue to digital (ADC), digital to analogue (DAC), sample frequency, Nyquist theory, anti alias
filter, quantisation, signal to quantisation noise ratio (SQNR), dither, sample and hold, 0dBFS, basic
error correction
Digital audio interconnects
SDIF 1, SDIF 2, AES-EBU, SPDIF, MADI, current proprietary systems, electrical interconnect, optical
interconnect
Data
Digital audio word, metadata, word length, sample rate, channel status bits, professional/consumer
use of channel status bits, channel mode, copy protect, SCMS
Synchronisation
Synchronous data transfer, asynchronous data transfer, data buffer, master clock system, word
clock, jitter
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 303
Audio connectivity and interface techniques
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The analogue aspect of this unit should illustrate and inform learners of the correct procedures and
the technical background in the successful interface of analogue systems. Illustrations should be
given of the effects of incorrect interface allowing the learner to identify interface problems. These
include reduced frequency response, reduced dynamic range, distortion and noise.
The digital aspect of this unit should introduce learners to the basic processes involved in digital
conversion (analogue to digital to analogue) and illustrate to them the aural identification of
discrepancies in sampling rate and quantisation requirements. It should also introduce the idea of
metadata (ie the additional information carried alongside the digital audio information allowing
interface).
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 304
Level:
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
3
Credit value: 6
Rationale
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to develop skills in mixing and production techniques which
involve significant amounts of automation creatively to achieve specified results.
Good quality mixes often contain a substantial number of dynamic elements which can add interest
and change as the piece progresses. On a simple level, learners may be called upon to implement
techniques, such as dropping the level of a competing instrument in the mix every time the main
vocal comes in. In this way, automation can be used as a process similar to the subtle use of
compression. The process of automation can also be used more creatively. For example a guitar
track could be affected with volume automation data in order to simulate a tremolo effect.
Learners will use a range of common techniques, including the creation of snapshots, time-based
automation, auditing parameters available for automation, saving and recalling data and the
process of reading and writing automation data. They will also use and evaluate control surfaces
which can be used alongside software-based packages to create more flexible ways of controlling
the automation process.
Learning outcomes
There are four learning outcomes to this unit. The learner is able to:
• Set up automation systems
• Edit automation data
• Use automation techniques
• Use control surfaces
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT17 Carry out advanced analogue and digital equalisation for music and audio
industries
• CCSMT19 Operate analogue and digital mixing and recording consoles
• CCSMT42 Use audio mix automation and control surfaces
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 304
Outcome 1
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
Set up automation systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Set up and confirm the operation of hardware- and software-based automation systems
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the way in which automation is set up, written and played back on a software-based
mixing system
2. Describe the way in which automation is set up, written and played back on a hardware-based
mixing system
3. Explain parameters associated with writing and playing back automation data
4. Identify features of a mixing console which can be automated
Range
Set up and confirm
Set up a basic pre-recorded multitrack piece, playback mix ready for automation, access global
automation-enable and settings, locate and use automation write controls on individual channels,
verify by switching to read mode and watching automation occurring, practice read/write
operations simultaneously on different tracks, set automation operation to control different
parameters, find controls on-screen which allow control of live automation of different settings,
setup initial fader (and other) positions at start of piece ready for subsequent automation
Software-based mixing system
eg Logic, Cubase/Nuendo, Pro-tools, SSL Duende
Hardware-based mixing system
eg Neve, SSL, Yamaha, Amek, IZ Radar, Acesis HD24
Parameters
Voltage controlled amplifier (VCA) automation, moving-fader automation, voltage-controlled-fader
(VCF), SMPTE and other forms of time-based synchronisation signal, read, write, auto-off, auto-read,
auto-write, automation tracks/subtracks or playlists, muting automation subtracks, thinning,
automation safe/lock , hiding and displaying automation tracks or groups of automation tracks
Features
Level, mute, pan, insert in/out switch, aux send on/off switch, effects type, effects parameters,
surround pan parameters, EQ in/out, EQ parameters (gain, freq and Q for 4 bands etc)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 304
Outcome 2
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
Edit automation data
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Automate data using real-time editing
2. Automate data using graphical-based editing
3. Automate data using snapshots
4. Manage automation data
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Compare the ways in which real time, graphical and snapshot automation is edited
2. Describe automation modes
Range
Real-time editing
Live automation of all parameters, writing to a single track, writing to a single sub-parameter on an
audio track (eg pan only is actuated for automation), snapshot record and recall
Graphical-based editing
Drawing in data, re-shaping existing graphical data, drawing in preset shapes to form data (sine,
saw, square, etc), cut and paste of automation data between tracks and between types of
automation (eg volume copied to pan)
Snapshots
Making snapshots, storing and naming/labelling snapshots, snapshot recall, editing and re-saving
snapshots
Manage automation
Saving and recalling snapshots, thinning data, sample accurate or quantised automation data
streams, saving all automation data
Automation modes
Touch fader/auto-touch/touch, autolatch/latch, crossfade, overwrite/write, trim mode/s
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 304
Outcome 3
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
Use automation techniques
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Revise and adjust automation data to meet specific project requirements
2. Use automation techniques to achieve complex production effects
3. Mix down to a master stereo audio file incorporating automation data
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Evaluate automation as a production tool
Range
Revise and adjust
Modify parameters, compare results with previous versions, compare different solutions, choose
result that meets technical and creative project requirements
Automation techniques
Automating data to produce instant and discrete effects, muting and level-riding of track or groups
of tracks from an arrangement or rhythmic perspective, creating changing effects on multiple
channels, synchronising different channels of automation data to achieve effects, cyclic alteration
(eg tremolo or filter sweeps)
Mix-Down
Apply master effects or automation, incorporate all automation into final stereo master file
Evaluate automation
Potential for different audio effects, comparison with other methods of achieving similar/same
results, suitability for creative purpose (including whether appropriate for music genre), ease of use,
implementation within hardware/software package
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 304
Outcome 4
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
Use control surfaces
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Use different control surfaces to input and edit automation data
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. State the key developments in automation control surfaces
2. Identify the range of hardware control surfaces
3. Compare and evaluate control surfaces
Range
Control Surfaces
Assignable: multi-purpose controls assignable to any functions on a range of different systems
Dedicated: hardware-based product with single purpose controls
Developments in automation
Pre-automation using lists and manual desk manipulation, advantages/disadvantages of manual
desk operation, early control voltage-based systems, insert-point automation add-ons, built-in
analogue desk automation VCA and VCF, potential audio advantages of VCF over VCA on early desk
automation systems, advent of digital desks and built in automation, advantages of saving libraries
of automation data, software DAW automation, requirement for manual controller panels, full digital
control surfaces vs 8-track assignable controller panels
Compare and evaluate
Effect of controller movement on audio quality, responsiveness/latency, ergonomics (layout of
controls, feel of controls, ease of display readout, labelling of channels, impact of multifunctional
controls, integration with software DAW package)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 304
Audio mix automation and control surfaces
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to gain experience working on mixing and production
techniques which involve the use of significant amounts of automation to achieve creative results.
Good quality mixes often contain a substantial number of dynamic elements which can add interest
and change as the piece progresses. On a simple level learners may be called upon to implement
techniques - such as dropping the level of a competing instrument in the mix every time the main
vocal comes in and allowing this element to subtly build back up to fill the space when the vocal is
absent. In this way automation can be used as a process similar to the subtle use of compression
where the cohesion and stability of the mix is carefully crafted through constant small adjustments.
Like compression and gating however the process of automation can also be used more creatively
to achieve effects which are more obvious within the mix. For example a guitar track could be
affected with sinusoidal volume automation data in order to simulate a tremolo effect. Or the
amount of reverb send on a snare track could be automated to allow single snare hits to achieve a
typical ‘dub’ sound – ie with a long reverb tail every so often as appropriate to the track.
In this unit learners will be encouraged to build a good working knowledge of automation
parameters and processes. They will study different automation systems and explore the effect that
automation can have on the creative production of multitrack recordings. Learners will undertake
study that exemplifies different issues relating to the implementation of automation including the
advantages and disadvantages of different types of automation. They will be expected to use
automation both ‘invisibly’ to correct and/or balance performance related parameters and in more
explicit and creative ways.
Manufacturers of control surfaces
Assignable: Mackie Universal, Pro-Control, M-Audio Project Mix, Behringer BCF2000/BCR2000,
Kenton Control Freak
Dedicated: Yamaha 02R, Tascam DM24
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
61
Unit 305
Level:
Tape and tape-less editing
3
Credit value: 6
Rationale
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to gain knowledge and experience of working with stereo
analogue tape. This requires an appreciation of the complexities of magnetic recording and
acquisition of skills needed to use, maintain, align and edit stereo analogue tape.
These skills and knowledge are then applied to working within a non-linear digital environment,
allowing the candidate to analyse and assess both DAW and analogue tape systems.
Learners will also analyse sound quality and noise reduction.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Operate analogue tape systems
• Edit stereo using analogue tape and non-linear systems
• Analyse sound quality and noise reduction
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT21 Edit sound and spoken word using both analogue and digital systems
• CCSMT22 Carry out tape and tape-less digital editing
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 305
Outcome 1
Tape and tape-less editing
Operate stereo analogue tape systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Perform essential maintenance and alignment procedures for stereo analogue tape
machines
2. Produce stereo analogue tape recordings to professional standards
3. Produce finished stereo analogue tapes presented to professional standards
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1.
Explain magnetism and magnetic properties
2.
Describe the development and composition of magnetic tape
3.
Describe and illustrate the functions of a stereo analogue tape machine
4.
Explain the maintenance and alignment procedures for stereo analogue tape machines
Range
Maintenance and alignment procedures
Cleaning transport mechanism, heads, de-magnetising, setting levels, bias, using MRL tapes,
checking/adjusting azimuth
Recordings
Recording alignment tones (100Hz, 1KHz, 10KHz), make recordings of various audio sources (voice,
acoustic instruments, CD dubs – music, SFX), suitable recording levels, NR, monitoring, A-B
comparisons, quality control
Tapes presented to professional standards
Leader tape, spacers, blank tape, alignment tones, spool labels, tail-out storage, box labels (artiste,
title, date, studio, engineer, producer, track list, timings, format, speed, EQ, NR)
Magnetism and magnetic properties
Electromagnetism (polarity), field strength, flux density, hysteresis, B-H loop, permanence,
remenance
Magnetic tape
Backing substrates, magnetic layer, particle types, adhesives, coercivity, modulation noise, dropouts, dimensions (widths, thicknesses), bulk erasing, formats (open reel, cassette), mono, stereo,
multitrack, spool dimensions, tape lengths, tracks (number of, dimensions), guard bands, tape
speed, direction, wow & flutter, signal levels, magnetic flux
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 305
Outcome 1
Tape and tape-less editing
Operate stereo analogue tape systems
Functions
Transport mechanisms, controls, spool motors, capstan motors, servo control, tension arms,
tension servos, pinch roller, guide roller, tach roller, flutter roller, tape lifters, hum shield, heads,
erase, record, playback (sync/repro), confidence monitoring, coils, poles, head-gap, frequency
response, extinction, head-bumps, i/p, o/p, auto i/p, record amp, repro amp, equalisation (NAB,
IEC/CCIR, AES), bias oscillator, bias frequency, transfer function, over-bias, distortion, noise and
noise reduction (NR), tape hiss, surface noise, modulation noise, crosstalk, print through, Dolby
A/SR
Maintenance and alignment
Cleaning procedures, de-magnetising, head alignment (height, azimuth, zenith, wrap), head wear,
rec/repro amp levels, MRL reference tapes, alignment tones, 0VU, magnetic flux levels, setting overbias
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 305
Outcome 2
Tape and tape-less editing
Edit stereo using analogue tape and non-linear
systems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Cut-and-splice edit stereo analogue tapes
2. Make effective editing decisions
3. Use a digital audio workstation (DAW) to edit stereo audio transferred from analogue
tape
4. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of DAW and analogue tape systems
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the process of cut-and-splice stereo tape editing
2. Describe the use of different types of stereo analogue tape edits
3. Describe the process of non-linear stereo editing
4. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of DAW and analogue tape systems
Range
Cut-and-splice edit analogue tapes
Locating edit points, scrubbing, marking, edit block, splicing, removing mistakes, top & tailing, rearranging, copying, looping, (eg with speech, music, SFX)
Effective editing decisions
Edit log, edit quality, suitable edit points, sympathetic to source (voice, musical genre), corrective
use, creative use, working to a brief (intro, outro, duration), (eg with radio ident, jingle, re-mix)
Digital audio workstation (DAW) to edit stereo audio
System configuration (hardware, software) load-in, creating files, edit decision list (EDL’s), location
points, top & tail, delete, undo, re-arrange, copy, loop, storing, archiving, source material (eg with
speech, music, SFX)
Strengths and weaknesses
Destructive, non-destructive, ease of use, learning curve, skills transfer, time/speed, quality,
flexibility, complexity, problems
Process of cut-and-splice stereo editing
Manual edit point location, in-point/out-point, scrubbing, edit switch, chinagraph, blade, block,
splicing tape, crossfades, destructive, corrective use, creative use
Types of stereo analogue tape edits
Top and tail edit, delete edit, insert edit, copy edit, re-arranging, compiling, crossfades, reversal,
looping
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 305
Outcome 2
Tape and tape-less editing
Edit stereo using analogue tape and non-linear
systems
Process of non-linear editing
System configuration, specifications, hardware, software, disk type, latency, RAM, ADC/DAC, user
interface, worksurface, controls, load-in/load-out, back-ups, edit decision list (EDL), edit location,
scrubbing, waveforms, in-point/out-point, non-destructive
Advantages and disadvantages
Destructive, non-destructive, linear, non-linear, speed/time, flexibility, use in industry, cost/expense,
upgrading, obselecence, compatibility, storage, archiving, longevity, upload, download
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 305
Outcome 3
Tape and tape-less editing
Analyse sound quality and noise reduction
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Produce copies of audio on analogue and digital media
2. Treat digital copies with analogue tape emulation
3. Implement noise reduction systems on analogue tape
4. Evaluate the audio qualities of analogue audio
5. Evaluate the audio qualities of digital audio
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the differences between digital and analogue audio material
2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of noise reduction systems
Range
Analogue and digital media
Analogue: minimum ¼ inch tape at 15 inches per second
Digital: minimum 16 bit 44.1 kHz
Analogue tape emulation
Plug-ins
Noise reduction systems
Dolby A/SR
Audio qualities
Analogue: level differences, frequency response differences, noise, noise modulation, distortion,
clipping, drop-out, print through, partially erased previous material, azimuth errors, phasing errors,
flutter, crosstalk, warmth, tape compression, transient distortion
Digital: quantisation noise, jitter, aliasing errors, clipping, noise modulation, transient distortion, fullscale sample click, pitch/speed error, cold, harsh, bright, thin
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 305
Tape and tape-less editing
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
This unit is intended to give the learner an introduction into the processes and practical applications
involved in using and maintaining analogue tape recorders. Further to this will be the editing of
audio in both the analogue and digital environments.
This will require the learner to have access to good quality stereo open reel format tape machines
and editing equipment. Facilities and equipment should also be in-place to allow basic maintenance
and alignment procedures to be carried out.
Learners should be encouraged to use many different types of audio source material for the
purposes of editing (speech, various music genres, sound effects) and be given professional briefs
to work to.
The understanding of the editing process, ear training and decisiveness are practices that are finely
honed when learning to use tape, these inherent skills will then allow the learner to progress rapidly
into the area of non-linear tape-less DAW’s which are now standard across the industry (Pro-tools,
SADiE, Pyramix).
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 306
Level:
Stereo microphone techniques
3
Credit value: 8
Rationale
This unit introduces the learner to the recording of non-amplified acoustic performances using
stereo microphone techniques in a suitable performance space.
This unit requires an ensemble (eg voice/guitar/percussion, string quartet, spoken word play) of a
minimum of four different acoustic sound sources
NB. No amplification can be used, but accurately positioned live foley effects can.
Learning outcomes
There are four outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Explain psychoacoustic processes used in common stereo microphone techniques
• Explain the characteristics of common transducer types
• Critically evaluate stereo acoustic sound
• Set up and record live performances
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT13 Assist with recording of live sound location sources
• CCSMT14 Operate professional audio equipment, OB, ambience sound recording and studio
sound recording
• CCSMT37 Set up and use microphones and direct inject (DI) boxes
• CCSMT38 Use advanced stereo microphone techniques
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 306
Outcome 1
Stereo microphone techniques
Explain psychoacoustic processes used in common
stereo microphone techniques
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the psychoacoustic processes used to locate sources of sound
2. Explain how psychoacoustic processes relate to common stereo microphone techniques
Range
Psychoacoustic processes
Interaural amplitude differences, interaural timing differences, role of the pinna, head related
transfer function
Common stereo microphone techniques
Coincident, near coincident, spaced pair, Decca Tree, mid-side (sum and difference)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 306
Outcome 2
Stereo microphone techniques
Explain the characteristics of common transducer
types
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the functions of common transducer types
2. Explain how directional characteristics of common transducer types are achieved
Range
Common transducer types
Moving coil, ribbon, capacitor/condenser, RF condenser, bass tip up/proximity effect
Directional characteristics
Polar pattern, omnidirectional, bidirectional/figure of eight, cardioid, hypercardioid, bass tipup/proximity effect, polar pattern versus frequency effects, boundary microphone, pressure
operation, pressure gradient, labyrinth
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 306
Outcome 3
Stereo microphone techniques
Critically evaluate stereo acoustic sound
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Aurally evaluate stereo recorded acoustic sound
2. Aurally evaluate live acoustic sound
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the criteria used to evaluate stereo recorded and live acoustic sound
2. Explain the influences on stereo sound recordings
Range
Criteria
Stereo width, mono stereo compatibility, accurate individual image localisation and focus, accurate
ensemble spacing within stereo image, point sources, spaciousness, depth, "hole in the middle",
ensemble balance, rumble, frequency content accuracy, natural reverberation reproduction,
random energy efficiency (RE), direct to indirect sound ratio
Influences
Microphone choice, microphone positioning, venue size and acoustics, audience, sound stage size
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Unit 306
Outcome 4
Stereo microphone techniques
Set up and record live performances
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Set up stereo microphone systems to record acoustic performances
2. Evaluate recording systems using recognised criteria
3. Record acoustic performances
4. Evaluate recordings
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe microphone placement for stereo sound
2. Explain factors affecting microphone choice for stereo recording
Range
Set up
Listen to the performance in the space, choose appropriate microphones, set up microphones,
position microphones, route to stereo recorder, set up optimum monitor positions, monitor and
evaluate signal using criteria, adjust as necessary
Acoustic performances
eg voice/guitar/percussion, string quartet, spoken word play
Criteria
Stereo width, mono stereo compatibility, accurate individual image localisation and focus, accurate
ensemble spacing within stereo image, point sources, spaciousness, depth, "hole in the middle",
ensemble balance, rumble, frequency content accuracy, natural reverberation reproduction,
random energy efficiency (RE), direct to indirect sound ratio
Factors
Frequency response, sensitivity, appearance, microphone suspension, matched pairs, reliability,
susceptibility to wind noise, powering, polar pattern
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Unit 306
Stereo microphone techniques
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
Essential to this unit is the introduction of the learner to live, non-PA assisted performances (where
no Front of House engineer has any influence on the audiences perceived level, performer's
position and amount of reverberation of the performance) and the making of an accurate recording
that portrays the acoustic sound presented to the audience in that particular performing space. The
process is inherently "reproductive" rather than creative. The stress is on an image that is; playable
on a conventional stereo monitoring system, is mono-stereo compatible and is comparable to the
original sound heard at the performance.
Learners will understand how human psycho-acoustic processes are exploited in common stereo
microphone techniques, use these techniques to capture live performances and develop evaluation
skills in judging the techniques and resultant recordings It is highly recommended that the centre
create a collection of recordings using different stereo microphone techniques in order to
demonstrate recognised criteria. Furthermore, opportunities for learners to experience live
acoustic performances should be taken frequently.
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Unit 307
Level:
Composition skills for music and sound
industries
3
Credit value: 8
Rationale
In this unit, learners will be asked to evaluate the different areas key to creating original
compositions with an emphasis on using music technology processes and instrumentation.
Production features are examined as a compositional tool within the overall category of
instrumentation.
The unit looks at the ways in which a composition is first shaped, what the inspiration was for the
project and what influences are brought to bear on the final result. Firstly the focus of the piece is
examined, then the way in which the music will be arranged or structured.
As this unit comes within the framework of a music technology and sound engineering qualification
structure there is no requirement for learners to develop their compositions using the staff and
printed score. An emphasis will be placed on creating pieces by direct construction to multitrack
recording and by writing straight to the stereo audio soundstage.
Learning outcomes
There are four learning outcomes to this unit. The learner is able to:
• Identify the starting point for an original composition
• Evaluate instrumentation
• Evaluate the use of hook, melody and rhythm in music
• Implement arrangement and structuring techniques
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT32 Produce surround sound for film and audio
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 307
Outcome 1
Composition skills for music and sound
industries
Identify the starting point for an original
composition
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Create original compositions using musical theory or structure as a starting point
2. Crete original compositions using a music technology process as a starting point
3. Create original compositions using a project brief or theme as a starting point
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe musical theory and structure as a focus for a original composition
2. Describe the music technology process as a focus for a original composition
3. Describe project brief/theme as a focus for a original composition
Range
Musical theory
eg Major and minor scales, major and minor chords and common harmonic structures, keys,
common chord/key progressions, basic harmony, basic modulation
Structure
eg Background and foreground, sections, chord sequence, melodic outline, using chord
progression as structure
Music technology process
eg Audio effect, dynamics effect, harmoniser, vocoder, MIDI effect (e.g. MIDI delay), MIDI
sequencing characteristic (e.g. quantise types), arpeggiator, tape looping, drum or rhythm sample
Project brief
Requirements in project brief direct creative outcome (eg timings, themes, metaphors etc), planning
different pathways/solutions, presenting to third party and modifying after feedback
Theme
Contextual background (eg historical period and associated musical style), music genre, political or
cultural movements, visual image
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Unit 307
Outcome 2
Composition skills for music and sound
industries
Evaluate Instrumentation
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify instrumentation through listening and analysis
2. Choose vocal or instrumental sources for an original composition.
3. Evaluate the use of instrumentation
4. Evaluate the use of instrumental sources
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify instrumentation for a genre
Range
Identify instrumentation
Listen to different pieces of music, identify all instrumental, vocal and rhythm based components of
tracks, identify production features used to create timbre/instrumentation features, map out music
into sections with instruments identified throughout
Vocal or instrumental sources
Acoustic instruments, electro-acoustic instruments, sampled instruments, other samples,
synthesisers, decks, drum machines, other MIDI based sound sources, vocals
Genre
Typical instrumentation across a genre, archetypal line-ups for a genre, alternatives/replacements
for standard instruments in a genre
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Unit 307
Outcome 3
Composition skills for music and sound
industries
Evaluate the use of hook, melody and rhythm in
music
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify hook through listening and analysis
2. Evaluate the use of melody
3. Evaluate the use of rhythm
4. Evaluate the use of hook
5. Write melodic and rhythmic parts for an original composition
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain hook, melody and rhythm
Range
Hook
Identify aspects of different songs which are particularly memorable, often repeated, categorise
into different types of hook (key musical feature) e.g. individual hits/notes, phrases, vocal
phrases/words, rhythm parts, chorus, effects, mixing or production characteristics
Evaluate the use of melody
Identify main melodic phrases in musical pieces; make observations linking the melody to other
aspects of pieces
Evaluate the use of rhythm
Identify main rhythmic structures in musical pieces; make observations linking the rhythm to other
aspects of pieces
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Unit 307
Outcome 4
Composition skills for music and sound
industries
Implement arrangement and structuring
techniques
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify structure through listening and analysis
2. Implement structuring within a original composition
3. Create arrangements in line with genre
4. Evaluate overall effectiveness of end product
Range
Structure
eg Background and foreground, sections, chord sequence, melodic outline, using chord
progression as structure
Implement structuring
Decide upon overall parameters for a structure, place melodic parts within a structure, place
harmony/chord based parts within a structure, place rhythm based parts within a structure,
combine audio devices to create a completed product, create realistic/simulated performance
dynamics where necessary
Create arrangements
Arrange sections of a song into an order which is consistent with a pre-defined requirement/genre;
carry out balancing and production techniques in line with a pre-defined requirement/genre, take
note of length and period of individual sections
Effectiveness
In terms of: structuring, arrangement, meeting a brief, placement of product for a market
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Unit 308
Level:
Software sound manipulation
3
Credit value: 8
Rationale
The purpose of this unit is for learners to explore software processes which allow the detailed
manipulation of audio. An emphasis is put on creative sound manipulation software such as bitcrushing, beat-slicing and pitch correction rather than simple audio editing and arranging software
techniques.
Learners will be asked to carry out a full audit of the types and range of software programs available
to manipulate sound. Pitch and timing correction operations are covered in detail and learners are
encouraged to explore the diverse resources of commercial, shareware and freeware products that
are available to manipulate sound through effects, dynamics, re-structuring or enhancement in
various different ways.
Learners will be provided with audio material on which to carry out detailed sound transformation
procedures. They will take part in a number of specified audio tasks and sound editing processes.
Learners will also carry out an evaluation of these processes in order to maintain a reference to the
original file.
Learning outcomes
There are four learning outcomes to this unit. The learner is able to:
• Categorise audio software
• Evaluate audio manipulation
• Manipulate timing and pitch
• Adjust parameters of manipulation processes
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT39 Carry out software sound and audio manipulation
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 308
Outcome 1
Software sound manipulation
Categorise audio software
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Devise a system for categorising audio software
2. Evaluate categories of fully licensed, freeware and shareware software which can be used for
creative transformative effects
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe different forms of software licence
2. Identify different platforms for audio manipulation software
3. Evaluate the difference between corrective and creative software processes
4. Describe software resources
Range
Categorising audio software
Split into broad areas (eg audio editing/audio sequencing/audio effects), split each area into
narrower categories as applicable (eg audio effects/EQ effects/graphic equaliser types or audio
sequencing/tape-style interface/multitrack recorders)
Evaluate
In terms of: eg interface (GUI), shared audio characteristics with other members of the category,
function, audio quality, availability of automation, synchronisation, target market (eg pro, semi-pro,
domestic)
Software licence
Freeware, Shareware, Donation-ware, licensed, Open Source
Different platforms
Computer (eg Mac, PC, Linux), hardware specific type (eg VST, DirectX, TDM, AU, RTAS)
Software resources
Internet, Shareware, magazines, promotions, trial versions, bundled software
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Unit 308
Outcome 2
Software sound manipulation
Evaluate audio manipulation
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Evaluate the use of manipulation techniques in examples of music
2. Evaluate potential for repair using audio manipulation
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the use of manipulation techniques in examples of music
Range
Examples
Sections of audio where ‘feature’ audio manipulation techniques can be easily identified,
commercial tracks which have used audio manipulation techniques, examples of manipulation
featured on software promotional websites
Potential for repair
eg Adjust timing, adjust pitching, adjust frequency balance, automatic processes
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Unit 308
Outcome 3
Software sound manipulation
Manipulate timing and pitch
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Execute timing adjustment on live performed audio tracks in line with tempo
2. Execute pitch adjustment on live performed audio tracks in line with specified root key
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain the use of tools for timing adjustment
2. Explain the use of tools for performance pitch adjustment
Range
Timing Adjustment
Manual adjustment of one-off timing errors from rhythm based audio tracks, manipulating
parameters to achieve automatic adjustment (audio quantise) of audio track, adjusting pacing of
speech using time-stretching, groove
Pitch adjustment
Re-pitching single audio notes from instrumental and vocal parts manually using pitch shifting, using
automatic pitch correction (eg auto-tune), changing the inflection of speech by using pitch shifting
on short sections
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Unit 308
Outcome 4
Software sound manipulation
Adjust parameters of manipulation processes
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Adjust parameters of software manipulation tools
2. Audition and compare different takes
3. Chain effects together
4. Automate manipulation processes
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Evaluate audio quality of software manipulation tools
2. Evaluate suitability or audio interest inherent in different software processes
Range
Adjust parameters
Main functions and parameters, pre-set parameters, range of effects, extreme limits of parameters
for creative effect
Audition and compare
Bypass effect, comparison with un-effected signal, saving parameters as new presets, creating
libraries of different variations of effects, switching between presets or library files, auditioning in
solo, auditioning in context of other tracks
Chain effects
Insert effect chaining, sweetening effects with other effects, required repair or alteration using
further chain/s of effects
Automate
Time-based automation processes, automate parameters, integrate into software-based DAW
setup, access parameters from within software-based DAW, adjust automation parameters by
graphical editing where available
Audio quality
Description of effect, A/B comparison of audio quality, impact upon audio signal at high, mid and
low frequency ranges, impact upon stereo imaging or cohesion of imaging, impact on pitch/timbre
qualities
Evaluate suitability
Comparisons of effect with other typical examples from category, evaluation of contrast between
effect and other audio elements present in a track, interaction or chaining of effects within track,
potential use as novel or interesting audio effect, impact on whole song, use as subtle sweetener or
dramatic hook
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 308
Software sound manipulation
Notes for guidance
Suggested best practice
Synthesis and sampling are not focussed on specifically, although they could be covered by centres
in so far as they can be used to process sound which has been recorded.
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Unit 309
Level:
Surround sound film audio
3
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit provides learners with the opportunity to work with film footage creating sound effects,
atmosphere tracks and musical themes to suit the chosen clip. Learners are encouraged to study a
wide range of film sound and to evaluate links with emotional impact. Surround sound is looked at
from a basic technical viewpoint and learners will explore the creation of a film soundtrack in
surround sound.
Learners will also look at the audio quality of different sound sources for film and will evaluate the
suitability of different sources of audio and how they can be combined successfully to create a
cohesive soundtrack.
Learners will look at the overall sound requirements for a film piece including planning sourcing and
recording all sound. They will bring all audio elements together in a final product and will balance
audio across the surround field. Learners will create a set of 5.1 audio files and archive them to
playback from DVD-A and via a matrixed stereo encoded surround sound format.
Learning outcomes
There are three learning outcomes to this unit. The learner is able to:
• Develop audio resources
• Integrate sound with film clips
• Implement surround sound
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT13 Assist with recording of live sound location sources
• CCSMT14 Operate professional audio equipment, OB, ambience sound recording and studio
sound recording
• CCSMT32 Produce surround sound for film and audio
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 309
Outcome 1
Surround sound film audio
Develop audio resources
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Plan, acquire and archive pre-production audio materials
2. Communicate with others to develop audio resources
3. Make recordings of original audio material for film synchronisation
4. Evaluate the suitability of audio characteristics
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe how to archive pre-production audio materials
2. Describe sound synchronisation
Range
Audio materials
Recording original sound effects, re-recording required vocal overdubs, composing and recording
new musical material, sourcing library music, sourcing sound effects from SFX libraries
Others
Commissioning original/bespoke audio materials or music from external sources, using external
musicians to provide audio materials, using voice-over artists or actors to provide ADR materials
Recordings
Foley effects, sound effects, ambient atmosphere tracks, music, dialogue tracks
Suitability of audio characteristics
Fidelity of all audio matches in quality, sounds have correct reverberant characteristics or are
suitable to be manipulated in post-production to match ambient reverb requirements of picture
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Unit 309
Outcome 2
Surround sound film audio
Integrate sound with film clips
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Integrate music and sound elements into surround sound film clips
2. Create plans and spotting lists for film audio requirements
3. Evaluate audio quality
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Evaluate music which achieves a required emotional impact
2. Evaluate non musical aspects of film sound which achieves a required emotional impact
3. Evaluate the interaction between sound and picture to create a required emotional impact
4. Describe stem mixing
5. Describe audio synchronisation
Range
Integrate music and sound elements
Load onto different audio tracks, operate faders, group tracks to single sub-faders, direct track
outputs to different bus-output channels both directly and via surround panning device, balance
musical and sound elements across the surround mix, make use of centre channel for vocal parts,
make use of LFE channel, focus the main soundstage across the front of the mix, develop
enveloping ambience across the rear satellite speakers, facilitate atmosphere or spot effects
panning from front to rear of mix
Plans and spotting lists
Analysis of film footage for audio requirements, list of all sound effects, ambient atmosphere tracks,
dialogue, original footage soundtrack integration, musical/soundscape requirements, character
theme requirements, emotional theme requirements, continuity and scene change audio
requirements, spotting list, edit decision list (EDL), cue sheet, pre-production notes, storyboards,
scripts
Audio quality
Fitness for purpose (eg dynamic range, lack of distortion, use of realistic ambience, signal to noise
ratio, use of non data-compressed digital audio)
Emotional impact
eg Unease/tension, horror/fear, happiness/exuberance, love/romance, sadness/mourning,
continuity/stability
Non musical aspects
Spot effects, ambient atmosphere tracks, vocal effects and treatments, volume and presence (EQ),
room ambiences/reverb/delays, diegetic/non-diegetic sound, actual sound, commentary sound, onscreen/off-screen sound
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Interaction
Synchronisation between sound and picture, on synch, before or after synch, direct representation
of sound source, indirect representation or imitation of sound source, re-enforcement of weak/quiet
sounds, reality, hyper (or exaggerated) reality, surreal effects, lack of sound/silence, audience
expectations, recognition of character or situation by using musical themes/signatures, build up of
tension, release, closure, shock, emotional re-enforcement, clarity of spoken word, balance
between music, effects, atmospheres and vocal tracks, cutting sound clean to scene-end/start,
starting sound before new scene starts or continuing after
Stem mixing
Mix to stems (eg music, effects, dialogue), backup and archiving of stems for mastering and
integration with final product
Audio synchronisation
Frame rates and required synch settings of film footage provided, synch to on-screen cues,
adjusting spot synch effects for maximum impact, lip synch by manual editing and using automatic
dialogue replacement (ADR) software
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 309
Outcome 3
Surround sound film audio
Implement surround sound
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Evaluate the set up of a surround sound system
2. Set up a multitrack recording system and surround sound monitoring facility
3. Pan audio tracks to surround sound mix output busses
4. Perform a 5.1 surround sound mix
5. Encode 5.1 mix to DVD-A
6. Encode 5.1 mix to DTS
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the development of surround sound systems
2. Describe the set up and configuration of a 5.1 surround sound system
3. Describe the difference in specifications between bass-managed and non bass-managed
surround systems
4. Describe how a surround sound mix can be rendered into a DVD-A file or matrix encoded
stereo file
Range
Evaluate
Visual verification of speaker positioning (ITU-R BS. 775-1), satellite speaker power on, sub-bass
power on, playback test audio signals, audio verification of L, R, C, LFE, LS, RS speakers, audio level
check at 85dBC at sweet spot, other listening tests, phase checks
Set up
Power up and verify operation of multitrack recorder, load up 5.1 test audio material for playback
(including test tones/channel ID), route channels to discrete 5.1 bus audio outputs, patch/route 5.1
audio outputs to 5.1 monitoring system, verify correct signal path from each of the 5.1 audio
playback parts to each discrete speaker (ie no crosstalk)
Pan audio tracks
Implement 5.1 pan-pot output for mono recorded audio tracks, steer mono audio track from the
multitrack playback environment to each of the six output busses using 5.1 pan-pot, check that
sounds can be positioned as phantom images between channels/speakers
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Development
Track layouts (film, SDDS, DTS), Dolby stereo (LCRS), 5.1, 6.1, 7.1
Difference in specifications
Bass-managed, non bass-managed, use of LFE channel
DVD-A file
Created with suitable software to encode six audio files into a standard format for reading back
using a proprietary DVD-A hardware or software playback method (eg WinDVD or Power DVD)
Matrix encoded stereo file
Hardware or software used to render 5.1 mix into a matrixed stereo audio file capable of playback
on standard stereo audio systems or decoding into a surround sound format
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Unit 309
Surround sound film audio
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
5.1 system uses discrete low frequency effects (LFE) channel and carries the regular low-frequency
programme material through full-range satellite speakers; 5.0 mix is same as 5.1 setup with all full
range satellites but without use of the LFE 0.1 sub channel; a bass-managed system still uses 5
satellite speakers which only cover the frequency range down to 80-to-120Hz. Frequencies under
this point are rolled off to the sub bass speaker which then copes with any 0.1 LFE effects (if it’s a 5.1
mix) while also reproducing low frequency audio components summed from program material from
all of the satellite channels.
Recommended reading
5.1 Surround Sound: Up and Running by Tomlinson Holman
Pro Tools Surround Sound Mixing by Rich Tozzoli
Sound for Film and Television, with accompanying audio CD (Paperback) by Tomlinson Holman
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 310
Level:
Live sound and performance technology
3
Credit value: 8
Rationale
In this unit, learners will examine the procedures and protocols used to produce good quality live
sound, regardless of the amount of equipment being used. Professional results will depend on
correct use and recognition of industry standard sound equipment, while considerations such as
optimal loudspeaker positioning and sightlines are paramount. An awareness of overall product and
a clear understanding of the supporting role of the sound technician are essential elements.
Understanding and assessing the needs of a performance and the necessary technical requirements
is essential for sound technicians. This could range from spoken word such as a political speech at a
conference, to the sound, acoustical and technical requirements of a heavy metal concert. This unit
will enable the candidate to gain experience of installing and using live sound reinforcement
equipment.
Working in a live environment demands high levels of vigilance and health and safety understanding
due to the constantly changing environment and often poorly lit working areas within venues.
Learning outcomes
There are three learning outcomes to this unit. The learner is able to:
• Assess the PA and performance requirements for events
• Implement health and safety procedures
• Rig and operate PA equipment for live events
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged the learner will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly
achieve this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT13 Assist with recording of live sound location sources
• CCSMT14 Operate professional audio equipment, OB, ambience sound recording and studio
sound recording
• CCSMT29 Evaluate acoustics and sound reinforcement systems (PAs)
• CCSMT34 Prepare and operate live sound and performance technology
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 310
Outcome 1
Live sound and performance technology
Assess the PA and performance requirements for
events
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Analyse and evaluate live venue properties and acoustics
2. Select appropriate PA equipment for events
3. Plan the signal flow and positioning of PA systems
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the production team roles and responsibilities
2. Describe the acoustical properties of venues
3. Explain the selection of PA equipment for events
Range
Analyse and evaluate live venue properties and acoustics
Live venue properties, make remedial improvements to acoustics, make considerations with regard
to any room modifications, make considerations with regard to the event, considered judgments
regarding the room layout (ie traditional theatres, studio theatres, clubs and pubs, conference halls,
public museums, schools, stations and outdoor events, staging for the event including Proscenium,
Round, Thrust and Promenade), upstage, downstage, left and right
PA equipment
Delay lines, centre cluster, side fills, wedges, IEM, mono, stereo, active crossover networks, limiters,
the purpose of the specified sound system, equipment costing (RRP)
Roles
Director, Promoter, Producer, Stage Manager, Tour Manager, Production Manager, ASM, DSM,
Operators, Designers, Lighting crew, FoH Engineer, Foldback Engineer, Stage Technician
Responsibilities
Technical rehearsal, performers needs, plot/cue scripts, choreography, production meetings
Acoustical properties
Surfaces, materials, fabrics, seating, audience, reverberation time (RT60), room constant, diffusion
reflection, absorption coefficient, inverse square law, standing waves, spectrum analysis, remedial
actions
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 310
Outcome 2
Live sound and performance technology
Implement health and safety procedures
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Plan production schedules implementing appropriate health and safety measures
2. Work safely and productively within a team following a set production schedule
3. Communicate health and safety information
4. Produce a risk assessment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain health and safety requirements
2. Outline the importance of venue specific information
3. Identify the main health and safety organisations
Range
Work safely and productively
Follow health and safety procedures, communicate with team, follow set production schedules
Information
Emergency/evacuation procedures and meeting points, venue specific codes and procedures, first
aid points, environment specific equipment and lighting
Risk assessment
Published procedures relating to controlling risks:
Step 1 - Look for and identify the hazards
Step 2 - Decide who might be harmed and how
Step 3 - Evaluate the risks and decide whether the existing precautions are appropriate, reasonable
and practicable or should more be done
Step 4 - Record your findings and implement them.
Step 5 - Review your assessment and revise if necessary.
(see guidance)
Health and safety requirements
Legal requirements: COSHH regulations, LOLER regulations, PUWER regulations, risk assessment,
hazardous noise, environmental health (ie sanitation, noise pollution), lifting, electricity, crowd
safety, first aid, security
Health and safety organisations
HSE, local authority, ABTT, Plasa
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 310
Outcome 3
Live sound and performance technology
Rig and operate PA equipment for live events
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Rig, operate equipment and mix live sound
2. Undertake post production evaluation
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify mains power requirements for PA
2. Explain the live sound production process
Range
Rig, operate equipment and mix live sound
Identify and use professional equipment, Three phase intake, flying, delay lines, centre cluster, side
fills, wedges, IEM, mono, stereo, active crossover networks, EQ, identify and rectify any problems
during the installation, set the optimal sound levels for the mix (ie feedback control, headroom,
distortion, limiting), compensate for acoustical changes due to audience impact
Post production
Meeting, required changes, view footage, improvements, feedback, production notes, minutes,
floor plans, specification sheets, risk assessments, synchronisation, coordination
Mains power requirements
13amp mains supply, three phase intake
Sound production process
Show relay, comms systems, show control, backline equipment, sound checks, technical rehearsals,
DI, radio microphones, clean feeds
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 310
Live sound and performance technology Unit
310 Live sound and performance technology
Notes for guidance
Suggested best practice
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to gain experience by installing and using live sound
reinforcement equipment for one of the following live events (or similar):
•
•
•
•
Theatre production
Live music
Conference/presentation
Public installations (eg museums or schools).
Learners will take a team role during the setting up and operation of sound systems for an event
throughout this unit. A written evaluation of the event will show a clear understanding of the
planning stage, equipment set up and the roles and responsibilities of the production crew, the
candidate must also describe the main features of the sound system used for the show; this will
include a technical diagram of the PA and a floor plan of the venue. The report will also show an
action plan of the main health and safety issues considered during the installation.
Published procedures relating to controlling risks
Please refer to HSE five steps to risk assessment; www.hse.gov.uk .
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 311
Level:
Digital broadcast and network media
3
Credit value: 6
Rationale
Digital broadcast and network mediums are increasingly becoming ever more complex in their
ability to be able to air and move visual audio information around many simultaneous formats at
ever faster distribution delivery. This has had major repercussions for several sectors of the music
and sound industries as the industry as a whole absorbs and adopts pioneering technologies for
cutting edge promotion and delivery of information via a series of expanding digital channels and
outlets.
Several new media job opportunities have appeared in all sectors of the music and sound industries
which essentially bring together simple post-visual editing skills with good compositional music and
sound engineering skills to create small cost effective promotional campaigns. Promotional material
and content can now see a highly effective 5-10 second web-based advertising image create huge
interest or marketing sales as can a 5-10 minute digital video or podcasting with visual information
aids.
The aim of this unit is to focus learners on the digital delivery of original visual images, and sound. It
is also essential for learners to be able to deliver the reproduction of differing formats for all
mediums/client coverage. For instance, it has become common for radio network advertisers and
brands to make use of televised audio for radio jingles and for the brands to expand on marketing
radio jingles using the same audio content for brands with new visuals for television.
This unit will give learners an overview of the creative development of digital visuals and images
working alongside audio effects and sound using current digital formats. The outcome of this unit
completion is for learners to have an informed and detailed breakdown of simple broadcast and
network mediums using a combination of high quality digital audio/movie/image files.
Learning outcomes
There are two learning outcomes to this unit. The candidate is able to
• Record and import digital video and audio media files
• Produce and broadcast digital media files
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged learners will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly achieve
this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT40 Manage digital broadcast and network online media
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
99
Unit 311
Outcome 1
Digital broadcast and network media
Record and import digital video and audio media
files
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Research common digital video-and-audio DAW editors
2. Use and manage common digital video-and-audio DAW editors
3. Manage digital broadcast media content
4. Transfer digital media content from source to DAW editors
5. Compile visual and soundtrack content
6. Save and archive media files
7. Reset and tidy environment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe DAW universal file formats
2. Describe the transfer of DAW universal file formats
3. Describe edit and compile procedures
4. Describe the importance of timelines and frames
5. State common digital video media files and formats
6. State common video and audio codecs
7. List audio file extensions
8. Describe how differing audio formats can be transferred
Range
Video-and-audio DAW editors
Sonar, AVID Xpress Pro, AVID Xpress, AVID Liquid, Adobe Premier Pro, Adobe Production Studio,
Cool Edit, Adobe Audition, Audacity, Sound Forge, Wavelab Pro, Bias Peak Pro 6, Ableton Live, Final
Cut Studio, Soundtrack Pro, Newtek Speed Edit, Sony Vegas 7, Edius 4 Pro
Media content
Short visual library content, images, stills, frames, background effects and graphic colours, titles,
subtitles, text aligned information, credits, soundtrack
Compile
Sort running order of visuals, timeline-based editing, repeat of images, edit decision list (EDL),
placement and timing of visuals, titles, subtitles, text aligned information, credits, scripts
Soundtrack
Record or import soundtrack audio piece(s), layers, foley effects, enhanced dynamics/effects,
triggered spot effects/sounds/ambience, dialogue
Save and archive media files
Audio files, video files, joint broadcast/network media files, file types (eg MPG, AVI, WMV, Windows
Media, DV, VOB, MPEG-4, DivX and XviD, MPEG-2 Super VCD, MPEG-2 DVD, MPEG-1, MPEG-1 VCD)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
100
Reset and tidy
Health and safety, good practice, reset DAW, environment and equipment, remove and store all
cables, wiring looms, stands,
DAW universal file formats
16-24bit 96k exchange of digital media and metadata between universal DAW platforms SDII, wav,
BWAV, AAF and OMF, DTRS, Open Media Framework Interchange (OMFI) AES31, OPEN TL, American
Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
Digital video media
MPEG-1, MPEG-2, AVI (uncompressed), AVI (compressed), WMV, VCD, SVCD, DVD image input files
(eg BMP, EMF, GIF, J2K, JPG, PCX, PNG, RAS, TGA, TIF, WMF)
Codecs
Video codecs: FFD Show MPEG-4, DivX 6.5.1, Koepi's XviD Codec, DivX Free, DScaler MPEG Filters,
OggDS / OGM Codec, Nic's XviD Codec, Ligos Indeo Codec, MJPGPIC Video
Audio codecs: PCM, u-law, MPEG Audio Layer-III & audio layer IV, Proprietary (Microsoft),
Proprietary (Apple Computer), Proprietary (Real Networks), OggVorbis, Fraunhofer Institute (IIS),
MP3 standards organisation, Industry Standard organisation.
Audio file extensions
.aif, .aiff, .au, .mp3, .wma, .qt, .ra, .ram, .wav, .ogg (any new emerging hi-def file
formats/technology)
Audio formats
Import, export, convert or burn uncompressed or compressed WAV, AU, OGG, PCM, WAV, MP3,
Ogg Vorbis, (any new emerging hi-def file formats/technology)
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 311
Outcome 2
Digital broadcast and network media
Produce and broadcast digital media files
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Transfer finished content into media files
2. Review finished content
3. Broadcast and upload finished content
4. Migrate files and produce a podcast of content
5. Save and archive formatted media files
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain how to produce, edit and mix media files
2. Explain how to broadcast and upload media files
Range
Files
Audio files, video files, joint broadcast/network media files, file types (eg MPG, AVI, WMV, Windows
Media, DV, VOB, MPEG-4, DivX and XviD, MPEG-2 Super VCD, MPEG-2 DVD, MPEG-1, MPEG-1 VCD)
Broadcast and upload
youtube, myspace, castpost, pixpo, yahoo, google, broadcast machine, uploading software,
broadcast and publishing software
Podcast
MP3, PDF, JPG, download, streaming, RSS (really simple syndication), syndication feeds, hosting,
uploading, digital content, bluetooth, digital audio player (DAP), podcasting, audio/visual content
Produce, edit and mix
Post production, cut, copy paste, delete visuals and audio files, images, final content, presentation,
audience experience
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 311
Digital broadcast and network media
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
The aim of this unit is to focus learners on the digital delivery of original visual images, and sound. It
is also essential for learners to be able to deliver the reproduction of differing formats for all
mediums/client coverage. For instance, it has become common for radio network advertisers and
brands to make use of televised audio for radio jingles and for the brands to expand on radio jingles
using the same audio content with visuals for television.
This unit will give learners an overview of the creative development of digital visuals and images
working alongside audio effects and sound using current digital formats. The outcome of this unit
completion is for learners to have an informed and detailed breakdown of simple broadcast and
network mediums using a combination of high quality digital audio/movie/image files.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 312
Level:
Audio mastering and restoration
3
Credit value: 6
Rationale
The aim of this unit is to enable learners to perform basic audio mastering and restoration, including
the preservation of audio from historical or archival formats.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Describe historical formats and archival problems
• Carry out mastering processes
• Restore and preserve audio
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 60 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT17 Carry out advanced analogue and digital equalisation for music and audio
industries
• CCSMT23 Carry out multi track and stereo tape machine alignment and maintenance
• CCSMT25 Develop techniques for mastering and restoring audio using critical listening skills
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 312
Outcome 1
Audio mastering and restoration
Describe historical formats and archival problems
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Evaluate the sound quality of audio reproduced from historical disc formats
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the different types of historical recorded audio formats
2. Explain the requirements for reproducing audio discs
3. Explain the production processes used for manufacturing analogue audio discs
4. Explain the use of audio equipment for restoring and preserving historical audio sources
Range
Evaluate
Listening skills, high quality monitors, listening/mastering room, listening notes, logs, restorative
requirements (noise, damage, clean-up) subjective requirements (EQ, dynamics, enhancement)
sympathy to original source quality
Audio reproduced from historical disc formats
Transcription turntables, drive systems, isolation, vacuum hold platters, warps, off-centre pressings,
rpm settings, tonearms (linear, tangential) pick-up cartridges (MM, MC,) stylus profiles, alignment
(offset, overhang, VTA, VTF, Azimuth, anti-skating) amplification, EQ curves, RIAA
Types of historical audio formats
Developments since 1877 (eg Mechano-acoustical, cylinder recorder (foil, wax) grooved discs,
duplication, pressing, ‘hill & dale’, orthogonal modulation, mono/stereo, shellac, vinyl microgroove,
vari-pitch groove, rpm (78, 45, 33.3, 16,) diameter (7, 10, 12, 16, 20 inch) duration, EQ (RIAA)
magnetic recording, wire recording, tape recorders, open reel, cassette, frequency response,
dynamic range, SNR, noise types, sound quality)
Manufacturing analogue audio discs
Production master tape, advanced replay tape machine, cutting lathe, cutting head, stylus, lead
screw, drive amps, EQ, vari-pitch groove, run-in, lead-out, spacers, mono/stereo, LF, phase, A/B
sides, lacquer, DMM, quality control, monitoring, pressing, preparation, clean-room, silvering,
electroplating, stampers, manufacturing, product presentation, colour, labels, inner, liner notes,
cover, sleeve art
Equipment for restoring and preserving
Disc cleaning (wet and dry), cleaning chemicals, vacuum machines (Keith Monks), disc flattening,
inspection (Leica microscopes), tape repair, damaged edits, sticky tape, baking, audio playback,
high quality ADC, wordclock, jitter, DAW, noise reduction/removal, Cedar (de-hiss, de-click), EQ,
filters, dynamic processors (hardware, software), monitoring, preservation storage, file format
(BWAV) CDR, DVD
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 312
Outcome 2
Audio mastering and restoration
Carry out mastering processes
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Compile source materials into sequential order using DAW
2. Identify required audio processing
3. Perform required audio processing
4. Manage and record detailed mastering logs
5. Produce a production master
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify original source formats
2. Describe mastering and incompatibility problems
3. Explain the procedures and workflow practices of mastering an audio project
4. Identify equipment and processors required for audio mastering
5. Explain the requirements of a production master format
Range
Compile source materials
Load source materials, (formats eg analogue tape, DAT, CD, AIFF, WAV, SDII), sequential order
editing, spacing, top and tailing, noise clean-up, fades, crossfades, PQ coding
Required audio processing
Levelling (eg metering, monitoring, headroom), equalisation techniques, filters, dynamics
(microdynamics, macrodynamics), gain riding, compression, expansion, multiband processing,
noise reduction, noise removal
Detailed mastering logs
Load-in/load-out information, revision details, client comments, edit decisions, level settings,
processor settings, back-ups, labelling, timings, timecodes
Produce a production master
Editing, clean-up, levelling, fades (fade-in/fade-out), processing, outputting, tune-by-tune,
automated EDL, quality control, monitoring, formats (analogue tape, exabyte-DDP, PCM 1630, CDR,
DVD-R), media verification, archiving, back-ups, safety copies
Original source formats
Mono/stereo master recordings, linear formats, analogue tape, digital tape, CDR, files, platform
extensions, resource forks, AIFF, WAV, BWF, SDII, metafiles, AES-31, open media format (OMF),
advanced authoring format (AAF), open TL
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Mastering and incompatibility problems
Time stamping, digital noise, sample rate and bit depth incompatibility, lost metadata, jitter,
quantisation noise, file incompatibility, labelling, logs, names, titles, stems, alternate mixes, tape
preparation, reel/spool numbers, tape EQ, track configuration, bumpers, tones, flux, levels
Procedures and workflow practices
Liaising between mastering studio and production plant, sequencing the album, techniques for
mastering (eg levelling requirements, EQ techniques, dynamics techniques, noise reduction),
monitoring requirements, listening skills, communication, quality control, logging, automation,
archive of new master, secure delivery
Equipment and processors
Tape machines 15-30 IPS, DAT, CD, high quality ADC/DAC, connections, interfaces, routing, DAW’s,
sync, wordclock, metering, mastering EQ’s, compressors, expanders, single ended noise reduction
(eg analogue, digital, hardware, software), monitoring systems
Production master format
DDP (disc description protocol) on Exabyte, PCM 1630, CDR, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, DDP-files, PQ lists,
analogue tape, vinyl production masters, labelling, back-ups, safety copies
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 312
Outcome 3
Audio mastering and restoration
Restore and preserve audio
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Prepare and inspect an analogue audio disc for reproduction
2. Set-up and align analogue disc transcription systems
3. Transfer audio to a high resolution platform
4. Analyse and assess the restoration requirements
5. Produce a restored copy of transcribed audio
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Explain how to set-up and align analogue disc transcription systems to reproduce historical
formats
2. Explain restoration requirements
3. Describe archival formats and storage
4. Describe sound library administration
Range
Prepare and inspect
Removing and handling a disc, visual inspection, dust, fluff, mould, grease, static removal, dry
cleaning methods, wet cleaning methods, chemical solutions, vacuum removal, microscopic groove
inspection, disc flattening
Set-up and align
Clean and level turntable, inspect and clean stylus, mount cartridge, align offset, overhang, tracking
angle, protractor, set VTA, set VTF, set anti-skating, replay rpm, connections, phono preamp, select
repro EQ, ADC (24/96) levels, metering, transfer to DAW, log settings, date, time, artiste, title,
archival details
Restoration requirements
Listening skills, high quality monitors, listening/mastering room, listening notes, logs, restorative
requirements (noise, damage, clean-up) subjective requirements (EQ, dynamics, enhancement),
sympathy to original source quality
Restored Copy
Produce a restored audio file, BWAV format, CDR, DVD hardcopy, restoration notes, labelled, A-B
with original transcribed copy, removable hard disc caddies
Storage
Environment, humidity, temperature, security
Sound library administration
Record of audio materials, mastering notes, log number, version, format, date, time, client, artiste,
album/song title, audio source/ownership
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 312
Audio mastering and restoration
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
This unit explores the complexities of audio mastering and restoration. This brings together a vast
range of skills, techniques and knowledge that the learner has acquired across a number of units.
In both cases the candidate will be encouraged to produce a product of professional quality by
mastering a compilation of audio source materials and restoring/re-mastering audio signals from a
historic archive format.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 313
Level:
Sound studio facility design
3
Credit value: 8
Rationale
In this unit learners will carry out the exercise of costing and designing the layout for a potential
recording studio control room and associated live area or a programming suite.
Learners will research and select a suitable space which has the potential to be converted into a
recording studio control room or programming suite and any associated live performance areas.
Learners will carry out a detailed survey of the space including measurements and investigations
into the supply of mains wiring and other requisite features. Acoustic treatment will be required as
well as suitable racking units and furniture.
Learners will project their own budget forecasts as the project starts, half way through the
specification and at the end of the project. They will cost all materials associated with the job.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Plan a studio conversion
• Calculate studio construction costs
• Produce studio conversion design plans
Guided learning hours
It is envisaged learners will require 60 guided learning hours in order to learn and correctly achieve
this unit.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT36 Cost and design the layout of a recording studio
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
110
Unit 313
Outcome 1
Sound studio facility design
Plan a studio conversion
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Investigate and select an existing space suitable for conversion to studio type
2. Plan draft layout of new room designs and calculate room response
3. Research structural materials required
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe materials required and reasons for use
2. Describe requirements when drafting design plans
3. Describe the importance of structural and acoustic research
4. Describe reasons for maintaining detailed project management
Range
Studio type
Recording studio control room, programming/project studio, interview booth, vocal booth, drum
booth, performance area, rehearsal room, orchestral recording, edit suite, mastering suite
Calculate room response
Length, width, height, room symmetry, room mode values (eg small, medium and large room areas),
cubic volume (metres/feet), individual room surfaces, RT60 calculation tests, pink noise, residual
room modes
Structural
Quantities, building materials, furnishings, fittings, power requirements, health and safety
implementation, room surfaces, building location, wall, floor construction, ceiling, window and door
construction, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), storage, telecommunications,
decorations, aesthetics, supply sources, absorption coefficients, isolation
Requirements
WC, fire exits, kitchen lounge, storage/archive areas, machine rooms, other public access
requirements
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
112
Unit 313
Outcome 2
Sound studio facility design
Calculate studio construction costs
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Use spreadsheets to track the cost of materials
2. Estimate installation costs
3. Source specification sheets for materials and equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe how to solve remedial acoustical problems
2. Provide record of project development
Range
Cost of materials
Quantities and unit costs including VAT (eg building materials, furnishings fittings, power
requirements, health and safety implementation, room surfaces, building location, wall, floor,
ceiling, window and door construction, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), storage,
telecommunications, decorations, aesthetics, supplies, absorption coefficients, sound proofing
costs, acoustic treatments, isolation/separation, noise reduction coefficient (NRC) treatment, noise
control (NC)
Installation costs
Cabling, commissioning, labour, timetable, public access, health and safety certification, noise
control (NC), possible remedial solutions required
Specification sheets
One sheet specification for professional standards, information resource for all staff
Acoustical problems
Frequency response, reverb time, isolation
Project development
Plans, costs, timeframes, labour, delivery, start/end dates, points of reference
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 313
Outcome 3
Sound studio facility design
Produce studio conversion design plans
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Produce researched detailed drawings for designed space
2. Reference resources to main drawings and plans
3. Produce detailed sub-diagrams for walls, doors and windows
4. Log final studio construction data
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe the importance of keeping records
2. Describe studio construction methods
Range
Detailed drawings
Final floor-plan, 2D/3D view of the suggested design with any remedial solutions in place, block
diagrams, detailed indexed and referenced diagrams for equipment and materials location (eg fire
exits, health and safety features, alarm points, power and mains supply points, fuse boxes, services
and utilities, telecommunications, lighting, cable trunking, furniture, storage), colour coding
Reference resources
Materials and equipment, specifications sheets, ISO references, quality assurance, professional
standards
Walls, doors and windows
Cut-away diagrams, side views of construction, materials used, dampening and sound proofing
properties, dimensions, construction methods
Studio construction data
Materials used, reasons for use, rationale behind construction (eg area uses, surfaces, remedial
solutions), future reference
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
114
Unit 313
Sound studio facility design
Notes for guidance
Suggested good practice
All equipment must be specified including the main multi-track machine, mixing desk and other
outboard equipment. Learners can go down software or hardware routes but the system must
be professionally specified and suitable for recording at least 16 tracks at once and playing
back at least 24 tracks at once to an excellent level of quality. Learners will specify the range
of work that the studio is designed to facilitate and the different types of studio work that can
be achieved within the parameters of the various pieces of equipment available.
Learners will project their own budget forecasts as the project starts, half way through the
specification and at the end of the project. If costs change substantially the learner must
provide good reasons as to why initial estimates now have to be revised and should request
that the extra cost be approved.
This unit provides learners with an opportunity to use peer and tutor expertise as well as selfguided research and learning to carry out the specification of a professional quality recording
studio control room and associated live room. They will cost all materials and equipment
associated with the job and to create and fill in suitable mock invoice sheets to be sent out to
each prospective company which they intend to source stock from with correct order numbers
quantities and prices etc.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
115
Unit 314 Advanced audio electronics
Level:
3
Credit value: 6
Rationale
This unit develops learners knowledge of electronic theory and maintenance specific to sound
engineering. The unit will combine the theory relating to the measurement and interconnection of
audio equipment and the practical measurement techniques used in basic maintenance.
They will construct basic electronic circuits and produce a report on construction, testing and
measurement.
Learning outcomes
There are three outcomes to this unit. The candidate will be able to:
• Calculate and measure audio signals
• Measure audio equipment parameters
• Construct and measure audio circuits
Guided learning hours
It is recommended that 60 hours should be allocated for this unit. This may be on a full time or part
time basis.
Assessment and grading
This unit will be assessed by:
An assignment covering practical skills and underpinning knowledge
Relationship to NOS
This unit has links to the following Music NOS;
• CCSMT31 Carry out advanced audio electronics repairs and maintenance of sound
equipment
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
116
Unit 314
Outcome 1
Advanced audio electronics
Calculate and measure audio signals
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Calculate solutions to equations relating to signal measurement and networks involving
combinational passive components
2. Measure audio signals
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Describe ways of measuring the value of audio signals
2. Explain how combinational passive components affect signal voltages across different
frequencies
Range
Equations
Capacitive reactance, inductive reactance, total impedance (eg serial/parallel), transformer voltage
ratio, current ratio, impedance ratio, crossover frequency, minus 3 dB point
Combinational passive components
Resistance, capacitance and capacative reactance, inductance and inductive reactance, impedance,
series and parallel networks, transformer and turns ratio relating to voltage, current and impedance
ratio, high pass filters, low pass filters, dB per octave, crossover frequency
Audio signals
AC voltage, AC Power, peak, peak to peak, root mean square (rms), average, crest value, voltmeter,
oscilloscope, Vu meter, peak programme meter (PPM), dummy load, output power, quiescent
current
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
117
Unit 314
Outcome 2
Advanced audio electronics
Measure audio equipment parameters
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Measure parameters relating to the specifications of audio equipment
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Define specification parameters
2. Explain procedures used to measure specification parameters
3. Define professional standards for audio equipment specifications
Range
Parameters
Voltage gain, frequency response, bandwidth, total harmonic distortion, inter-modulation
distortion, signal to noise ratio, equivalent input noise, dynamic range, headroom, output power,
quiescent current
Professional standards
eg Frequency response of signal line amplifier: +/- 0.1 dB 20 Hz to 20 kHz; total harmonic distortion
of analogue tape recorder: 1% at 0 Vu; signal to quantisation noise ratio of 16 bit digital system: 96
dB
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
118
Unit 314
Outcome 3
Advanced audio electronics
Construct and measure audio circuits
Practical skills
The candidate will be able to:
1. Construct a circuit and enclosure
2. Solder components to circuit board
3. Test parameters of circuit
4. Produce an assessment and test report of the circuit
Underpinning knowledge
The candidate will be able to:
1. Identify electronic components
2. Describe circuit board soldering techniques
3. Evaluate performance of circuit
Range
Construct
Breadboard/stripboard component layout, input/output sockets, power switch, battery enclosure,
labelling
Circuit
Simple op amp microphone amplifier, Active DI box, IC based stereo headphone amp
Solder components
Identify correct soldering iron wattage, tip cleanliness, tinning, precise application, solder bridges,
dry joints, heat sink, component/solder removal
Parameters
Voltage gain, frequency response, bandwidth, total harmonic distortion, intermodulation distortion,
signal to noise ratio, equivalent input noise, output power, dynamic range, clipping point,
headroom, input impedance, output impedance
Assessment and test report
Parameter measurements, graphs, circuit board layout, construction report, circuit schematic
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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Unit 314
Advanced audio electronics
Notes for guidance
Suggested best practice
Completion of this unit will obviously not enable learners to be legally employed as service of
electrical engineers. This unit is intended as an overview study for those learners that seek to
further understand the design and technology behind equipment used during practical tasks within
the music and sound industries. See City & Guilds qualification numbers 2330 and 2351 for further
qualified certification/pathways that will lead to certified employment within a host of servicing/
repair and maintenance posts.
Please note to be fully certified as an electrician within the creative industries you should study 2357
City & Guilds Diploma in Electrotechnology, available from September 2010. This can lead to
certified employment within a host of industry servicing, repair and maintenance posts.
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
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8 Appendix 1 NOS Mapping
The table below shows the mapping of each 7603 unit against the Music NOS;
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT1
CCSMT2
CCSMT3
CCSMT4
CCSMT5
CCSMT6
CCSMT7
CCSMT8
CCSMT9
CCSMT10
Follow Health and Safety
practices in music and sound
industries
Follow Health and Safety
practices for basic maintenance
of equipment and facilities
Assist with emergency
procedures
Research relevant occupational
roles and employment in music
and sound recording sectors
Evaluate personal skills to work
with others in the music and
sound industries
Identify, test and use basic
professional audio equipment
connections and interfaces
Use basic functions of MIDI
sequencing on professional
DAWs
Use essential analogue and
digital sound recording skills
Use essential analogue and
digital sound editing techniques
Develop key MIDI and DAW
audio techniques
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
7603-01
Level
101
2
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
O
O
O
101
2
O
O
O
101
2
O
O
O
102
2
201/301
3
M
O
O
102
2
201/301
3
M
O
O
103
2
202/303
3
M
O
O
104
2
207
3
M
O
O
105
2
M
O
O
106
2
M
O
O
107
2
M
O
O
7603-02/03
207
121
Level
3
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT11
CCSMT12
CCSMT13
CCSMT14
CCSMT15
CCSMT16
CCSMT17
CCSMT18
CCSMT19
CCSMT20
Produce audio materials using
sampling and synthesis
technology for music and sound
industries
Create a sample and audio file
library - archive digital content
Assist with recording of live
sound location sources
Operate professional audio
equipment, OB, ambience
sound recording and studio
sound recording
Set up and dismantle
professional MIDI equipment
and audio equipment
(hardware/software devices)
Operate analogue and digital
equalisation for music and
audio industries
Carry out advanced analogue
and digital equalisation for
music and audio industries
Operate analogue and digital
Dynamics and effects
equipment for music and audio
industries
Operate analogue and digital
mixing and recording consoles
Carry out advanced studio
routing and wiring for music
and audio industries –
patchbays & tie lines
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
7603-01
Level
7603-02/03
Level
2
208
3
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
M
O
O
2
208
3
M
O
O
306/309/310
3
O
O
O
306/309/310
3
O
O
O
2
202/207/212/213/214/215
3
M
O
O
2
203/205/
O
M
M
302/304/312
3
O
M
M
2
206/302
3
O
M
M
2
203/302/304
3
O
M
M
2
202/203/303
3
O
M
M
122
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT21
CCSMT22
CCSMT23
CCSMT24
CCSMT25
CCSMT26
CCSMT27
CCSMT28
CCSMT29
CCSMT30
Edit sound and spoken word
using both analogue and digital
systems
Carry out tape and tape-less
digital editing
7603-01
Level
7603-02/03
Level
106
2
211/216/305
3
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
O
M
M
305
3
O
M
M
3
O
O
M
O
O
O
Carry out multi track and stereo
tape machine alignment and
maintenance
Synchronise audio to visuals
and gaming materials
Develop techniques for
mastering and restoring audio
using critical listening skills
Apply techniques for archiving
and recalling audio materials –
session management
Develop your professional
knowledge of intellectual
property (IP), copyright,
revenue streams, contracts and
royalties
Carry out soldering and wiring
basic repairs and maintenance
for sound and audio industries
Evaluate acoustics and sound
reinforcement systems (PAs)
2
213/302/312
2
217
2
209/211/312
3
O
O
O
2
212/302
3
O
M
O
301
3
O
O
O
O
0
O
O
O
M
Carry out basic repairs and
maintenance of sound
equipment
O
M
O
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
2
221
2
219/310
2
202/221/222/
123
3
NOS Reference NOS Title
CCSMT31
CCSMT32
CCSMT33
CCSMT34
CCSMT35
CCSMT36
CCSMT37
CCSMT38
CCSMT39
CCSMT40
CCSMT41
CCSMT42
Carry out advanced audio
electronics repairs and
maintenance of sound
equipment
Produce surround sound for
film and audio
Carry out studio sound
synchronisation for computer
games and multi-media
Prepare and operate live sound
and performance technology
Operate DJ and sound PA
equipment
Cost and design the layout of a
recording studio
Set up and use microphones
and direct inject (DI) boxes
Use advanced stereo
microphone techniques
Carry out software sound and
audio manipulation
Manage digital broadcast and
network online media
Demonstrate a knowledge of
the history and development of
studio recording equipment
Use audio mix automation and
control surfaces
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
7603-01
7603-02/03
Level
314
3
Mandatory (M) / Optional (O)
L2
L3
L4
O
O
M
2
214/216/307/309
3
O
O
O
2
217
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Level
310
2
3
220
313
3
O
O
O
2
204/306
3
M
M
M
2
204/306
3
O
O
O
2
211/308
3
O
O
O
2
218/311
3
O
O
O
2
210
O
O
O
2
203/304
O
O
O
124
3
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Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
125
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Stock Code: EN037603
Level 3 VRQ's in Music Technology and Sound Engineering (7603)
126
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