PCB Piezotronics FTQ-200G-0107

PCB Piezotronics FTQ-200G-0107
Product Catalog
Sensors for Force, Load,
Strain, and Torque
For Product Testing, Process Monitoring, and Research & Development
Sensors for Force, Load, Strain, and Torque – Product Catalog
PCB Piezotronics, Inc. is pleased to provide this catalog as a selection guide of
our broad spectrum of standard force, load, strain, and torque measurement
products. Within this publication are sensors, accessories, and signal
conditioning equipment, which have been specifically designed for the
detection, measurement, and control of load, torque, strain and dynamic
compression, tension, and impact forces.
Strain gage sensing technology is used for load cells and torque sensors,
whereas piezoelectric quartz sensing technology forms the fundamental
sensing principle for dynamic strain and dynamic force measurement. Each
technique possesses distinct advantages for the particular requirement. By
employing a variety of sensing schemes, PCB® is able to address a multitude
of applications, from monitoring the slightest machinery linkage forces, to
controlling press forces and other processes, to capturing the impact of a
violent crash, to assessing the torque profile of precision motors used for
aerospace vehicles, and force control during vibration testing of aerospace
structures. Other applications include cutting tool monitoring, biomechanics
feedback, and vehicle dynamics.
Since 1967, PCB® has been a supplier of precision sensors for acceleration,
acoustic, pressure, and force measurements. Unmatched customer service,
state-of-the-art manufacturing capabilities, and worldwide distribution have
contributed to our steady growth and success. Customers from industrial,
government, education, aerospace, automotive, medical, and research and
development disciplines have relied on PCB® to deliver products and solutions
for many demanding requirements.
PCB® has assembled an experienced, integrated team to address specific
sensor needs of those involved with the measurement of force, load, torque,
and strain. Together this team of Design, Engineering, Sales, Customer
Service, and Marketing disciplines, draw upon vast in-house manufacturing
resources to continually provide new, more powerful sensing solutions. Please
do not hesitate to call upon us to assist with your measurement requirements
and provide our guarantee of Total Customer Satisfaction.
For the most up-to-date product specifications, drawings, and literature,
or to find your nearest sales office, we invite you to visit our Web site
at www.pcb.com.
In the interest of continuing product improvement, catalog
specifications are subject to change without notice.
Before machining tapped holes for installation, please request
a copy of the item’s detailed installation drawing.
PCB, ICP, IMI with associated logo, and Torkdisc are
registered trademarks of PCB Group, Inc. SensorLine is a
service mark of PCB Group, Inc. All other trademarks are
properties of their respective owners.
Force/Torque Sensor Catalog
FTQ-200G-0107
© 2007 PCB Group, Inc.
PCB is ISO 9001:2000 Certified
A2LA Accredited to ISO 17025
AS9100:2004 Certified
PCB is an EOE/AAP Employer
Printed in USA
Service and Qualifications
Total Customer Satisfaction – PCB® Piezotronics guarantees Total Customer Satisfaction. If, at any time, for any reason, you are not
completely satisfied with any PCB® product, PCB® will repair, replace, or exchange it at no charge. You may also choose to have your purchase
price refunded.
Toll-Free Customer Service 888-684-0004 – PCB® offers a direct, toll-free
telephone number for customer use. Feel free to call to discuss application requirements, request
product literature, request price quotations, place orders, inquire about order status, expedite orders,
troubleshoot equipment, or arrange for returns. International customers are invited to call
716-684-0001. In addition, we can be reached by e-mail at [email protected] Our fax number is:
716-684-8877. We look forward to hearing from you.
24-hour SensorLineSM – PCB® offers to all customers, at no charge, 24-hour emergency
phone support. This service makes product or application support available to our customers, day
or night, seven days per week. To reach a PCB® SensorLineSM customer service representative, call
716-684-0001.
Web site - www.pcb.com – Detailed product information is featured on PCB®’s web
site — www.pcb.com. The site offers customers educational and technical information, as well as the
latest product releases. You may also contact us via our general e-mail address at: [email protected]
PCB ® Contact Guide
USA Toll-Free Customer Service:
888-684-0004
International Customers:
716-684-0001
Fax:
716-684-8877
E-mail:
[email protected]
General E-mail:
[email protected]
PCB® Web Site:
www.pcb.com
PCB® 24-Hour SensorLineSM:
716-684-0001
ISO 9001:2000 Certification – PCB® Piezotronics, Inc. is registered by Underwriters
Laboratories, Inc. as an ISO 9001:2000 facility and maintains a quality assurance system dedicated to resolving any concern to ensure Total
Customer Satisfaction. PCB® also conforms to the former MIL-STD-45662A and MIL-Q-9858.
ISO 9001 and ISO 10012-1 Compliant Calibration Facility – All PCB® sensors are calibrated according to recommended
practices and to either NIST (National Institute of Standards & Technology) or PTB to ensure conformance to published specifications. Certificates
of calibration are furnished that include actual measured data. Calibration systems utilized are kept in full compliance with ISO 9001 and ISO
10012-1 standards. Calibration methods are accredited by A2LA to ISO 17025 standards, as documented on the company’s A2LA ”Scope of
Calibration”.
Delivery Policy – PCB® is committed to making every effort possible to accommodate all delivery requests. Our extensive in-house
production capabilities permit us to manufacture most products to order in a timely fashion. In the event a specific model is unavailable in the
time frame you need, we can usually offer a comparable unit, for sale or loan, to satisfy your urgent requirements. Many products are available,
from stock, for immediate shipment. Standard cable assemblies and accessory hardware items are always stocked for immediate shipment and
PCB® never requires a minimum order. If you have urgent requirements, call a factory representative and every effort will be made to fulfill your
needs.
Custom Products – PCB® prides itself on being able to respond to customers’ needs. Heavy investment in machinery, capabilities, and
personnel allow us to design, test, and manufacture products for specialized applications. Please contact a PCB® application specialist to discuss
your special needs.
CE Marking
– Many PCB® products are designed, tested, and qualified to bear CE marking in accordance with European Union EMC
Directives. Products that have earned this qualification are so indicated by the
logo.
Warranty – Instrumentation provided by PCB is covered by a limited warranty against defective material and workmanship for a period of
®
one year. Contact PCB® for a complete statement of our warranty.
Accuracy of Information – PCB® has made a reasonable effort to ensure that the specifications contained in this catalog were correct
at the time of printing. In the interest of continuous product improvement, PCB® reserves the right to change product specifications without notice.
Dimensions and specifications in this catalog may be approximate and for reference purposes only. Before installing sensors, machining any
surfaces, or tapping any holes, contact a PCB® application specialist to obtain a current installation drawing and the latest product specifications.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
i
Numerical Model Number Index
Model #
Page
070A15 ......................................2.11
1102 ......................................7.8, 7.9
1203..................................7.10, 7.11
1204..................................7.12, 7.13
1208..................................7.12, 7.13
1302..................................7.18, 7.19
1303..................................7.18, 7.19
1403..................................7.14, 7.15
1404..................................7.16, 7.17
1408..................................7.16, 7.17
200B01..............................1.52, 1.54
200B02..............................1.52, 1.54
200B03..............................1.52, 1.54
200B04..............................1.52, 1.54
200B05..............................1.52, 1.54
200C20..............................1.52, 1.54
200C50..............................1.53, 1.54
201A75 ............................1.24, 1.27
201A76 ............................1.24, 1.27
201B01..............................1.24, 1.27
201B02..............................1.24, 1.27
201B03..............................1.24, 1.27
201B04..............................1.24, 1.27
201B05..............................1.24, 1.27
202B..................................1.25, 1.28
203B..................................1.25, 1.28
204C..................................1.25, 1.28
205C..................................1.26, 1.28
206C..................................1.26, 1.28
207C..................................1.26, 1.28
208A11 ............................1.20, 1.21
208A12 ............................1.20, 1.21
208A13 ............................1.20, 1.21
208A14 ............................1.20, 1.21
208A15 ............................1.20, 1.21
208A22 ............................1.64, 1.65
208A23 ............................1.64, 1.65
208A24 ............................1.64, 1.65
208A33 ............................1.64, 1.65
208A35 ............................1.64, 1.65
208A45 ............................1.64, 1.65
ii
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Model #
Page
208C01..............................1.20, 1.21
208C02..............................1.20, 1.21
208C03..............................1.20, 1.21
208C04..............................1.20, 1.21
208C05..............................1.20, 1.21
209C01..............................1.58, 1.59
209C02..............................1.58, 1.59
209C11..............................1.58, 1.59
209C12..............................1.58, 1.59
210B..................................1.52, 1.55
210B20..............................1.52, 1.55
210B50..............................1.53, 1.55
211B..................................1.24, 1.29
212B..................................1.25, 1.29
213B..................................1.25, 1.29
214B..................................1.25, 1.29
215B..................................1.26, 1.29
216B..................................1.26, 1.29
217B..................................1.26, 1.29
218A11 ............................1.20, 1.21
218C..................................1.20, 1.21
219A05 ......................................1.62
221B01..............................1.32, 1.35
221B02..............................1.32, 1.35
221B03..............................1.32, 1.35
221B04..............................1.32, 1.35
221B05..............................1.32, 1.35
222B..................................1.32, 1.36
223B..................................1.33, 1.36
224C..................................1.33, 1.36
225C..................................1.33, 1.36
226C..................................1.34, 1.36
227C..................................1.34, 1.36
2301..................................4.10, 4.11
2302..................................4.10, 4.11
2303..................................4.10, 4.11
2304..................................4.10, 4.11
2305..................................4.10, 4.11
2308..................................4.12, 4.13
2309..................................4.12, 4.13
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Model #
Page
231B..................................1.32, 1.37
232B..................................1.32, 1.37
233B..................................1.33, 1.37
234B..................................1.33, 1.37
235B..................................1.33, 1.37
236B..................................1.34, 1.37
237B..................................1.34, 1.37
2508..................................4.12, 4.13
260A01 ............................1.40, 1.42
260A02 ............................1.40, 1.42
260A03 ............................1.40, 1.42
260A11 ............................1.41, 1.42
260A12 ............................1.41, 1.42
260A13 ............................1.41, 1.42
260A31 ............................1.41, 1.42
260A32 ............................1.41, 1.42
260A33 ............................1.41, 1.42
261A01 ............................1.44, 1.46
261A02 ............................1.44, 1.46
261A03 ............................1.44, 1.46
261A11 ............................1.45, 1.46
261A12 ............................1.45, 1.46
261A13 ............................1.45, 1.46
401A04 ......................................2.11
402A ............................................2.8
402A02 ........................................2.8
402A03 ........................................2.8
410A01 ................................2.4, 2.5
4102..................................4.16, 4.17
4103..................................4.16, 4.17
4104..................................4.16, 4.17
4105..................................4.16, 4.17
4106..................................4.16, 4.17
4107..................................4.16, 4.17
4115A ..............................4.18, 4.19
4115K................................4.18, 4.19
4203..................................4.14, 4.15
4204..................................4.14, 4.15
4205..................................4.14, 4.15
4206..................................4.14, 4.15
4207..................................4.14, 4.15
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Model #
Page
421A11 ........................................2.9
421A13 ........................................2.9
421A25 ......................................2.10
422E11 ........................................2.8
422E12 ........................................2.8
422E13 ........................................2.8
442B216 ......................................2.6
442B316 ......................................2.6
442C04 ........................................2.6
443B02 ........................................2.6
472B ..........................................2.11
480B21 ........................................2.2
480C02 ........................................2.2
480E09 ........................................2.2
481A01 ........................................2.7
481A02 ........................................2.7
481A03 ........................................2.7
481A20 ........................................2.7
482A21 ........................................2.3
482A22 ........................................2.3
482B06 ........................................2.3
482B11 ........................................2.3
484B02 ........................................2.3
484B06 ........................................2.3
484B11 ........................................2.3
485B ..........................................2.11
492B ..........................................2.11
492B03 ......................................2.11
5302C ............4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23
5308C ............4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23
5309C ............4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23
5310C ............4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23
682A01 ........................................2.4
682A02 ................................2.4, 2.5
682A06 ........................................2.4
8120 ............................................5.2
8159 ............................................8.2
8160 ............................................8.3
8161 ............................................8.4
8162 ............................................8.5
M240A01..........................1.68, 1.69
M240A02..........................1.68, 1.69
M240A03..........................1.68, 1.69
Force, Load, Strain
and Torque
Services & Qualifications ..............................................................i
Numerical Model Number Index ..............................................ii
Other PCB® Products & Services ............................................IBC
Dynamic Force and Strain Sensors (Quartz)
Introduction....................................................................................1.1
Unique Characteristics & Advantages ......................................1.2
Typical Applications ....................................................................1.2
Piezoelectric Force Sensor Configurations ................................1.3
Typical Measurement Systems ..................................................1.6
Selection Guide............................................................................1.8
Options ......................................................................................1.17
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors....................................1.19
Quartz Force Rings ....................................................................1.23
Quartz Force Links......................................................................1.31
3-Component Quartz Force Rings ............................................1.39
3-Component Quartz Force Links ..............................................1.43
Quartz Impact Force Sensors ....................................................1.51
Miniature ICP® Quartz Force Sensors ......................................1.57
Miniature Quartz Force Sensors ..............................................1.61
Penetration-style ICP® Quartz Force Sensors ..........................1.63
ICP® Strain Sensors ..................................................................1.67
Accessories
Signal Conditioners ....................................................................2.1
Accessories & Services ............................................................2.13
Recommended Cables & Accessories......................................2.14
Calibration Services ..................................................................2.24
Technical Information ................................................................3.1
Introduction to Force Sensors ....................................................3.1
Driving Long Cable Lengths ....................................................3.11
Conversions & Useful Formulas................................................3.12
Article Reprints ........................................................................3.13
Glossary of Terms ......................................................................3.14
Force Sensor Application Inquiry Form ....................................3.20
Strain Gage Torque Sensors
Introduction....................................................................................4.1
Configurations..............................................................................4.2
Typical Measurement Systems ..................................................4.4
Typical Applications ....................................................................4.6
Selection Guide............................................................................4.6
Options ........................................................................................4.8
Product Information ....................................................................4.9
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Reaction Torque Sensors ..........................................................4.10
Flange Mount ........................................................................4.10
Small Capacity Flange Mount ..............................................4.12
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors ........................................4.14
Shaft End ......................................................................4.14, 4.16
Flange-Shaft ..........................................................................4.18
TORKDISC® ................................................................................4.20
Accessories ..................................................................................5.1
Signal Conditioners ....................................................................5.2
Recommended Cables & Accessories........................................5.3
Speed Sensor Cables ..................................................................5.4
Reaction Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies ..............................5.5
Rotary Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies ..................................5.7
Torque Sensor Accessories ........................................................5.9
Calibration Services ..................................................................5.11
Technical Information ................................................................6.1
Introduction to Torque Sensors ..................................................6.1
Torque Sensor Application Questionnaire..................................6.4
Glossary of Terms ........................................................................6.5
Application Notes & Technical Articles ....................................6.6
Strain Gage Load Cells
Introduction....................................................................................7.1
Configurations..............................................................................7.2
Typical Measurement Systems ..................................................7.3
Typical Applications ....................................................................7.4
Selection Guide............................................................................7.4
Options ........................................................................................7.6
Product Information ....................................................................7.7
General Purpose Load Cells ........................................................7.8
Low Profile Load Cells ..............................................................7.10
Fatigue-rated Load Cells ..........................................................7.14
Rod-style Load Cells..................................................................7.18
Accessories ..................................................................................8.1
Load Cell Signal Conditioners ....................................................8.2
Recommended Cables & Accessories........................................8.6
Stock Cable Assemblies..............................................................8.7
Load Cell Accessories ..............................................................8.11
Calibration Services ..................................................................8.12
Technical Information ................................................................9.1
Introduction to Load Cells ..........................................................9.1
Load Cell Application Questionnaire ..........................................9.2
Glossary of Terms ........................................................................9.3
Application Notes & Technical Articles ....................................9.4
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
iii
---------------------Precision
Manufacturing
Load cell structures are machined using
the latest precision CNC turning and
milling equipment.
A “gaged” load cell structure is ready for final
wiring of the sealed electrical connector.
Under a controlled environment, a skilled technician meticulously bonds strain
gages to a load cell structure and connects lead wires to form the Wheatstone
bridge.
iv
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Dynamic Force and
Strain Sensors
Quartz, piezoelectric force sensors are durable measurement devices which possess
exceptional characteristics for the measurement of dynamic force events. Typical
measurements include dynamic and quasi-static forces as encountered during actuation,
compression, impact, impulse, reaction, and tension. Applications for quartz force sensors
include balancing, crash testing, crimping, crushing, cutting, drop testing, fatigue testing,
forming, fracture testing, machinery testing, materials testing, penetration testing, press
monitoring, punching, stamping, tensile testing, and vibration testing.
Model Number Index
200B01 ..............1.52, 1.54
200B02 ..............1.52, 1.54
200B03 ..............1.52, 1.54
200B04 ..............1.52, 1.54
200B05 ..............1.52, 1.54
200C20 ..............1.52, 1.54
200C50 ..............1.53, 1.54
201A75 ..............1.24, 1.27
201A76 ..............1.24, 1.27
201B01 ..............1.24, 1.27
201B02 ..............1.24, 1.27
201B03 ..............1.24, 1.27
201B04 ..............1.24, 1.27
201B05 ..............1.24, 1.27
202B ..................1.25, 1.28
203B ..................1.25, 1.28
204C ..................1.25, 1.28
205C ..................1.26, 1.28
206C ..................1.26, 1.28
207C ..................1.26, 1.28
208A11 ..............1.20, 1.21
208A12 ..............1.20, 1.21
208A13 ..............1.20, 1.21
208A14 ..............1.20, 1.21
208A15 ..............1.20, 1.21
208A22 ..............1.64, 1.65
208A23 ..............1.64, 1.65
208A24 ..............1.64, 1.65
208A33 ..............1.64, 1.65
208A35 ..............1.64, 1.65
208A45 ..............1.64, 1.65
208C01 ..............1.20, 1.21
208C02 ..............1.20, 1.21
208C03 ..............1.20, 1.21
208C04 ..............1.20, 1.21
208C05 ..............1.20, 1.21
209C01 ..............1.58, 1.59
209C02 ..............1.58, 1.59
209C11 ..............1.58, 1.59
209C12 ..............1.58, 1.59
210B ..................1.52, 1.55
210B20 ..............1.52, 1.55
210B50 ..............1.53, 1.55
211B ..................1.24, 1.29
212B ..................1.25, 1.29
213B ..................1.25, 1.29
214B ..................1.25, 1.29
215B ..................1.26, 1.29
216B ..................1.26, 1.29
217B ..................1.26, 1.29
218A11 ..............1.20, 1.21
218C ..................1.20, 1.21
219A05........................1.62
221B01 ..............1.32, 1.35
221B02 ..............1.32, 1.35
221B03 ..............1.32, 1.35
221B04 ..............1.32, 1.35
221B05 ..............1.32, 1.35
222B ..................1.32, 1.36
223B ..................1.33, 1.36
224C ..................1.33, 1.36
225C ..................1.33, 1.36
226C ..................1.34, 1.36
227C ..................1.34, 1.36
231B ..................1.32, 1.37
232B ..................1.32, 1.37
233B ..................1.33, 1.37
234B ..................1.33, 1.37
235B ..................1.33, 1.37
236B ..................1.34, 1.37
237B ..................1.34, 1.37
260A01 ..............1.40, 1.42
260A02 ..............1.40, 1.42
260A03 ..............1.40, 1.42
260A11 ..............1.41, 1.42
260A12 ..............1.41, 1.42
260A13 ..............1.41, 1.42
260A31 ..............1.41, 1.42
260A32 ..............1.41, 1.42
260A33 ..............1.41, 1.42
261A01 ..............1.44, 1.46
261A02 ..............1.44, 1.46
261A03 ..............1.44, 1.46
261A11 ..............1.45, 1.46
261A12 ..............1.45, 1.46
261A13 ..............1.45, 1.46
M240A01 ..........1.68, 1.69
M240A02 ..........1.68, 1.69
M240A03 ..........1.68, 1.69
Since the measurement signal generated by a quartz force sensor will decay over time,
long-term, static force measurements are not practical. Short-term, or “quasi-static”,
measurements are possible within certain time limits, depending upon the sensor and
signal conditioning used. Due to this limitation, it is not practical to use quartz force
sensors in weighing applications where a strain gage type load cell is best suited.
For dynamic force applications, however, quartz force sensors offer many
advantages and several unique characteristics. See page 1.2 for details of these
advantages and characteristics. For information on ICP® strain sensors, see page 1.67.
Table of Contents
Typical Applications ..................................................................................................1.2
Piezoelectronic Force Sensor Configurations ....................................................1.3
Typical Measurement Systems ..............................................................................1.6
Selection Guide ........................................................................................................1.8
Options ......................................................................................................................1.17
Product Information ................................................................................................1.19
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors ................................................................1.20
Quartz Force Rings ..................................................................................................1.23
Quartz Force Links ..................................................................................................1.31
3-component Quartz Force Sensors ......................................................................1.39
3-component Force Links ........................................................................................1.43
Quartz Impact Force Sensors ................................................................................1.51
Miniature ICP® Quartz Force Sensors ....................................................................1.57
Miniature Quartz Force Sensors ............................................................................1.61
Penetration-style ICP® Quartz Force Sensors ........................................................1.63
ICP® Strain Sensors ................................................................................................1.67
Signal Conditioners ..................................................................................................2.1
Accessories & Services ........................................................................................2.13
Recommended Cables & Accessories................................................................2.14
Calibration Services ................................................................................................2.24
Technical Information ..............................................................................................3.1
Introduction to Force Sensors ..................................................................................3.1
Driving Long Cable Lengths ......................................................................................3.9
Conversions & Useful Formulas ............................................................................3.12
Article Reprints ......................................................................................................3.13
Glossary of Terms ..................................................................................................3.14
Force Sensor Application Inquiry Form ............................................................3.20
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.1
---------------------Unique
Characteristics and Advantages of Quartz Force Sensors
Unique characteristics of quartz force sensors.
Stiffness –
With a modulus of elasticity between 11 and 15 x 106 psi, quartz is nearly as stiff as solid
steel. All quartz force sensors are assembled with stacked quartz plates and stainless
steel housings. This stiff structure offers an extremely fast rise time enabling response
to, and accurate capture of, rapid force transient events.
Durability –
Tough, solid-state construction with no moving or flexing components ensures a linear
response, with durability and longevity for even the most demanding, repetitive cycling
applications.
Stability –
Dynamic Sensor Applications
Actuation
Balancing
■ Biomechanics
■ Cold Forming
■ Coining
■ Composites Testing
■ Compression
■ Crash Testing
■ Crimping
■ Crushing
■ Cutting
■ Drop Testing
■ Ejecting
■ Endurance Testing
■ Fatigue Testing
■ Fracture Analysis
■ Grinding
■ Impact
■ Machinery Mounts
■ Machinery Testing
■ Materials Testing
■ Matrix Printheads
■ Modal Analysis
■ Penetration Studies
■ Press Monitoring
■ Punching Operations
■ Quasi-static Forces
■ Reaction Force
■ Recoil
■ Robotics
■ Sports Therapy
■ Stamping
■ Strain
■ Tensile Testing
■ Tension
■ Vibration Testing
■ Wire Bonding
■
■
1.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
The measurement characteristics of quartz are unaffected by temperature, time and
mechanical stress, allowing for exceptionally repeatable and uniform measurement
results.
Small Changes Under Large Load –
Quartz force sensors can measure small force fluctuations that are superimposed upon
a large, static pre-load. The static load is ultimately discharged by the measurement
system.
Overload Survivability –
Quartz force sensors can typically be used for conducting measurements that may
exceed twice their normal range, and can even survive as much as 15 times their rated
capacity.
Advantages of quartz force sensors.
Small Size –
A typical 1/2 inch diameter quartz force sensor has a linear range through 10k lb (45k N).
Quasi-static Calibration –
Since accurate, static measurements are possible for a short duration (quasi-static
response), many quartz force sensors can be calibrated using known weights as
reference standards. This also permits uncomplicated field calibration.
Temperature Insensitivity –
Quartz has no pyroelectric output, i.e. output due to temperature change. A quartz force
sensor, however, can exhibit a temperature response, under quasi-static conditions, due
to forces transferred to the crystals by the thermal expansion and contraction of the steel
housing. For this reason, the sensor should be insulated from temperature transients
when used for quasi-static measurements.
High Frequency Response –
Stiffness and small size provide high frequency response, permitting accurate capture
of short-duration, impulse force data associated with an event such as a metal-tometal impact.
(For information on ICP® strain sensors, see page 1.67)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Force Sensor
---------------------Configurations
Piezoelectric Force Sensor Configurations
All quartz force sensors function to measure dynamic force in one or more of the
following modes: compression, tension, and impact. Each utilizes quartz-sensing crystals
to convert the applied force into a proportional, electrical measurement signal. Some
sensors contain built-in, microelectronic circuitry to condition this signal for transmission
to readout or recording instruments. These are designated as ICP® sensors. Other sensors output this signal directly, however, a separate charge converter or amplifier
then must condition this signal. These are designated as charge output sensors.
Ordinarily, ICP® sensors are preferred, as they are more cost effective and easier to
implement. Charge output sensors are used mostly when temperatures exceed the limits
for ICP® sensors, typically above +250 °F (+121 °C), or under quasi-static measurement
circumstances.
There are several basic styles of piezoelectric force sensors, each offering a variety of
full-scale measurement ranges and sensitivities. Each style offers both charge output
and ICP® sensor versions. More than one style may accommodate a particular
measurement requirement, however, selection of the best-suited sensor may be
dictated by the application’s specification requirements, environmental conditions, and
installation constraints. The following summarizes the various styles of sensors along
with their most common installation techniques.
While several installation techniques may be possible for a particular sensor, it should
be noted that the factory calibrated sensitivity is achieved when installed with the
recommended pre-load force using the supplied, elastic, beryllium copper mounting
hardware. If other hardware, or pre-load forces are used with the sensor, the sensitivity,
and possibly the linearity, will be different. For example, using a steel stud could cause
a measurement to be low by 30 to 40%. For best results, a sensitivity calibration of the
sensor should be performed under installed circumstances. When in doubt, please
contact the factory for assistance. For information on ICP® strain sensors, see page 1.67.
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors
General purpose force sensors are offered in either stud or axial mounted configurations.
They are internally pre-loaded and can be used for dynamic compression, tension, and
impact force measurements. Tapped mounting holes on both ends of the radial
connector style support link, platform, integrated link, and free-standing installations.
The axial mounted type offers protection of the electrical connector and sensor cable
from potential damage during drop testing and in free-standing installations. Supplied
impact caps facilitate impact and drop force measurements.
F
Versions offering full-scale measurement ranges of 10 lb to 5000 lb compression (45 to
22k N) and 500 lb (2200 N) tension are available. For higher ranges, consider the
dedicated ring, link, or impact-style sensor configurations. Applications include matrix
print-head studies, drop testing, machinery studies, punching and forming operations,
impact testing, fatigue testing, fracture analysis, and materials testing.
Integrated Link
F
F
F
F
Platform Installation
Free-standing Installation
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Force Link
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Force Link
716-684-0001
Free-standing Installation
(axial connector)
www.pcb.com
1.3
Force Sensor Configurations
F
Penetration Sensor
Penetration-style Quartz Force Sensors
Penetration-style sensors are specifically designed for compression and impact force
measurements in materials testing applications such as helmet testing. Smooth,
cylindrical housings and curved impact caps avoid cutting through specimens permitting
yield, deformation, and break point measurements of polymers, composites, and other
materials. The axial connector configuration installs into force thruster apparatus and
protects the connector from potential damage. Versions offering full-scale
measurements of 100 lb to 5000 lb (450 to 22k N) are available. Tension measurements
are possible with units having removable caps.
Ring-style Quartz Force Sensors
Ring-style sensor configurations measure dynamic compression. Tension measurements
are also possible if the unit has been installed with proper pre-load. The through-hole
mounting supports platform, integrated link, and support style installations using either
a through-bolt or the supplied stud.
F
F
F
F
Platform
Integrated Link
F
Support
Versions offering full-scale measurements of
10 lb to 100k lb (45 to 450k N) compression
are available. Tension range is dependent
upon the amount of applied pre-load and
strength of mounting stud used. Applications
include tablet presses, stamping, punching
and forming operations, balancing,
machinery studies, and force-controlled
vibration testing.
Link-style Quartz Force Sensors
Link-style sensors measure dynamic compression and tension. They are constructed
using a force ring that is under compressive pre-load between threaded mounting
hardware. The threaded mounting on both ends of the sensor supports integrated
link-style installations.
Versions offering full-scale measurements of 10 lb to 50k lb (45 to 220k N) compression
and 30k lb (130k N) tension are available. Applications include tablet presses, tensile
testing, stamping, punching and forming operations, balancing, machinery studies, and
force-controlled vibration testing.
Integrated Link
F
Impact-style Quartz Force Sensors
Impact-style sensors are specifically designed for impact force measurements. The
sensor is typically mounted in a free-standing manner with the installed impact cap
directed toward the oncoming object with which it will collide.
Versions offering full-scale measurements of 10 lb to 50k lb (45 to 220k N) are available.
Applications include crash testing, wire crimping and metal forming, machinery studies,
impact testing, drop testing, and shock machines.
Free-standing
Impact Installation
1.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Force Sensor Configurations
High-sensitivity, Miniature Quartz Force Sensors
F
F
The miniature sensor configuration permits low-amplitude, dynamic compression,
tension, and impact force measurements. Two configurations, one with a tapped
mounting hole and impact cap and the other with tapped holes on both ends of the
sensor, are available. Link, integrated link, and free-standing installations are possible.
A full-scale measurement range of 2.2 lb (10 N) compression and 1 lb (4.5 N) tension is
standard. Additional ranges are available. Applications include matrix print-head studies,
wire bonding, and high-frequency, low-level impulse testing.
F
3-Component Quartz Force Sensors
Integrated
Link
Link
Free-standing
Impact Installation
3-component sensors permit simultaneous measurement of dynamic force vector components in three orthogonal directions. The through-hole mounting supports platform,
integrated member, and support-style installations using either a through-bolt or the
supplied stud.
Versions offering full-scale measurements of 1000 lb (4500 N) to 10k lb (45k N)
compression are available. Applications include machine tool cutting forces, stamping,
punching and forming operations, machinery studies, biomechanics, and force-controlled
vibration testing.
Fz
Fz
Fy
Fy
Fz
Fx
Fy
Fx
Platform
Fx
Support
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.5
Typical Force Sensor Measurement Systems
Quartz Force Sensing Systems
As mentioned previously, quartz force sensors are available with or without built-in
microelectronic signal conditioning circuitry. Those containing built-in circuitry are
designated as ICP® sensors, and those without circuitry are designated as charge output
sensors. Ordinarily, ICP® sensors are preferred, as they are more cost effective and easier
to implement. Charge output sensors are used when temperatures exceed ICP® sensor
limits, typically above +250 °F (+121 °C), or under quasi-static measurement
circumstances.
The need for signal conditioning
All quartz force measurement systems require some conditioning of the measurement
signal that is generated by the force sensing crystals. This signal conditioning primarily
serves to convert the high-impedance, electrostatic charge signal, which is generated by
the quartz crystal, into a low-impedance voltage that can then be interpreted by readout
and recording instruments. This primary conditioning also serves to minimize corruption
of the measurement signal by extraneous noise influences. Secondary signal
conditioning functions may include amplification, sensitivity normalization, filtering,
clamping, summing, or other functions, as required by the specific application.
ICP® Sensor Signal Conditioning
The primary, impedance conversion for an ICP® sensor is carried out by the built-in
microelectronic circuitry. This circuitry requires excitation power to energize and
function. Excitation power is typically provided by an ICP® sensor signal conditioner,
which may be a portable, battery powered device or, a laboratory bench-top or rack
mounted unit. Some readout or recording instruments may also provide the proper
excitation power to accommodate direct connection to ICP® sensors.
Special purpose ICP® sensor signal conditioners accommodate secondary signal
conditioning functions for specific application requirements. An AC/DC coupled unit
facilitates quasi-static calibration in the DC coupled mode and drift-free, unattended
dynamic operation in the AC coupled mode. For repetitive pulse type applications, such
as crimping, pressing, punching, and stamping operations, a clamped-output unit keeps
signals ground based and of positive polarity. This ensures consistent force peak and
profile monitoring for production quality control
purposes. Additional models are available
which support summing, filtering, switching,
and other features as may be required by the
specific application.
Standard
Sensor Cable or Output
Cable*
ICP® Force
Sensor
Readout Device
with Built-in ICP® Sensor
Excitation Power
Standard
Sensor Cable or
Output Cable*
Output Cable
ICP® Force
Sensor
Readout Device
ICP® Sensor
Signal Conditioner
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
1.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
conformance.
www.pcb.com
Typical Force Sensor Measurement Systems
Charge Output Sensor Signal Conditioning
There are two techniques for accomplishing impedance conversion in a charge output
sensor measurement system. The first utilizes an in-line charge converter with an ICP®
sensor signal conditioner. The in-line charge converter may be selected to provide one
out of a number of available fixed sensitivity transfer values, including 1, 10 or 100
mV/pC. This technique allows the system to be re-ranged, by selecting an alternative
charge converter, to accommodate more than one application, or measurement range,
with the same sensor. Benefits associated with ICP® sensors can be achieved with this
approach, including long distance signal transmission and lower cost-per-channel.
The other technique for conditioning a charge output sensor signal is with a laboratorystyle, electrostatic charge amplifier. This type of charge amplifier offers many
signal-conditioning features, including sensitivity normalization, ranging, and filtering.
Quasi-static measurements and calibrations are supported with units having the ability
of adjusting for long discharge time constants. In addition, one sensor can be ranged for
a wide variety of full-scale measurement tasks, thereby taking full advantage of the
charge output sensor’s wide, linear dynamic range.
Important considerations for charge output sensors include precautions associated with
the high-impedance portion of the signal path. To maintain low frequency response and
avoid potential signal drift, this portion of the measurement system must be kept clean
and dry to preserve a high level of insulation resistance. Also, the use of specially
treated, low-noise cable is recommended. Such cable minimizes triboelectric noise, i.e.
noise caused by frictional effects during cable movement. For these reasons, charge
output sensors are not particularly well-suited for dirty, industrial, factory and
outdoor environments. ICP®
sensors are better suited for
such circumstances.
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
Charge
Output Force
Sensor
Output Cable
Charge Amplifier
Standard
Sensor Cable
or Output
Cable*
Low-noise
Sensor
Cable
Charge
Output Force
Sensor
Readout Device
In-line
Charge
Converter
Output
Cable
Readout Device
ICP® Sensor
Signal
Conditioner
Custom Sensors
For specialized applications, PCB® can provide sensors that are custom tailored to suit
particular measurement requirements. Available options to standard designs include
special ranges, sensitivities, calibration, environmental testing, temperature limits,
signal filtering, electrical connectors, materials of construction and discharge time
constant values. In addition, we can work with you to completely design sensors for your
specific needs.
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
conformance.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.7
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - English Measurement Units
General Purpose ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
208A11
208A12
208A13
208A14
208A15
208C01
208C02
208C03
208C04
208C05
10/10 lb
100/100 lb
500/500 lb
1000/500 lb
5000/500 lb
10/10 lb
100/100 lb
500/500 lb
1000/500 lb
5000/500 lb
500 mV/lb
50 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
500 mV/lb
50 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
100/100 lb
1000/500 lb
5000/750 lb
6k/750 lb
8k/750 lb
100/100 lb
1000/500 lb
5000/500 lb
6k/500 lb
8k/500 lb
0.0001 lb
0.001 lb
0.005 lb
0.01 lb
0.05 lb
0.0001 lb
0.001 lb
0.005 lb
0.01 lb
0.05 lb
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
1.17 in
1.17 in
1.17 in
1.17 in
1.17 in
0.63 in
0.63 in
0.63 in
0.63 in
0.63 in
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
* Compression/Tension
General Purpose Charge Output Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
Height
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
218A11
218C
5000/500 lb
5000/500 lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
8k/750 lb
8k/500 lb
14 pF
14 pF
1.17 in
0.63 in
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
M7 x 0.75
10-32
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
* Compression/Tension
ICP® Quartz Force Rings
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
201A75
201A76
201B01
201B02
201B03
201B04
201B05
202B
203B
204C
205C
206C
207C
5000 lb
5000 lb
10 lb
100 lb
500 lb
1000 lb
5000 lb
10k lb
20k lb
40k lb
60k lb
80k lb
100k lb
1 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
500 mV/lb
50 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
0.5 mV/lb
0.25 mV/lb
0.12 mV/lb
0.08 mV/lb
0.06 mV/lb
0.05 mV/lb
5000 lb
5000 lb
60 lb
600 lb
3000 lb
6000 lb
8000 lb
15k lb
25k lb
50k lb
70k lb
90k lb
110k lb
0.10 lb
0.10 lb
0.0002 lb
0.002 lb
0.01 lb
0.02 lb
0.1 lb
0.2 lb
0.4 lb
0.8 lb
1.0 lb
1.8 lb
2.0 lb
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
0.2 in
0.2 in
0.31 in
0.31 in
0.31 in
0.31 in
0.31 in
0.39 in
0.43 in
0.47 in
0.51 in
0.59 in
0.67 in
0.75 in
0.75 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.87 in
1.10 in
1.34 in
1.58 in
2.05 in
2.95 in
* Compression
1.8
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
ID
0.25 in
0.25 in
0.25 in
0.25 in
0.25 in
0.25 in
0.25 in
0.41 in
0.52 in
0.66 in
0.83 in
1.03 in
1.61 in
Coupling
Threads
Pages
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
5/16-24
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
7/8-14
1 1/8-12
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.28
1.25, 1.28
1.25, 1.28
1.26, 1.28
1.26, 1.28
1.26, 1.28
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - English Measurement Units
Charge Output Quartz Force Rings
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
Height
OD
ID
Coupling
Threads
Pages
211B
212B
213B
214B
215B
216B
217B
5000 lb
10k lb
20k lb
40k lb
60k lb
80k lb
100k lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
17 pC/lb
8000 lb
15k lb
25k lb
50k lb
70k lb
90k lb
110k lb
12 pF
20 pF
28 pF
32 pF
38 pF
80 pF
130 pF
0.31 in
0.39 in
0.43 in
0.47 in
0.51 in
0.59 in
0.67 in
0.65 in
0.87 in
1.10 in
1.34 in
1.58 in
2.05 in
2.95 in
0.25 in
0.41 in
0.52 in
0.66 in
0.83 in
1.03 in
1.61 in
10-32
5/16-24
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
7/8-14
1 1/8-12
1.24, 1.29
1.25, 1.29
1.25, 1.29
1.25, 1.29
1.26, 1.29
1.26, 1.29
1.26, 1.29
* Compression
ICP® Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
221B01
221B02
221B03
221B04
221B05
222B
223B
224C
225C
226C
227C
10/10 lb
100/100 lb
500/500 lb
1000/1000 lb
5000/1000 lb
6000/2500 lb
12k/4000 lb
25k/8000 lb
35k/12k lb
45k/20k lb
50k/30k lb
500 mV/lb
50 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
0.90 mV/lb
0.42 mV/lb
0.20 mV/lb
0.14 mV/lb
0.11 mV/lb
0.10 mV/lb
100/100 lb
1000/500 lb
5000/1000 lb
6000/1200 lb
6000/1200 lb
7000/2800 lb
15k/4500 lb
31k/10k lb
45k/15k lb
55k/25k lb
66k/37.5k lb
0.0002 lb
0.002 lb
0.01 lb
0.02 lb
0.10 lb
0.20 lb
0.40 lb
0.60 lb
0.10 lb
0.44 lb
1 lb
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
1.25 in
1.25 in
1.25 in
1.25 in
1.25 in
1.62 in
2.00 in
2.50 in
3.00 in
3.50 in
4.25 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.87 in
1.10 in
1.34 in
1.58 in
2.05 in
2.95 in
1/4-28
1/4-28
1/4-28
1/4-28
1/4-28
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
3/4-16
1-12
1 1/4-12
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.36
1.33, 1.36
1.33, 1.36
1.33, 1.36
1.34, 1.36
1.34, 1.36
Height
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
1.25 in
1.62 in
2.00 in
2.50 in
3.00 in
3.50 in
4.25 in
0.65 in
0.87 in
1.10 in
1.34 in
1.58 in
2.05 in
2.95 in
1/4-28
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
3/4-16
1-12
1 1/4-12
1.32, 1.37
1.32, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.34, 1.37
1.34, 1.37
* Compression/Tension
Charge Output Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
231B
232B
233B
234B
235B
236B
237B
5000/1000 lb
6000/2500 lb
12k/4000 lb
25k/8000 lb
35k/12k lb
45k/20k lb
50k/30k lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
17 pC/lb
Maximum
Force*
6000/1200 lb
7000/2800 lb
15k/4500 lb
31k/10k lb
45k/15k lb
55k/25k lb
66k/37.5k lb
Capacitance
12 pF
20 pF
28 pF
32 pF
38 pF
80 pF
130 pF
* Compression/Tension
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.9
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - English Measurement Units
3-Component ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
260A01
260A02
260A03
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum Resolution
Force
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
1000 lb
500 lb
1000 lb
1000 lb
10k lb
4000 lb
2.5 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
2.5 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
0.25 mV/lb
1.25 mV/lb
1320 lb*
660 lb**
1320 lb*
1000 lb**
11k lb*
4400 lb**
* Compression/Tension
0.006 lb
0.002 lb
0.006 lb
0.006 lb
0.05 lb
0.01 lb
Time
Constant
Height
LxW
Coupling
Threads
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
0.39 in
1.08 x 0.95 in
5/16-24
0.39 in
1.35 x 1.25 in
1/2-20
0.79 in
2.25 x 2.25 in
7/8-14
Pages
1.40, 1.42
1.40, 1.42
1.40, 1.42
** Shear
3-Component Charge Output Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
260A11/A31*
260A12/A32*
260A13/A33*
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
1000 lb
500 lb
1000 lb
1000 lb
10k lb
4000 lb
15 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
15 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
15 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
1320 lb**
660 lb***
1320 lb**
1000 lb***
11k lb**
4400 lb***
*Models 260A31, 260A32, and 260A33 have reverse shear polarity for x-, y-axis
Capacitance Height
18 pF
18 pF
30 pF
30 pF
70 pF
70 pF
LxW
Coupling
Threads
0.39 in
0.95 x 0.95 in
5/16-24
0.39 in
1.25 x 1.25 in
1/2-20
0.79 in
2.25 x 2.25 in
7/8-14
** Compression/Tension
Pages
1.41, 1.42
1.41, 1.42
1.41, 1.42
*** Shear
3-Component ICP® Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
261A01
261A02
261A03
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum Resolution
Force
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
1000 lb
500 lb
1000 lb
1000 lb
10k lb
4000 lb
2.5 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
2.5 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
0.25 mV/lb
1.25 mV/lb
1320 lb*
660 lb**
1320 lb*
1000 lb**
11k lb*
4400 lb**
* Compression/Tension
0.006 lb
0.002 lb
0.006 lb
0.006 lb
0.05 lb
0.01 lb
Time
Constant
Height
LxW
Coupling
Threads
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
1.65 in
1.65 x 1.65 in
1/4-28
2.36 in
2.16 x 2.16 in
5/16-24
3.54 in
3.15 x 3.15 in
3/8-24
Pages
1.44, 1.46
1.44, 1.46
1.44, 1.46
** Shear
3-Component Charge Output Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
261A11
261A12
261A13
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
1000 lb
500 lb
1000 lb
1000 lb
10k lb
4000 lb
15 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
15 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
15 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
1320 lb*
660 lb**
1320 lb*
1000 lb**
11k lb*
4400 lb**
* Compression/Tension
1.10
Capacitance Height
18 pF
18 pF
30 pF
30 pF
70 pF
70 pF
LxW
Coupling
Threads
1.65 in
1.65 x 1.65 in
1/4-28
2.36 in
2.16 x 2.16 in
5/16-24
3.54 in
3.15 x 3.15 in
3/8-24
** Shear
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Pages
1.45, 1.46
1.45, 1.46
1.45, 1.46
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - English Measurement Units
ICP® Quartz Impact Force Sensors
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
200B01
200B02
200B03
200B04
200B05
200C20
200C50
10 lb
100 lb
500 lb
1000 lb
5000 lb
20k lb
50k lb
500 mV/lb
50 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
0.25 mV/lb
0.10 mV/lb
150 lb
600 lb
3000 lb
5000 lb
8000 lb
30k lb
75k lb
0.0002 lb
0.002 lb
0.01 lb
0.02 lb
0.1 lb
0.3 lb
1 lb
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
0.36 in
0.36 in
0.36 in
0.36 in
0.36 in
0.50 in
0.75 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
0.65 in
1.49 in
2.12 in
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
1/4-28
1/4-28
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.53, 1.54
* Compression
Charge Output Impact Force Sensors
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
210B
210B20
210B50
5000 lb
20k lb
50k lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
10k lb
30k lb
75k lb
12 pF
150 pF
250 pF
0.36 in
0.50 in
0.75 in
0.65 in
1.49 in
2.12 in
10-32
1/4-28
1/4-28
1.52, 1.55
1.52, 1.55
1.53, 1.55
* Compression
Miniature ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
209C01
209C02
209C11
209C12
2.2 lb*
2.2 lb*
2.2/1 lb**
2.2/1 lb**
2200 mV/lb
2200 mV/lb
2200 mV/lb
2200 mV/lb
11 lb*
11 lb*
11/1 lb**
11/1 lb**
0.00002 lb
0.00002 lb
0.00002 lb
0.00002 lb
≥ 1 sec
≥ 10 sec
≥ 1 sec
≥ 10 sec
0.61 in
0.61 in
0.83 in
0.83 in
3/8 hex
3/8 hex
3/8 hex
3/8 hex
10-32
10-32
2-56, 10-32
2-56, 10-32
1.58, 1.59
1.58, 1.59
1.58, 1.59
1.58, 1.59
* Compression
** Compression/Tension
Miniature Charge Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
Height
OD
Pages
219A05
560 lb*
20 pC/lb
675 lb*
5 pF
0.235 in
.236
1.62
* Compression
Penetration-Style ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Range
208A22
208A23
208A24
208A33
208A35
208A45
100 lb*
1000 lb*
2500 lb*
1000/500 lb**
5000/500 lb**
5000/500 lb**
* Compression
Sensitivity
50 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
1 mV/lb
Maximum
Force
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
1000 lb*
5000 lb*
5000 lb*
5000/750 lb**
10k/750 lb**
10k/750 lb**
0.002 lb
0.02 lb
0.10 lb
0.02 lb
0.10 lb
0.10 lb
≥ 200 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
1.41 in
1.41 in
1.41 in
1.66 in
1.97 in
1.81 in
0.50 in
0.50 in
0.50 in
0.50 in
0.50 in
1.00 in
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
** Compression/Tension
ICP® Strain Sensor Selection Guide – English Measurement Units
Model
Number
M240A01
M240A02
M240A03
Range
Sensitivity
Resolution
50 pk µε
100 pk µε
300 pk µε
100 mV/µε
50 mV/µε
10 mV/µε
0.0001 µε
0.0002 µε
0.001 µε
Time
Constant
≥ 150 sec
≥ 150 sec
≥ 150 sec
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Connector
10-32
10-32
10-32
Size
(W x L x H)
0.67 x 1.81 x 0.6 in
0.67 x 1.81 x 0.6 in
0.67 x 1.81 x 0.6 in
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Weight
1.6 oz
1.6 oz
1.6 oz
Mounting
Thread
M6 x 1.00-6g
M6 x 1.00-6g
M6 x 1.00-6g
716-684-0001
Pages
1.68, 1.69
1.68, 1.69
1.68, 1.69
www.pcb.com
1.11
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - Metric Measurement Units
General Purpose ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
208A11
208A12
208A13
208A14
208A15
208C01
208C02
208C03
208C04
208C05
45/45 N
450/450 N
2200/2200 N
4500/2200 N
22k/2200 N
45/45 N
450/450 N
2200/2200 N
4500/2200 N
22k/2200 N
110 mV/N
11 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
110 mV/N
11 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
450/450 N
4500/2200 N
22k/3300 N
36k/3300 N
36k/3300 N
450/450 N
4500/2200 N
22k/2200 N
27k/2200 N
36k/2200 N
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
0.00045 N
0.0045 N
0.022 N
0.045 N
0.22 N
0.00045 N
0.0045 N
0.022 N
0.045 N
0.22 N
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
29.7 mm
29.7 mm
29.7 mm
29.7 mm
29.7 mm
15.9 mm
15.9 mm
15.9 mm
15.9 mm
15.9 mm
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
5/8 hex
5/8 hex
M7 x 0.75
10-32
1.20, 1.21
1.20, 1.21
* Compression/Tension
General Purpose Charge Output Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
218A11
218C
22k/2200 N
22k/2200 N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
Maximum
Force*
36k/3300 N
36k/2200 N
Capacitance
Height
14 pF
14 pF
29.7 mm
15.9 mm
* Compression/Tension
ICP® Quartz Force Rings
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
201A75
201A76
201B01
201B02
201B03
201B04
201B05
202B
203B
204C
205C
206C
207C
22k N
22k N
45 N
450 N
2200 N
4500 N
22k N
45k N
90k N
180k N
260k N
350k N
450k N
0.22 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
110 mV/N
11 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
0.11 mV/N
0.06 mV/N
0.027 mV/N
0.018 mV/N
0.013 mV/N
0.011 mV/N
22k N
22k N
250 N
2700 N
13k N
27k N
35k N
70k N
110k N
220k N
300k N
400k N
500k N
0.45 N
0.45 N
0.0009 N
0.009 N
0.045 N
0.09 N
0.45 N
0.9 N
1.8 N
3.6 N
4.5 N
8N
8.9 N
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
Height
5.1 mm
5.1 mm
7.9 mm
7.9 mm
7.9 mm
7.9 mm
7.9 mm
9.9 mm
10.9 mm
11.9 mm
13.0 mm
15.0 mm
17.0 mm
OD
19.1 mm
19.1 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
22.1 mm
27.9 mm
34.0 mm
40.1 mm
52.1 mm
74.9 mm
* Compression
1.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
ID
Coupling
Threads
Pages
6.4 mm
6.4 mm
6.4 mm
6.4 mm
6.4 mm
6.4 mm
6.4 mm
10.4 mm
13.2 mm
16.8 mm
21.1 mm
26.0 mm
40.9 mm
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
5/16-24
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
7/8-14
1 1/8-12
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.27
1.24, 1.28
1.25, 1.28
1.25, 1.28
1.26, 1.28
1.26, 1.28
1.26, 1.28
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - Metric Measurement Units
Charge Output Quartz Force Rings
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
Height
OD
ID
Coupling
Threads
Pages
211B
212B
213B
214B
215B
216B
217B
22k N
45k N
90k N
180k N
260k N
350k N
450k N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
3.8 pC/N
35k N
70k N
110k N
220k N
300k N
400k N
500k N
12 pF
20 pF
28 pF
32 pF
38 pF
80 pF
130 pF
7.9 mm
9.9 mm
10.9 mm
11.9 mm
13.0 mm
15.0 mm
17.0 mm
16.5 mm
22.1 mm
27.9 mm
34.0 mm
40.1 mm
52.1 mm
74.9 mm
6.4 mm
10.4 mm
13.2 mm
16.8 mm
21.1 mm
26.0 mm
40.9 mm
10-32
5/16-24
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
7/8-14
1 1/8-12
1.24, 1.29
1.25, 1.29
1.25, 1.29
1.25, 1.29
1.26, 1.29
1.26, 1.29
1.26, 1.29
* Compression
ICP® Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
221B01
221B02
221B03
221B04
221B05
222B
223B
224C
225C
226C
227C
45/45 N
450/450 N
2200/2200 N
4500/4500 N
22k/4500 N
27k/11k N
55k/18k N
110k/35k N
150k/55k N
200k/90k N
220k/130k N
Sensitivity
110 mV/N
11 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
0.20 mV/N
0.09 mV/N
0.05 mV/N
0.031 mV/N
0.025 mV/N
0.022 mV/N
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
450/450 N
4500/2200 N
22k/4500 N
27k/5300 N
27k/5300 N
30k/12k N
70k/20k N
140k/45k N
200k/70k N
250k/110k N
300k/170k N
0.0009 N
0.009 N
0.045 N
0.09 N
0.45 N
0.90 N
1.8 N
2.7 N
0.45 N
2N
4.5 N
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
31.8 mm
31.8 mm
31.8 mm
31.8 mm
31.8 mm
41.2 mm
50.8 mm
63.5 mm
76.2 mm
88.9 mm
108.0 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
22.1 mm
27.9 mm
34.0 mm
40.1 mm
52.1 mm
74.9 mm
1/4-28
1/4-28
1/4-28
1/4-28
1/4-28
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
3/4-16
1-12
1 1/4-12
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.32, 1.35
1.33, 1.36
1.33, 1.36
1.33, 1.36
1.33, 1.36
1.34, 1.36
1.34, 1.36
OD
Coupling
Threads
Pages
16.5 mm
22.1 mm
27.9 mm
34.0 mm
40.1 mm
52.1 mm
74.9 mm
1/4-28
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
3/4-16
1-12
1 1/4-12
1.33, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.33, 1.37
1.34, 1.37
1.34, 1.37
* Compression/Tension
Charge Output Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
Comp./Tension
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
231B
232B
233B
234B
235B
236B
237B
22k/4500 N
27k/11k N
55k/18k N
110k/35k N
150k/55k N
200k/90k N
220k/130k N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
3.8 pC/N
27k/5300 N
30k/12k N
70k/20k N
140k/45k N
200k/70k N
250k/110k N
300k/170k N
Capacitance
12 pF
20 pF
28 pF
32 pF
38 pF
80 pF
130 pF
Height
31.8 mm
41.2 mm
50.8 mm
63.5 mm
76.2 mm
88.9 mm
108.0 mm
* Compression/Tension
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.13
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - Metric Measurement Units
3-Component ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
260A01
260A02
260A03
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
4500 N
2200 N
4500 N
4500 N
45k N
18k N
0.56 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
0.56 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.06 mV/N
0.28 mV/N
* Compression/Tension
Maximum Resolution
Time
Height
Force
Constant
6000 N*
3000 N**
6000 N*
4500 N**
50k N*
19k N**
0.027 N
0.009 N
0.027 N
0.027 N
0.22 N
0.045 N
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
LxW
Coupling
Threads
9.9 mm
27.3 x 24.1 mm
5/16-24
9.9 mm
34.3 x 31.8 mm
1/2-20
20.1 mm
57.2 x 57.2 mm
7/8-14
Pages
1.40, 1.42
1.40, 1.42
1.40, 1.42
** Shear
3-Component Charge Output Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
260A11/A31*
260A12/A32*
260A13/A33*
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
4500 N
2200 N
4500 N
4500 N
45k N
18k N
3.4 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
3.4 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
3.4 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
Maximum
Force
Capacitance Height
6000 N**
3000 N***
6000 N**
4500 N***
50k N**
19k N***
* Models 260A31, 260A32, and 260A33 have reverse shear polarity for x-, y-axis
18 pF
18 pF
30 pF
30 pF
70 pF
70 pF
LxW
Coupling
Threads
9.9 mm 24.1 x 24.1 mm
1/4-28
9.9 mm 31.8 x 31.8 mm
1/2-20
20.1 mm 57.2 x 57.2 mm
7/8-14
** Compression/Tension
Pages
1.41, 1.42
1.41, 1.42
1.41, 1.42
*** Shear
3-Component ICP® Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
261A01
261A02
261A03
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
4500 N
2200 N
4500 N
4500 N
45k N
18k N
0.56 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
0.56 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.06 mV/N
0.28 mV/N
* Compression/Tension
Maximum Resolution
Time
Height
Force
Constant
6000 N*
3000 N**
6000 N*
4500 N**
50k N*
19k N**
0.027 N
0.009 N
0.027 N
0.027 N
0.22 N
0.045 N
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
≥ 50
≥ 500
LxW
Coupling
Threads
42 mm
42 x 42 mm
1/4-28
60 mm
55 x 55 mm
5/16-24
90 mm
80 x 80 mm
3/8-24
Pages
1.44, 1.46
1.44, 1.46
1.44, 1.46
** Shear
3-Component Charge Output Quartz Force Links
Model
Number
261A11
261A12
261A13
Axis
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
z-axis
x-, y-axis
4500 N
2200 N
4500 N
4500 N
45k N
18k N
3.4 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
3.4 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
3.4 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
6000 N*
3000 N**
6000 N*
4500 N**
50k N*
19k N**
* Compression/Tension
1.14
Capacitance Height
18 pF
18 pF
30 pF
30 pF
70 pF
70 pF
LxW
Coupling
Threads
42 mm
42 x 42 mm
1/4-28
60 mm
55 x 55 mm
5/16-24
90 mm
80 x 80 mm
3/8-24
** Shear
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Pages
1.45, 1.46
1.45, 1.46
1.45, 1.46
Quartz Sensor Selection Guide - Metric Measurement Units
ICP® Quartz Impact Force Sensors
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
200B01
200B02
200B03
200B04
200B05
200C20
200C50
45 N
450 N
2200 N
4500 N
22k N
90k N
220k N
110 mV/N
11 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
0.06 mV/N
0.022 mV/N
700 N
2700 N
13k N
22k N
35k N
130k N
330k N
0.0009 N
0.009 N
0.045 N
0.09 N
0.45 N
1.3 N
4.5 N
≥ 50 sec
≥ 500 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
9.1 mm
9.1 mm
9.1 mm
9.1 mm
9.1 mm
12.7 mm
19.1 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
16.5 mm
37.8 mm
53.7 mm
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
10-32
1/4-28
1/4-28
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.52, 1.54
1.53, 1.54
* Compression
Charge Output Impact Force Sensors
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
210B
210B20
210B50
22k N
90k N
220k N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
45k N
130k N
330k N
12 pF
150 pF
250 pF
Height
9.1 mm
12.7 mm
19.1 mm
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
16.5 mm
37.8 mm
53.7 mm
10-32
1/4-28
1/4-28
1.52, 1.55
1.52, 1.55
1.53, 1.55
* Compression
Miniature ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
209C01
209C02
209C11
209C12
10 N*
10 N*
10/4.5 N**
10/4.5 N**
500 mV/N
500 mV/N
500 mV/N
500 mV/N
50 N*
50 N*
50/4.5 N**
50/4.5 N**
0.00009 N
0.00009 N
0.00009 N
0.00009 N
≥ 1 sec
≥ 10 sec
≥ 1 sec
≥ 10 sec
15.5 mm
15.5 mm
21.1 mm
21.1 mm
3/8 hex
3/8 hex
3/8 hex
3/8 hex
10-32
10-32
2-56, 10-32
2-56, 10-32
1.58, 1.59
1.58, 1.59
1.58, 1.59
1.58, 1.59
* Compression
** Compression/Tension
Miniature Charge Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Compression
Range
Sensitivity
Maximum
Force*
Capacitance
Height
OD
Pages
219A05
2.5 kN*
4.5 pc/N
3 kN*
5 pF
6 mm
6 mm
1.62
* Compression
Penetration-style ICP® Quartz Force Sensors
Model
Number
Range
208A22
208A23
208A24
208A33
208A35
208A45
450 N*
4500 N*
11k N*
4500/2200 N**
22k/2200 N**
22k/2200 N**
* Compression
Sensitivity
11 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
0.22 mV/N
Maximum
Force
Resolution
Time
Constant
Height
OD
Mounting
Threads
Pages
4500 N*
22k N*
22k N*
22k /3300 N**
45k/3300 N**
45k/3300 N**
0.009 N
0.09 N
0.45 N
0.09 N
0.45 N
0.45 N
≥ 200 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
≥ 2000 sec
35.8 mm
35.8 mm
35.8 mm
42.2 mm
50.0 mm
46 mm
12.7 mm
12.7 mm
12.7 mm
12.7 mm
12.7 mm
25.4 mm
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
M7 x 0.75
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
1.64, 1.65
** Compression/Tension
ICP® Strain Sensor Selection Guide – Metric Measurement Units
Model
Number
M240A01
M240A02
M240A03
Range
Sensitivity
Resolution
50 pk µε
100 pk µε
300 pk µε
100 mV/µε
50 mV/µε
10 mV/µε
0.0001 µε
0.0002 µε
0.001 µε
Time
Constant
≥ 150 sec
≥ 150 sec
≥ 150 sec
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Connector
10-32
10-32
10-32
Size
(W x L x H)
17 x 46 x 15.2 mm
17 x 46 x 15.2 mm
17 x 46 x 15.2 mm
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Weight
45 gm
45 gm
45 gm
Mounting
Thread
M6 x 1.00-6g
M6 x 1.00-6g
M6 x 1.00-6g
716-684-0001
Pages
1.68, 1.69
1.68, 1.69
1.68, 1.69
www.pcb.com
1.15
Model 208C03 General Purpose ICP® Quartz Force Sensor shown in end of line process test
machine.
1.16
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Standard Options for Force Sensors
Option “J” — Ground Isolation (e.g., J223B)
The ground isolation option provides an electrical isolation of >108 ohm between the
force sensor and the test structure. This electrical isolation is achieved by adding a layer
of insulating material between the sensor and its mounting hardware. Typically, ground
isolation is used when testing machines that are driven by electric motors or around
other objects that produce large amounts of electrical noise. Isolating the sensor from
the test object also reduces noise induced by electrical ground loops.
Option M
Option “M” — Metric Mounting Thread (e.g., M201B03)
This option is used for applications requiring a metric
thread for installation. On models for which a
separate mounting stud is provided, the option
supplies a stud with a metric installation thread. For
link-style models that incorporate tapped mounting
threads, the optional unit includes metric tapped
threads. The table below lists the supplied mounting
studs, washers and bushings for all of our standard
quartz force sensors. See pages 1.32 to 1.34 for
metric threads supplied on link-style sensors.
Typical Metric Mounting
Option “N” — Negative Polarity Element (e.g., N202B)
This option reverses the polarity of the output signal to match the requirements of the
installation. Most ICP® force sensors normally generate a positive polarity output signal
when compressed. During machinery studies, it may be practical for this to be changed
to a negative polarity to satisfy signal analysis schemes. This option changes the polarity
of the sensor from positive going to negative going when compressed.
Option “P” — Positive Polarity Element (e.g., P218C)
When the phase of the output signal is important, especially for timing and
multi-channel applications, it may be necessary to reverse the polarity of the output
signal to correspond to the inverting characteristics of the signal conditioner being used.
Most charge amplifiers invert the measurement signal and would typically be used with
charge output force sensors having a negative signal polarity. In cases where the signal
conditioner is a non-inverting device, it may be desirable to use a positive polarity sensor.
This option provides a positive polarity charge output sensor without compromise to any
other specification.
Option “W” — Water-resistant Connection
(e.g., W208C03/002C10)
Option W
Force Sensor
O-ring
Mtg. Surface
The water-resistant option provides a cable directly attached and sealed to the sensor’s
electrical connector with O-rings and heat-shrink tubing. This helps secure and seal the
cable to the sensor, provides strain relief, and protects the integrity of the connection.
This sealing guards against contamination from dirt and fluids and permits short-term
underwater use. Use the option letter “W” as a prefix to the model number. Then add a
slash (/) after the model number, followed by the type of cable, length, and appropriate
connectors (see cables/accessories section beginning on page 1.69 for a description of
cables and connectors). Example shown is a Model 208C03 connected
to a 10 ft Model 002C10 cable via a standard 10-32 coaxial plug. The
Heat Shrink Tubing
cable itself terminates in a BNC plug. Designate a metric length by
adding an “M” in front of the cable type, e.g., W208C03/M002C03
designates a 3-meter cable length.
Cable
Water-Resistant Cable Attachment
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.17
Dynamic Quartz Force Sensors
Quartz force sensors are available in a wide variety of configurations to meet the needs of
most dynamic compression, tension and impact measurement requirements. Quartz sensors
can also be integrated into machinery parts and linkages for monitoring continuous,
repetitive cycles or processes.
1.18
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
General Purpose Quartz
Force Sensors
Highlights
■
Dynamic compression and tension
■
Impact testing
■
Stamping and forming
■
Drop testing
■
Materials testing
■
Machinery studies
General purpose quartz force sensors measure rapidly changing dynamic compression,
tensile, and impact forces and adapt to a wide range of applications. They are offered in
both ICP® and charge output types and are available to measure full-scale compression
forces from 10 to 5000 lb (45 to 22k N) and full-scale tensile forces from 10 to 500 lb (45
to 2200 N). The variety of available sensitivities allow the user to select a model that
best fits the dynamic range of the test, thus optimizing the signal to noise ratio. When
used in a DC coupled system, these sensors have the ability to measure short-term,
quasi-static events as required for calibration and measurements lasting a few seconds
in duration. They are easily installed in a variety of applications where stud or axial
mounting is required.
Two physical sensor configurations are available. The side-exit connector design has 1032 tapped mounting holes on both the top and bottom surfaces of the sensor. This type
easily adapts to link, integrated link, platform, and freestanding installations. Since the
electrical connector extends radially from the sensor, it can be positioned for optimum
clearance and cable routing. The sensor is supplied with a curved impact cap that is
recommended for use in drop test applications. The curved surface of the impact cap
helps to evenly distribute the load over the sensing surface to avoid “edge loading.”
The second configuration has an axial output connector. This sensor is preferred when
mounting space is at a minimum and in drop test applications. In drop test applications,
the connector and cable are protected from the impacting objects. This improves
connector longevity during impact and prevents potential pinching and crushing of the
cable during test. A curved impact cap is also supplied with axial connector sensors.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.19
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors
General Purpose
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.21)
General purpose piezoelectric force sensors measure both dynamic
and quasi-static forces over a wide, full-scale measurement range
of 10 lb (45 N) up to 5000 lb (22k N). A removable curved impact cap
is supplied with each sensor.
■
modal analysis force input
■
tensile testing
■
drop and impact testing
■
biomechanics
■
material fracture
■
material testing
■
mechanical impedance
■
fatigue testing
Models 208C01 to 208C05 — side connector
Sensitivities from 1 to 500 mV/lb
(0.22 to 110 mV/N)
■ Full-scale compression ranges from
10 to 5000 lb (45 to 22k N)
■ Full-scale tension ranges from 10 to 500 lb
(45 to 2200 N)
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 218C — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Models 208C01
to 208C05, and 218C
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Models 208A11 to 208A15 — axial connector
Sensitivities from 1 to 500 mV/lb
(0.22 to 110 mV/N)
■ Full-scale compression ranges from
10 to 5000 lb (45 to 22k N)
■ Full-scale tension ranges from 10 to 500 lb
(45 to 2200 N)
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
*
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 218A11 — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Models 208A11
to 208A15, and 218A11
Options: P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
exempt.
* Charge output sensors are
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.20
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors
ICP® Sensor Models
Side Connector Models
Unit
Axial Connector Models
Charge Output
208C01
208C02
208C03
208C04
208C05
208A11
208A12
208A13
208A14
208A15
218C
218A11
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Tension Range
Maximum Compression
Maximum Tension
Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
value
value
lb rms
N rms
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
10
(45)
10
(45)
60 (270)
60 (270)
500 mV/lb
110 mV/N
0.0001
0.00045
≤1
36k
0.01
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
100 (450) 500 (2200) 1000 (4500)
100 (450) 500 (2200) 500 (2200)
600 (2700) 3000 (13.5k)
6k
(27k)
500 (2200) 500 (2200) [2] 500 (2200) [2]
50 mV/lb
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
11 mV/N
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.001
0.005
0.01
0.0045
0.022
0.045
≤1
≤1
≤1
36k
36k
36k
0.001
0.0003
0.0003
-65 to +250 -65 to +250
-65 to +250
-54 to +121 -54 to +121
-54 to +121
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
≤ 0.09
≤ 0.09
5000
(22k) 5000 (22k) 5000 (22k)
500 (2200) 500 (2200)
500 (2200)
8k
(36k)
8k (36k)
8k (36k)
500 (2200) [2] 500 (2200)
750 (3300)
1 mV/lb
18 pC/lb
18 pC/lb
0.22 mV/N
4 pC/N
4 pC/N
see note [3]
0.05
see note [3]
0.22
see note [3]
see note [3]
≤1
≤1
≤1
36k
36k
36k
0.0003
see note [3]
see note [3]
-65 to +250
-300 to +400 -300 to +400
-54 to +121
-184 to +204 -184 to +204
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.09
≤ 0.054
≤ 0.054
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
pF
ohm
≥ 50
≤ 100
8 to 12
18 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
14
≥ 1x1012
negative
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
14
≥ 1x1012
negative
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
see note [6]
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.80 (22.7)
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
see note [6]
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.80 (22.7)
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
see note [6]
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.80 (22.7)
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
see note [6]
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.80 (22.7)
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
see note [6]
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.80 (22.7)
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
hermetic weld
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.79 (22.4)
see note [5]
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
epoxy
316L / 17-4
17-4 PH
0.71 (20.0)
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [4]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Capacitance
Insulation Resistance
Polarity: Compression
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
size
Connector
type
Stiffness
Ib/µin (kN/µm)
Sealing
type
Material (stainless steel)
type
Impact Cap Material (stainless steel)
type
Weight
oz (gm)
Supplied Accessories [7]
Mounting Stud (2 each supplied)
Impact Cap
Thread Locker Adhesive
Options [8]
model
model
model
prefix
081B05/M081A62 081B05/M081A62 081B05/M081A62 081B05/M081A62
081B05/M081A62 081B05/M081A62 081B05/M081A62
084A03
080A81
084A03
080A81
084A03
080A81
084A03
080A81
084A03
080A81
084A03
080A81
084A03
080A81
N,W
N,W
N,W
N,W
N,W
P,W
P,W
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate). [2] Maximum tension for axial connector models 208A13, 208A14, and 208A15 is 750 lb (3300 N). [3]
Resolution, System Discharge Time Constant and Low Frequency range are dependent upon sensor cable and signal conditioning used. [4] The Discharge Time
Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few
percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event
duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time
Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements. [5] Side connector models have 10-32 female mounting thread. Axial connector models
have M7 x 0.75 male mounting thread. [6] Side connector models are hermetically sealed. Axial connector models are epoxy sealed. [7] See page 2.13 for
complete accessory listings. [8] See page 1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before
ordering). For complete listing of metric mounting studs and screws, see page 2.23.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.21
General Purpose Quartz Force Sensors
ICP® Quartz Force Sensor Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable
ICP® Force
Sensor
Output Cable
Readout Device
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
Charge Output Quartz Force Sensor Measurement Systems
Standard Sensor
Cable or
Output Cable*
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
In-line Charge
Converter
Charge Output
Force Sensor
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
Charge Output
Force Sensor
Output Cable
Readout Device
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
Output Cable
Readout Device
Charge Amplifier
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
1.22
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
conformance.
www.pcb.com
Quartz Force Rings
Highlights
■
Crimping, stamping and
press monitoring
■
Machinery mount forces
■
Force-controlled vibration testing
■
Mechanical impedance testing
■
Recoil of a gun barrel
Quartz force rings are “donut” shaped sensors that predominantly install as an
integrated component to a machine or base plate. They are typically sandwiched
between a fixed foundation and a platform, wall, or machine, and may be integrated
within a push rod or a link. A unique characteristic of force rings is their ability to allow
a portion of a test article to pass through their center hole.
Force rings are constructed with smooth, parallel quartz plates and a hermetically
sealed, stainless steel housing. Their durability and longevity stands up to repetitive
cycling applications and harsh factory environments. Force rings are also capable of
measuring very small forces that are superimposed upon a relatively large, static load.
Both ICP® and charge output versions of force rings are available.
A variety of force ring sizes accommodates full-scale compression measurements
from 10 to 100k lb (45 to 450k N). For tension measurements, the user must torque the
mounting bolt appropriately to achieve the proper pre-load for the tension range desired.
The amount of pre-load, or mounting bolt torque, along with the strength of the mounting
bolt, determines the tension measurement range capability.
Force rings are excellent sensors for machinery process monitoring applications
that can utilize the measurement signal of a force-controlled event. Such feedback
measurements improve the consistency and quality of products derived from repetitive
operations such as crimping, punching, stamping, pressing, and forming. Force rings may
be installed beneath the leg of a machine to alarm of imbalance or loosening of a
mount. Additionally, multiple sensors, when installed in a press base or platform, can
offer the profile of a force distribution over an area. There are also many applications
in the areas of materials testing and fatigue testing for quartz force rings.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.23
Quartz Force Rings
Force rings
(complete specifications are featured on pages 1.27 to 1.29)
Quartz force rings are available in both ICP® and charge output
styles. A variety of sizes ranging from 0.65 to 2.95 in (16.5 to 74.9
mm) in diameter support full-scale compression measurements of
10 to 100k lb (45 to 450k N). Two low profile designs are only 0.20
in (5.08 mm) high, have a compression range of 5000 lb (22k N) are
recommended for use in applications where space is limited.
clamping and pinching
■ material testing
■ tablet and punch presses
■
balancing
roll nip profiles
■ machinery studies
■
■
Model 201A75
Sensitivity of 1 mV/lb (0.22 mV/N)
Compression range to 5000 lb (22k N)
■ 0.25 oz (7 gm) in weight - not including cable
■ Low profile of 0.20 inch (5.1 mm)
■ Integral cable terminated with a BNC jack
■
.005 type
jack
■
Recommended cables and accessories – none
Model 201A75
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 201A76
Sensitivity of 1 mV/lb (0.22 mV/N)
Compression range to 5000 lb (22k N)
■ 0.25 oz (7 gm) in weight
■ Low profile of 0.20 inch (5.1 mm)
■ 5-44 electrical connector
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➊➀ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 201A76
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 201B01 to 201B05
Sensitivities from 1 to 500 mV/lb
(0.22 to 110 mV/N)
■ Full-scale compression ranges from
10 to 5000 lb (45 to 22k N)
■ 0.5 oz (14 gm) in weight
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
*
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model
211B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Models 201B01 to 201B05
and 211B
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.24
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Quartz Force Rings
Model 202B
Sensitivity of 0.50 mV/lb (0.11 mV/N)
Compression range to 10k lb (45k N)
■ 0.7 oz (20 gm) in weight
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
*
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 212B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Models 202B and 212B
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 203B
Sensitivity of 0.25 mV/lb (0.06 mV/N)
Compression range to 20k lb (90k N)
■ 1.3 oz (38 gm) in weight
■
ø 0.52 (13.2)
Thru Hole
■
10-32 Connector
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
*
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
ø 0.90
(22.9)
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model
213B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
ø 1.10
(27.9)
Models 203B and 213B
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
0.43
(10.9)
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
1.67 (42.5)
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 204C
Sensitivity of 0.12 mV/lb (0.027 mV/N)
Compression range to 40k lb (180k N)
■ 2.0 oz (57 gm) in weight
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
*
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 214B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models 204C and 214B
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.25
Quartz Force Rings
Model 205C
Sensitivity of 0.08 mV/lb (0.018 mV/N)
Compression range to 60k lb (260k N)
■ 2.7 oz (77 gm) in weight
■
■
ø 0.83 (21.1)
Thru Hole
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
10-32 Connector
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
ø 1.38 (35.0)
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
ø 1.58 (40.1)
Model 215B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Models 205C and 215B
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
0.51
(13.0)
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
2.15 (54.6)
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 206C
Sensitivity of 0.06 mV/lb (0.013 mV/N)
Compression range to 80k lb (350k N)
■ 5.5 oz (155 gm) in weight
■
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
®
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 216B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models 206C and 216B
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 207C
Sensitivity of 0.05 mV/lb (0.011 mV/N)
Compression range to 100k lb (450k N)
■ 11.6 oz (328 gm) in weight
■
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 217B — charge output, 17 pC/lb (3.8 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models 207C and 217B
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.26
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
ICP ® Quartz Force Rings
ICP® Quartz Force Rings
Low Profile
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Maximum Compression
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity [6]
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
General Purpose
Unit
201A75
201A76
201B01
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms
N rms
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
5000 (22k)
5000 (22k)
1 (0.22)
0.10
0.45
≤1
90k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
5000 (22k)
5000 (22k)
1 (0.22)
0.10
0.45
≤1
90k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
10
(45)
60 (270)
500 (110)
0.0002
0.0009
≤1
90k
0.01
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 50
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
201B02
201B03
100 (450) 500 (2200)
600 (2700) 3000 (13k)
50 (11)
10 (2.2)
0.002
0.01
0.009
0.045
≤1
≤1
90k
90k
0.001
0.0003
-65 to +250 -65 to +250
-54 to +121 -54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≤ 0.054
201B04
201B05
1000 (4500)
6000 (27k)
5 (1.1)
0.02
0.09
≤1
90k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
5000 (22k)
8000 (35k)
1 (0.22)
0.10
0.45
≤1
90k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
Physical Specifications
Recommended Pre-load
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
lb (N)
type
lb/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
oz (gm)
1000 (4500) 1000 (4500)
BNC jack
5-44 coax
16 (2.8)
16 (2.8)
epoxy
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4
0.25 (7)
0.25 (7)
60 (267)
100 (445)
200 (890)
400 (1779)
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
12 (2.1)
12 (2.1)
12 (2.1)
12 (2.1)
hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld
304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4
304L / 17-4
0.35 (10)
0.35 (10)
0.35 (10)
0.35 (10)
1000 (4500)
10-32 coax
12 (2.1)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
0.35 (10)
Supplied Accessories [3,4]
Mounting Stud
Mounting Stud Thread
Anti-friction Washer
Pilot Bushing
Options [5]
model
size
model
model
prefix
081A11
10-32
N/A
083A15
M,N
081A11
10-32
N/A
083A15
M,N,W
081A11
10-32
082B01
083B01
M,N,W
081A11
10-32
082B01
083B01
M,N,W
081A11
10-32
082B01
083B01
M,N,W
081A11
10-32
082B01
083B01
M,N,W
081A11
10-32
082B01
083B01
M,N,W
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements. [3]
NIST traceable calibration certificate is supplied with each sensor. [4] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [5] See page 1.17 for a description of options
(specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric mounting studs and screws, see page 2.23.
[6] Recommended pre-load is required to meet published specification and calibration.
ICP® Quartz Force Ring Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable*
Output Cable
ICP® Force
Sensor
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Readout Device
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
* Low-noise cables are required
to maintain
conformance.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.27
ICP ® Quartz Force Rings
ICP® Quartz Force Rings
High Range
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Maximum Compression
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity [6]
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
202B
203B
204C
205C
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms
N rms
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
10k (45k)
15k (70k)
0.50 (0.11)
0.20
0.9
≤1
60k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
40k (180k)
50k (220k)
0.12 (0.027)
0.80
3.6
≤1
55k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.08
≤ 0.14t
60k (260k)
70k (300k)
0.08 (0.018)
1
4.5
≤1
50k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.10
≤ 0.18t
80k (350k)
90k (400k)
0.06 (0.013)
1.8
8
≤1
40k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.11
≤ 0.2
100k (450k)
110k (500k)
0.05 (0.011)
2
9
≤1
35k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.12
≤ 0.22
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
lb (N)
type
lb/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
oz (gm)
2000 (8900)
10-32 coax
16 (2.8)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
0.7 (20)
4000 (17 k)
10-32 coax
23 (4)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.3 (38)
8000 (35k)
10-32 coax
29 (5)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
2.0 (57)
12k (53k)
10-32 coax
40 (7)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
2.7 (77)
16k (71k)
10-32 coax
74 (13)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
5.5 (155)
33.75Rk (150k)
10-32 coax
131 (23)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
11.6 (328)
model
size
model
model
prefix
081A12
5/16-24
082B02
083B02
M,N,W
081A13
3/8-24
082B03
083B03
M,N,W
081A14
1/2-20
082B04
083B04
M,N,W
081A15
5/8-18
082B05
083B05
M,N,W
081A16
7/8-14
082B06
083B06
M,N,W
081A17
1 1/8-12
082B07
083B07
M,N,W
20k (90k)
25k (110k)
0.25 (0.06)
0.40
1.8
≤1
60k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.11
≤ 0.198t
206C
207C
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
Physical Specifications
Recommended Pre-Load
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
Supplied Accessories [3,4]
Mounting Stud
Mounting Stud Thread
Anti-friction Washer
Pilot Bushing
Options [5]
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements. [3]
NIST traceable calibration certificate is supplied with each sensor. [4] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [5] See page 1.17 for a description of options
(specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric mounting studs and screws, see page 2.23.
[6] Recommended pre-load is required to meet published specification and calibration.
1.28
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Charge Output Quartz Force Rings
Charge Output Quartz Force Rings
[1]
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [2]
Maximum Compression
Charge Sensitivity (± 15%)
Amplitude Linearity [6]
Upper Frequency Limit
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
211B
lb (N)
lb (N)
pC/lb (pC/N)
% FS
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
212B
213B
5000 (22k)
10k (45k)
8000 (35k)
15k (70k)
18 (4)
18 (4)
≤1
≤1
90k
60k
-100 to +400 -100 to +400
-73 to +204 -73 to +204
≤ 0.02
≤ 0.01
≤ 0.036
≤ 0.018
20k (90k)
25k (110k)
18 (4)
≤1
60k
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
214B
215B
40k (180k)
60k (260k)
50k (220k)
70k (300k)
18 (4)
18 (4)
≤1
≤1
55k
50k
-100 to +400
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
-73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≤ 0.054
216B
217B
80k (350k)
90k (400k)
18 (4)
≤1
40k
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
100k (450k)
110k (500k)
17 (3.8)
≤1
35k
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
Electrical Specifications
Capacitance
Insulation Resistance
Polarity: Compression
pF
ohm
12
> 1012
negative
20
> 1012
negative
28
> 1012
negative
32
> 1012
negative
38
> 1012
negative
80
> 1012
negative
130
> 1012
negative
4000 (17k)
10-32 coax
23 (4)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.3 (38)
8000 (35k)
10-32 coax
29 (5)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
2.0 (57)
12k (53k)
10-32 coax
40 (7)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
2.8 (80)
16k (71k)
10-32 coax
74 (13)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
5.5 (155)
33.75k (150k)
10-32 coax
131 (23)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
12.5 (354)
081A13
3/8-24
082B03
083B03
M,P,W
081A14
1/2-20
082B04
083B04
M,P,W
081A15
5/8-18
082B05
083B05
M,P,W
081A16
7/8-14
082B06
083B06
M,P,W
081A17
1 1/8-12
082B07
083B07
M,P,W
Physical Specifications
Recommended Pre-Load
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
lb (N)
1000 (4500) 2000 (8900)
type
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
Ib/µin (kN/µm)
12 (2.1)
16 (2.8)
type
hermetic weld hermetic weld
type
304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4
oz (gm)
0.35 (10)
0.7 (20)
Supplied Accessories [3,4]
Mounting Stud
Mounting Stud Thread
Anti-friction Washer
Pilot Bushing
Options [5]
model
size
model
model
prefix
081A11
10-32
082B01
083B01
M,P,W
081A12
5/16-24
082B02
083B02
M,P,W
Notes: [1] Special lower ranged calibration for charge output models is available upon request. [2] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [3] NIST
traceable calibration certificate is supplied with each sensor. [4] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [5] See page 1.17 for a description of options
(specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric mounting studs and screws, see page 2.23.
[6] Recommended pre-load is required to meet published specification and calibration.
Charge Output Force Ring Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable
or Output
Cable*
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
Charge Output
Force Sensor
In-line Charge
Converter
ICP® Sensor Signal
Conditioner
Readout Device
Output
Cable
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
Charge Output
Force Sensor
Output
Cable
Readout Device
Charge Amplifier
* Low-noise cables are required to* maintain
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
conformance.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.29
Mounting four Quartz Force Rings between two plates, and then summing the output signals
allows higher dynamic force capacities.
1.30
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------------
Quartz Force Links
Highlights
■
Press force monitoring
■
Stamping, punching, and forming
■
Machinery studies
■
Tensile testing
Quartz force links are constructed by sandwiching a force ring, under pre-load, between
two threaded link mounting nuts. This stainless steel assembly is held together by an
elastic, beryllium-copper stud. Since force links are factory pre-loaded, they may be used
directly for measurements of compression and tension. The use of an elastic stud
permits the applied force to be sensed by the crystals with a minimal amount of shunted
force. Force links are also capable of measuring very small forces that are superimposed
upon a relatively large static load.
A variety of force link sizes accommodates full-scale measurements from 10 to 50k lb
(45 to 220k N) compression and from 10 to 30k lb (45 to 130k N) tension. Both ICP® and
charge output versions are available. The units may be installed as an integrated
member of a machine rod or linkage using studs, bolts, or threaded rods. Eyebolts may
also be used for suspending cables from the unit. The solid-state, hermetically-sealed
construction provides durability and longevity for repetitive cycling applications and
harsh factory environments.
Force links are excellent sensors for machinery process monitoring applications that can
utilize the measurement signal of a force-controlled event. Such feedback
measurements improve the consistency and quality of products derived from repetitive
operations such as crimping, punching, stamping, pressing, and forming.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.31
Quartz Force Links
----------------------
have threaded mounting holes on each end and a 10-32 coaxial
electrical connector.
Force Links
(complete specifications are featured on pages 1.35 to 1.37)
Force link sensors measure compression, tension, reaction, and
actuation forces involved in punching, forming, ejecting, pushing,
balancing, and machining operations. A variety of sensors supports
full-scale measurements ranging from 10 to 50k lb (45 to 220k N)
compression and from 10 to 30k lb (45 to 130k N) tension. All models
■
materials testing machines
■
force controlled vibration
■
mechanical impedance testing
■
machine process monitoring
■
push-rod testing
■
tablet press monitoring
Model 221B01 to 221B05
Sensitivity ranges from 1 to 500 mV/lb
(0.22 to 110 mV/N)
■ Full-scale compression ranges from
10 to 5000 lb (45 to 22k N)
■ Full-scale tension ranges from 10 to 1000 lb
(45 to 4500 N)
■ 1.1 oz (31 gm) in weight
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model
231B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models
221B01 to 221B05
and 231B
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 222B
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.9 mV/lb (0.20 mV/N)
Compression range to 6000 lb (27k N)
Tension range to 2500 lb (11k N)
2.0 oz (58 gm) in weight
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
*
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 232B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Models 222B and 232B
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.32
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Quartz
---------------------Force Links
Model 223B
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.40 mV/lb (0.09 mV/N)
Compression range to 12k lb (55k N)
Tension range to 4000 lb (18k N)
4.2 oz (120 gm) in weight
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 233B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models 223B and 233B
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 224C
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.20 mV/lb (0.05 mV/N)
Compression range to 25k lb (110k N)
Tension range to 8000 lb (35k N)
8.7 oz (246 gm) in weight
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
*
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 234B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Models 224C and 234B
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 225C
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.14 mV/lb (0.031 mV/N)
Compression range to 35k lb (150k N)
Tension range to 12k lb (55k N)
14.5 oz (412 gm) in weight
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
*
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 235B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Models 225C and 235B
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.33
Quartz Force Links
----------------------
Model 226C
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.11 mV/lb (0.025 mV/N)
Compression range to 45k lb (200k N)
Tension range to 20k lb (90k N)
32 oz (907 gm) in weight
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 236B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models 226C and 236B
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 227C
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.10 mV/lb (0.022 mV/N)
Compression range to 50k lb (220k N)
Tension range to 30k lb (130k N)
83 oz (2353 gm) in weight
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
*
Options: J, M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 237B — charge output, 17 pC/lb (3.8 pC/N) sensitivity
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Models 227C and 237B
Options: J, M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.34
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
ICP ® Quartz
---------------------Force Links
General Purpose ICP® Quartz Force Links
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Tension Range
Maximum Compression
Maximum Tension
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
221B01
221B02
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms
N rms
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
10
(45)
10
(45)
60
(270)
60
(270)
500
(110)
0.0002
0.0009
≤1
15k
0.01
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
100
100
600
500
50
(450)
(450)
(2700)
(2200)
(11)
0.002
0.009
≤1
15k
0.001
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
221B03
500
(2200)
500
(2200)
3000 (13.5k)
1000
(4500)
10
(2.2)
0.01
0.045
≤1
15k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
221B04
1000
1000
6000
1200
5
(4500)
(4500)
(27k)
(5300)
(1.1)
221B05
0.02
0.09
≤1
15k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
5000 (22k)
1000 (4500)
6000 (27k)
1200 (5300)
1
(0.22)
0.10
0.45
≤1
15k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output lmpedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥ 50
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
size
type
lb/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
oz (gm)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.1 (31)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.1 (31)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.1 (31)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.1 (31)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
1.1 (31)
prefix
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
M6 x 0.75
M6 x 0.75
M6 x 0.75
M6 x 0.75
M6 x 0.75
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
Options [3]
Metric Mounting Thread
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate). [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements.
[3] See page 1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering).
ICP® Force Link Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable*
ICP® Force Link
Output Cable
Readout Device
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
conformance.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.35
®
---------------------ICP
Quartz Force Links
High Range ICP® Quartz Force Links
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Tension Range
Maximum Compression
Maximum Tension
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
222B
223B
224C
225C
226C
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms (N rms)
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
6000 (27k)
2500 (11k)
7000 (30k)
2800 (12k)
0.90 (0.20)
0.20 (0.9)
≤1
12k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
12k (55k)
4000 (18k)
15k (70k)
4500 (20k)
0.42 (0.09)
0.40
(1.8)
≤1
10k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
25k (110k)
8000 (35k)
31k (140k)
10k (45k)
0.20 (0.05)
0.60
(2.7)
≤1
8000
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
35k (150k)
12k (55k)
42.5k (200k)
15k (70k)
0.14 (0.031)
0.1 (0.45)
≤1
6000
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
1/2-20 female
10-32 coax
4 (0.70)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
4.2 (120)
5/8-18 female
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
8.7 (246)
3/4-16 female
10-32 coax
6 (1.05)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
14.5 (412)
1-12 female
10-32 coax
11 (1.9)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
32 (907)
1 1/4-12 female
10-32 coax
29 (5)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
83 (2353)
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
J,M,N,W
M10 x 1.0
M12 x 1.25
M16 x 1.50
M20 x 1.50
M24 x 1.50
M30 x 2.0
45k
20k
55k
25k
0.11
0.44
(200k)
(90k)
(250k)
(110k)
(0.025)
(2)
≤1
5000
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
227C
50k (220k)
30k (130k)
66k (300k)
37.5k (170k)
0.10 (0.022)
1
(4.5)
≤1
4000
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output lmpedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
Options [3]
Metric Mounting Thread
size
3/8-24 female
type
10-32 coax
lb/µin (kN/µm)
3 (0.53)
type
hermetic weld
type
304L / 17-4
oz (gm)
2.0 (58)
prefix
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate). [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements.
[3] See page 1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering).
1.36
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Charge Output Quartz
---------------------Force Links
Charge Output Quartz Force Links
Model Number
Performance Specifications
[1]
Compression Range [2]
Tension Range
Maximum Compression
Maximum Tension
Charge Sensitivity (± 15%)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
231B
232B
233B
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
pC/lb (pC/N)
% FS
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
5000 (22k)
1000 (4500)
6000 (27k)
1200 (5300)
18 (4)
≤1
15k
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.01
≤ 0.018
6000 (27k)
2500 (11k)
7000 (30k)
2800 (12k)
18 (4)
≤1
12k
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.01
≤ 0.018
pF
ohm
12
> 1012
negative
20
> 1012
negative
234B
12k (55k)
25k (110k)
4000 (18k) 8000 (35k)
15k (70k)
31k (140k)
4500 (20k)
10k (45k)
18 (4)
18 (4)
≤1
≤1
10k
8000
-100 to +400 -100 to +400
-73 to +204 -73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≤ 0.054
235B
236B
237B
35k (150k)
12k (55k)
45k (200k)
15k (70k)
18 (4)
≤1
6000
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
45k (200k)
20k (90k)
55k (250k)
25k (110k)
18 (4)
≤1
5000
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
50k (220k)
30k (130k)
66k (300k)
37.5k (170k)
17 (3.8)
≤1
4000
-100 to +400
-73 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
38
> 1012
negative
80
> 1012
negative
130
> 1012
negative
Electrical Specifications
Capacitance
Insulation Resistance
Polarity: Compression
28
> 1012
negative
32
> 1012
negative
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
size
type
Ib/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
oz (gm)
Options [3]
prefix
Metric Mounting Thread
1/4-28 female 3/8-24 female 1/2-20 female 5/8-18 female 3/4-16 female 1-12 female 1 1/4-12 female
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
3 (0.53)
4 (0.70)
6 (1.05)
6 (1.05)
11 (1.9)
29 (5)
hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld
304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4
1.1 (31)
2.0 (58)
4.2 (120)
8.7 (246)
14.5 (412)
32 (907)
83 (2353)
J,M,P,W
J,M,P,W
J,M,P,W
J,M,P,W
J,M,P,W
J,M,P,W
J,M,P,W
M6 x 0.75
M10 x 1.0
M12 x 1.25
M16 x 1.50
M20 x 1.50
M24 x 1.50
M30 x 2.00
Notes: [1] Special lower range calibration for charge output models is available upon request. [2] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate). [3] See page
1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering).
Charge Output Force Link Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable or
Output Cable*
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
In-line Charge
Converter
Charge Output
Force Link
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
Charge Output
Force Link
Output Cable
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
Readout Device
Output Cable
Charge Amplifier
Readout Device
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
conformance.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.37
PCB® dynamic force sensors are well-suited for multi-cycle, high repetition automotive
and component test applications. (such as the power door lock test stand shown below.)
Dynamic force sensors are extremely rigid, ensuring high repeatability and over-range
protection required for automotive and component testing. ICP® and charge output sensors
cost-effectively measure compression, tension and impacts.
1.38
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------------
3-Component
Quartz Force Rings
Highlights
■
Force-limited vibration testing
■
Cutting tool forces
■
Force dynamometers
■
Engine mount analysis
■
Biomechanics research
■
Modal analysis
Three-component quartz force sensors are capable of simultaneously measuring
dynamic force in three orthogonal directions (X, Y, and Z). They contain three sets of
quartz plates that are stacked in a pre-loaded arrangement. Each set responds to the
vector component of an applied force acting along its sensitive axis. 3-component force
sensors must be pre-loaded for optimum performance. Pre-loading provides the sensing
elements with the compressive loading required to allow the proper transmission of
shear forces. Versions are available with ranges up to 10k lb (45k N) in the z-axis
(perpendicular to the top surface), and up to 4000 lb (18k N) in the x-and y (shear) axes.
Both ICP® and charge output styles are available.
ICP® designs utilize built-in microelectronic circuitry that provides a low-impedance
voltage output via a multi-pin connector. This arrangement offers system simplicity by
requiring only a single multi-conductor sensor cable. The low-impedance voltage signal
makes this sensor ideal for use in harsh industrial environments.
Charge output 3-component force sensors operate with in-line charge converters or
conventional laboratory-style charge amplifiers. The use of laboratory-style charge
amplifiers permits each channel to be independently ranged by the user to maximize
signal-to-noise ratio. Charge output styles are recommended for higher temperature
applications and can also be used for quasi-static measurements with long discharge
time constant charge amplifiers.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.39
®
---------------------ICP
3-Component Quartz Force Sensors
the multi-channel signal conditioner. This results in lower overall
system cost and noise.
ICP® 3-Component Force Sensors
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.42)
ICP® 3-component force sensors contain integral electronics,
eliminating the need for expensive charge amplifiers and low-noise
cables. The sensors feature a single, 4-pin hermetic connector, and
require only a single, multi-conductor cable between the sensor and
cutting tool force monitoring
■ engine mount analysis
■ modal analysis
■
Model 260A01
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 2.5 mV/lb (0.56 mV/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 10 mV/lb (2.2 mV/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 500 lb (2200 N) (x-, y-axis)
Side-oriented 4-pin connector
*
Recommended cables and accessories ❹ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 260A01
Options: M, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 260A02
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 2.5 mV/lb (0.56 mV/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 5 mV/lb (1.12 mV/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (x-, y-axis)
Side-oriented 4-pin connector
*
Recommended cables and accessories ❹ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 260A02
Options: M, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 260A03
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.25 mV/lb (0.06 mV/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 1.25 mV/lb (0.28 mV/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 10k lb (45k N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 4000 lb (18k N) (x-, y-axis)
Side-oriented 4-pin connector
*
Recommended cables and accessories ❹ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 260A03
Options: M, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.40
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
impact testing
biomechanics
■ force-limited vibration
testing
■
■
Charge Output 3-Component Quartz
---------------------Force Sensors
Charge Output 3-Component Force Sensors
flexibility. Recommended for high temperature and quasi-static
applications.
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.42)
Charge output 3-component force sensors allow the user to set the
range of each channel independently, providing maximum system
Model 260A11
■
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 15 pC/lb (3.4 pC/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 32 pC/lb (7.2 pC/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 500 lb (2200 N) (x-, y-axis)
Three, side-oriented 10-32 coaxial connectors
Reverse shear polarity Model 260A31
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Model 260A11
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 260A12
■
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 15 pC/lb (3.4 pC/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 32 pC/lb (7.2 pC/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (x-, y-axis)
Three, side-oriented 10-32 coaxial connectors
Reverse shear polarity Model 260A32
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Model 260A12
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 260A13
■
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 15 pC/lb (3.4 pC/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 32 pC/lb (7.2 pC/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 10k lb (45k N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 4000 lb (18k N) (x-, y-axis)
Three, side-oriented 10-32 coaxial connectors
Reverse shear polarity Model 260A33
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 260A13
Options: M, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.41
---------------------3-Component
Quartz Force Sensors
3-Component Quartz Force Sensors
Unit
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression or Tension Range
Shear Range
Maximum Compression or Tension
Maximum Shear
Sensitivity (± 15%)
Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
Amplitude Linearity [5]
Cross-Talk
Fx ↔ Fy
Fx, Fy ↔ Fz
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Frequency Response (-5%)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
Temperature Range
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
value
value
value
value
lb (N) rms
lb (N) rms
% FS
%
%
Hz
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
260A01
ICP® Models
260A02
1000 (4500)
1000 (4500)
500 (2200)
1000 (4500)
1320 (6000)
1320 (6000)
660 (3000)
1000 (4500)
2.5 mV/lb
2.5 mV/lb
0.56 mV/N
0.56 mV/N
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.006 (0.027) 0.006 (0.027)
0.002 (0.009) 0.006 (0.027)
≤1
≤1
±3
±3
±5
±5
90k
90k
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.001
-65 to +250
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
-54 to +121
260A03
10k (45k)
4000 (18k)
11k (50k)
4400 (19k)
0.25 mV/lb
0.06 mV/N
1.25 mV/lb
0.28 mV/N
0.05 (0.22)
0.01 (0.045)
≤1
±3
±5
39k
0.01
0.001
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
260A11
Charge Output
260A12
260A13
1000 (4500) 1000 (4500)
500 (2200) 1000 (4500)
1320 (6000) 1320 (6000)
660 (3000) 1000 (4500)
15 pC/lb
15 pC/lb
3.4 pC/N
3.4 pC/N
32 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
7.2 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
see note [4] see note [4]
see note [4] see note [4]
≤1
≤1
±3
±3
±5
±5
90k
90k
see note [4]
see note [4]
see note [4]
see note [4]
-100 to +350 -100 to +350
-73 to +177 -73 to +177
10k (45k)
4000 (18k)
11k (50k)
4400 (19k)
15 pC/lb
3.4 pC/N
32 pC/lb
7.2 pC/N
see note [4]
see note [4]
≤1
±3
±5
39k
see note [4]
see note [4]
-100 to +350
-73 to +177
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [1]
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Capacitance (all axes)
Insulation Resistance
Polarity (in direction of markings)
second
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
pF
ohm
≥ 50
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 50
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 50
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
see note [4]
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
18
> 1012
negative
see note [4]
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
30
> 1012
negative
see notee [4]
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
70
> 1012
negative
Physical Specifications
Recommended Pre-Load
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Maximum Allowable Torque
Maximum Allowable Bending Moment
Weight
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
lb (N)
5000 (22k)
type
4-pin male
lb/µin (kN/µm)
10 (1.75)
lb/µin (kN/µm)
4 (0.70)
type
hermetic weld
type
17-4
ft-lb (N-m)
14 (19)
ft-lb (N-m)
13 (17.6)
oz (gm)
0.93 (26)
10k (44.5k)
4-pin male
19 (3.3)
6 (1.05)
hermetic weld
17-4
40 (54)
70 (94)
1.59 (45)
40k (178k)
5000 (22k) 10k (44.5k)
40k (177k)
4-pin male 10-32 (three) 10-32 (three) 10-32 (three)
40 (7)
10 (1.75)
19 (3.3)
40 (7)
15 (2.6)
4 (0.70)
6 (1.05)
15 (2.6)
hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld
17-4
17-4
17-4
17.4
240 (325)
14 (19)
40 (54)
240 (325)
325 (441)
13 (17.6)
70 (94)
325 (441)
9.6 (271)
0.87 (24.6)
1.5 (42.5)
9.9 (280)
Supplied Accessories [2]
Mounting Stud (beryllium-copper)
Mounting Stud Thread
Anti-Friction Washer
Pilot Bushing
model
size
model
model
081A70
5/16-24
082B02
083A10
081A74
1/2-20
082M12
083A13
081A71
7/8-14
082B06
083A11
081A70
5/16-24
082B02
083A10
081A74
1/2-20
082M12
083A13
081A71
7/8-14
082B06
083A11
260A32
260A33
Optional Models
Reverse Shear Polarity
Options [3]
model
–
–
–
260A31
prefix
M,W
M,W
M,W
M,W
M,W
M,W
Notes: [1] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow
transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC
should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use
DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements. [2] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [3] See page
1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric accessory
model number and threads, see page 2.23. [4] Resolution, System Discharge Time Constant and Low Frequency range are dependent upon sensor cable and
signal conditioning used. [5] Recommended pre-load is required to meet published specification and calibration.
1.42
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------------
3-Component
Quartz Force Links
Highlights
■
Force-limited vibration testing
■
Cutting tool forces
■
Force plates
■
Biomechanics research
■
Vehicle dynamics
■
Impact testing
■
Fixed preload simplifies installation
■
Vibration testing of aerospace
structures
Series 261, 3-component force links eliminate the preload requirement of 3-component
quartz force sensors, and offers a convenient, 4-screw hole mounting plate on each side
end the sensor. Quartz 3-component force links are constructed by sandwiching a 3component force sensor, under pre-load, between two mounting plates. An elastic,
beryllium-copper stud holds this stainless steel assembly together. The use of this elastic
stud permits the applied force to be sensed by the crystals with a minimal amount of
shunted force. The stud also provides the necessary normal force, and thus friction
required to transmit shear forces in the x- and y-axes. Since 3-component force links are
factory pre-loaded, they may be used directly for measurements of compression and
tension in the z-axis, a positive and negative forces in the x- and y-axes.
Versions are available with ranges up to 10 k lb (45 k N) in the z-axis (perpendicular to
the top surface), and up to 4000 lb (18 kN) in the x- and y-axes. Both ICP® and charge
output styles are available.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.43
ICP ® 3-Component Quartz Force Links
----------------------
ICP® 3-Component Force Links
(complete specifications are featured on pages 1.46)
ICP® 3-component force links contain integral electronics,
eliminating the need for expensive charge amplifiers and low-noise
cables. The sensors feature a single, four-pin hermetic connector,
and require only a single, multi-conductor cable between the sensor
and the multi-channel signal conditioner. This results in lower
overall system cost and noise.
■ cutting tool force monitoring
■ impact testing
■ vehicle dynamics
■ biomechanics
■ forceplates
■ force-limited
vibration testing
Model 261A01
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 2.5 mV/lb (0.56 mV/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 10 mV/lb (2.2 mV/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 500 lb (2200 N) (x-, y-axis)
Side-oriented 4-pin connector
*
1.65
(42.0)
1.65
(42.0)
1.65
(42.0)
1/4-28 Mtg Hole
(8 places)
Recommended cables and accessories ❹ – see page 2.14
1/4-28
4-Pin Connector
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 261A01
Options: W
Model 261A02
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 2.5 mV/lb (0.56 mV/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 5 mV/lb (1.12 mV/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (x-, y- axis)
Side-oriented 4-pin connector
*
2.16
(55.0)
2.16
(55.0)
2.36
(60.0)
5/16-24 Mtg Hole
(8 places)
Recommended cables and accessories ❹ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
®
1/4-28
4-Pin Connector
Model 261A02
Options: W
Model 261A03
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 0.25 mV/lb (0.06 mV/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 1.25 mV/lb (0.28 mV/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 10k lb (45k N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 4000 lb (18k N) (x-, y-axis)
Side-oriented 4-pin connector
*
3.15
(80.0)
Recommended cables and accessories ❹ – see page 2.14
3.54
(90.0)
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
3/8-24 Mtg Hole
(8 places)
Model 261A03
Options: W
1/4-28
4-Pin Connector
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.44
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
3.15
(80.0)
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Charge Output 3-Component Quartz
---------------------Force Links
Charge Output 3-Component Force Sensors
flexibility. Recommended for high temperature and quasi-static
applications.
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.42)
Charge output 3-component force sensors allow the user to set the
range of each channel independently, providing maximum system
Model 261A11
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 15 pC/lb (3.4 pC/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 32 pC/lb (7.2 pC/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 500 lb (2200 N) (x-, y-axis)
Three, side-oriented 10-32 coaxial connectors
*
1.65
(42.0)
1.65
(42.0)
1.65
(42.0)
10-32 Connector
(3 places)
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
1/4-28 Mtg Hole
(8 places)
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 261A11
Options: W
Model 261A12
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 15 pC/lb (3.4 pC/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 32 pC/lb (7.2 pC/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N) (x-, y-axis)
Three, side-oriented 10-32 coaxial connectors
2.16
(55.0)
*
2.16
(55.0)
2.36
(60.0)
5/16-24 Mtg Hole
(8 places)
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
10-32 Connector
(3 places)
Model 261A12
Options: W
Model 261A13
■
■
■
■
■
Sensitivity of 15 pC/lb (3.4 pC/N) (z-axis)
Sensitivity of 32 pC/lb (7.2 pC/N) (x-, y-axis)
Compression range to 10k lb (45k N) (z-axis)
Compression range to 4000 lb (18k N) (x-, y-axis)
Three, side-oriented 10-32 coaxial connectors
*
3.15
(80.0)
3.15
(80.0)
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
3.54
(90.0)
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
3/8-24 Mtg Hole
(8 places)
Options: W
*Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
10-32 Connector
(3 places)
Model 261A13
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.45
---------------------3-Component
Quartz Force Links
3-Component Quartz Force Links
Unit
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression or Tension Range
Shear Range
Maximum Compression or Tension
Maximum Shear
Sensitivity (± 15%)
Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
Amplitude Linearity [5]
Cross-Talk
Fx ↔ Fy
Fx, Fy ↔ Fz
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Frequency Response (-5%)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
Temperature Range
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
value
value
value
value
lb (N) rms
lb (N) rms
% FS
%
%
Hz
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
261A01
ICP® Models
261A02
1000 (4500)
1000 (4500)
500 (2200)
1000 (4500)
1320 (6000)
1320 (6000)
660 (3000)
1000 (4500)
2.5 mV/lb
2.5 mV/lb
0.56 mV/N
0.56 mV/N
10 mV/lb
5 mV/lb
2.2 mV/N
1.1 mV/N
0.006 (0.027) 0.006 (0.027)
0.002 (0.009) 0.006 (0.027)
≤1
≤1
±3
±3
±5
±5
11k
10k
0.01
0.01
0.001
0.001
-65 to +250
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
-54 to +121
261A03
10k (45k)
4000 (18k)
11k (50k)
4400 (19k)
0.25 mV/lb
0.06 mV/N
1.25 mV/lb
0.28 mV/N
0.05 (0.22)
0.01 (0.045)
≤1
±3
±5
6k
0.01
0.001
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
261A11
Charge Output
261A12
261A13
1000 (4500) 1000 (4500)
500 (2200) 1000 (4500)
1320 (6000) 1320 (6000)
660 (3000) 1000 (4500)
15 pC/lb
15 pC/lb
3.4 pC/N
3.4 pC/N
32 pC/lb
32 pC/lb
7.2 pC/N
7.2 pC/N
see note [4] see note [4]
see note [4] see note [4]
≤1
≤1
±3
±3
±5
±5
11k
10k
see note [4]
see note [4]
see note [4]
see note [4]
-100 to +350 -100 to +350
-73 to +177 -73 to +177
10k (45k)
4000 (18k)
11k (50k)
4400 (19k)
15 pC/lb
3.4 pC/N
32 pC/lb
7.2 pC/N
see note [4]
see note [4]
≤1
±3
±5
6k
see note [4]
see note [4]
-100 to +350
-73 to +177
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [1]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Capacitance (all axes)
Insulation Resistance
Polarity (in direction of markings)
(z-axis)
(x-, y-axis)
second
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
pF
ohm
≥ 50
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 50
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
≥ 50
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
N/A
N/A
positive
see note [4]
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
18
> 1012
negative
see note [4]
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
30
> 1012
negative
see notee [4]
see note [4]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
70
> 1012
negative
Physical Specifications
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Maximum Allowable Torque
Maximum Allowable Bending Moment
Weight
type
4-pin male
10 (1.75)
(z-axis) lb/µin (kN/µm)
(x-, y-axis) lb/µin (kN/µm)
4 (0.70)
type
hermetic weld
type
17-4
(z-axis) ft-lb (N-m)
14 (19)
(x-, y-axis) ft-lb (N-m)
13 (17.6)
oz (gm)
14 (386)
4-pin male
19 (3.3)
6 (1.1)
hermetic weld
17-4
40 (54)
70 (94)
34 (975)
4-pin male 10-32 (three) 10-32 (three) 10-32 (three)
40 (7)
10 (1.75)
19 (3.3)
40 (7)
15 (2.6)
4 (0.70)
6 (1.1)
15 (2.6)
hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld
17-4
17-4
17-4
17.4
240 (325)
14 (19)
40 (54)
240 (325)
325 (441)
13 (17.6)
70 (94)
325 (441)
96 (2.9k)
14 (386)
34 (975)
96 (2.9k)
Optional Models
Reverse Shear Polarity
Options [3]
model
–
–
–
260A31
prefix
W
W
W
W
260A32
W
260A33
W
Notes: [1] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow
transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC
should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use
DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements. [2] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [3] See page
1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric accessory
model number and threads, see page 2.23. [4] Resolution, System Discharge Time Constant and Low Frequency range are dependent upon sensor cable and
signal conditioning used. [5] Recommended pre-load is required to meet published specification and calibration.
1.46
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
3-Component Quartz Force Sensors / Force-Limited Vibration Testing
The PCB® Force-limited Vibration Testing System is utilized for
limiting the reaction force between the shaker and unit under test
(UUT) in random vibration testing. Piezoelectric triaxial force sensors
facilitate accurate measurement of the input forces. The system
also contains the signal conditioning required to process the force
sensor signals used for shaker feedback control.
Due to the high cost and uniqueness of sophisticated aerospace and
other high-tech equipment, it has become imperative to implement
techniques that ensure the safety of the items during vibration
qualification testing. Conventional control using acceleration has
been shown to cause significant over-testing that may result in
damage to the UUT. In force-limited vibration testing, the total input
force to the UUT is measured and controlled, thereby limiting the
“quasi-static” acceleration of the center-of-gravity and ensuring the
integrity of the equipment.
Benefits:
■ minimizes over-testing
■
■
measures summed forces
■
■
simplifies and expedites
the test process
■
reduces risk of damage to
critical structures
measures force differences
(moments)
convenient and easy to
implement
Signal Conditioning System Component Specifications
MODEL 443B102 — Dual Mode Amplifier Module
Channels
Display (menu driven)
Voltage Gain (ICP®)
Charge Gain (Charge Output)
Discharge Time Constant (Seconds)
Drift [1]
Broadband Noise (ICP®) [2]
(2 Hz to 22.4k Hz)
Broadband Noise (Charge Output) [3]
(2 Hz to 22.4k Hz)
Low Frequency Response (-10%)
High Frequency Response (-10%)
1
Backlit 2 x 16 character LCD
x0.1 to x1000 (4-digit resolution)
0.1 to 10k mV/pC (4-digit resolution)
0.18, 1.8, 10, 100, 10k, >100k
<0.03 pC/sec
<3 uV (<110.5 dB)
<5 fC (<0.005 pC)
2, 0.2, 0.03, 0.003, 0.0003, ~0 Hz
0.1,1, 3, 10, 30, >100k Hz
MODEL 441A101 — AC Power Supply Module
Power Required
Power Output
100 to 240 V, 50 to 60 Hz
45 W
MODEL 070M70 — Charge Summation Node Module
Input
Summed Output (Charge Output)
Insulation Resistance
8 Channels of charge output sensor signals
1 Channel (A + B + C + D + E + F + G + H)
>1014 Ohm
MODEL 070M69 — Computational Signal Conditioner
Input
Computational Function
Excitation Voltage (ICP®)
Excitation Current (Selectable)
Differenced Output
Function Output
Gain
8 Channels of ICP® sensor or voltage signals
[(A-B) + (C-D) + (E-F) + (G-H)] x Gain
24 VDC
0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 20 mA
4 Channels: (A-B), (C-D), (E-F), (G-H)
1 Channel
x1, x10, x100
Force-limited Vibration Testing System
Dimensions (L x W x H)
15.6 x 19.0 x 9.38 in
(396 x 483 x 238 mm)
See typical system on p. 1.49.
Notes: [1] Long discharge time constant mode. [2] Measured at gain of 1000 (60 dB), input
referred, 0.2 Hz low frequency setting. [3] Measured at gain of 10 V/pC (80 dB) with a 1 nF source
capacitance, input referred, short and medium discharge time constant modes.
Force-limited Vibration Testing on an Atmospheric
Infrared Sounder (used on Earth Observing
System) utilizing 3-component force sensors and
accelerometers.
A PCB® Force-limited Vibration Testing System contains the sensors and signal
conditioning required to process force signals from piezoelectric charge output force
sensors for shaker control testing.
The sample system described here sums the forces in x- and y-axes and sums the
difference of 4 pairs of z-axis signals. Custom systems are available to suit your
individual requirements. Please contact the factory for more information.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.47
3-Component Quartz Force Links / Typical Systems
ICP® 3-Component Force Measurement System
System Utilizing a Modular ICP® Sensor Signal Conditioner with Gain
Model 012A03
Output Cables
Model 010G10
Sensor Cable
Series 260A ICP®
3-Component
Force Sensor
Readout Device
Model 442C04 or 482A22
or 482A16 Signal
Conditioner
■
4-channel with gain of x1, x10, x100
(See page 2.1 for more information)
System can be expanded to accommodate multiple sensors by
inserting additional four-channel signal conditioning modules.
Request Modular Signal Conditioning Brochure for more information
on Modular Signal Conditioning Systems.
Charge Output Force Measurement Systems
Low-cost System Utilizing 3-Channel Industrial Charge Amplifiers
Model 003C10
Cable
Series 260A10
Charge Output
3-Component
Force Sensor
Model 421A13 Industrial
Charge Amplifier
Pigtails
3-channel, surface-mount enclosure
■ Three selectable input ranges of 1k, 10k, 100k pC
■ Long discharge time constant for long duration
measurements with an electronic reset option
■ Supplied with attached Model 037AD010AD 10 ft
(3 m) 10-conductor cable, terminating in pigtails
■ Ideal for continuously monitoring industrial crimping
and stamping operations
■
Readout Device
(See page 2.9 for more information)
System Utilizing Configurable, 3-Channel Modular Charge Amplifiers
Model
003C10
Cable
Series 260A10
Charge Output
3-Component
Force Sensor
Configurable Module
Charge Amplifier System
Model 012A03
Cable
Readout Device
(3) Model 443B102 single channel charge amplifier module
■ Various low frequency cut-offs including long
discharge time constant
Configurable systems can be constructed with a
■ Independent range settings for each channel
variety of modules into 2-, 3-, 5-, or 9- slot chassis to
accommodate multiple sensors or signal conditioning
■ 0.1 to 1000 mV/pC gain
requirements. Request Modular Signal Conditioning
(1) Model 441A101 power supply module
Brochure for more information on Modular Signal
Conditioning Systems.
(2) Model 400A17 blank panel
(1) Model 441A49 9-slot chassis
1.48
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
3-Component Quartz Force Sensors / Force-limited Vibration Testing
Force-limited Vibration Testing Shaker Control System
Legend
F
A
3-component Charge
Output Force Sensor
ICP® Accelerometer
Q
Dual Mode Amplifier
P
Power Amplifier
V
Voltage Amplifier
ΣQ
Charge Summation Node
Σ-
Difference Amplifier
Σ+
Summing Amplifier
ΣMx
or
ΣMy
F = Force
A = Acceleration
M = Moment
Force-Limited Vibration Testing
Model 443B102 Dual Mode Amplifier
Q
Long discharge time constant facilitates calibration and quasi-static
measurements
■ Digitally set and easy to operate
■ Conditions charge output and ICP® sensor signals
■
ΣQ
Model 070M70 Charge Summation Node
■
■
Sums up to 8 charge output sensor signals
Eliminates excessive charge amplifiers and keeps system cost to a
minimum
Model 070M69 Computational Signal Conditioner
Conditions and accepts up to 8 sensor signals
Computes:
[(A-B) + (C-D) + (E-F) + (G-H)] x Gain
■
Force-limited Vibration Testing
System consists of:
■
■
441A49 Chassis
■
441A101 AC Power Supply Modules
■
443B102 Dual Mode Amplifier Modules
■
■
070M69 Computational Signal
Conditioner
■
070M70 Charge Summing Node Modules
■
3-Component Force Sensors
F
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Series 260A10 Charge Output,
3-component Force Sensors
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.49
3-component Quartz Force Sensors are ideal for use in
wind tunnels as a dynamic force balance.
Model 260A13 3-component Quartz Force Ring show in use during foam impact testing at NASA.
1.50
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Quartz Impact
Force Sensors
Highlights
■
Impact measurements
■
Crash testing
■
Punch and tablet presses
■
Package drop testing
Quartz impact force sensors are specifically designed for compressive impact loading.
Most are supplied with removable impact caps with a curved impacting surface. This
helps avoid “edge loading” and directs the applied force to the center of the sensor. The
cap provides an added benefit of protecting the surface of the sensor. Should the surface
of the cap become damaged through repeated impacting, it can easily and economically
be replaced.
Impact force sensors are available in many standard ranges, and three standard sizes for
measuring dynamic and short term static compression and impact forces. Versions are
available to accommodate full-scale compression measurements from 10 to 50k lb (45
to 220k N). The low profile and small inertial mass make them an excellent choice for
fast transient and repetitive pulse applications.
These sensors measure compression forces on punch presses, tablet presses, metal
forming machines, and impact testers. They are commonly used for controlling,
monitoring, sorting, counting, adjusting, calibrating, and shock testing.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.51
Quartz Impact Force Sensors
Impact
in both ICP® and charge output styles, these sensors are designed to
last millions of cycles under demanding environmental conditions.
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.54 to 1.55)
Impact force sensors are rugged, stable, hermetically-sealed
instruments with a stainless steel design, making them ideal for
high frequency dynamic compression and impact testing. Available
■
punching and stamping presses
■
drop testing
Models 200B01 to 200B05
Sensitivity ranges from 1 to 500 mV/lb
(0.22 to 110 mV/N)
■ Full-scale compression ranges from 10 to
5000 lb (45 to 22k N)
■ Low profile of 0.36 inch (9.1 mm)
■ 0.5 oz (14 gm) in weight
■ Rubber impact pad supplied for damping
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Models 200B01 to
200B05 and 210B
Model 210B — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N)
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 200C20
Sensitivity of 0.25 mV/lb (0.06 mV/N)
Compression range to 20k lb (90k N)
■ Removable impact cap
■ 3.1 oz (88 gm) in weight
■ Kapton tape supplied for damping
■
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 210B20 — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N)
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Models 200C20 and 210B20
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
exempt.
* Charge output sensors are
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.52
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
■
crash testing
Quartz Impact Force Sensors
Model 200C50
Sensitivity of 0.10 mV/lb (0.022 mV/N)
Compression range to 50k lb (220k N)
■ Removable impact cap
■ 9.9 oz (280 gm) in weight
■ Kapton tape supplied for damping
■
■
*
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Models 200C50 and 210B50
Model 210B50 — charge output, 18 pC/lb (4 pC/N)
Recommended cables and accessories ➁ – see page 2.14
Select charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, P, W – see page 1.17 for option information
* Charge output sensors are
exempt.
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.53
ICP ® Quartz Impact Force Sensors
ICP® Quartz Impact Force Sensors
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Unit
Compression Range [1]
Maximum Compression
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms
N rms
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
200B01
200B02
10 (45)
100 (450)
150 (700)
600 (2700)
500 (110)
50 (11)
0.0002
0.002
0.0009
0.009
≤1
≤1
75k
75k
0.01
0.001
-65 to +250 -65 to +250
-54 to +121 -54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≤ 0.054
200B03
200B04
500 (2200) 1000 (4500)
3000 (13k) 5000 (22k)
10 (2.2)
5 (1.1)
0.01
0.02
0.045
0.09
≤1
≤1
75k
75k
0.0003
0.0003
-65 to +250 -65 to +250
-54 to +121 -54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
≤ 0.054
200B05
200C20
200C50
5000 (22k)
8000 (35k)
1 (0.22)
0.10
0.45
≤1
75k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
20k (90k)
30k (130k)
0.25 (0.06)
0.30
1.3
≤1
40k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.08
≤ 0.14
50k (220k)
75k (330k)
0.10 (0.022)
1
4.5
≤1
30k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.15
≤ 0.27
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
10-32 female
10-32 coax
11 (1.9)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
17-4
0.5 (14)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
63 (11)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
440C
3.1 (88)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
97 (17)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
440C
9.9 (280)
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥ 50
≤ 100
8 to 12
18 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 500
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Impact Cap Material (st. stl.)
Weight
size
type
lb/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
type
oz (gm)
10-32 female 10-32 female 10-32 female 10-32 female
10-32 coax
10-32 coax 10-32 coax
10-32 coax
11 (1.9)
11 (1.9)
11 (1.9)
11 (1.9)
hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld hermetic weld
304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4
304L / 17-4 304L / 17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
17-4
0.5 (14)
0.5 (14)
0.5 (14)
0.5 (14)
Supplied Accessories [3]
Mounting Stud
Impact Cap
Thread Locker
Options [5]
model
model
model
prefix
081B05
integral [4]
080A81
M,N,W
081B05
integral [4]
080A81
M,N,W
081B05
integral [4]
080A81
M,N,W
081B05
integral [4]
080A81
M,N,W
081B05
integral [4]
080A81
M,N,W
081A06 / 081B20 081A06 / 081B20
084B23
084A36
080A81
080A81
M,N,W
M,N,W
NOTES: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements.
[3] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [4] Rubber impact pad , 084A83, supplied. [5] See page 1.17 for a description of options (specifications for
optional versions may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric accessory mounting studs and screws, see page 2.23.
Quartz Impact Force Sensor Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable*
Output Cable
ICP® Impact
Force Sensor
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
1.54
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Readout Device
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
* Low-noise cable is required
to maintain
conformance.
Charge Output Quartz Impact Force Sensors
Charge Output Impact Force Sensors
[1]
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [2]
Maximum Compression
Charge Sensitivity (± 15%)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
210B
210B20
210B50
lb (N)
lb (N)
pC/lb (pC/N)
% FS
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
5000 (22k)
8k (35k)
18 (4)
≤1
75k
-300 to +400
-184 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
20k (90k)
30k (130k)
18 (4)
≤2
40k
-300 to +400
-184 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
pF
ohm
12
> 1012
negative
150
> 1012
negative
250
> 1012
negative
size
type
Ib/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
type
oz (gm)
10-32 female
10-32 coax
11 (1.9)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
17-4
0.5 (14)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
63 (11)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
440C
3.1 (88)
1/4-28 female
10-32 coax
97 (17)
hermetic weld
304L / 17-4
440C
9.9 (280)
model
model
model
prefix
081B05
080A81
integral [4]
M,P,W
081A06 / 081B20
080A81
084B23
M,P,W
081A06 / 081B20
080A81
084A36 / 084A83
M,P,W
50k
75k
(220k)
(330k)
18 (4)
≤2
30k
-300 to +400
-184 to +204
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
Electrical Specifications
Capacitance
Insulation Resistance
Polarity: Compression
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Impact Cap Material (st. stl.)
Weight
Supplied Accessories [3]
Mounting Stud
Thread Locker Adhesive
Impact Cap
Options [5]
Notes: [1] Special lower ranged calibration for charge output models is available upon request. [2] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [3] See page
2.13 for complete accessory listings. [4] Rubber impact pad, 084A83, supplied. [5] See page 1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions
may differ slightly. Consult factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric mounting studs and screws, see page 2.23.
Output Quartz Impact Force Measurement Systems
Standard
Sensor Cable
or Output
Cable
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
In-line Charge
Converter*
Charge
Output Impact
Force Sensor
Low-noise
Sensor
Cable
Charge Output
Force Sensor
Output
Cable
ICP® Sensor
Signal
Conditioner
Readout Device
Output Cable
* Low-noise cables are required
to maintain
conformance.
Charge Amplifier
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Readout Device
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.55
Photo Courtesy of Instron Corp.
Quartz Impact Force Sensors are ideal for drop testing application
such as automotive bumper crash testing.
1.56
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------------
Miniature ICP
Quartz Force Sensors
®
Highlights
■
Very small compression and
tension forces
■
Break point materials testing
■
Penetration forces
■
Print head monitoring
Miniature ICP® quartz force sensors are designed for applications demanding small size
and very high sensitivity. They measure forces up to 2.2 lb (10 N) full-scale. Used to
measure impact, reaction, light tension, and actuation forces involved in vibrating,
balancing, striking, switching, punching, and pushing operations. They are adaptable
for counting, sorting, indicating and similar operations.
Miniature force sensors are available in two standard configurations. One accommodates
impact measurements, while the other incorporates a threaded “hat” for compression
and tension measurements.
These sensors feature a very high output sensitivity of 2200 mV/lb (500 mV/N) and can
follow transient event durations up to 50 miliseconds and are fast enough to capture 10
microsecond rise times.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.57
Miniature ICP ® Quartz Force Sensors
Miniature ICP® Force Sensors
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.59)
Miniature force sensors offer a unique combination of
characteristics, including high sensitivity, high rigidity, and
microsecond response, all in a small package. They are housed in
rugged stainless steel and are available with either a 1- or 10-
second discharge time constant. The 10-second time constant
models allow for extended low frequency measurements associated
with longer duration applications in thermally-stable environments.
■
■
counting
sorting
■
■
indicating
punching
Model 209C01
Sensitivity of 2200 mV/lb (500 mV/N)
Compression range to 2.2 lb (10 N)
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 1 sec
■ Integral impact cap
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 209C02
Sensitivity of 2200 mV/lb (500 mV/N)
■ Compression range to 2.2 lb (10 N)
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 10 sec
■ Integral impact cap
■
Models 209C01
and 209C02
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 209C11
Sensitivity of 2200 mV/lb (500 mV/N)
Compression range to 2.2 lb (10 N)
■ Tension range to 1 lb (4.5 N)
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 1 sec
■ Integral 2-56 threaded hat for attaching test items
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Model 209C12
Sensitivity of 2200 mV/lb (500 mV/N)
Compression range to 2.2 lb (10 N)
■ Tension range to 1 lb (4.5 N)
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 10 sec
■ Integral 2-56 threaded hat for attaching test items
Models 209C11
and 209C12
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: M, N, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.58
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
■
striking
Miniature ICP ® Quartz Force Sensors
Miniature Force Sensors
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Tension Range
Maximum Compression
Maximum Tension
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
209C01
2.2
209C02*
2.2
209C11
209C12*
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms
N rms
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
(10)
N/A
11 (50)
N/A
2200 (500)
0.00002
0.00009
100k
0.5
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
(10)
N/A
11 (50)
N/A
2200 (500)
0.00002
0.00009
100k
0.05
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
2.2 (10)
1 (4.5)
11 (50)
1 (4.5)
2200 (500)
0.00002
0.00009
30k
0.5
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
2.2 (10)
1 (4.5)
11 (50)
1 (4.5)
2200 (500)
0.00002
0.00009
30k
0.05
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.05
≤ 0.09
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥1
≤ 100
8 to 12
18 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 10
≤ 100
8 to 12
18 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥1
≤ 100
8 to 12
18 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 10
≤ 100
8 to 12
18 to 30
2 to 20
positive
size
type
lb/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
oz (gm)
10-32 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
17-4
0.28 (8)
10-32 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
17-4
0.28 (8)
10-32 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
17-4
0.29 (8.2)
10-32 female
10-32 coax
2 (0.35)
hermetic weld
17-4
0.29 (8.2)
model
model
prefix
081A05
084A38
M,N,W
081A05
084A38
M,N,W
081A05
084A38
M,N,W
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Weight
Supplied Accessories [3]
Mounting Stud
Thermal Cover
Options [4]
081A05
084A38
M,N,W
* Use only in thermally-stable environments
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements.
[3] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings. [4]See page 1.17 for a description of options (specifications for optional versions may differ slightly. Consult
factory before ordering). For complete listing of metric accessory model number and threads, see page 2.23.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.59
Miniature ICP ® Quartz Force Sensors
Miniature-Style ICP® Quartz Force Sensor Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable*
ICP®
Force Sensor
Output Cable
* Low-noise cables are required
to maintain
conformance.
Readout Device
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
Miniature ICP® Quartz Force Sensors are sensitive enough to capture tiny forces encountered
in biological applications.
1.60
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Miniature Quartz
Force Sensors
Highlights
■
Injection molding cavity pressure
■
Push button forces
■
Pin insertion forces
■
Switch and actuator testing
■
Removable cable
Miniature charge output quartz forces sensors are designed for industrial applications
where space is limited. They are ideal for obtaining an indirect measurement of
injection molding cavity pressure by positioning the sensor behind an ejector pin.
They measure forces up to 560 lb (4.5 kN) full-scale. The sensor may also be used for
other applications involving compression forces, such as push buttons, pin insertion
on circuit boards, switches, and actuators.
These sensors feature high stiffness that allows them to follow very fast transient
events. They may also be used to measure short term, quasi-static processes. The
removable cable allows for a choice of lengths and terminating connector type, and
facilitates easy field repair, in the event a cable is damaged.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.61
Miniature Quartz Force Sensors
Model 219A05
Sensitivity of 20 pC//b (4.5 pC/N)
Full-scale compression range to 560 lb (2500 N)
■ Compact size of 0.24 inch (6 mm) diameter
and 0.24 inch (6mm) height
■ 0.04 oz (1.2 gm) weight
■
■
0.24(6.0)
Dia
5-44
Connector
0.24
(6.0)
Recommended cables and accessories ➀ – see page 2.14
Select a charge amplifier from those featured in the
electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Model 219A05
0.5
(12.7)
Options: none
Miniature Quartz Force Sensor
Performance
English
SI
Sensitivity (± 15 %)
Measurement Range
(Compression)
Maximum Static Force
(Compression)
Upper Frequency Limit
Non-Linearity
Environmental
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
of Sensitivity
Electrical
Capacitance
Insulation Resistance
Output Polarity (Compression)
Physical
Stiffness
Size (Diameter x Height)
Weight
Housing Material
Sealing
Electrical Connector
Electrical Connection Position
20 pC/lb
4.5 pC/N
560 lb
2500 N
675 lb
3000 N
140 kHz [2][3]
≤ 1 % FS [4]
-300 to +400 °F
-184 to +204 °C
≤ 0.05 %/°F
≤ 0.09 %/°C
5 pF [1]
1012
Negative
3 lb/µin
1.05 kN/µm [1]
0.2360in x 0.2362in
6.000mm x 5.995mm
0.042 oz
1.2 gm
Stainless Steel
Hermetic
5-44 Coaxial
Side
All specifications are at room temperature unless otherwise specified.
Notes: [1] Typical. [2] Estimated using rigid body dynamics calculations. [3] Low frequency
response and system noise dependent on choice of external signal condition electronics. [4] Zerobased, least-squares, straight line method.
Typical System Utilizing Industrial Charge Amplifier
Model 003P10
Cable
Series 219A05
Charge Output
Force Sensor
Model 421A25
Industrial Charge Amplifier
Readout Device
1-channel, surface-mount enclosure
Sixteen selectable input ranges from 100 to 1,000 kpC
■ Long discharge time constant for long duration
measurements with an electronic reset option
■
■
Optional Model 009M146 I/0 cable, 5 ft (1.5m),
terminating in pigtails
■ Ideal for continuously monitoring injection molding
operations
■
(See section 2 on Model 421A25 for more information)
1.62
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Penetration-style
ICP Quartz Force Sensors
®
Highlights
■
Material strength testing
■
Drop testing
■
Testing of plastics
■
Penetration testing
Penetration-style quartz force sensors measure impact and compression forces
associated with materials penetration testing. The blunt sensor end makes it possible to
measure yield and break point forces on materials such as polymers without cutting
through the test specimen.
The blunt impact caps are hemispherical to uniformly distribute force and conform to
most penetration testing specifications. Sensors are available with both integral and
removable impact caps. Tension measurements can be made with models having
removable caps.
These sensors monitor impact forces from 100 to 5000 lb (450 to 22k N) full-scale. They
can be used to determine physical properties of plastics and material strength or
deformation characteristics of injection molded test specimens and thermal forms. They
may be installed at the end of a shaft mounted to a driven fixture that impacts the test
specimen.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.63
Penetration-Style ICP ® Quartz Force Sensors
Penetration
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.65)
Penetration-style sensors are used to determine material strength
or deformation characteristics of polymers and plastics. Built-in
microelectronics generate a low-impedance voltage output and
a high signal-to-noise ratio. Rugged, stainless steel construction
prolongs life under normal use. Temperature range of -65 to +250 °F
(-54 to +121 °C) enables laboratory testing in thermal chamber
environments. Metric mounting threads are standard for this sensor
series.
■ polymer and plastics testing
■ injection molded
specimen testing
Models 208A22, 208A23 and 208A24
Sensitivity ranges from 1 to 50 mV/lb
(0.22 to 11 mV/N)
■ Full-scale compression ranges from 100 to
2500 lb (450 to 11k N)
■ Integral impact cap
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: none
Models 208A22, 208A23 and 208A24
Model 208A33
Sensitivity of 5.0 mV/lb (1.1 mV/N)
Compression range to 1000 lb (4500 N)
■ Tension range to 500 lb (2200 N)
■ Removable impact cap
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: – none
Model 208A35
Sensitivity of 1.0 mV/lb (0.22 mV/N)
Compression range to 5000 lb (22k N)
■ Tension range to 500 lb (2200 N)
■ Removable impact cap
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Model 208A33
Select an ICP sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
®
Options: none
Model 208A45
Sensitivity of 1.0 mV/lb (0.22 mV/N)
Compression range to 5000 lb (22k N)
■ Tension range to 500 lb (2200 N)
■ Removable impact cap
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁ – see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: none
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
Model 208A45
1.64
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Model 208A35
Penetration-Style ICP ® Quartz Force Sensors
Penetration-Style Force Sensors
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Compression Range [1]
Tension Range
Maximum Compression
Maximum Tension
Voltage Sensitivity (± 15%)
Resolution (broadband)
Amplitude Linearity
Upper Frequency Limit
Low Freq. Response (-5%)
Temperature Range
Temperature Coefficient
Unit
208A22
208A23
208A24
208A33
208A35
208A45
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
lb (N)
mV/lb (mV/N)
lb rms (N) rms
% FS
Hz
Hz
°F
°C
%/°F
%/°C
100 (450)
N/A
600 (2700)
N/A
50 (11)
0.002 (0.009)
≤1
18k
0.003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
1000 (4500)
N/A
2500 (11k)
N/A
5 (1.1)
0.02 (0.09)
≤1
18k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
2500 (11k)
N/A
2500 (11k)
N/A
1 (0.22)
0.10 (0.45)
≤1
18k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
1000 (4500)
500 (2200)
5000 (22k)
750 (3300)
5 (1.1)
0.02 (0.09)
≤1
20k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
5000 (22k)
500 (2200)
10k (45k)
750 (3300)
1 (0.22)
0.10 (0.45)
≤1
20k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
5000 (22k)
500 (2200)
10k (45k)
750 (3300)
1 (0.22)
0.10 (0.45)
≤1
25k
0.0003
-65 to +250
-54 to +121
≤ 0.03
≤ 0.054
second
ohm
+VDC
+VDC
mA
≥ 200
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
≥ 2000
≤ 100
8 to 14
20 to 30
2 to 20
positive
size
type
lb/µin (kN/µm)
type
type
type
oz (gm)
M7 x 0.75 male
10-32 coax
5 (0.88)
o-ring
316L / 17-4
titanium
0.53 (15)
M7 x 0.75 male
10-32 coax
5 (0.88)
o-ring
316L / 17-4
titanium
0.53 (15)
M7 x 0.75 male
10-32 coax
5 (0.88)
o-ring
316L / 17-4
titanium
0.53 (15)
model
integral
integral
integral
Electrical Specifications
Discharge Time Constant [2]
Output Impedance
Output Bias Voltage
Voltage Excitation
Constant Current Excitation
Polarity: Compression
Physical Specifications
Mounting Thread
Connector
Stiffness
Sealing
Material (stainless steel)
Impact Cap Material
Weight
M7 x 0.75 male M7 x 0.75 male M7 x 0.75 male
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
10-32 coax
5 (0.88)
5 (0.88)
10 (1.75)
epoxy
hermetic weld
epoxy
316L / 17-4
17-4
316L / 17-4
17-4 st. stl.
17-4 st. stl.
17-4 st. stl.
0.67 (19)
1.06 (30)
1.80 (51)
Supplied Accessories [3]
Impact Cap
084A19
084A35
084A45
Notes: [1] 1 lb = 4.448 N (values shown are approximate) [2] The Discharge Time Constant (DTC) determines low frequency response according to the
relationship f-5%=3/(2π(DTC)). Sensors accurately follow transient events lasting a few percent of the DTC. For square wave events, the DTC should be 100 times
the event duration. For ramp shape events, the DTC should be 50 times the event duration and for a half sine pulse the DTC should be 25 times the pulse
duration. To ensure measurement system compatibility, use DC coupled or Long Time Constant signal conditioners for long duration transient measurements.
[3] See page 2.13 for complete accessory listings.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.65
Penetration-Style ICP ® Quartz Force Sensors
Penetration-style quartz force sensors measure impact forces to 5000 lb (22k N) for determining
yield strength and deformation characteristics of plastics, polymers, and composite materials.
Penetration-Style ICP® Quartz Force Sensor Measurement System
Standard
Sensor Cable*
Output Cable
ICP® Force Sensor
Readout Device
Constant Current
Signal Conditioner
* Low-noise cable is required to maintain
1.66
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
conformance.
www.pcb.com
ICP Strain Sensors
®
Highlights
■
Measure longitudinal strain
on machinery structures
■
Control press forces and other
processes
■
Monitor quality, safety,
and reliability
■
Robust construction endures
harsh, industrial environments
■
Simple installation is
non-invasive to process
The Series M240 Industrial ICP® Strain Sensors incorporate piezoelectric quartz sensing
crystals that respond to a longitudinal change in distance. The resultant strain
measurand is an indirect measurement of stress forces acting along the structure to
which the sensor is mounted. As such, these devices can provide insight into the
behavior of mechanical systems or processes that generate an associated machinery
reaction.
Monitoring such measurement signals can provide the necessary indication for process
interrupt and pass/fail decisions or for determining wear and degradation of equipment
and tooling. The sensors are used for controlling processes in plastic injection molding,
spot welding, stamping, and pressing, as well as monitoring processes and final product
quality. These devices are easy to install and can be powered by any ICP® sensor signal
conditioner.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.67
ICP ® Strain Sensors
ICP® Strain Sensors
(complete specifications are featured on page 1.69)
Series M240 ICP® Strain Sensors are ideal for process control and
other product quality assurance applications that require the
measurement of repetitive strain curves. In typical applications,
upper and lower control limits are set following a desired strain
curve for the process, and if the actual strain curve deviates from the
pre-set control limits, the process or equipment is shut down.
This prevents the acceptance of non-conforming parts as finished
goods. ICP® strain sensors are used for controlling processes in
plastic injection molding, spot welding, stamping, pressing,
punching, crimping, forming, and automatic assembly operations.
Sensors are constructed of rugged stainless steel housings, are
extremely easy to install (using only one supplied fastening screw),
and are non-invasive to the test structure except for one drilled and
tapped hole. Series M240 Strain Sensors can be powered by any
ICP® sensor signal conditioner.
■ mechanical stamping, crimping,
■ automatic assembly
pressing, and punching presses
machines
■ forming and other machine tools
■ plastic injection
molding machines
■ spot welding
Model M240A01
Sensitivity (± 20%) of 100 mV/µe
Amplitude range to 50 pk µe
■ Resolution (1 Hz to 10 kHz) to 0.0001 µe
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 150 seconds
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁
10-32
Connector
0.67
(17.0)
– see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, W – see page 1.17 for option information
M6 Mounting
Screw (supplied)
M081A100
Model M240A02
Sensitivity (± 20%) of 50 mV/µe
Amplitude range to 100 pk µe
■ Resolution (1 Hz to 10 kHz) to 0.0002 µe
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 150 seconds
■
0.23
(5.8)
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁
1.58
(40.1)
0.18
(4.6)
0.60
(15.2)
– see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, W – see page 1.17 for option information
1.14
(29.0)
Series M240 Industrial ICP® Strain Sensors
Model M240A03
Sensitivity (± 20%) of 10 mV/µe
Amplitude range to 300 pk µe
■ Resolution (1 Hz to 10 kHz) to 0.001 µe
■ Discharge time constant of ≥ 150 seconds
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories ➋➁
– see page 2.14
Select an ICP® sensor signal conditioner from those
featured in the electronics section, starting on page 2.1
Options: J, W – see page 1.17 for option information
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
1.68
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
ICP ® Strain Sensors
Typical ICP® Strain Sensor Measurement System
ICP® Sensor
Signal Conditioner
Standard
Sensor Cable
Output Cable
ICP® Strain
Sensor
Readout Device
Model 410A01 DIN
Rail ICP® Sensor
Signal Conditioner
Model
002EB010JE
Cable
PLC
Customer
Supplied
AWG 14-24 WIRE
ICP® Strain
Sensor
Readout Device
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
conformance.
ICP® Strain Sensors
Model Number
Performance Specifications
Range
Sensitivity (± 20%)
Resolution (1 Hz to 10 kHz)
Low Frequency Response (-5%)
Linearity
Operating Temperature
Unit
M240A01
M240A02
M240A03
pk µε
mV/µε
µε
Hz
%
°F (°C)
50
100
0.0001
0.004
±2
-65 to +250 (-54 to +121)
100
50
0.0002
0.004
±2
-65 to +250 (-54 to +121)
300
10
0.001
0.004
±2
-65 to +250 (-54 to +121)
+VDC
mA
+VDC
sec
20 to 30
2 to 20
8 to 14
≥ 150
20 to 30
2 to 20
8 to 14
≥ 150
20 to 30
2 to 20
8 to 14
≥ 150
material
in (mm)
oz (gm)
type
type
quartz
stainless steel
0.67 x 1.81 x 0.6 (17 x 46 x 15.2)
1.6 (45)
10-32
epoxy
quartz
stainless steel
0.67 x 1.81 x 0.6 (17 x 46 x 15.2)
1.6 (45)
10-32
epoxy
quartz
stainless steel
0.67 x 1.81 x 0.6 (17 x 46 x 15.2)
1.6 (45)
10-32
epoxy
ft-lb (N-m)
M6 x 1.00-6g
7.38 (10)
M6 x 1.00-6g
7.38 (10)
M6 x 1.00-6g
7.38 (10)
Prefix
J,W
J,W
J,W
Electrical Specifications
Excitation Voltage
Constant Current Excitation
Output Bias Voltage
Discharge Time Constant
Physical Specifications
Sensing Element
Housing
Size (W x L x H)
Weight
Electrical Connector
Sealing
M081A100
Mounting Screw (supplied)
Mounting Screw Torque
Options
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
1.69
ICP ® Strain Sensors
Series M240 Strain Sensors
Monitor and Control Weld Forces to Ensure Quality End Products.
ICP® strain sensors indirectly monitor forces via strain measurements on machine tools
and production machinery. Strain sensors are used for controlling processes in spot
welding, plastic injection molding, stamping, pressing, punching, crimping, forming, and
automatic assembly operations. Series M240 Strain Sensors may be powered by any
ICP® sensor signal conditioner.
1.70
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Signal Conditioners
Highlights
■
Battery powered
■
Line powered
■
Multi-purpose
■
Modular-style
■
Multi-channel
■
Charge & impedance converters
■
Industrial charge amplifiers
& sensor simulators
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.1
Battery Powered Signal Conditioners for ICP ® Sensors
Battery Powered ICP® Sensor
Signal Conditioners
Battery powered signal conditioners offer portable, convenient
methods for powering ICP® sensors and conditioning their output
signals for transmittal to readout and recording instruments. Most
units operate, and are supplied, with standard 9 volt alkaline
batteries. Each features a color-coded input circuit check-out meter
to alert of proper sensor turn-on or input fault due to open or
short-circuit connections. Optional rechargeable versions are
equipped with NiCad batteries and supplied with an AC powered
recharger unit.
Model 480C02
Model 480E09
Model 480B21
Unity gain, low- noise,
high frequency
Gain x1, x10, x100
3-Channel, gain x1,
x10, x100
Battery Powered ICP® Signal Conditioners
Model Number
Style
Channels
Sensor excitation
Gain
Low frequency response (-5%) [1]
High frequency response (-5%)
Broadband noise (at unity gain)
Battery (qty) type
Average battery life
Input/output connectors
External DC powerable
DC power input jack
Size (height x width x depth)
Weight
480C02
480E09
480B21
Basic
Gain
3 channel with gain
1 channel
28 VDC, 2.5 mA
unity
0.05 Hz
500k Hz
3.25 µV rms
(3) 9 V
100 hour
BNC/BNC
yes
3.5 mm
4.0 x 2.9 x 1.5 in
(10 x 7.4 x 3.8 cm)
0.62 lb (284 g)
1 channel
28 VDC, 2.5 mA
x1, x10, x100
0.15 Hz
100k Hz
3.25 µV rms
(3) 9 V
40 hour
BNC/BNC
yes
3.5 mm
4.0 x 2.9 x 1.5 in
(10 x 7.4 x 3.8 cm)
0.75 lb (341 g)
3 channels
25 to 30 VDC, 3 mA
x1, x10, x100
0.15 Hz
90k Hz
3.54 µV rms
(3) 9 V
25 to 40 hour
BNC/BNC
yes
mini DIN 6-pin jack
7.5 x 5 x 2 in
(19.1 x 12.7 x 5.1 cm)
1.1 lb (499 g)
R480C02
R480E09
N/A
488A02
488A02
N/A
488A03
488A03
488A10
Optional Models
Rechargeable
(supplied with Ni-cad batteries and
Model 488A02 AC powered recharger unit)
Options
AC powered recharger unit with
(3) 9 V Ni-cad batteries
AC power supply operates
from 115 or 230 VAC
Note: [1] With 1 megohm load.
2.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Line Powered Signal Conditioners for ICP ® Sensors
Line Powered ICP® Sensor
Signal Conditioners
Line powered signal conditioners offer bench-top methods for
powering ICP® sensors in the laboratory and conditioning their
output signals for transmittal to readout and recording instruments.
Each features a color-coded input circuit checkout meter to alert of
Model 482A21
Model 482A22
Unity gain, low-noise, 4-channel, unity gain,
AC and DC powerable low-noise, AC and DC
powerable
proper sensor turn-on or input fault due to open or short-circuit
connections. AC and DC powerable units can operate either with
the supplied AC powered transformer or optional external battery
pack. AC/DC coupled outputs offer the ability to achieve true DC
frequency response in order to accurately condition very low
frequency vibrations or long duration shock pulses.
Model 482B06 Model 482B11 Model 484B02
Model 484B06
Basic, unity gain
Low frequency, unity
gain, AC/DC coupled
output
Gain x1, x10, x100
Clamped output,
unity gain, AC/DC
coupled output
Model 484B11
Low frequency,
gain x1, x10, x100,
AC/DC coupled output
Line Powered ICP® Signal Conditioners
Model Number
Style
Channels
Sensor excitation [1]
Gain
Low frequency response (-5%)
High frequency response (-5%)
Broadband noise (at unity gain)
Power required
Input/output connectors
External DC powerable
DC power input jack
Size (height x width x depth)
Weight
482A21
482A22
Low-noise
AC and DC power
1 channel
26 volt, 2 to 20 mA
unity
<0.1 Hz [2]
>1M Hz
<3.25 µV rms
36 VDC
120 mA [3]
BNC/BNC
yes
DIN
6.3 x 2.4 x 11 in
(16 x 6 x 28 cm)
1.51 lb (685 gm)
Low-noise
AC and DC power
4 channels
26 volt, 2 to 20 mA
unity
<0.1 Hz [2]
>1M Hz
<3.25 µV rms
36 VDC
120 mA [3]
BNC/BNC
yes
DIN
6.3 x 2.4 x 11 in
(16 x 6 x 28 cm)
1.67 lb (756 gm)
482B06
482B11
484B02
standard
standard
F482B06
F482B11
F484B02
F484B06
F484B11
488B07
488B07
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Clamped output
Basic
Gain
AC/DC coupled
1 channel
1 channel
1 channel
24 volt, 2 to 20 mA 24 volt, 2 to 20 mA 24 volt, 2 to 20 mA
unity
x1, x10, x100
unity
<0.05 Hz
0.17 Hz
DC
1M Hz
200k Hz
200k Hz
<3.64 µV rms
N/A
28.8 µV rms
115 VAC
115 VAC
115 VAC
50 to 400 Hz
50 to 400 Hz
50 to 400 Hz
BNC/BNC
BNC/BNC
BNC/BNC
no
no
no
—
—
—
4.3 x 1.8 x 6 in 4.3 x 1.8 x 6 in 5 x 2 x 10.5 in
(11 x 4.6 x 15 cm) (11 x 4.6 x 15 cm) (12.7 x 5.1 x 26.7 cm)
1.2 lb (544 gm)
2 lb (907 gm)
2 lb (907 gm)
484B06
484B11
Low frequency
Low frequency
AC/DC coupled
with gain
1 channel
1 channel
24 volt, 2 to 20 mA 24 volt, 2 to 20 mA
unity
x1, x10, x100
DC
DC
200k Hz
200k Hz
28.8 µV rms
10 µV rms
115 VAC
115 VAC
50 to 400 Hz
50 to 400 Hz
BNC/BNC
BNC/BNC
no
no
—
—
4.3 x 1.8 x 6 in
4.3 x 1.8 x 6 in
(11 x 4.6 x 15 cm) (11 x 4.6 x 15 cm)
2 lb (907 gm)
2 lb (907 gm)
Optional Models
210 to 250 VAC powerable
Options
External 36 VDC battery pack
Note: 1. Current is factory set at 4 mA but is user adjustable between 2 and 20 mA 2. With 1 megohm load 3. Supplied with Model 488A04 AC power adaptor
(100 to 240 VAC, 50 to 60 Hz input; 36 VDC 120 mA output)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.3
DIN Rail Signal Conditioners for ICP ® Sensors
DIN rail mount signal conditioners offer a convenient mounting
package for industrial applications. Signal conditioners may be
mounted inside protected enclosures or in a control panel for easy
access to sensor and power supply connections, and integration
with machine controllers.
The signal conditioners are designed for operation with ICP® force or
strain sensors and are ideally suited for monitoring forces
experienced during manufacturing, assembly, on-line processes,
quality assurance, or end-of-line product testing.
Model 410A01
The Model 410A01 DIN rail mount, ICP® Sensor
Signal Conditioner, for piezoelectric force or
strain sensors, is ideally suited for monitoring
manufacturing forces experienced during
assembly & product testing. With its long
discharge time constant, and high frequency
response, both quasi-static and dynamic
measurements up to 10 kHz are possible. The
unit synchronizes with machine cycles through a
reset feature while analog and peak hold outputs
allow for real-time monitoring with machine
control devices. Requires 24 VDC power.
Model 682A02
The Model 682A02 DIN rail mount, ICP® Signal
Conditioner provides 18 VDC sensor excitation
voltage for dynamic measurements only. Internal
jumpers select excitation current of 4 or 10 mA
and voltage gain of x1, x10, or x100.
Model 682A01
24 VDC Power Supply, 120 to 230 VAC powered,
DIN rail mount, 3.75 kV isolation, 1,000 mA
maximum.
Model 682A06
Programmable, universal transmitter with
current, voltage, and two relay outputs. Accepts
mA, VDC, RTD, TC, linear resistance, and
potentiometer inputs. Fully programmable via
detachable display (Model 070A80 sold
separately), and operates from 19.2 to 300 VDC,
or 21.5 to 253 VAC power.
These products conform to applicable European
Directives for CE marking.
2.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
DIN Rail Signal Conditioners for ICP ® Sensors
DIN Rail Signal Conditioners for ICP® Sensors
Model
410A01 [1]
Performance
Channels
Excitation Voltage (±1 VDC)
Excitation Current (±1 mA)
Output Voltage (Instantaneous)
Output Voltage (Peak)
High Frequency Response
Low Frequency Response, AC coupled (-5 %)
Low Frequency Response, DC coupled
Voltage Gain (Incremental Steps)
682A02 [1]
English (SI)
1
18 VDC
4 mA
± 10 V
0 to 10 V
10 kHz
0.5 Hz
0 Hz [3]
x0.5, x1, x2, x4, x8, x10, x16, x20
1
18 VDC [2]
4/10 mA
±5V
100 kHz
1.25 Hz
DC coupling not available
x1, x10, x100
+60 to +110 °F (+15 to +45 °C)
+32 to +158 °F (+0 to +70 °C)
Environmental
Temperature Range (Operating)
Electrical
Power Required (± 10%)
Current Draw
Broadband Electrical Noise (1 Hz to 10 kHz)
Peak Hold Reset
Discharge Time Constant (AC coupled)
24 VDC
100 mA
20 µV rms
Solid State Relay
1 sec
60 mA
50 µV rms
0.4 sec
Physical
Size (Length x Height x Width)
Mounting
Electrical Connector (Sensor Input)
Electrical Connector (Analog Output,
Peak Output, Power, Ground)
3.6 x 4.4 x 0.9 in (91 x 112 x 23 mm)
3.1 x 4.3 x 1.0 in (79 x 84 x 25 mm)
DIN Rail
SMA
Screw Terminals
Screw Terminals
Notes: [1] This product conforms to applicable European Directives for CE marking. [2] If unit is used in conjunction with a sensor having a bias over 13 VDC, full
scale output may be affected. [3] In DC coupled mode, system low frequency response is determined by the sensor.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.5
Modular-Style Signal Conditioners
Modular-Style Signal Conditioners
Modular signal conditioners are comprised of selected signal conditioning modules, and
an AC power supply module, assembled into a 2-, 3-, 5-, or 9-slot chassis. Available
modules condition ICP®, charge output, or capacitive sensor signals. The common
chassis backplane architecture permits mixing and matching of modules to achieve the
desired number of channels and signal conditioning features. Visit www.pcb.com for full
details of available items.
Modular Signal Conditioning Systems
Modular-Style Signal Conditioners
Model 442B216
Model 442B316
Model 442C04
Model 443B02
16-channel, unity gain,
with selectable ICP® or
voltage mode
16-channel, unity gain,
with selectable AC
coupled ICP® or DC
coupled voltage mode
4-channel, gain x1,
x10, x100 for ICP®
sensors
Dual mode amplifier
for charge output and
ICP® sensors with
short, medium and
long discharge time
constants
Modular-Style Signal Conditioners
Model Number
Channels
Sensor excitation [1]
Gain (each channel)
Charge sensitivity
Low frequency response (-5%)
High frequency response (-5%)
Broadband noise (at unity gain)
Power required
Input/output connectors
Size (height x width x depth)
Weight
442B216
442B316
442C04
443B02 [6]
16 channels
22 volt, 2 to 10 mA
x1
N/A
0.125 Hz
30k Hz
100 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
50 to 60 Hz
DB-50 Female/Quad Agilent E1432
5.05 x 3.6 in [7]
(128.3 x 91.4 mm)
0.95 lb (0.43 kg)
16 channels
22 volt, 2 to 10 mA
x1
N/A
0.125 Hz
30k Hz
100 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
50 to 60 Hz
DB-50 Female/Quad Agilent E1432
5.05 x 3.6 in [7]
(128.3 x 91.4 mm)
0.95 lb (0.43 kg)
4 channels
25.5 volt, 0.5 to 20 mA
x1, x10, x100
N/A
0.05 Hz [3]
100k Hz
10 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
50 to 60 Hz
BNC/BNC
6.2 x 4.25 x 10.2 in
(15.7 x 10.8 x 26 cm)
5.1 lb (2.3 kg)
1 channel
24 volt, 0 to 20 mA [2]
x0.1 to 1000
0.0001 to 10 volts/pC
2, 0.2, 0.03, 0.003, ~0 Hz [4]
0.1, 1, 3, 10, 100, >200k Hz [5]
9 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
50 to 60 Hz
BNC/BNC
6.2 x 6.05 x 10.2 in
(15.7 x 15.4 x 26 cm)
6.4 lb (2.9 kg)
Notes: [1] Current is factory set at 4 mA but is user adjustable up to 20 mA. [2] Excitation is disabled for charge output sensor input. [3] With 1 megohm
load. [4] Adjusted by discharge time constant and high-pass filter selection. [5] Adjusted by low-pass filter selection. [6] Charge input range for Model 443B02
is limited to 100k pC. For high sensitivity charge output force sensors, use appropriate Series 472B charge attenuator to achieve desired full-scale force range
where necessary. See page 1.68. [7] Conforms to Series 440 Modular System.
2.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Multi-Channel Signal Conditioners
Multi-Channel Signal Conditioners
Multi-channel rack mount signal conditioners contain 8- or 16channels of simultaneous signal conditioning and can be configured
for multiple unit, daisy-linking with computerized set up and control.
The building block-style architecture permits factory configuration to
include characteristics which best tailor a unit for the specific
application and data acquisition requirements. Standard features
include ICP® sensor excitation and LED indicators for input fault
monitoring and overload detection. Optional features include
programmable gain, autoranging, filtering, output switching,
integration, IEEE-488, RS-232, and RS-485 interface, and keypad
control with LCD display. Units are available to condition signals
from ICP® and charge output sensors, or can be set up to accept
voltage input signals from other types of sensors. Pre-configured
models offer ease of ordering units possessing the most commonly
requested features. Visit www.pcb.com for full details of available
items.
Modular-Style Signal Conditioners
Model 481A01
Model 481A20
Model 481A02
Model 481A03
16-channel, unity gain
for ICP® sensors
16-channel, unity gain
for ICP® sensors
16-channel, gain x1,
x10, x100 for ICP®
sensors
16-channel, continuous
gain x0.1 to x200
for ICP® sensors
All Models available in 8- or 16-channel custom configurations
All Models available in 8- or 16-channel custom configurations
Multi-Channel Signal Conditioners
Model Number
Style
481A01
unity gain
Channels
Sensor excitation [1]
8 or 16
24 volt, 3 to 20 mA
Gain (each channel)
unity
Frequency response (± 5%)
Broadband noise (at unity gain)
Power required
Keypad control
Computer control
Input connectors
Output connectors
Size (height x width x depth)
Weight
0.5 to 100k Hz
11 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
47 to 63 Hz
no
no
DB50 and BNC
DB37 and BNC
3.5 x 19.0 x 16.25 in
(9 x 48 x 41 cm)
15 lb (6.8 kg)
481A02
481A03
selectable gain
with keypad & display
8 or 16
24 volt, 3 to 20 mA
autoranging
x1, x10, x100
0.5 to 100k Hz
11 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
47 to 63 Hz
yes
RS-232 and RS-485 [3]
DB50 and BNC
DB37 and BNC
3.5 x 19.0 x 16.25 in
(9 x 48 x 41 cm)
15 lb (6.8 kg)
continuous gain adjust
with keypad & display
8 or 16
24 volt, 3 to 20 mA
continuous
x0.1 to x200
0.5 to 90k Hz [2]
4 mV
100 to 240 VAC
47 to 63 Hz
yes
RS-232 and RS-485 [3]
DB50 and BNC
DB37 and BNC
3.5 x 19.0 x 16.25 in
(9 x 48 x 41 cm)
15 lb (6.8 kg)
481A20
unity gain
8 or 16
24 volt, 3 to 20 mA
unity
0.05 to 1M Hz
11 µV rms
100 to 240 VAC
47 to 63 Hz
no
no
BNC
BNC
3.5 x 19.0 x 16.25 in
(9 x 48 x 41 cm)
15 lb (6.8 kg)
Note: [1] Current is factory set at 4 mA but is user adjustable between 3 and 20 mA. [2] Attains 90k Hz with filter disabled. [3] Supplied with Windows®
based control software program.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.7
Charge and Impedance Converters
Charge Converters
Series 422E
Contact factory for custom ranges and information
regarding Series 422M.
Series 422E charge converters serve to convert charge output sensor signals to lowimpedance voltage signals, for transmission over long cables, and interface to data acquisition
equipment. They are low in noise, powered by standard ICP® sensor signal conditioners,
and install in-line between the sensor and signal conditioner. Charge converters with signal
conditioners offer a less expensive technique, compared to the use of laboratory-style charge
amplifiers, and are an especially attractive approach for multi-channel requirements. Like
charge amplifiers, charge converters also invert the polarity of the measurement signal.
Inverting Charge Converters for Use with Charge Output Sensors
Charge Converter Models
422E11
422E12
422E13
Gain
Input range ± 2%
Output voltage range
Frequency response (± 5%) [1]
Broadband noise
Power required
Constant current required
Input connector
Output connector
100 mV/pC ± 5%
± 25 pC
± 3 volts
5 to 110k Hz
60 µV rms
18 to 28 VDC
2.2 to 20 mA
10-32 jack
BNC jack
3.4 x 0.5 in
(8.6 x 1.3 cm)
1.1 oz (31g)
10 mV/pC ± 2%
± 250 pC
± 3 volts
5 to 100k Hz
20 µV rms
18 to 28 VDC
2.2 to 20 mA
10-32 jack
BNC jack
3.4 x 0.5 in
(8.6 x 1.3 cm)
1.1 oz (31g)
1 mV/pC ± 2%
± 2500 pC
± 3 volts
5 to 100k Hz
11 µV rms
18 to 28 VDC
2.2 to 20 mA
10-32 jack
BNC jack
3.4 x 0.5 in
(8.6 x 1.3 cm)
1.1 oz (31g)
422E01
422E02
422E03
Size (length x diameter)
Weight
NOTE: [1] High frequency
achieved at 20 mA excitation
Optional Models
0.5 Hz (-5%) low frequency
Impedance Converters and In-Line Voltage Follower Amplifiers
Series 402A In-line voltage follower amplifiers, similar to the Series 422E charge
converters, serve to convert charge output sensor signals to low-impedance voltage
signals. They are recommended for applications requiring high frequency response up to
1 MHz, and for applications where sensor output (pC/unit) exceeds the maximum input
range (pC) allowed in the Series 422E.
The voltage sensitivity, V, of a system including a charge output sensor, low-noise cable
and voltage follower amplifier can be determined mathematically by the equation V=Q/C
where Q is the charge sensitivity of the sensor in Coulombs and C is the total system
capacitance in Farads. The total system capacitance is the result of the sum of the
capacitance of the sensor, the capacitance of the interconnect cable, and the input
capacitance of the voltage amplifier. Choose a voltage follower amplifier with an input
capacitance that provides the sensitivity desired, while keeping the total output voltage
(range x sensitivity) within the ±10 volt limit. Voltage follower amplifiers do not invert the
polarity of the measurement signal.
Series 402
Non-Inverting Voltage Follower Amplifiers and Impedance
Converters for Use with Charge Output Sensors
Voltage Follower Models
402A
402A02
402A03
Voltage gain (± 2%)
Output Range
Input Capacitance
Discharge time constant
Frequency response (± 5%) [1]
Broadband noise
Output bias
0.98
± 10 V
< 8.0 pF
1.0 second
0.5 to 1M Hz
43 µV rms
9 to 13 V
-65 to +250 °F
(-54 to +121 °C)
18 to 28 VDC
2 to 20 mA
10-32 jack
10-32 jack
1.17 x 0.25 in
(28 x 6 mm)
0.98
± 10 V
100 ± 10% pF
10 second
0.05 to 1M Hz
43 µV rms
9 to 13 V
-65 to +250 °F
(-54 to +121 °C)
18 to 28 VDC
2 to 20 mA
10-32 jack
10-32 jack
1.17 x 0.25 in
(28 x 6 mm)
0.98
± 10 V
1000 ± 10% pF
100 second
0.005 to 1M Hz
43 µV rms
9 to 13 V
-65 to +250 °F
(-54 to +121 °C)
18 to 28 VDC
2 to 20 mA
10-32 jack
10-32 jack
1.17 x 0.25 in
(28 x 6 mm)
Temperature range
Power required
Constant current required
Input connector
Output connector
Note: [1] High frequency
achieved at 20 mA excitation
2.8
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Size (length x diameter)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Industrial Charge Amplifiers
Series 421A industrial charge amplifiers are designed for piezoelectric charge output
force or strain sensors, and are ideally suited for monitoring manufacturing forces
experienced during assembly, crimping, injection molding, stamping or product testing.
With their long discharge time constant and high frequency response, both quasi-static
and dynamic measurements are possible. Each model synchronizes with machine cycles
through a reset feature while analog, peak or alarm outputs allow for real-time monitoring.
Model 421A13
The single channel Model 421A11 and 3-channel Model 421A13 are packaged in a
rugged, surface mount, CE marked, sealed aluminum enclosure and are ideal for fixed
installations in a factory environment. Set up via internal adjustments prohibits tampering
once it is sealed and deployed. Additional features include electrical ground isolation,
high vibration resistance, and a cord grip for securing the supplied, 10 ft (3 m) interfacing
cable. The 3-channel Model 421A13 is a cost-effective configuration that supports use
with charge output, 3-component force sensors and force links.
Industrial Charge Amplifiers, Analog Output Only
Model
Channels
Input Ranges (selectable for each channel)
Model 421A11
Sensitivity
Maximum Output
Frequency range (-5%)
Broadband noise [1]
Temperature Range (Operating)
Power required
Input connector [2]
Output connector [3]
Size
Weight [4]
421A11
421A13
1
3
± 100 to 1000 pC (Range I)
± 1000 to 10k pC (Range II)
± 10k to 100k pC (Range III)
5 mV/pC (Range I)
0.50 mV/pC (Range II)
0.05 mV/pC (Range III)
5 VAC
~ 0 to 4000 Hz (Range I)
~ 0 to 10k Hz (Range II)
~ 0 to 12k Hz (Range III)
11 µV
+23 to +140 °F (-5 to +60 °C)
15 to 30 VDC, < 19 mA 15 to 30 VDC, < 37 mA
BNC jack
Screw Terminal
4.89 x 1.18 x 2.52 in 6.95 x 1.18 x 2.52 in
(124.2 x 30 x 64 mm) (176.5 x 30 x 64 mm)
0.915 lb (415.04 gm) 1.320 lb (598.7 gm)
Notes: [1] Noise measurements performed at 10k-100k pC range. [2] Optional TNC jack on input,
order as Model 421A11/A or 421A13/A. Optional 10-32 (micro) connector on input, order as
Model 421A11/B or 421A13/B. [3] Supplied with 10 ft (3 m) multi-conductor cable & PG-9 cord
grip. [4] Including multi-conductor cable.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.9
Industrial Charge Amplifiers
Model 421A25 features 13 fixed input ranges, 3 additional ranges with continuous gain
adjustment, analog and peak hold outputs, and 2 adjustable set points that trigger digital
alarm outputs when levels are exceeded. An integral test function enables a check of the
measuring chain without a sensor being connected. All adjustments are set by either
remote control or RS-232 interface, and the settings are maintained when the power is
disconnected. The RS-232 may also be used to transfer measurement data. The unit is
packaged in a rugged, CE marked aluminum enclosure, well suited for harsh industrial
environments.
Industrial Charge Amplifier, Analog, Peak and Alarm Outputs
Model 421A25
Model
Channels
Input Range (adjustable)
Output Voltage (Instantaneous)
Output Voltage (Peak)
Frequency Response (-3 dB) (″ 100k pC)
Frequency Response (-3 dB) (< 100k pC)
Accuracy
Non-Linearity
Control Input
Alarm Output
Temperature Range (Operating)
Power Required
Current Draw
Broadband Electrical Noise
Output Resisitance
Drift
DC Offset (max)
Size (l x w x h) – Overall
Enclosure Material
Electrical Connector (input)
Electrical Connector (output, setup,
control, power)
421A25
1
± 100 to ±1,000,000 pC
± 10 V
0 to 10 V
~0 to 20 kHz
~0 to >2 kHz
<± 1% FS
<0.02 % FS
± 5 to 45 V
45 V, 100mA
+23 to +140 °F (-5 to +60 °C)
15 to 35 VDC
<70mA
<20 mV pp
10 ohm
<0.03 pC/s
± 10 mV
3.9 x 3.1 x 1.3 in (98 x 79 x 34 mm)
Aluminum
BNC Jack
25-Pin D-Sub
Options
Input/Output Connector, 25 pin D-Sub
Input/Output Cable, 25 pin D-Sub to pigtails,
5ft. (1.5m) length
JC
009M146
Note: This product conforms to applicable European Directives for CE marking.
2.10
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Electronic Accessories
Series 472B Charge Attentuators
Series 472B
Model
Divided by
472B01
472B02
472B03
472B04
10
15
50
100
Series 472B charge attenuators are used in conjunction with high-sensitivity charge
output force sensors when their full-scale output range exceeds the charge input limit of
the charge amplifier or converter with which it is used. Series 472B charge attenuators
serve to divide the output signal delivered by the force sensor by the factor indicated in
the table at left.
ICP® Sensor Simulator
Model 492B ICP® sensor simulator installs in place of an ICP® sensor and serves to
verify signal conditioning settings, cable integrity, and tune long lines for optimum
system performance. By use of an internal oscillator, the unit delivers a 100 Hz sine or
square wave at a selectable peak to peak voltage. External test signals from a function
generator may also be inserted. This portable unit is battery powered.
Model 492B
Model 401A04 ICP® sensor simulator installs in place of an ICP® sensor and
accepts test signals from a voltage function generator. The unit serves to verify signal
conditioning settings, cable integrity, and tune long lines for optimum system
performance. This unit requires power from an ICP® sensor signal conditioner.
Step Function Generator
Model 401A04
Model 492B03 generates a rapid charge or voltage step function from zero to a selected
peak value between either 0 and 100k pC or 0 and 10 volts DC. The unit is useful for
setting trigger points in recording equipment and verifying charge amplifier and data
acquisition equipment setup. This unit is battery powered and portable.
DC Power Conditioner
Model 485B serves to regulate available current from any conventional DC power
supply or battery source to a constant value between 2 and 20 mA as required by ICP®
sensors. In addition, the unit decouples the sensor’s output bias voltage from the
measurement signal to enable zero-based measurements with any readout device.
Summing Block for Charge Output Sensors
Model 492B03
Model 070A15 Summing Block allows the addition of up to four charge inputs and sums
them to provide one charge output. It is typically used to sum multiple force sensor
inputs to allow use of a single channel charge amplifier.
Connectors: (4) 10-32 jack inputs
(1) BNC jack output
Model 485B
Model 070A15
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.11
PCB®’s in-house machining capabilities allow full control of the production of precision parts
to insure quality and timely delivery. Capabilities including dual spindle CNC lathes, wire
EDM machines, and injection molding machines fabricate in excess of 200,000 parts per
month to exacting standards.
2.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Dynamic Force and
Strain Sensor Accessories
and Services
Highlights
■
Stock cable assemblies
■
Cable specifications
■
Connector adaptors
■
Custom cable ordering guide
■
Cable connector descriptions
■
Mounting accessories
■
Calibration services
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.13
Recommended Cables and Accessories
Code
Model #
Description
❶
002P10
General purpose, white, coaxial Teflon cable, 10-ft, 5-44 plug to BNC plug
①
003P10
Low-noise, blue, coaxial, Teflon cable, 10-ft, micro 5-44 plug to BNC plug
❷
002C10
General purpose, white, coaxial Teflon cable, 10-ft, 10-32 coaxial plug to BNC plug
➁
003C10
Low-noise, blue, coaxial, Teflon cable, 10-ft, 10-32 coaxial plug to BNC plug
❹
010G10
4-conductor, twisted sheilded, Teflon cable, 10-ft, 4-pin plug to (3) BNC plugs
(labled X, Y, Z)
002EB010JE
General purpose, white, coaxial Teflon cable, 10-ft, 10-32 coaxial plug to SMA plug
2.14
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Custom Cable Ordering Guide
To Order Custom Cables:
1. Choose the cable length format desired, either English (ft) or Metric (mm) unit lengths.
2. Choose the desired cable (see pages 2.17 to 2.21 for cable specifications).
3. Find the connector that mates to the sensor (see page 2.16 for connector information).
4. Determine the length of cable required, in English (ft) or Metric (mm) unit lengths.
5. Choose the cable termination connector (see page 2.16).
Example:
Model 003AK025AC defines a 25 ft, low-noise
cable with right angle 10-32 plug sensor connector,
BNC plug termination connector.
0 0 3
A K
Cable type
Length Unit
Feet - leave blank
Meters - “M”
Sensor
Connector
Diameter In (mm)
Max. Temp.
002 White Teflon jacket, general purpose
003 Blue Teflon jacket, low-noise
004 Brown Teflon jacket, industrial
0.075
0.079
0.140
(1.9)
(2.0)
(3.6)
005
006
012
018
025
038
0.2
0.2
0.193
0.051
0.116
0.119
(5.08)
(5.08)
(4.90)
(1.3)
(2.95)
(3.02)
275 °F
275 °F
176 °F
221 °F
390 °F
250 °F
0.1
(2.54)
392 °F 200 °C
0.154
(3.91)
250 °F 121 °C
Ruggedized 002 type, gen. purp.
Ruggedized 003 type, low-noise
Black vinyl jacket, RG-58/U
Black PVC jacket, lightweight
Tefzel jacket, industrial
Low-noise, polyurethane jacket,
underwater
400 °F 204 °C
500 °F 260 °C
392 °F 200 °C
135 °C
135 °C
80 °C
105 °C
199 °C
121 °C
Twisted/Shielded 4-Conductor
010 Teflon jacket, general purpose
10-Conductor
037 Polyurethane jacket, general purpose
A C
Cable Length
English - Feet Metric - Meters
Termination
Connector
Standard Connector Types
Standard Connector Types
Coaxial
0 2 5
The combination of cables and connectors listed are only recommended
configurations; other configurations are available. Consult PCB before ordering.
For multi-conductor cables breaking out to more than one connector, consult
factory for more information.
Letter
Connector
Compatible Cables
(Group Key is below)
10-32 Threaded Coaxial
EB
10-32 coaxial plug (shock)
EJ
10-32 coaxial plug (standard)
AH
10-32 coaxial plug (wire lock hex)
AK
10-32 coaxial plug (right angle)
AW
10-32 coaxial plug (solder adapter)
AL
10-32 coaxial jack
CY
10-32 coaxial plug (underwater)
5-44 Threaded Coaxial
AG
5-44 coaxial plug (standard)
AF
5-44 coaxial plug (right angle)
Large Coaxial
AB
BNC jack (locking)
AC
BNC plug (locking)
Four-Pin
4-pin plug (sockets)
AY
CA
4-pin jack (pins)
Miscellaneous
Pigtail (no connector)
AD
AZ
Conhex plug
SMA Plug
JE
010, Group 1
010, Group 1
010, Group 1
010, Group 1
010, Group 1
010, Group 1
038
010, Group 1
010, Group 1
010, Groups 1, 2
010, Groups 1, 2
010
010
All
004
Group 1
Group 1: 002, 003, 005, 006, 018, 025
Group 2: 004, 012
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.15
Cable Connector Descriptions
AB
AH
AZ
BNC Jack
Max Temp
10-32 Coaxial Plug (straight, with wire
locking hex)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
Conhex Plug
+212 °F (+100 °C)
CA
AC
BNC Plug
Max Temp
4-Pin Jack, 1/4-28 Thread
(for triaxial sensors)
Max Temp
+350 °F (+177 °C)
AK
+212 °F (+100 °C)
10-32 Coaxial Plug
(right angle)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
AD
CY
Pigtail (leads stripped and tinned)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (underwater)
AL
10-32 Coaxial Jack (straight)
Max Temp
+325 °F (+163 °C)
EB
AF
5-44 Coaxial Plug (right angle)
Max Temp
+325 °F (+163 °C)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (straight)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
AW
10-32 Coaxial Plug / Solder Adaptor (user
repairable)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
EJ
AG
5-44 Coaxial Plug (straight)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
10-32 Coaxial Plug
(straight, o-ring seal, spring loaded)
Max Temp
+490 °F (+254 °C)
AY
4-Socket Plug, 1/4-28 Thread (for triaxial
sensors)
Max Temp
+325 °F (+163 °C)
JE
SMA Plug
2.16
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------
Stock Cable Assemblies
Stock Cable Assemblies
The following cable assemblies are generally available for overnight
delivery. Should your application require a cable assembly not shown,
consult the Custom Cable Ordering Guide on page 2.15 for ordering
information.
Series 002 Standard Coaxial Cable
Usage
Construction
General purpose use with ICP® sensors and low-impedance voltage signals.
Shield (ground)
Outer Jacket
Diameter
Capacitance
Temperature Range
Impedance
Extruded FEP Teflon (waterproof), white
0.075 in
1.9 mm
29 pF/ft
95 pF/m
-130 to +400 °F
-90 to +204 °C
50 ohm
FEP
Teflon
Jacket
Dielectric
Stranded
Conductor
(signal)
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
002C03
002C05
002C10
002C20
002C30
002C50
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
50 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
15.2 m
002A03
002A05
002A10
002A20
002A30
002A50
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
50 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
15.2 m
002B01
002B03
1 ft
3 ft
0.3 m
0.9 m
002T03
002T10
002T20
3 ft
10 ft
20 ft
0.9 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
002P03
002P05
002P10
002P20
002P30
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
BNC Plug (AC)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
BNC Jack (AB)
BNC Plug (AC)
BNC Plug (AC)
5-44 Coaxial Plug (AG)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
BNC Plug (AC)
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.17
Stock Cable Assemblies
Series 003 Low-Noise Coaxial Cable
Usage
Construction
General purpose and high temperature use with charge output sensors,
high-impedance signals, ICP® sensors, and low-impedance voltage
conformance.
signals. Maintains
Outer Jacket
Wrapped TFE Teflon, blue
Diameter
0.079 in
2.0 mm
Capacitance
29 to 32 pF/ft
95 to 105 pF/m
Temperature Range
-130 to +500 °F
-90 to +260 °C
50 ohm
Impedance
TFE Teflon
Wrapped
Outer
Jacket
Shield
(ground)
Dielectric
Teflon
Graphite
Tape
Coating
Solid
Conduct
or
(signal)
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
003C03
003C05
003C10
003C20
003C30
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
003A01
003A03
003A05
003A10
003A20
003A30
1 ft
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
0.3 m
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
003B01
003B03
1 ft
3 ft
0.3 m
0.9 m
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
BNC Plug (AC)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
003D03
003D10
003D20
3 ft
10 ft
20 ft
0.9 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
003P03
003P05
003P10
003P20
003P30
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
2.18
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
BNC Jack (AB)
BNC Plug (AC)
BNC Plug (AC)
5-44 Coaxial Plug (AG)
716-684-0001
BNC Plug (AC)
www.pcb.com
Stock Cable Assemblies
Series 012 Low-Cost Coaxial Cable (RG58/U)
Usage
Construction
General purpose use with ICP sensors and low-impedance voltage
signals. Recommended for use as a sensor extension cable for long
distance signal transmission and as output cable from signal conditioner.
Maintains
conformance.
PVC, black
Outer Jacket
Diameter
0.193 in
4.90 mm
Capacitance
29 pF/ft
95 pF/m
Temperature Range
-40 to +176 °F
-40 to +80 °C
Impedance
52 ohm
®
Shield Dielectric
(ground)
PVC
Outer
Jacket
Conductor
(signal)
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
012A03
012A10
012A20
012A50
3 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
0.9 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
BNC Plug (AC)
BNC Plug (AC)
Series 018 Lightweight Coaxial Cable
Usage
Construction
General purpose use with ICP sensors and low-impedance voltage signals.
Recommended for use with miniature sensors to reduce cable strain.
Outer Jacket
PVC, black
Diameter
0.051 in
1.3 mm
Capacitance
55 pF/ft
180 pF/m
Temperature Range
-22 °F to +221 °F
-30 to +105 °C
Impedance
32 ohm
®
Shield
(ground)
Dielectric
PVC
Jacket
Conductor
(signal)
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
018C03
018C05
018C10
018C20
018C30
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
018G03
018G05
018G10
018G20
018G30
3 ft
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
30 ft
0.9 m
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
9.1 m
5-44 Coaxial Plug (AG)
5-44 Coaxial Plug (AG)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
BNC Plug (AC)
10-32 Coaxial Plug (EB)
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.19
Stock Cable Assemblies
Series 012 Low-Cost Coaxial Cable (RG58/U)
Usage
Construction
General purpose use with triaxial ICP sensors.
Maintains
conformance.
Outer Jacket
Teflon
Diameter
0.1 in
2.54 mm
Capacitance
31 pF/ft
102 pF/m
Temperature Range
-130 to +392 ºF
-90 to +200 ºC
Shield
®
Teflon
Jacket
Conductors
(3-signal,
1-ground)
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
010G05
010G10
010G15
010G20
010G25
010G30
010G50
5 ft
10 ft
15 ft
20 ft
25 ft
30 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
4.5 m
6.1 m
7.6 m
9.1 m
15.2 m
010F05
010F10
010F15
010F20
010F25
010F30
5 ft
10 ft
15 ft
20 ft
25 ft
30 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
4.5 m
6.1 m
7.6 m
9.1 m
010D05
010D10
010D20
010D25
010D30
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
25 ft
30 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
7.6 m
9.1 m
2.20
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
4-socket Plug (AY)
(3) BNC Plugs (AC)
4-socket Plug (AY)
4-socket Plug (AY)
716-684-0001
(3) 10-32 Coaxial Plugs (EB)
4-socket Plug (AY)
www.pcb.com
Additional Cable Types
Series 004 – Industrial High-Temperature Coaxial
004 CABLE: Industrial brown coaxial cable
with waterproof, extruded Teflon jacket: 15
pF/ft (49 pF/m), +392°F (+200°C) maximum
temperature, 0.140 inch (3.6 mm) diameter. For
use with ICP® sensors in high temperature or
corrosive industrial environments.
Shield
(ground)
Series 005 – Ruggedized 002-Type Coaxial Cable
005 CABLE: Ruggedized, 002 cable with tinplated copper braid and polyolefin heat-shrink
tubing: 29 pF/ft (95 pF/m), maximum
temperature +275°F (+135°C), 0.2 inch (5.08 mm)
diameter. For use with ICP® sensors, where
cable may be prone to being pinched or crushed.
Dielectric
Extruded
FEP
Teflon
Jacket
Conductor
(signal)
Tin-Plated
Copper Braid
Shield
(ground)
White Teflon
Dielectric
Jacket
Clear
HeatShrink
Tubing
Stranded
Conductor
(signal)
Series 006 – Ruggedized 003-Type Coaxial Cable
006 CABLE: Ruggedized 003 low-noise cable
with tin-plated copper braid and polyolefin
heat-shrink tubing: 29 to 32 pF/ft (95 to 105
pF/m), maximum temperature +275°F (+135°C),
0.2 inch (5.08 mm) diameter. Recommended
for charge output or ICP® sensors requiring a
durable cable. Maintains
conformance.
Shield
(ground)
Tin-Plated
Copper Braid
Dielectric
Teflon
Graphite
Tape
Coating
Wrapped Teflon
Jacket
Clear
HeatShrink
Tubing
Solid
Conductor
(signal)
Series 025 – Shielded Tefzel-Jacketed Coaxial
025 CABLE: White RG178 coaxial with rugged
Tefzel® outer insulating jacket: 37 pF/ft (121
pF/m), +390°F (+199°C), maximum temperature,
0.116 inch (2.95 mm) diameter. For use with
ICP® sensors in industrial or Teflon-prohibitive
environments.
Shield
Ground
Insulation
Tefzel
Outer
Jacket
Conductor
(signal)
Series 037 – Shielded 10-Conductor
037 CABLE: 10-conductor shielded cable with
a polyurethane outer jacket: +250°F (+121°C),
maximum temperature, 0.154 inch (3.91 mm)
diameter. Used on the Model 421A11 and
Model 421A13 industrial charge amplifiers
(see page 1.67).
Shield
Polyurethane
Jacket
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Teflon
Insulation
Conductors
(10)
Series 038 – Low-Noise Underwater
038 CABLE: Low-noise coaxial cable with a
polyurethane coated, TFE Teflon jacket: 29 to
32 pF/ft (95 to 105 pF/m), +250°F (+121°C)
maximum temperature, 0.119 inch (3.02 mm)
diameter. Recommended for underwater use
with either ICP® or charge output piezoelectric
sensors. Maintains
conformance.
Dielectric
Shield
(ground)
Polyurethane
Jacket
TFE Teflon
Wrap
Teflon
Insulation
Graphite
Tape
Conductive
Graphite
Conductor
(signal)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.21
Connector Adaptors
070A02
Scope Input Adaptor
070A01
Scope Input T Connector
BNC plug to two 10-32 coaxial jacks. Used
for splitting low-impedance signals.
10-32 coaxial jack to BNC plug. For adapting
BNC connectors for use with 10-32 coaxial
plugs.
070A03
Connector Adaptor
10-32 coaxial plug to BNC jack. Converts 1032 connectors for use with BNC plugs. Do not
use on sensor connectors.
Ground
Signal Power
070A05
10-32 Coaxial Coupler
10-32 coaxial jack to 10-32 coaxial jack.
Joins two cables terminating in 10-32
coaxial plugs.
070A08
Cable Adaptor
10-32
coaxial plug
10-32 coaxial jack to BNC jack. Joins cables
terminating in a BNC plug and a 10-32
coaxial plug.
070A11
BNC T Connector
070A12
BNC Coupler
BNC plug to two BNC jacks. Used as a cable
splitter.
BNC jack to BNC jack. Joins two cables
terminating in BNC plugs.
1/4" max wall
thickness
5/16"-32 mtg.
thread
070A14
10-32 Hermetic Feed-Thru
10-32 coaxial jack to 10-32 coaxial jack.
Tapped 5/16-32.
10-32 Coaxial jack to 10-32 coaxial plug. For
use in confined locations.
076A05
076A25
10-32 crimp-on style coaxial connector.
Requires tool contained in 076C31 kit.
Pin
tool
10-32 coaxial plug to solder terminals.
Excellent for high-shock applications. Userrepairable.
070A13
Feed-Thru Adaptor
085A18
085A18
Plastic Protective Cap
Provides strain relief for solder connector
adaptors, as well as protects 10-32 cable
ends.
085A40
10-32 Coaxial Shortening Cap
076A05
10-32 Coaxial Plug
Used to short charge output sensor
connectors
during
storage
and
transportation.
Microdot connector, screw-on type.
076A25
Connector Tool
Used to install 076A05 screw-on type
microdot connector.
Crimping tool
Model 076C31
Crimp-On Connector Kit
Includes 1-pin insertion tool, 1 sleeve
crimping tool, and 20 Model “EB” connectors
with cable strain reliefs. Wire stripper and
soldering iron not included.
Model 076A30 Microdot
Screw-On Connector Kit
One Model 076A25 Tool and 20 Model
076A05 10-32 coaxial connectors.
.
2.22
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
1/8" max wall
thickness
1/2" mtg. thread
10-32 coaxial jack to BNC jack. Bulkhead
connects BNC plug to 10-32 coaxial jack.
070A20
10-32 Coaxial
Right Angle
Connector Adapter
Model “EB” 10-32
Coaxial Connector
070B09
Solder Connector Adaptor
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Mounting Accessories
081B05
084A03
081A05
081A08
Mounting Stud
Impact Cap
Mounting Stud
Mounting Stud
Anti-Friction Washers and Pilot Bushings
Mounting Studs and Screws
Model
Short Studs
081A05
10-32
M081A05 10-32
081B05
10-32
M081B05 10-32
081A08
081A06
081B20
10-32
1/4-28
1/4-28
M081B21 1/4-28
M081A62 10-32
Threads
Length
In (cm)
Comment
Washer Bushing Usage
to 10-32
0.27 (0.69)
to M6 x 0.75 0.27 (0.69)
to 10-32
0.27 (0.69)
Series 209
Series M209
with shoulder for Series 208 and
Models 200B01-B05, 210B
to M6 x 0.75 0.27 (0.69) adaptor stud with shoulder for
Models M200B01-B05, M210B
to 1/4-28
0.30 (0.76) adaptor stud
to 1/4-28
0.37 (0.94) no shoulder
to 1/4-28
0.37 (0.94) with shoulder for Models 200C20 & C50,
210B20 & B50
to M6 x 0.75 0.37 (0.94) adaptor stud for Models M200C20 & C50,
M210B20 & B50
to M6 x 1.0 0.325 (0.83) Series 208
Long Studs
081A11
M081A11
081A12
M081A12
081A13
M081A13
081A14
M081A14
081A15
M081A15
081A16
M081A16
081A17
M081A17
081A70
M081A70
081A71
M081A71
081A74
M081A74
10-32
to
M5 x 0.8 to
5/16-24 to
M8 x 1.0 to
3/8-24
to
M10 x 1.0 to
1/2-20
to
M14 x 1.25 to
5/8-18
to
M16 x 1.5 to
7/8-14
to
M22 x 2.0 to
1 1/8-12 to
M30 x 2.0 to
5/16-24 to
M8 x 1.25 to
7/8-14
to
M24 x 3 to
1/2-20
to
M12 x 1.25 to
10-32
M5 x 0.8
5/16-24
M8 x 1.0
3/8-24
M10 x 1.0
1/2-20
M14 x 1.25
5/8-18
M16 x 1.5
7/8-14
M22 x 2.0
1 1/8-12
M30 x 2.0
5/16-24
M8 x 1.25
7/8-14
M24 x 3
1/2-20
M12 x 1.25
0.73 (1.85)
0.73 (1.85)
0.91 (2.31)
0.91 (2.31)
1.10 (2.79)
1.10 (2.79)
1.40 (3.56)
1.40 (3.56)
1.65 (4.19)
1.65 (4.19)
1.90 (4.83)
1.90 (4.83)
2.28 (5.79)
2.28 (5.79)
1.42 (3.61)
1.42 (3.61)
2.40 (6.1)
2.40 (6.1)
1.11 (2.82)
1.11 (2.82)
for Models 201B01-B05, 201A75-A76
for Models M201B01-B05, M201A75-A76
for Models 202B, 212B
for Models M202B, M212B
for Models 203B, 213B
for Models M203B, M213B
for Models 204B, 214B
for Models M204B, M214B
for Models 205B, 215B
for Models M205B, M215B
for Models 206B, 216B
for Models M206B, M216B
for Models 207B, 217B
for Models M207B, M217B
pre-load bolt for Models 260A01, 260A11
pre-load bolt for Models M260A01, M260A11
pre-load bolt for Models 260A03, 260A13
pre-load bolt for Models M260A03, M260A13
pre-load bolt for Models 260A02, 260A12
pre-load bolt for Models M260A02, M260A12
0.50 (1.27)
0.50 (1.27)
0.75 (1.91)
0.75 (1.91)
capscrew
capscrew
capscrew
capscrew
082B01
082B01
N/A
N/A
082B02
082B02
082B03
082B03
082B04
082B04
082B05
082B05
082B06
082B06
082B07
082B07
082B02
082B06
082M12
083B01
M083B01
083A15
M083A15
083B02
M083B02
083B03
M083B03
083B04
M083B04
083B05
M083B05
083B06
M083B06
083B07
M083B07
083A10
083A11
083A13
Models 201B01-B05, 211B
Models M201B01-B05, M211B
Models 201A75, 201A76
Models M201A75, M201A76
Models 202B, 212B
Models M202B, M212B
Models 203B, 213B
Models M203B, M213B
Models 204B, 214B
Models M204B, M214B
Models 205B, 215B
Models M205B, M215B
Models 206B, 216B
Models M206B, M216B
Models 207B, 217B
Models M207B, M217B
Models 260A01, 260A11, M260A01, M260A11
Models 260A03, 260A13, M260A03, M260A13
Models 260A02, 260A12, M260A02, M260A12
Impact Plates
Model
Usage
Comment
084A01
084A03
084A19
084A35
084A36
084A45
084B23
Series 208
Series 208
Model 208A33
Model 208A35
Models 200C50, 210B50
Model 208A45
Models 200C20, 210C20
Flat
Convex
Penetration
Penetration
Convex
Penetration
Convex
084M02
Series 208
Flat, hardened for matrix
print head applications
Screws
081A25
M081A25
081A26
M081A26
10-32
M5 x 0.8
10-32
M5 x 0.8
Custom studs are available. Contact factory for details.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.23
Dynamic Force and Strain Sensor Calibration Services
Calibration of Dynamic Force Sensors
PCB®’s calibration laboratory is accredited by The American Association for Laboratory
Accreditation (A2LA) to ISO 17025 standards. PCB® provides NIST (National Institute of
Standards and Technology) traceable calibration and testing services for all force and
strain sensor products. Calibrations and re-certifications performed by PCB® conform to
ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994 and ISO/IEC 17025-1999 standards.
Each individually calibrated force sensor is supplied with a certificate indicating
calibrated sensitivity as shown in Figure 13, on the next page. Determining the
sensitivity of sensors with operating ranges from 5000 to 100k lb (22k to 450k N) is
performed by placing the force sensor in a hydraulic press stand. In series with the
sensor is a load cell reference force standard selected for the operating range of the
sensor. Figure 14, on the next page depicts a force sensor calibration press. Reference
load cells are calibrated and certified every six months to verify calibrated value. A
scaled down test stand is used for lower ranged sensors. Miniature, high-sensitivity
models are calibrated by applying a known light weight mass, letting the signal zero, and
then quickly removing the mass. Output recorded is the sensitivity of the sensor. Charge
output and longer time constant sensors are calibrated by statically applying a known
force and recording output data.
In each calibration procedure, data points are plotted at 20% intervals of the sensor’s
operating range. These points are graphically plotted and the best straight line through
zero is drawn.
Should calibrated points fall outside the specified linearity as provided in published
specifications, the unit fails calibration and is rejected.
The scope of our accreditation for dynamic force sensors is:
Range
Best Uncertainty [1] (±)
0 to 100k lb (0 to 445k N)
1.0% FS
[1] Best Uncertainties represent expanded uncertainties expressed at approximately the 95%
confidence level using a coverage factor k = 2.
Dynamic Force and Strain Sensor Calibration Services
PCB® Sensor
Competitor Sensor
Calibration Code
Calibration Code
FCS-1
FCS-0
Calibration of dynamic force and strain sensors (complies with ISO 10012-1 and NIST traceable)
FCS-2
FCS-0
Calibration of dynamic triaxial force sensors (complies with ISO 10012-1 and NIST traceable)
FCS-3
FCS-0
System calibration of dynamic force or strain sensor with electronics.
FCS-4
FCS-0
Calibration of dynamic strain sensor.
FCS-5
FCS-0
Calibration of dynamic force ring where pre-load stud does not shunt forces.
FCS-xx
FCS-0
Additional calibration run on dynamic force sensor other than full scale.
FCS-QC
N/A
Special QC documentation for dynamic force sensors
Other calibration services available; contact factory for more information.
2.24
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Dynamic Force and Strain Sensor Calibration Services
Figure 13.
Typical Force Sensor Calibration Certificate
Figure 14.
Force Calibration Fixture, 5000 to 100k lb
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
2.25
Simple, ready-to-use monitoring systems that use
piezoelectric quartz ICP® strain sensors and
signal conditioners are ideal for product quality
assurance applications that require the
measurement of repetitive cycles. ICP® strain
sensors feature high stiffness, sensitivity
stability, repeatability, high resolution,
extremely long life, and robust packaging for
harsh industrial environments.
Proper assembly force is vital to the strength
of a formed metal part. An assembly force that
is too low results in poor mechanical strength of the joint. A force that is too high causes
excessive deformation, and can damage or reduce the fatigue life of a component. Processes
such as clinching, circuit board assembly, orbital forming, press-fit, riveting, staking, and
other assembly operations may be monitored in-process to determine whether the joint has
been properly manufactured.
Strain sensor signals may also be used to protect machinery from excessive forces, trend tool
wear, capture process deviations, and document the process to help ensure delivery of high
quality parts with zero defects.
2.26
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Technical Information
Introduction To Quartz Force Sensors
Quartz Force Sensors are well-suited for dynamic force measurement applications. They
are not interchangeable with strain gage load cells used for static force measurements.
Measurements of dynamic oscillating forces, impact or high speed compression/tension
under varying conditions may require sensors with special capabilities. Fast response,
ruggedness, high stiffness, extended range and the ability to also measure quasi-static
forces are standard features associated with PCB® quartz force sensors.
Highlights
The following information presents some of the design and operating characteristics
of PCB® quartz force sensors to help you better understand how they function, which
in turn, will help you make better dynamic measurements.
■
Introduction to force sensors
■
Driving long cable lengths
■
Conversions, article reprints, glossary
■
Force sensor application inquiry form
Types of Quartz Force Sensors
This catalog describes two modes of operation for quartz force sensors manufactured by
PCB®. ICP® (IEPE, or voltage output type sensors) feature built-in microelectronic
amplifiers, which convert the high-impedance electrostatic charge signal from the
crystals into a low-impedance voltage output signal (ICP® is a registered trademark
of PCB Group, Inc.). The other type are charge output force sensors, which directly output
a high-impedance electrostatic charge signal.
Sensor Construction
Both modes of operation for PCB® force sensors feature similar mechanical construction.
Most are designed with thin quartz crystal discs that are “sandwiched” between upper
and lower base plates. An elastic, beryllium-copper stud holds the plates together and
pre-loads the crystals (pre-loading assures parts are in intimate contact to ensure
linearity and provide the capability for tensile force measurements). This “sensing
element” configuration is then packaged into a rigid, stainless-steel housing and welded
to assure the internal components are sealed against contamination.
Figure 1 illustrates the cross-section of a typical quartz force sensor. This particular
sensor is a general purpose Series 208 compression/tension model with built-in electronics.
Figure 1.
When force is applied to this sensor, the quartz crystals generate an electrostatic charge
that is proportional to the input force. This charge output is collected on electrodes that
are sandwiched between the crystals. It is then either routed directly to an external
charge amplifier or converted to a low-impedance voltage signal within the sensor. Both
these modes of operation will be examined in the following sections.
Compression-Tension-Impact Series 208
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
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3.1
Introduction To Force Sensors
Conventional Charge Output Sensors
A charge output piezoelectric force sensor, when stressed, generates an electrostatic
charge from the crystals. For accurate analysis or recording purposes, this highimpedance charge must be routed through a special low-noise cable to an impedance
converting amplifier such as a laboratory charge amplifier or source follower. Connection
of the sensor directly to a readout device such as an oscilloscope is possible for
high-frequency impact indication, but is not suitable for most quantitative force
measurements.
The primary function of the charge or voltage amplifier is to convert the high-impedance
charge output to a usable low-impedance voltage signal for analysis or recording
purposes. Laboratory charge amplifiers provide added versatility for signal normalization,
ranging and filtering. PCB®’s electro-static charge amplifiers have additional input
adjustments for quasi-static measurements, static calibration, and drift-free dynamic
operation. Miniature in-line amplifiers are generally of fixed range and frequency.
Quartz charge output force sensors can be used at operating temperatures up to
+400 °F (+204 °C).
q
C1
C2
C3
Cf
=
=
=
=
=
When considering the use of charge output systems, remember that the output from the
crystals is a pure electrostatic charge. The internal components of the force sensor and
the external electrical connector maintain a very high (typically >1012 ohm) insulation
resistance so that the electrostatic charge generated by the crystals does not “leak
away.” Consequently, any connectors, cables or amplifiers used must also have a very
high insulation resistance to maintain signal integrity.
charge signal
sensor capacitance
cable capacitance
amplifier input capacitance
amplifier feedback capacitor
Environmental contaminants such as moisture, dirt, oil, or grease can all contribute to
reduced insulation, resulting in signal drift and inconsistent results.
The use of special, low- noise cable is required with charge output force sensors. Standard,
two-wire or coaxial cable, when flexed, generates an electrostatic charge between the
conductors. This is referred to as “triboelectric noise” and cannot be distinguished from the
sensor’s crystal electrostatic output. Low-noise cables have a special graphite lubricant
between the dielectric shield which minimizes the triboelectric effect.
Figure 2.
Charge Output Sensor System Schematic
Figure 2 shows a typical charge output sensor system schematic including: sensor,
low-noise cable, and charge amplifier.
If the measurement signal must be transmitted over long distances, PCB® recommends
the use of an in-line charge converter, placed near the force sensor. This minimizes the
chance of noise. In-line charge converters can be operated from the same
constant-current excitation power source as ICP® force sensors to minimize system cost.
Figure 3 shows two typical charge output systems and their components.
Low-noise
Sensor Cable
Charge Output
Force Sensor
3.2
Figure 3.
In-line Charge
Converter
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Readout Device
Charge
Amplifier
Standard
Sensor Cable or
Output Cable*
Low-noise
Sensor
Cable
Charge Output
Force Sensor
Output
Cable
Charge Output Systems
Output
Cable
ICP® Sensor
Signal
Conditioner
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Readout Device
* Low-noise cable is required
to maintain
conformance.
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Introduction To Force Sensors
ICP ® Low-Impedance Quartz Force Sensors
ICP® force sensors incorporate a built-in MOSFET microelectronic amplifier. This serves
to convert the high-impedance charge output into a low-impedance voltage signal for
analysis or recording. ICP® sensors, powered from a separate constant current source,
operate over long ordinary coaxial or ribbon cable without signal degradation. The
low-impedance voltage signal is not affected by triboelectric cable noise or
environmental contaminants.
Power to operate ICP® sensors is generally in the form of a low cost, 24 to 27 VDC, 2 to
20 mA constant current supply. Figure 4 schematically illustrates a typical ICP® sensor
system. PCB® offers a number of AC or battery powered, single or multi-channel
power/signal conditioners, with or without gain capabilities, for use with force sensors
(see Signal Conditioners Section of this catalog for available models). In addition, many
data acquisition systems now incorporate constant current power for directly powering
ICP® sensors. Because static calibration or quasi-static short-term response lasting up to
a few seconds is often required, PCB® also manufactures signal conditioners that provide
DC coupling.
Figure 5. summarizes a complete 2-wire ICP® system configuration. In addition to ease
of operation, ICP® force sensors offer significant advantages over charge output types.
Because of the low-impedance output and solid-state, hermetic construction, ICP® force
sensors are well-suited for continuous, unattended force monitoring in harsh factory
environments. Also, ICP® sensor cost-per-channel is substantially lower, since they
operate through standard, low-cost coaxial cable, and do not require expensive charge
amplifiers.
Polarity
The output voltage polarity of ICP® force sensors is positive for compression and
negative for tension force measurements. ICP® strain sensors have the opposite polarity.
The polarity of PCB® charge output force sensors is the opposite: negative for
compression and positive for tension. This is because charge output sensors are usually
used with external charge amplifiers that exhibit an inverting characteristic. Therefore,
the resulting system output polarity of the charge amplifier system is positive for
compression and negative for tension; same as for an ICP® sensor system (reverse
polarity sensors are also available).
Figure 4.
ICP® Sensor System Schematic
Why Can Only Dynamic Force be Measured with
Piezoelectric Force Sensors?
The quartz crystals of a piezoelectric force sensor generate an electrostatic charge only
when force is applied to or removed from them. However, even though the electrical
insulation resistance is quite large, the electrostatic charge will eventually leak to zero
through the lowest resistance path. In effect, if you apply a static
force to a piezoelectric force sensor, the electrostatic charge
output initially generated will eventually leak back to zero.
Standard
Sensor Cable
or Output
Cable*
ICP® Force
Sensor
Output
Cable
ICP® Sensor
Signal
Conditioner
The rate at which the charge leaks back to zero is dependent on
the lowest insulation resistance path in the sensor, cable and the
electrical resistance/capacitance of the amplifier used.
Readout Device
Figure 5.
Typical ICP® Sensor System
* Low-noise cable is required to maintain
conformance.
In a charge output force sensor, the leakage rate is usually fixed by
values of capacitance and resistance in the low-noise cable and
external charge or source follower amplifier used.
In an ICP® force sensor with built-in electronics, the resistance and
capacitance of the built-in circuitry normally determines the
leakage rate.
Continued on next page.
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3.3
Introduction To Force Sensors
When a rapid dynamic force is applied to a piezoelectric force sensor, the electrostatic
charge is generated quickly and, with an adequate discharge time constant, does not leak
back to zero. However, there is a point at which a slow speed dynamic force becomes
quasi-static and the leakage is faster than the rate of the changing force. Where is the
point at which the force is too slow for the piezoelectric force sensor to make the
measurement? See the next section on Discharge Time Constant for the answer.
Discharge Time Constant (DTC)
When leakage of a charge (or voltage) occurs in a resistive capacitive circuit, the leakage
follows an exponential decay. A piezoelectric force sensor system behaves similarly in
that the leakage of the electrostatic charge through the lowest resistance also occurs at
an exponential rate. The value of the electrical capacitance of the system (in farads),
multiplied by the value of the lowest electrical resistance (in ohm) is called the Discharge
Time Constant (in seconds).
DTC is defined as the time required for a sensor or measuring system to discharge its
signal to 37% of the original value from a step change of measurand. This is true of any
piezoelectric sensor, whether the operation be force, pressure or vibration monitoring.
The DTC of a system directly relates to the low frequency monitoring capabilities of a
system and, in the case of force monitoring, becomes very important as it is often
desired to perform quasi-static measurements.
DTC Charge Output System
In a charge output system, the sensors do not contain built-in amplifiers, therefore, the
DTC is usually determined by the settings on an external charge amplifier. A feedback
resistor working together with a capacitor on the operational amplifier determines the
time constant. PCB®’s laboratory-style charge amplifiers feature short, medium and long
time constant selections. It is assumed that the electrical insulation resistance of the
force sensor and cable connecting to the charge amplifier are larger than that of the
feedback resistor in the charge amplifier; otherwise, drift will occur. Therefore, to assure
this, the force sensor connection point and cable must be kept clean and dry.
Low Frequency Response of ICP® Systems
With ICP® force sensors, there are two factors which must be considered when making
low frequency measurements. These are:
1. The discharge time constant characteristic of the ICP® force sensor.
2. The discharge time constant of the AC coupling circuit used in the signal
conditioner (if DC coupling is used, only (1) above needs to be considered).
It is important that both factors be readily understood by the user to assure accurate low
frequency measurements.
DTC in ICP® Force Sensors
The DTC is fixed by the components in an ICP® sensor’s internal amplifier. Specifications
for the ICP® force sensors shown in this catalog list the DTC for each force sensor.
When testing with ICP® sensors, there are two time constants that must be considered
for low frequency determination, one being that of the sensor which is a fixed value, and
the other being that of the coupling electrical circuit used in the signal conditioner.
When an ICP® sensor is subjected to a step function input, a quantity of charge, q, is
produced proportional to the mechanical input. According to the law of electrostatics,
output voltage is ∆V = ∆q/∆C where C is the total capacitance of the sensing element,
amplifier, and ranging capacitor.
3.4
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Introduction To Force Sensors
This voltage is then amplified by the MOSFET amplifier to determine final sensor
sensitivity. After the initial step input, the charge signal decays according to the equation:
q
where:
q
Q
R
C
e
t
Figure 6.
Standard DTC Curve
= Qe-t/RC
=
=
=
=
=
=
instantaneous charge (C)
initial quantity of charge (C)
bias resistor value (ohm)
total capacitance (F)
base of natural log (2.718)
time elapsed since t0 (sec)
This equation is also graphically
represented in Figure 6.
The product of R and C represents the DTC (in seconds) of the sensor. Sensor time constants
vary from just a few seconds to >2000 seconds for standard sensors. Special time constants
can be supplied by altering the resistor value, R, in the sensor’s built-in circuitry.
Most readout instruments have a high input impedance of >1 megohm. For these
systems, the sensor DTC as previously discussed becomes the dominant value and
can be used in determining signal discharge rate. However, for signals coupled to
low-impedance readout devices, generally <1 megohm, it is necessary to determine
the system time constant. This will be explained further in the following section.
Signal Conditioner and Readout Time Constants
The external power supply used with an ICP® force sensor may also have a DTC
associated with it. In some ICP® signal conditioners, which feature internal buffer
amplifiers or gain amplifiers, the time constant is fixed by various internal components
and may be shorter, or longer, than the sensor DTC. In signal conditioners with
capacitive-coupled outputs, the DTC is not fixed. In this case, a capacitor used to
decouple an ICP® force sensor bias voltage acts with the input impedance of the readout
device to create another time constant.
Check the specifications of the signal conditioner to determine if it has a fixed internal
DTC, which sets the low frequency response, or if it has a capacitive-coupled output. If
the output is capacitive-coupled, the time constant, when fed into the input of the
readout, can be calculated as follows:
DTC = RC
where:
R = input impedance of readout device (ohm)
C = value of coupling capacitor at output of signal conditioner (F)
Note that the output of some capacitive-coupled ICP® sensor power conditioners feature
a shunt resistor that overrides the effects of the input resistance of the readout device
if it is 1 megohm or greater.
AC coupling in the readout device is also an additional type of DTC. Check specifications
for the power conditioners and readout instrument to be sure they are suitable for your
particular dynamic measurement. If you have more than one DTC in the system, a time
constant that is significantly shorter than the others will usually dominate.
Determination of the system DTC for oscillating and transient inputs can be calculated
from these equations:
Oscillating inputs:
DTC =
Transient inputs:
DTC =
(lasting up to 10% of smaller DTC)
(R1C1) (R2C2)
√ (R1C1)2 + (R2C2)2
(R1C1) (R2C2)
(R1C1) + (R2C2)
To avoid potential problems, it is recommended to keep the coupling time constant at
least 10 times longer than the sensor time constant. The system discharge time constant
determines the low frequency response of the system. It is analogous to a first-order
Continued on next page.
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3.5
Introduction To Force Sensors
high-pass RC filter. The system’s theoretical low frequency roll-off is illustrated in
Figure 7, and can be calculated from the following relationships:
3 dB down: 0.16/DTC = fc
10% down: 0.34/DTC = f-10%
5% down: 0.5/DTC = f-5%
Long Duration Events and DTC
It is often desired to measure an input pulse lasting a few seconds in duration. This is
especially true with force sensor applications where static calibration or quasi-static
measurements take place. Before performing tests of this nature, it is important to DC
couple the entire monitoring system to prevent rapid signal loss. PCB®’s AC/DC mode
signal conditioners are designed for such applications.
Figure 7.
Low Frequency Characteristic of
a First-order, High-pass Filter
The general rule of thumb for such measurements is that the output signal loss and time
elapsed over the first 10% of a DTC have an approximate one to one relationship. If a
sensor has a 500 second DTC, over the first 50 seconds, 10% of the original input signal
will have decayed. For 1% accuracy, data should be taken in the first 1% of the DTC. If
8% accuracy is acceptable, the measurement should be taken within 8% of the DTC, and
so forth. Figure 8 graphically demonstrates this event.
Left unchanged, the signal will naturally decay toward zero. This will take approximately
5 DTC. You will notice that after the original step impulse signal is removed, the output
signal dips below the base line reference point (t0 +0.01 TC). This negative value is the
same value as has decayed from the original impulse (shown as 1% in Figure 8). Further
observation will reveal that the signal, left untouched, will decay upwards toward zero
until equilibrium in the system is observed.
Force Sensor Natural Frequency
Unlike the low frequency response of the sensor, which is determined electrically
through the DTC = RC equation, the high frequency response is determined by the
sensor’s mechanical configuration (unless electrical low-pass filtering has been added).
Each force sensor has an upper frequency limit specification which should be observed
when determining upper linear limits of operation.
Installation
Figure 8.
Step Function Response
Proper installation of quartz force sensors is essential for accurate dynamic
measurement results. Although rugged PCB® quartz force sensors are forgiving to some
degree, certain basic procedures should be followed.
Since most PCB® force sensors are designed with quartz compression plates to measure
forces applied in an axial direction, aligning the sensor and contact surfaces to prevent
edge loading or bending moments in the sensor will produce better dynamic
measurement results.
Having parallelism between the sensor and test structure contact surfaces minimizes
bending moments and edge loading. Flatness of mounting surfaces will also affect the
quality of the measurement. Using a thin layer of lubricant on mounting surfaces during
installation creates better contact between sensor and mounting surface.
Figure 9.
Edge vs. Central Loading
3.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
The mounting surfaces on PCB® force sensors are lapped during their manufacture to
ensure that they are flat, parallel and smooth. Ring-style force sensors are supplied with
anti-friction washers to minimize shear loading of the sensor surface when torquing
between two surfaces.
Loading to the entire force sensor sensing surface is also important for good
measurements. However, this can be difficult if the surface being brought into contact
with the force sensor is flat but not parallel to the sensor mounting surface. In this case,
an intermediate curved surface can lessen edge loading effects (See Figure 9).
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Introduction To Force Sensors
Series 208 force sensors are supplied with a convex curved impact cap to help spread
the forces over the entire surface of the force sensor.
Typical Installation
Non-Typical Installation
F
F
One other consideration when mounting force sensors is to minimize unnecessary
mechanical high frequency shock loading of the sensors. The high frequency content of
direct metal-to-metal impacts can often create short duration, high “g” overloads in
structures and sensors. This problem can be minimized by using a thin damping layer of
a softer material on the interface surface between the structure and sensor being
impacted (it should be considered beforehand whether the slight damping of the high
frequency shock is critical to the force measurement requirements). The impact surface
on Series 200 and the impact caps on Series 208 force sensors are supplied with thin
layers of damping material.
Pre-Loading Force Rings and 3-Component Force Sensors
Figure 10.
Force Ring Sensor Installations
PCB® ring-style 1-component and 3-component force sensors are generally installed
between two parts of a test structure with the supplied elastic beryllium-copper stud or
customer-supplied bolt. The stud or bolt holds the structure together, and applies preload to the force ring as shown in Figure 10. In the typical installation, shown on the left
side in Figure 10, part of the force between the two structures is shunted through the
mounting stud. The amount of force shunted may be up to 7% of the total force for the
beryllium-copper stud supplied with the sensor, and up to 50% for steel studs. This
typical installation setup is used by PCB® during standard calibrations.
A non-typical installation is shown on the right side in Figure 10. In this non-typical
installation, the stud or bolt used to apply the pre-load does not shunt part of the applied
force. The plate on top of the sensor has a clearance hole that the stud or bolt passes
through. In this installation, the stud or bolt is not directly connected to the top plate by
its threads, as it is in the typical installation, so it does not shunt any force.
NOTE: If any of the following conditions apply to the pre-loading of the force ring in the
application, the sensitivity and linearity performance of the sensor will not match the
standard PCB® calibration values.
1. Use of a stud or bolt other than the supplied beryllium-copper stud
2. Use of no stud or bolt
3. Use of an amount of pre-load other than the recommended amount
4. Use of the non-typical installation setup shown below
In these cases, please contact a PCB® application engineer to discuss your
special calibration requirements.
PCB® in-house calibration procedure requires the installation of a force ring with
beryllium-copper stud, in the typical installation setup above, in series with a NIST
traceable reference sensor. Generally, a pre-load of 20% (full-scale operating range
of the force ring) is applied before recording of measurement data. Contact a PCB®
application specialist for proper pre-load requirements. Allow the static component of
the signal to discharge before calibration.
Three-component force sensors must be pre-loaded to achieve proper operation,
particularly for the shear x-, and y-axis. The recommended applied pre-load for threecomponent force sensors is 10 times their x or y axes measurement range. This pre-load
provides the sensing crystals with the compressive loading required to achieve an output
in response to shear direction input forces. As with force rings, the sensitivity achieved
from a 3-component force sensor is dependent upon the applied pre-load and the
elasticity characteristics of the mounting bolt or stud used. If the unit is to be installed
with a stud or bolt other than the supplied elastic, beryllium-copper stud, a calibration
using the actual mounting hardware must be preformed. Errors in sensitivity of up to
50% can result by utilizing studs or bolts of different materials.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
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3.7
Introduction To Force Sensors
Typical Piezoelectric System Output
The output characteristic of piezoelectric sensors is that of an AC coupled system, where
repetitive signals will decay until there is an equal area above and below the original
base line. As magnitude levels of the monitored event fluctuate, the output will remain
stabilized around the base line with the positive and negative areas of the curve
remaining equal. Figure 11 represents an AC signal following this curve (output from
sensors operating in DC mode following this same pattern, but over an extended time
frame associated with sensor time constant values).
Example: Assuming a 0 to 3 volt output signal is generated from an AC coupled force application
with a one second steady-state pulse rate and one second between pulses. The frequency remains
constant, but the signal quickly decays negatively until the signal centers around the original base
line (where area A = area B). Peak-to-peak output remains the same.
Figure 11.
Repetitive Pulse, AC Signal
Repetitive Pulse Applications
In many force monitoring applications, it is desired to monitor a series of zero-to-peak
repetitive pulses that may occur within a short time interval of one another. This output
signal is often referred to as a “pulse train”. As has been previously discussed, the AC
coupled output signal from piezoelectric sensors will decay towards an equilibrium
state, making it look like the positive force is decreasing. In this scenario, it would be
difficult to accurately monitor a continuous zero-to-peak output signal such as those
associated with stamping or pill press applications. With the use of special ICP® sensor
signal conditioning equipment it becomes possible to position an output signal positive
going above a ground-based zero. Operating in drift-free AC mode, PCB®’s Model 484B02
or a Model 410A01 ICP® sensor signal conditioner provides the constant current voltage
excitation to ICP® force sensors and has a zero-based clamping circuit that electronically
resets each pulse to zero. As outlined in Figure 12, this special circuitry prevents the
output from drifting negatively, and provides a continuous, positive polarity signal.
Figure 12.
Positive Polarity, Zero-based AC Output
3.8
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Driving Long Cable Lengths
Cable Driving Considerations and Constant Current Level
Operation over long cables may effect frequency response and introduce noise and
distortion when an insufficient current is available to drive cable capacitance.
Short
Sensor
Cable
ICP®
Force Sensor
Extension
Cable
Output Cable
Cable
Coupler
Readout Device
ICP® Sensor
Signal
Conditioner
Unlike charge output systems, where the system noise is a function of cable length, ICP®
sensors provide a high-voltage, low-impedance output well-suited for driving long cables
through harsh environments. While there is virtually no increase in noise with ICP®
sensors, the capacitive loading of the cable may distort or filter higher frequency signals
depending on the supply current and the output impedance of the sensor.
Generally, this signal distortion is not a problem with lower frequency testing within a
range up to 10k Hz. However, for higher frequency vibration, shock, or transient testing
over cables longer than 100 ft (30 m), the possibility of signal distortion exists.
The maximum frequency that can be transmitted over a given cable length is a function
of both the cable capacitance and the ratio of the peak signal voltage to the current
available from the signal conditioner according to:
where,
fmax
=
109
2πCV / (Ic-1)
fmax
C
V
Ic
109
=
=
=
=
=
maximum frequency (hertz)
cable capacitance (picofarads)
maximum peak output from sensor (volts)
constant current from signal conditioner (mA)
scaling factor to equate units
Note that in the equation, 1 mA is subtracted from the total current supplied to the
sensor (Ic). This is done to compensate for powering the internal electronics. Some
specialty sensor electronics may consume more or less current. Contact the
manufacturer to determine the correct supply current. When driving long cables, the
equation above shows that as the length of cable, peak voltage output or maximum
frequency of interest increases, a greater constant current will be required to drive the
signal.
The nomograph on page 1.91 provides a simple, graphical method for obtaining the
expected maximum frequency capability of an ICP® measurement system. The maximum
peak signal voltage amplitude, cable capacitance, and supplied constant current must be
known or presumed.
For example, when running a 100 ft (30 m) cable with a capacitance of 30 pF/ft (98 pF/m),
the total capacitance is 3000 pF. This value can be found along the diagonal cable
capacitance lines. Assuming the sensor operates at a maximum output range of 5 volts
and the constant current signal conditioner is set at 2 mA, the ratio on the vertical axis
can be calculated to equal 5. The intersection of the total cable capacitance and this
ratio result in a maximum frequency of approximately 10.2k Hz.
Continued on next page.
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3.9
Driving Long Cable Lengths
The nomograph does not indicate whether the frequency amplitude response at a point
is flat, rising, or falling. For precautionary reasons, it is good general practice to increase
the constant current (if possible) to the sensor (within its maximum limit) so that the
frequency determined from the nomograph is approximately 1.5 to 2 times greater than
the maximum frequency of interest.
Note that higher current levels will deplete battery powered signal conditioners at a
faster rate. Also, any current not used by the cable goes directly to power the internal
electronics and will create heat. This may cause the sensor to exceed its maximum
temperature specification. For this reason, do not supply excessive current over short
cable runs or when testing at elevated temperatures.
Experimentally Testing Long Cables
To more accurately determine the effect of long cables, it is recommended to
experimentally determine the high frequency electrical characteristics.
Signal
Generator
Long
Extension
Cable
Short
Sensor
Cable
Model
401A04
Sensor
Simulator
Model
073A
Variable
Resistor
Output Cable
Readout Device
ICP®
Sensor
Signal
Conditioner
The method illustrated below involves connecting the output from a standard signal
generator into a unity gain, low-output impedance (<5 ohm) instrumentation amplifier in
series with the ICP® sensor. The extremely low output impedance is required to minimize
the resistance change when the signal generator/amplifier is removed from the system.
In order to check the frequency/amplitude response of this system, set the signal
generator to supply the maximum amplitude of the expected measurement signal.
Observe the ratio of the amplitude from the generator to that shown on the scope. If the
ratio is 1:1, the system is adequate for your test. If necessary, be certain to factor in any
gain in the signal conditioner or scope. If the output signal is increasing (+25% for
example), add series resistance to attenuate the signal. Use of a variable 100 ohm
resistor will help set the correct resistance more conveniently. Note that this is the only
condition that requires the addition of resistance. If the signal is decreasing (-25% for
example), the constant current level must be increased or the cable capacitance reduced.
It may be necessary to physically install the cable during cable testing to reflect the actual
conditions encountered during data acquisition. This will compensate for potential
inductive cable effects that are partially a function of the geometry of the cable route.
3.10
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Driving Long Cable Lengths
Cable Driving Nomograph
V
Ic - 1
(Ratio of Maximum
Output Voltage from
Sensor to Available
Constant Current)
Frequency (Hz)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
fmax
=
109
2πCV / (Ic-1)
fmax
C
V
Ic
109
=
=
=
=
=
maximum frequency (Hz)
cable capacitance (pF)
maximum output voltage from sensor (volts)
constant current from power unit (mA)
scale factor to equate units
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3.11
Conversion and Useful Formulas
Voltage sensitivity of a charge
output piezoelectric sensor:
q
C
V = voltage sensitivity
Lower -5% frequency point for
an RC time constant:
Rise time of a piezoelectric
sensor:
1
tr = 2 f
r
tr = rise time
3
2 π RC
f-5% = frequency at which signal
is attenuated by 5%
V =
f-5% =
q = charge sensitivity
fr = natural (resonant) frequency
of the sensor
C = capacitance of sensor
Voltage sensitivity of a charge
output piezoelectric sensor
with source follower:
q
V = C +C +C
1 2 3
C1 = capacitance of sensor
C2 = capacitance of interconnecting
cable
C3 = input capacitance of unity gain
source follower
Time constant for a first-order,
high-pass filter:
Approximate upper +5%
frequency point for
single-degree-of-freedom
mechanical system:
Acceleration:
m = g
sec2
9.8
fr
5
f+5% = frequency at which signal
is amplified by 5%
f+5% =
Temperature:
(°F-32) 5
°C =
9
fr = natural (resonant) frequency
Approximating two time
constants in series for
oscillating signals:
Weight:
gm =
lb
453.59
gm =
oz
28.35
(R1C1) (R2C2)
√ (R1C1)2 + (R2C2)2
t = RC
Approximating two time
constants in series for
transient inputs lasting
up to 10% of the smaller time
constant value:
R = resistance in ohm
C = capacitance in farads
t = time constant in seconds
1 kg = 2.204 lb
1 lb = 4.448 N
1000 lb = 4.448k N
(R1C1) (R2C2)
(R1C1) + (R2C2)
Lower corner frequency
(-3 dB) for an RC time constant:
1
2 π RC
fc = frequency at which signal
is attenuated by -3 dB
fc =
3.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
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Article Reprints
To order copies of the following articles,
simply request the "AR" number preceding
each article; write or call PCB® toll-free at
888-684-0004.
AR-10
Understanding Vibration
Measurements
AR-1
Application of IntegratedCircuits to Piezoelectric
Transducers, Paper P4-2
PHYMID 67
AR-18
Introduction to
Piezoelectric Sensors
ICP® Transducer - basic operation &
application. Cornell Aeronautical Lab,
Robert Lally, 1967.
Force sensor 208A03/modal analysis
of cantilever beam, George Lang, 1978.
Basic accelerometer, pressure, and
force sensor design considerations &
typical applications, Jim Lally, 1985.
AR-19
Calibration of Piezo
Sensors
AR-2
ICP® Concept
Integrated-Circuit Piezoelectric. Low
impedance, voltage mode system,
PCB, 1967.
AR-4
Guide to ICP®
Instrumentation
Voltage vs. charge systems. Effect of
coupling & time constant on response.
Powering ICP® system, Robert Lally, 1971
AR-9
Testing the Behavior of
Structures
Calibration Systems for dynamic
pressure sensors, force sensors
and accelerometers with typical
calibration results, Jim Lally, 1985.
AR-38
Basics of Piezoelectric
Sensors
ICP® sensor features. Upright, inverted
compression, and shear mode, Roy
Maines, 1989.
AR-84
Impact and Drop Testing
with ICP® Force Sensors
Bob Metz, Crash Test Technlogy
International, November 2006.
AR-85
Automotive Component
Durability Testing Using
Piezoelectronics Force
Sensors
Bob Metz, Crash Test Technlogy
International, May 2006.
AR-35
Frequency Response
Considerations for
Piezoelectric Sensors
and Related Inst.
Time constant and AC coupling or
DC coupling effects on frequency
response. Time constant vs. shock pulse
input duration, Ray Limburg,1988.
Rigid body, structural, and acoustic
modes of behavior testing, Robert
Lally, 1978.
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3.13
Glossary of Terms
Reprinted with permission from Application
Note: AN 243-1, “Effective Machinery
Measurements Using Dynamic Signal
Analyzers,” Hewlett-Packard Company,
1991. Editing and additions performed by
PCB Piezotronics, Depew, NY, 1998.
Anti-aliasing Filter —
Balanced Condition —
Most commonly a low-pass filter designed to
filter out frequencies higher than 1/2 the
sample rate in order to minimize aliasing.
For rotating machinery, a condition where the
shaft geometric centerline coincides with the
mass centerline.
Anti-friction Bearing —
Balancing —
See Rolling Element Bearing.
Acceleration —
Asymmetrical Support —
The time rate of change of velocity. Typical
units are ft/s2, meters/s2, and G’s (1G =
32.17 ft/s2 = 9.81 m/s2). Acceleration
measurements are usually made with
accelerometers.
Rotor support system that does not provide
uniform restraint in all radial directions. This
is typical for most heavy industrial machinery
where stiffness in one plane may be
substantially different than stiffness in the
perpendicular plane. Occurs in bearings by
design, or from preloads such as gravity or
misalignment.
A procedure for adjusting the radial mass
distribution of a rotor so that the mass
centerline approaches the rotor geometric
centerline.
Accelerometer —
Transducer whose output is directly
proportional to acceleration. Most commonly
use piezoelectric crystals to produce output.
Aliasing —
A phenomenon which can occur whenever a
signal is not sampled at greater than twice
the maximum bandwidth of the signal.
Causes high frequency signals to appear at
low frequencies. Aliasing is minimized by
filtering the signal to a bandwidth less than fi
the sample rate. When the signal starts at 0
Hz (baseband signals), bandwidth can be
exchanged to maximum frequency in the
definition above.
Alignment —
A condition whereby the axes of machine
components are either coincident, parallel,
or perpendicular, according to design
requirements.
Amplification Factor
(Synchronous) —
A measure of the susceptibility of a rotor to
vibration amplitude when rotational speed is
equal to the rotor natural frequency (implies
a flexible rotor). For imbalance type
excitation, synchronous amplification factor
is calculated by dividing the amplitude value
at the resonant peak by the amplitude value
at a speed well above resonance (as
determined from a plot of synchronous
response vs. rpm).
Amplitude —
The magnitude of dynamic motion or
vibration. Amplitude is expressed in terms of
peak-to-peak, zero-to-peak, or rms. For pure
sine waves only, these are related as
follows: rms = 0.707 times zero-to-peak;
peak-to-peak = 2 times zero-to-peak. DSAs
generally read rms for spectral components,
and peak for time domain components.
3.14
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Asynchronous —
Vibration components that are not related to
rotating speed (also referred to as
nonsynchronous).
Attitude Angle (Steady-State) —
The angle between the direction of steadystate preload through the bearing centerline,
and a line drawn between the shaft
centerline and the bearing centerline.
(Applies to fluid-film bearings.)
Auto Spectrum
(Power Spectrum) —
A filter with a single transmission band
extending from lower to upper cutoff
frequencies. The width of the band is
normally determined by the separation of
frequencies at which amplitude is attenuated
by 3 dB (a factor 0.707 ).
Bandwidth —
The distance between frequency limits at
which a band-pass filter attenuates the
signal by 3 dB. In a DSA, the measurement
bandwidth is equal to [(frequency
span)/(number of filters) x (window factor)].
Window factors are: 1 for uniform, 1.5 for
Hanning, and 3.4 for flat top (P301) and 3.6
for flat top (P401). See flat top for more
information.
Baseline Spectrum —
DSA spectrum display whose magnitude
represents the power at each frequency, and
which has no phase.
A vibration spectrum taken when a machine
is in good operating condition; used as a
reference for monitoring and analysis.
Blade Passing Frequency —
Averaging —
In a DSA, digitally averaging several
measurements to improve accuracy or to
reduce the level of asynchronous
components. Refer to definitions of rms,
time, and peak-hold averaging.
Axial —
In the same direction as the shaft centerline.
Axial Position —
The average position, or change in position,
of a rotor in the axial direction with respect
to some fixed reference position. Ideally the
reference is a known position within the
thrust bearing axial clearance or float zone,
and the measurement is made with a
displacement transducer observing the
thrust collar.
Balancing Resonance
Speed(s) —
A rotative speed that corresponds to a
natural resonance frequency.
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Band-Pass Filter —
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A potential vibration frequency on any bladed
machine (turbine, axial compressor, fan, etc.).
It is represented by the number of blades
times shaft-rotating frequency.
Block Size —
The number of samples used in a DSA to
compute the Fast Fourier Transform. Also the
number of samples in a DSA time display.
Most DSAs use a block size of 1024. Smaller
block size reduces frequency resolution.
Bode —
Rectangular coordinate plot of 1x component
amplitude and phase (relative to a keyphasor)
vs. running speed.
BPFO, BPFI —
Common abbreviations for ball pass frequency
of defects on outer and inner bearing races,
respectively.
Bow —
A shaft condition such that the geometric
centerline of the shaft is not straight.
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Glossary Of Terms
Brinneling (False) —
Impressions made by bearing rolling
elements on the bearing race; typically
caused by external vibration when the shaft
is stationary.
Calibration —
Constant Percentage
Bandwidth —
A band-pass filter whose bandwidth is a
constant percentage of center frequency. 1/3
octave filters, including those synthesized in
DSAs, are constant percentage bandwidth.
A test during which known values of the
measured variable are applied to the
transducer or readout instrument, and output
readings varied or adjusted.
Critical Machinery —
Campbell Diagram —
Critical Speeds —
A mathematically constructed diagram used
to check for coincidence of vibration sources
(i.e. 1 x imbalance, 2 x misalignment) with
rotor natural resonances. The form of the
diagram is like a spectral map (frequency
versus rpm), but the amplitude is represented
by a rectangular plot, the larger the
amplitude the larger the rectangle. Also
known as an interference diagram.
In general, any rotating speed which is
associated with high vibration amplitude.
Often, the rotor speeds which correspond to
natural frequencies of the system.
Cascade Plot —
Cross Axis Sensitivity —
Machines which are critical to a major part
of the plant process. These machines are
usually unspared.
Critical Speed Map —
A rectangular plot of system natural
frequency (y-axis) versus bearing or support
stiffness (x-axis).
A measure of off-axis response of velocity
and acceleration transducers.
See Spectral Map.
Cavitation —
A condition which can occur in liquidhandling machinery (e.g. centrifugal pumps)
where a system pressure decrease in the
suction line and pump inlet lowers fluid
pressure and vaporization occurs. The result
is mixed flow which may produce vibration.
Center Frequency —
For a bandpass filter, the center of the
transmission band, measured in a linear scale.
Charge Amplifier —
Amplifier used to convert accelerometer
output impedance from high to low, making
calibration much less dependent on cable
capacitance.
Cycle —
One complete sequence of values of a
periodic quantity.
Damping —
Measures how much of the output signal is
dependent on the input signal in a linear and
time-invariant way. It is an effective means
of determining the similarity of vibration at
two locations, giving insight into the
possibility of cause and effect relationships.
Constant Bandwidth Filter —
A band-pass filter whose bandwidth is
independent of center frequency. The filters
simulated digitally by the FFT in a DSA are
constant bandwidth.
A filter which acts on the data after it has
been sampled and digitized. Often used in
DSAs to provide anti-aliasing protection
before internal re-sampling.
Differentiation —
Representation in terms of time rate of
change. For example, differentiating velocity
yields acceleration. In a DSA, differentiation
is performed by multiplication by jw in the
frequency domain, where w is frequency
multiplied by 2p. (Differentiation can also be
used to convert displacement to velocity.)
Discrete Fourier Transform —
A procedure for calculating discrete
frequency components (filters or lines) from
sampled time data. Since the frequency
domain result is complex (i.e., real and
imaginary components), the number of
frequency points is equal to half the number
of time samples (for a real FFT). When using
zoom analysis, the FFT uses complex time
data and then the number of frequency lines
is equal to the number of time samples.
Displacement —
The change in distance or position of an
object relative to a reference.
The quality of a mechanical system that
restrains the amplitude of motion with each
successive cycle. Damping of shaft motion is
provided by oil in bearings, seals, etc. The
damping process converts mechanical
energy to other forms, usually heat.
Displacement Transducer —
Damping, Critical —
Dual Probe —
The smallest amount of damping required to
return the system to its equilibrium position
without oscillation.
Decibels (dB) —
Coherence —
Digital Filter —
A logarithmic representation of amplitude
ratio, defined as 10 times the base ten
logarithm of the ratio of the measured power
to a reference. dBV readings, for example,
are referenced to 1 volt rms. dB amplitude
scales are required to display the full
dynamic range of a DSA.
Degrees of Freedom —
A phrase used in mechanical vibration to
describe the complexity of the system. The
number of degrees of freedom is the number
of independent variables describing the state
of a vibrating system.
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A transducer whose output is proportional to
the distance between it and the measured
object (usually the shaft).
DSA —
See Dynamic Signal Analyzer.
A transducer set consisting of displacement
and velocity transducers. Combines
measurement of shaft motion relative to the
displacement transducer with velocity of the
displacement transducer to produce absolute
motion of the shaft.
Dual Voting —
Concept where two independent inputs are
required before action (usually machine
shutdown) is taken. Most often used with
axial position measurements, where failure
of a single transducer might lead to an
unnecessary shutdown.
Dynamic Motion —
Vibratory motion of a rotor system caused by
mechanisms that are active only when the
rotor is turning at speeds above slow roll
speed.
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3.15
Glossary Of Terms
Dynamic Signal Analyzer
(DSA) —
Vibration analyzer that uses digital signal
processing and the Fast Fourier Transform to
display vibration frequency components.
DSAs also display the time domain and
phase spectrum, and can usually be
interfaced to a computer.
Eccentricity, Mechanical —
Flat Top Filter —
Heavy Spot —
FFT window function which provides the best
amplitude accuracy for measuring discrete
frequency components. Note: there are
several different flat top windows. The HP
proprietary P401 is the “best” flat top
window. P301 is the most common.
The angular location of the imbalance vector
at a specific lateral location on a shaft. The
heavy spot typically does not change with
rotational speed.
Fluid-Film Bearing —
The variation of the outer diameter of a shaft
surface when referenced to the true
geometric centerline of the shaft. Out-ofroundness.
A bearing which supports the shaft on a thin
film of oil. The fluid-film layer may be
generated by journal rotation (hydrodynamic
bearing), or by externally applied pressure
(hydrostatic bearing).
Eccentricity Ratio —
Forced Vibration —
The vector difference between the bearing
centerline and the average steady-state
journal centerline.
The oscillation of a system under the action
of a forcing function. Typically forced
vibration occurs at the frequency of the
exciting force.
Eddy Current —
Electrical current which is generated (and
dissipated) in a conductive material in the
presence of an electromagnetic field.
Electrical Runout —
An error signal that occurs in eddy current
displacement measurements when shaft
surface conductivity varies.
Engineering Units —
In a DSA, refers to units that are calibrated
by the user (e.g., in/s, g’s).
External Sampling —
In a DSA, refers to control of data sampling
by a multiplied tachometer signal. Provides a
stationary display of rpm-related peaks with
changing speed.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) —
A computer (or microprocessor) procedure for
calculating discrete frequency components
from sampled time data. A special case of
the Discrete Fourier Transform, DFT, where
the number of samples is constrained to a
power of 2 for speed.
Filter —
Electronic circuitry designed to pass or reject
a specific frequency band.
Finite Element Modeling —
A computer aided design technique for
predicting the dynamic behavior of a
mechanical system prior to construction.
Modeling can be used, for example, to
predict the natural frequencies of a flexible
rotor.
3.16
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Free Vibration —
Vibration of a mechanical system following
an initial force - typically at one or more
natural frequencies.
Frequency —
The repetition rate of a periodic event,
usually expressed in cycles per second (Hz),
revolutions per minute (rpm), or multiples of
a rotational speed (orders). Compare to
orders that are commonly referred to as 1x
for rotational speed, 2x for twice rotational
speed, etc.
Frequency Response Function —
The amplitude and phase response
characteristics of a system.
Hertz (Hz) —
The unit of frequency represented by cycles
per second.
High Spot —
The angular location on the shaft directly
under the vibration transducer at the point of
closest proximity. The high spot can move
with changes in shaft dynamics (e.g., from
changes in speed).
High-Pass Filter —
A filter with a transmission band starting at
a lower cutoff frequency and extending to
(theoretically) infinite frequency.
Hysteresis —
Non-uniqueness in the relationship between
two variables as a parameter increases or
decreases. Also called deadband, or that
portion of a system’s response where a
change in input does not produce a change in
output.
Imbalance —
Unequal radial weight distribution on a rotor
system; a shaft condition such that the mass
and shaft geometric center lines do not
coincide.
Impact Test —
The value of acceleration produced by the
force of gravity.
Response test where the broad frequency
range produced by an impact is used as the
stimulus. Sometimes referred to as a bump
test. See impulse response for more
information.
Gear Mesh Frequency —
Impedance, Mechanical —
A potential vibration frequency on any
machine that contains gears; equal to the
number of teeth multiplied by the rotational
frequency of the gear.
The mechanical properties of a machine
system (mass, stiffness, damping) that
determine the response to periodic forcing
functions.
Hanning Window —
Impulse Response —
FFT window function that normally provides
better frequency resolution than the flat top
window, but with reduced amplitude
accuracy.
The response of a system to an impulse as
input signal. The output then produces the
impulse response that is the time domain
equivalent to the Frequency Response
Function, FRF.
G—
Harmonic —
Frequency component at a frequency that is
an integer multiple of the fundamental
frequency.
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Influence Coefficients —
Mathematical coefficients that describe the
influence of system loading on system
deflection.
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Glossary Of Terms
Integration —
Mechanical Runout —
Nodal Point —
A process producing a result that, when
differentiated, yields the original quantity.
Integration of acceleration, for example,
yields velocity. Integration is performed in a
DSA by dividing the frequency lines by jw,
where w is frequency multiplied by 2p.
(Integration is also used to convert velocity to
displacement.)
An error in measuring the position of the
shaft centerline with a displacement probe
that is caused by out-of-roundness and
surface imperfections.
A point of minimum shaft deflection in a
specific mode shape. May readily change
location along the shaft axis due to changes
in residual imbalance or other forcing
function, or change in restraint such as
increased bearing clearance.
Journal —
MIL —
Specific portions of the shaft surface from
which rotor applied loads are transmitted to
bearing supports.
One thousandth (0.001) of an inch. (1 mil =
25.4 microns)
Modal Analysis —
Keyphasor —
The process of breaking complex vibration
into its component modes of vibration, very
much like frequency domain analysis breaks
vibration down to component frequencies.
A signal used in rotating machinery
measurements, generated by a transducer
observing a once-per-revolution event. The
keyphasor signal is used in phase
measurements for analysis and balancing.
(Keyphasor is a Bently Nevada trade name.)
Lateral Location —
The definition of various points along the
shaft axis of rotation.
Micrometer (MICRON) —
One millionth (.000001) of a meter. (1 micron
= 1 x E-6 meters @ 0.04 mils.)
Mode Shape —
The resultant deflected shape of a rotor at a
specific rotational speed to an applied
forcing function. A three-dimensional
presentation of rotor lateral deflection along
the shaft axis.
Modulation, Amplitude
(AM) —
Lateral Vibration —
See Radial Vibration.
Leakage —
In DSAs, a result of finite time record length
that results in smearing of frequency
components. Its effects are greatly reduced
by the use of weighted time functions such
as Flat top or Hanning windows.
Linearity —
The response characteristics of a linear
system remain constant with input level
and/or excitation signal type. That is, if the
response to input a is k·a, and the response
to input b is k·b, then the response of a linear
system to input (a + b) will be (k·a + k·b),
independent of the function k. An example of
a non-linear system is one whose response
is limited by mechanical stop, such as occurs
when a bearing mount is loose.
Lines —
Common term used to describe the filters of
a DSA produced by the FFT (e.g., 400 line
analyzer).
Linear Averaging —
See Time Averaging.
The process where the amplitude of a signal
is varied as a function of the instantaneous
value of a another signal. The first signal is
called the carrier, and the second signal is
called the modulating signal. Amplitude
modulation always produces a component at
the carrier frequency, with components
(sidebands) at the frequency of the carrier
frequency plus minus the modulating signal.
Modulation, Frequency (FM) —
The process where the frequency of the
carrier is determined by the amplitude of the
modulating signal. Frequency modulation
produces a component at the carrier
frequency, with adjacent components
(sidebands) at frequencies around the carrier
frequency related to the modulating signal.
The carrier and sidebands are described by
Bessel functions.
Natural Frequency —
The frequency of free vibration of a system.
The frequency at which an undamped system
with a single degree of freedom will oscillate
upon momentary displacement from its rest
position.
Low-pass Filter —
A filter whose transmission band extends
from dc to an upper cutoff frequency.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
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Noise —
Any component of a transducer output signal
that does not represent the variable intended
to be measured.
Nyquist Criterion —
Requirement that a sampled system needs to
be sampled at a frequency greater than
twice the bandwidth of the signal to be
sampled.
Nyquist Plot —
A plot of real versus imaginary spectral
components that is often used in servo
analysis. Should not be confused with a
polar plot of amplitude and phase of 1x
vibration.
Octave —
The interval between two frequencies with a
ratio of 2 to 1.
Oil Whirl/Whip —
An unstable free vibration whereby a fluidfilm bearing has insufficient unit loading.
Under this condition, the shaft centerline
dynamic motion is usually circular in the
direction of rotation. Oil whirl occurs at the
oil flow velocity within the bearing, usually
40 to 49% of shaft speed. Oil whip occurs
when the whirl frequency coincides with
(and becomes locked to) a shaft resonant
frequency. (Oil whirl and whip can occur in
any case where fluid is between two
cylindrical surfaces.)
Orbit —
The path of the shaft centerline motion during
rotation. The orbit is observed with an
oscilloscope connected to x and y-axis
displacement transducers. Some dual-channel
DSAs also have the ability to display orbits.
Oscillator-demodulator —
A signal conditioning device that sends a
radio frequency signal to an eddy-current
displacement probe, demodulates the probe
output, and provides output signals
proportional to both the average and
dynamic gap distances. (Also referred to as
Proximitor, a Bently Nevada trade name.)
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3.17
Glossary Of Terms
Peak Hold —
Real-time Analyzer —
Rotor, Rigid —
In a DSA, a type of averaging that holds the
peak signal level for each frequency
component.
See Dynamic Signal Analyzer.
A rotor which operates substantially below
its first bending critical speed. A rigid rotor
can be brought into, and will remain in, a
state of satisfactory balance at all operating
speeds when balanced on any two arbitrarily
selected correction planes.
Period —
The time required for a complete oscillation
or for a single cycle of events. The reciprocal
of frequency.
Phase —
A measurement of the timing relationship
between two signals, or between a specific
vibration event and a keyphasor pulse. Phase
is often measured as a function of frequency.
Real-time Rate —
For a DSA, the broadest frequency span at
which data is sampled continuously. Realtime rate is mostly dependent on FFT
processing speed. If the definition of realtime rate is “not miss any data”, the realtime rate will be window dependent. The
real-time rate will decrease when using any
other window than uniform.
Seismic —
See Uniform Window.
Refers to an inertially referenced
measurement or a measurement relative to
free space.
Relative Motion —
Any material which provides a conversion
between mechanical and electrical energy.
For a piezoelectric crystal, if mechanical
stresses are applied on two opposite faces,
electrical charges appear on some other pair
of faces.
Vibration measured relative to a chosen
reference. Displacement transducers generally
measure shaft motion relative to the
transducer mounting.
Polar coordinate representation of the locus
of the 1x vector at a specific lateral shaft
location with the shaft rotational speed as a
parameter.
Power Spectrum —
See Auto Spectrum.
Repeatability —
The ability of a transducer or readout
instrument to reproduce readings when the
same input is applied repeatedly.
Resolution —
The smallest change in stimulus that will
produce a detectable change in the
instrument output.
The dimensionless quantity that is typically
expressed as a number from zero to one
where a preload of zero indicates no bearing
load upon the shaft, and one indicates the
maximum preload (i.e., line contact between
shaft and bearing).
Pre-load, External —
Any of several mechanisms that can
externally load a bearing. This includes “soft”
preloads such as process fluids or gravitational
forces as well as “hard” preloads from gear
contact forces, misalignment, rubs, etc.
Proximitor —
See Oscillator/Demodulator.
Radial —
Direction perpendicular to the shaft centerline.
Radial Position —
The average location, relative to the radial
bearing centerline, of the shaft dynamic
motion.
Radial Vibration —
Seismic Transducer —
A transducer that is mounted on the case
or housing of a machine and measures
casing vibration relative to free space.
Accelerometers and velocity transducers are
seismic.
Signal Conditioner —
A device placed between a signal source and
a readout instrument to change the signal
and/or bandwidth. Examples: attenuators,
preamplifiers, charge amplifiers, filters.
Signature —
Resonance —
Pre-load, Bearing —
Electronic correction of a transducer output
signal for the error resulting from slow roll
runout.
Rectangular Window —
Piezoelectric —
Polar Plot —
Runout Compensation —
The condition of vibration amplitude and
phase change response caused by a
corresponding system sensitivity to a
particular forcing frequency. A resonance is
typically identified by a substantial
amplitude increase, and related phase shift.
Rolling Element Bearing —
Bearing whose low friction qualities derive
from rolling elements (balls or rollers), with
little lubrication.
Root Mean Square (rms) —
Square root of the arithmetical average of a
set of squared instantaneous values. DSAs
perform rms averaging digitally on
successive vibration spectra, frequency line
by frequency line.
Term usually applied to the vibration
frequency spectrum which is distinctive and
special to a machine or component, system
or subsystem at a specific point in time,
under specific machine operating conditions,
etc. Used for historical comparison of
mechanical condition over the operating life
of the machine.
Slow Roll Speed —
Low rotative speed at which dynamic motion
effects from forces such as imbalance are
negligible.
Spectral Map —
A three-dimensional plot of the vibration
amplitude spectrum versus another variable,
usually time or rpm.
Spectrum Analyzer —
Rotor, Flexible —
A rotor which operates close enough to, or
beyond its first bending critical speed for
dynamic effects to influence rotor
deformations. Rotors which cannot be
classified as rigid rotors are considered to be
flexible rotors.
An instrument which displays the frequency
spectrum of an input signal.
Stiffness —
The spring-like quality of mechanical and
hydraulic elements to elasticity deform under
load.
Shaft dynamic motion or casing vibration
which is in a direction perpendicular to the
shaft centerline.
3.18
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Glossary Of Terms
Strain —
Time Record —
Transverse Sensitivity —
The physical deformation, deflection, or
change in length resulting from stress (force
per unit area).
In a DSA, the sampled time data converted to
the frequency domain by the FFT. Most DSAs
use a time record of 1024 samples.
See Cross-Axis Sensitivity.
Subharmonic —
Torsional Vibration —
Sinusoidal quantity of a frequency that is an
integral submultiple of a fundamental
frequency.
Amplitude modulation of torque measured in
degrees peak-to-peak referenced to the axis
of shaft rotation.
Subsynchronous —
Tracking Filter —
Component(s) of a vibration signal which has
a frequency less than shaft rotative
frequency.
A low-pass or band-pass filter which
automatically tracks the input signal versus
the rpm. A tracking filter is usually required
for aliasing protection when data sampling is
controlled externally.
Synchronous Sampling —
In a DSA, it refers to the control of the
effective sampling rate of data; which
includes the processes of external sampling
and computed resampling used in order
tracking.
Time Averaging —
In a DSA, averaging of time records that
results in reduction of asynchronous
components with reference to the trigger.
Trigger —
Any event which can be used as a timing
reference. In a DSA, a trigger can be used to
initiate a measurement.
Unbalance —
See Imbalance.
Uniform Window —
Transducer —
In a DSA, a window function with uniform
weighting across the time record. This
window does not protect against leakage,
and should be used only with transient
signals contained completely within the time
record.
A device for translating the magnitude of one
quantity into another quantity.
Vector —
Transient Vibration —
Temporarily sustained vibration of a
mechanical system. It may consist of forced
or free vibration or both. Typically this is
associated with changes in machine
operating condition such as speed, load, etc.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
A quantity which has both magnitude and
direction (phase).
Waterfall Plot —
See Spectral Map.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
3.19
Force Sensor Application Inquiry Form
The force sensors listed in this catalog represent our most popular sensors, which are only a fraction of the sensors we offer. In addition to our
standard sensors, PCB® can customize sensors to meet your specific needs. Please fill out this inquiry form with any information available to you,
so that we may help you with your dynamic measurement application. If you would like to discuss your application, or if it is not listed, please
call, fax, E-mail, or write to PCB® for suggestions.
Name: __________________________________________
Date: ____________________________________________
Company: ________________________________________
Phone: __________________________ Ext.: ____________
Dept.: __________________________________________
Fax: ____________________________________________
Address: ________________________________________
City/State: ______________________ Zip ____________
Country:__________________________________________
Email: ____________________________________________
1. Nature of Request
❑
Inquiry
❑
Service or Repair
❑
Order
❑
❑
Quotation
❑
Delivery Information
Equipment Operation
❑
❑
Complaint
❑
Trouble with Equipment
Visit required from PCB® or Sales Representative in your area
2. Describe The Application (check all that apply)
Industry
Measurement Type
❑
Crimping and Stamping
❑
Laboratory Research
❑
Compression
❑
Force Controlled Vibration
❑
Machine Tool
❑
Biomedical
❑
Tension
❑
Cutting Tool
❑
Automotive
❑
Military
❑
Impact
❑
Engine Mount
❑
Aerospace
❑
Other
❑
Press Monitoring
❑
Biomechanic
❑
Machine Monitoring
❑
Material Strength
❑
Penetration
❑
Drop Testing
❑
Package Testing
❑
Other
3. Physical
Physical Design:
❑
General Purpose
❑
Rings
❑
Links
❑
3-component
❑
Impact
❑
Miniature
❑
Penetration
❑
Strain
Desired Characteristics:
Sensitivity __________________________mV/lb or pC/lbt ________________
Maximum Weight ______________grams
Size Limitation ______________H, ________________L, ______________W; ______________or Diameter ______________
4. Dynamic
What is the approximate dynamic force level to be measured? (compression/tension) __________/ ____________lb
What is the maximum force expected to be present? (compression/tension) __________________/ ____________lb
What is the desired resolution? ________________lb
What is the maximum frequency of interest? ________________Hz or ________________CPM
What is the minimum frequency of interest? ________________Hz or ________________CPM
3.20
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Force Sensor Application Inquiry Form
5. Mechanical and Environmental
Continuous operating temperature range (min. to max.): ______________to ____________°C, to ______________°F
Will the temperature be cycling? __________________If yes, at what cycling profile?
What is the storage temperature? ______________°C, ______________°F
Describe in detail, operating environment______________________________________________________________________
6. Cabling and Mounting
Electrical Connection Location:
Connector Type:
Cable Type:
❑
❑
❑
0-32
❑
Axial (Top) Exit
5-44
Coaxial Cable
❑
❑
❑
Radial (Side) Exit
Integral Cable
Four-Conductor
❑
❑
Four-Pin
❑
Other
Other
Other Cable Requirements: ________________________________________________________________________________
Mounting Type:
Thread Size:
❑
❑
Removable Stud
5-40
❑
❑
10-32 UNF
Integral Stud
❑
❑
1/4 -28 UNF
Captive Bolt
❑
❑
Adhesive
❑
Magnetic Base
❑
Other
Other
7. Electric
What is the readout device?
❑
A to D
❑
Scope
❑
Other (specify)
What is the input impedance of the readout device (if applicable)? ____________________________________________________
Can the readout device supply 24 to 27 VDC and 2 to 20 mA excitation to sensor? ________________________________________
What kind of signal conditioner would you like? Single channel ______Multiple channel ______How many? ____________________
What cable lengths will be driven? Cable length ______ft, ______m Cable Capacitance ______pF/ft, ______pF/m
Will the cable be near electromagnetic interference sources (e.g., AC power lines, radio equipment, motors, and generators)?
Describe: ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Is the sensor or cable located near areas prone to electrostatic discharges? ____________________________________________
Should the sensor be:
❑
Ground-isolated
❑
Case-isolated
8. Other Specific Requests or Requirements
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
PCB® Piezotronics, Inc.
3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY 14043
Tel: 716-684-0001
Fax: 716-684-8877
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.pcb.com
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
3.21
Photo Courtesy of MTS Systems Corporation
Torque sensors are used in many automotive test applications such as drive train analysis.
3.22
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
----------
Torque Sensors
Torque sensors manufactured by PCB® fall into two categories of measurement: reaction
torque and rotational torque. Both styles utilize strain gages, which are configured into
a Wheatstone bridge circuit, as their primary sensing element. Accuracies are typically
within 0.1% and optional speed sensors permit additional measurement of rotational
speed (RPM) and horsepower calculations.
Reaction torque sensors are rigid structures with no moving parts and are typically
mounted in a fixed position. Their output signal varies proportionally to an applied
torsional force. Applications for reaction torque sensors include torsional testing
machines, brake testing, bearing friction studies, dynamometer testing, and viscosity
and lubrication studies.
Model Number Index
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2308
2309
2508
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
..................4.10, 4.11
..................4.10, 4.11
..................4.10, 4.11
..................4.10, 4.11
..................4.10, 4.11
..................4.12, 4.13
..................4.12, 4.13
..................4.12, 4.13
..................4.16, 4.17
..................4.16, 4.17
..................4.16, 4.17
..................4.16, 4.17
..................4.16, 4.17
..................4.16, 4.17
4115A ................4.18, 4.19
4115K ................4.18, 4.19
4203 ..................4.14, 4.15
4204 ..................4.14, 4.15
4205 ..................4.14, 4.15
4206 ..................4.14, 4.15
4207 ..................4.14, 4.15
5302C ................4.20, 4.21
4.22, 4.23
5308C ................4.20, 4.21
4.22, 4.23
5309C ................4.20, 4.21
4.22, 4.23
5310C ................4.20, 4.21
4.22, 4.23
Rotary torque sensors employ a freely rotating shaft within a fixed housing. When
installed, the rotating shaft becomes a coupling between a driving mechanism and an
absorber or load. As the shaft is torsionally stressed, a proportional change in the output
signal is observed. Changes in rotational speed and load affect the torque that is
measured. Applications for rotary torque sensors include electric motor testing,
automotive engine testing, dynamometer testing, drive train measurements, and
gearbox testing.
Table of Contents
Configurations ............................................................................................................4.2
Typical Measurement Systems ..............................................................................4.4
Typical Applications..................................................................................................4.6
Selection Guide ..........................................................................................................4.6
Product Information ..................................................................................................4.9
Reaction Torque Sensors ........................................................................................4.10
Flange Mount ......................................................................................................4.10
Small Capacity Flange Mount ............................................................................4.12
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors........................................................................4.14
Shaft End..............................................................................................................4.14
Flange-Shaft ........................................................................................................4.18
TORKDISC® ..............................................................................................................4.20
General Accessories ................................................................................................5.1
Signal Conditioners....................................................................................................5.2
Speed Sensor Cables ................................................................................................5.4
Reaction Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies..............................................................5.5
Rotary Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies ................................................................5.7
Torque Sensor Accessories ......................................................................................5.9
Calibration Services ................................................................................................5.11
Technical Information ..............................................................................................6.1
Introduction to Torque Sensors ................................................................................6.2
Torque Sensor Application Questionnaire................................................................6.4
Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................6.5
Application Notes and Technical Articles ................................................................6.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.1
---------------------Strain
Gage Torque Sensor Configurations
Reaction Torque Sensors
Reaction torque sensors are suitable for a wide array of torque measurement
applications. They are typically used in torsional test machines, motor dynamometers, or
in any application where rotation is limited to 360° or less. Due to the fact that these
sensors do not utilize bearings, slip-rings, or other rotating elements, their installation
and use can be very cost effective.
The rigid sensor mechanically resists rotation and will experience a torsional stress in
response to an applied torsional force. This stress causes a proportional resistance
change to occur in the strain gages, resulting in a voltage shift in the sensor's output
signal. You might consider a reaction torque sensor to be similar to a pickle jar with a
tight lid. As you try to twist the lid of the jar, the reaction torque experienced by the jar
increases until the lid becomes loosened.
Reaction torque sensors are particularly useful in applications where the introduction of
inertia due to a rotating mass between the driver motor and driven load is undesirable.
Flange Ends
An example of this can be found in small motor testing, where introduction of a rotating
mass between the motor and load device will result in an error during acceleration. For
these applications, the reaction torque sensor can be used between the driver motor, or
driven load, and ground. An added benefit is that such an installation is not limited in
RPM by the torque sensor.
Shown below are some of the standard reaction torque sensor configurations offered by
the PCB®. Capacities range from 5 to 500k in-lb (0.56 to 56.5k N-m).
Rotating Shaft Torque Sensors
Rotating shaft torque sensors are designed to mount in-line between a driving source,
and an absorber, or load. They are used in engine dynamometers, electric motor testing,
hydraulic pump testing, fan testing, and a multitude of other applications.
Keyed Shaft Ends
AND
Flange-Shaft
PCB® offers a choice of rotary transformer torque sensors. For most applications, a rotary
transformer-type sensor will be recommended. The rotary transformer is a noncontacting type of sensor, providing very low maintenance, quiet operation (with an
excellent signal-to-noise ratio), higher speed ratings, and better accuracy. This type of
sensor should be used with an AC carrier excitation source, ideally operating at 3.28 k Hz.
The torque sensor’s shaft is coupled between the rotating driving mechanism under test
and a load. A variety of mounting styles are offered including keyed shaft, and flangeshaft. As the driving mechanism (such as an electric motor or automotive engine) turns
the shaft, a torsional stress occurs, which causes a proportional resistance change in the
strain gages, resulting in a voltage shift in the sensor’s output signal. As the speed and
the load on the rotating coupling changes, so too will the torque.
Rotary transformer torque sensors offer high accuracies and RPM ratings. They are
designed with an advanced trans-former, shaft and housing to provide enhanced
durability in rugged industrial applications.
Rotating shaft torque sensors are available in a wide range of configurations, with
capacities from 50 in-oz to 100k in-lb (0.35 to 11.3k N-m).
4.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Strain Gage Torque Sensor
---------------------Configurations
TORKDISC®
The TORKDISC® is a short-coupled, torsionally stiff structure that is ideal for a wide
range of applications requiring high-accuracy, in-line rotary torque measurements. The
sensor consists of a spring element which is torsionally loaded as torque is applied
between an inner and outer mounting surface. Male and female pilots are provided to
ensure good concentricity as the TORKDISC® is bolted into a driveline. Torque is
transmitted by friction created between the mounting surfaces of the TORKDISC® and
customer-provided mounting fixtures. Sixteen-bit digital telemetry signal transmission
provides noise-free operation. The TORKDISC® is available in a wide range of capacities
from 1k to 225k in-lb (113 to 25.4k N-m).
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.3
Typical Torque Sensor Measurement Systems
Typical measurement system for
Series 2300 and 2500 reaction torque sensor
All PCB® reaction torque sensors utilize strain gages that are configured in a Wheatstone
bridge as their primary sensing element. The resistance value of the strain gages
changes when torsional load is applied to the sensing structure and consequently, any
voltage through the bridge circuit will be varied. The Wheatstone bridge requires a
regulated DC voltage excitation that is commonly provided by a strain gage signal
conditioner. The resultant output signal from the torque sensor is typically expressed in
units of millivolt per volt of excitation. This millivolt signal then varies proportionately to
the applied torque. The strain gage signal conditioner provides zero and span
adjustments to scale its 0 to 5 VDC analog output to be proportional to any desired input
range. Additional features of the signal conditioner may include a digital display and
alarm set point limits.
Reaction torque sensors are provided with an electrical connector, and cable assemblies
are necessary to interface this connection to the strain gage signal conditioner. Two types
of cable are commonly available, and their use is dependent upon signal transmission
distance. Cable assemblies may be selected with a terminating connector, which makes
it easier to connect to a PCB® strain gage signal conditioner, or with a pigtail termination
that allows connection to screw terminal connections on other styles of strain gage
signal conditioners.
Reaction Torque Sensor Cables
(see section 5)
Models 8159, 8160A, 8161A, and 8162
Reaction Torque Sensor Signal Conditioners
(see section 5)
Series 2300
Typical measurement system for Series 4100 and 4200 rotary
torque sensor
Rotary torque sensors utilize strain gages that are configured in a Wheatstone bridge as
their primary sensing element. The resistance value of the strain gages changes when
torsional load is applied to the sensing structure and consequently, any voltage through
the bridge circuit will be varied. The Wheatstone bridge requires a regulated AC voltage
excitation that is commonly provided by a strain gage signal conditioner. The resultant
output signal from the torque sensor is typically expressed in units of millivolt per volt of
excitation. This millivolt signal then varies proportionately to the applied torque. The
strain gage signal conditioner provides zero and span adjustments to scale its 0 to 5 VDC
analog output to be proportional to any desired input range. Additional features of the
signal conditioner may include a digital display and alarm set point limits.
Most rotary torque sensors can accommodate an optional speed sensor to facilitate
monitoring of the revolutions-per-minute of the system or for horsepower calculations.
Speed sensors are Hall Effect devices whose output varies as a gear tooth passes its
sensitive face. A typical speed gear within a rotary torque sensor will possess 60 teeth
in order to provide 60 pulses per revolution of output from the speed sensor. Speed
sensors require a DC excitation voltage that is commonly provided by a Hall Effect sensor
signal conditioner.
Rotary torque sensors are provided with an electrical connector, and cable assemblies
are necessary to interface this connection to the strain gage signal conditioner. Optional
speed sensors incorporate their own electrical connector and will require a separate
cable assembly and signal conditioner. Cable assemblies may be selected with a
terminating connector, which makes it easier to connect to PCB®'s strain gage and Hall
Effect signal conditioners, or with a pigtail termination that allows connection to screw
terminal connections on other styles of strain gage and Hall Effect signal conditioners.
4.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Typical Torque Sensor Measurement Systems
Required Components for Optional Speed Sensors
To User-supplied Signal Conditioner
Series 8312-01 for Passive Speed Sensor
Series 8313-03 for Active Speed Sensor
Optional
Speed Sensor Kits
Series A-30770
(see section 5)
Series 8312-02 for Passive Speed Sensor
Series 8313-04 for Active Speed Sensor
Speed Sensor Cables
(see section 5)
Models 8120-700A, 8120-710A, 8120-730A
Speed Sensor Signal Conditioners
(see section 5)
To User-supplied Signal Conditioner
Series 8310-03 for Series 4100
Series 8310-11 for Series 4200
Series 4100 or 4200
Required Components
for Optional Shunt
Calibration Module
Series 8310-06 for Series 4100
Series 8310-09 for Series 4200
Available for
Series 4100 Only
Models 8120-400A, 8120-410A, 8120-430A
Rotary Torque Sensor Signal Conditioners
(see section 5)
Rotary Torque Sensor Cables
(see section 5)
Precision Shunt Calibration Module Model 8113-105A
(see section 5)
(Supplied with Series 4100 Torque Sensors)
Series 8310-06
Cable Assembly
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.5
Torque Sensor Selection Guide
Typical Torque Applications
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Viscosity and Lubrication
Studies
Dynamometer
Torsion Testing
Brake Testing
Bearing Friction
Stepping Switch Torque
Fractional HP Motor Testing
Pump Testing
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Transmission Testing
Efficiency Testing
Electric Motor Testing
Gear Box Efficiency Testing
Fuel Pump Testing
Hydraulic Pump
Blower Testing
Chassis Dynamometer
■
■
■
■
■
■
Differential Testing
Cantilevered Aerospace
Hydraulic Pumps
Cantilevered Aerospace
Hydraulic Motors
Drive Shaft Torque
Measurement
Torque Wrench Calibration
Pulley Torque Testing
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Automotive Belt Testing
Machine Feedback Testing
Drive Shaft Torque
Windmill Testing
Assembly Production
Machine Testing
Torsion Bar Testing
Reaction Torque
Reaction Torque
Small Capacity Flange Mount
Size (dia x length) - in
Size (dia x length) - cm
Flange Dia B.C. - in
Flange Dia B.C. - cm
Connector
Page
Capacity
5 in-lb (0.56 N-m)
10 in-lb (1.1 N-m)
20 in-lb (2.3 N-m)
50 in-lb (5.6 N-m)
100 in-lb
(11 N-m)
200 in-lb
(23 N-m)
500 in-lb
(55 N-m)
1000 in-lb (115 N-m)
2000 in-lb (225 N-m)
5000 in-lb (565 N-m)
10k in-lb (1130 N-m)
20k in-lb (2250 N-m)
50k in-lb (5650 N-m)
100k in-lb (11.3k N-m)
200k in-lb (22.6k N-m)
300k in-lb (33.9k N-m)
500k in-lb (56.5k N-m)
2 x 2.25
5.08 x 5.72
1.69
4.29
6-pin PT
2.12
3.5 x 2.75
8.89 x 6.99
3
7.62
6-pin PT
2.12
2308-01A*
2308-02A*
2308-03A*
2309-01A*
2309-02A*
2309-03A*
2x3
5.08 x 7.62
1.25
3.18
6-pin PT
2.12
Flange Mount
4x3
10.16 x 7.62
3.25
8.26
6-pin PT
2.10
5 x 3.5
12.7 x 8.89
4.25
10.8
6-pin PT
2.10
8 x 7.38
9.75 x 8.5
14 x 10.5
20.32 x 18.75 24.77 x 21.59 35.56 x 26.67
6.5
8
11
16.51
20.32
27.94
6-pin PT
6-pin PT
6-pin PT
2.10
2.10
2.10
Model Number
2508-01A
2508-02A
2508-03A
2508-04A
2508-05A
2301-01A
2301-02A
2302-01A
2302-02A
2303-01A
2303-02A
2305-01A
2305-02A
* Aluminum load cells (low weight).
All other models are steel.
4.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
2304-01A
2304-02A
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Torque Sensor Selection Guide
TORKDISC®
Flange Mount
Rotor Size (dia x thk) - in
Rotor Size (dia x thk) - cm
Receiver Size (l x w x h) - in
Receiver Size (l x w x h) - cm
Speed (RPM)
Page Number
7.00 x 1.10
17.78 x 2.79
7.17 x 7.46 x 1.92
18.21 x 18.95 x 4.88
15k
2.22
8.49 x 1.10
21.59 x 2.79
7.17 x 7.46 x 1.92
18.21 x 18.95 x 4.88
10k
2.22
Capacity
1000 in-lb
2000 in-lb
5000 in-lb
6250 in-lb
10k in-lb
20k in-lb
30k in-lb
50k in-lb
100k in-lb
120k in-lb
180k in-lb
200k in-lb
225k in-lb
9.49 x 1.64
24.13 x 4.17
7.17 x 7.46 x 1.92
18.21 x 18.95 x 4.88
10k
2.22
17.98 x 2.09
45.72 x 5.31
7.17 x 7.46 x 1.92
18.21 x 18.95 x 4.88
4.5k
2.22
Model Number
(113 N-m)
(226 N-m)
(565 N-m)
(706 N-m)
(1130 N-m)
(2250 N-m)
(3400 N-m)
(5650 N-m)
(11.3k N-m)
(13.5k N-m)
(20.3k N-m)
(22.5k N-m)
(25.4k N-m)
5302C-03A*
5302C-01A*
5302C-02A*
5302C-04A*
5308C-01A
5308C-02A
5308C-03A
5309C-01A
5309C-02A
5310C-03A
5310C-01A
5310C-02A
5310C-04A
*Denotes aluminum models. All other models are steel.
Rotary Transformer
Keyed Shaft Ends
Size (dia x length) - in
Size (dia x length) - cm
Shaft Dia. - in
Shaft Dia. - cm
Connector
Speed (RPM)
Page
4 x 6.5
10.16 x 16.51
0.38
0.97
5-pin MS
10k
2.16
4 x 10
10.16 x 25.4
0.75
1.91
5-pin MS
15k
2.16
4 x 10
4.8 x 12.75 5.5 x 15.75
10.16 x 25.4 12.19 x 32.39 13.97 x 40
1
1.5
2.25
2.54
3.81
5.72
5-pin MS 5-pin MS 5-pin MS
15k
12k
6700
2.16
2.16
2.16
(0.35 N-m)
(0.71 N-m)
(1.41 N-m)
(3.53 N-m)
(7.06 N-m)
(11 N-m)
(23 N-m)
(55 N-m)
(115 N-m)
(225 N-m)
(565 N-m)
(1130 N-m)
(2250 N-m)
(4065 N-m)
(5650 N-m)
(11.3k N-m)
4 x 10
10.16 x 25.4
0.75
1.91
5-pin MS
10k
2.14
4 x 10
10.16 x 25.4
1
2.54
5-pin MS
10k
2.14
4 x 12.75 5.5 x 15.75 6.5 x 19
10.16 x 32.39 13.97 x 40 16.51 x 48.26
1.5
2.25
3
3.81
5.72
7.62
5-pin MS 5-pin MS 5-pin MS
10k
6700
6000
2.14
2.14
2.14
Model Number
Capacity
50 in-oz
100 in-oz
200 in-oz
500 in-oz
1000 in-oz
100 in-lb
200 in-lb
500 in-lb
1000 in-lb
2000 in-lb
5000 in-lb
10k in-lb
20k in-lb
36k in-lb
50k in-lb
100k in-lb
6.5 x 19
16.51 x 48.26
3
7.62
5-pin MS
6000
2.16
4102-01A
4102-02A
4102-03A
4102-04A
4102-05A
4103-01A
4103-02A
4203-01A
4203-02A
4104-01A
4104-02A
4104-03A
4105-01A
4105-02A
4105-03A
4204-01A
4204-02A
4204-03A
4106-01A
4106-02A
4106-03A
4107-01A
4107-02A
4107-03A
* Low-noise cables are required to maintain
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
4205-01A
4205-02A
4205-03A
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
4206-01A
4206-02A
4206-03A
4207-01A
4207-02A
4207-03A
conformance.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.7
Torque Sensor Selection Guide
----------------------
Rotary Transformer
Flange Mount
Size (dia x length) - in
Size (dia x length) - cm
Shaft Diameter - in
Shaft Diameter - mm
Number of teeth
Flange Dia B.C. - in
Flange Dia B.C. - cm
Connector
Speed (RPM)
Page
Capacity
50 in-lb (5.6 N-m)
100 in-lb (11 N-m)
200 in-lb (23 N-m)
500 in-lb (55 N-m)
600 in-lb (68 N-m)
1000 in-lb (115 N-m)
1200 in-lb (135 N-m)
2000 in-lb (225 N-m)
2400 in-lb (270 N-m)
3600 in-lb (405 N-m)
5000 in-lb (565 N-m)
6000 in-lb (675 N-m)
10k in-lb (1130 N-m)
6 x 9.35
15.24 x 23.75
1.58
4
16
5
12.7
5-pin MS
15k
2.20
6 x 9.94
15.24 x 25.25
1.58
4
24
5
12.7
5-pin MS
15k
2.20
Model Number
4115A-01A
4115A-02A
4115A-03A
4115A-04A
4115A-05A
4115K-01A
4115K-02A
4115K-03A
4115K-04A
4115K-05A
4115K-06A
4115K-07A
4115K-08A
4115K-09A
4115K-10A
4115K-11A
4115K-12A
4115K-13A
All models are steel.
Shunt Resistor —
A fixed resistor which is placed in parallel or shunted across a strain gage bridge to
provide a known test signal to permit the user with a means of easily performing an
accurate system calibration of a torque sensor and signal conditioner.
4.8
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------------
Strain Gage Torque
Sensors
Highlights
■
Reaction torque measurements
■
Low-maintenance rotary
transformer type
■
Noise-free digital telemetry type
■
NIST traceable
Torque sensors manufactured by PCB® fall into two categories of measurement; reaction
torque and rotational torque. Reaction torque sensors convert the torque applied to a
fixed sensor into a useable measurement signal. Examples of reaction torque
applications include automotive brake testing, dynamometer testing, and bearing friction
and lubrication studies. Rotational, or rotary, torque sensors typically measure the torque
generated by rotating devices such as electric motors, automotive engines,
transmissions, pumps, and compressors.
Reaction torque sensors are machined from a single piece of rigid steel that is
instrumented with strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. They have no moving
parts and are typically flange mounted into a fixed position.
Rotary torque sensors employ a freely rotating shaft within a fixed housing. The shaft is
instrumented with strain gages in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. A non-contact rotary
transformer facilitates electrical connection to the rotating strain gages. Advantages of
the rotary transformer approach include less maintenance and less signal noise than
older slip-ring designs.
The TORKDISC® represents a new approach to rotary torque measurements. Rather than
slip-rings or rotary transformers, the TORKDISC® contains a miniature, 16-bit digital
telemetry transmitter. Digitized measurement signals are picked up by a circumferential
antenna and relayed to a receiver unit where they are conditioned to both a current and
voltage output signal. Advantages include smaller sensor size and noise-free, digital
signal transmission.
Custom torque sensors have been developed for unique or specialized applications.
Please call to discuss any special needs.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.9
Reaction Torque Sensors 2000 – 500k in-lb
Flange Mount Reaction Torque Sensors
■
■
Viscosity and Lubrication Studies
Torsion Testing
■
■
Bearing Friction
Dynamometer
Braking Testing
Stepping Switch Torque
■
■
Series 2301, 2302, 2303, 2304, 2305 — flange mount reaction torque sensors
Capacities from 2000 to 500k in-lb FS
(225 to 56.5k N-m FS)
■ 2 mV/V output sensitivity
■ Flange mount both ends
■ High torsional stiffness
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see page 5.3 & 8.6
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
beginning on page 5.2 & 8.2
Series 2301, 2302, 2303, 2304 and 2305
Dimensions — Inches (cm)
4.10
Series
A
B
C
D
E
F
H
Flange Dia. B.C.
2301-01A
2301-02A
2302-01A
2302-02A
2303-01A
2303-02A
2304-01A
2304-02A
2305-01A
2305-02A
4 (10.16)
4 (10.16)
5 (12.7)
5 (12.7)
8 (20.32)
8 (20.32)
9.75 (24.77)
9.75 (24.77)
14 (35.56)
14 (35.56)
3 (7.62)
3 (7.62)
3.5 (8.89)
3.5 (8.89)
7.38 (18.75)
7.38 (18.75)
8.5 (21.59)
8.5 (21.59)
10.5 (26.67)
10.5 (26.67)
0.5 (1.27)
0.5 (1.27)
0.75 (1.91)
0.75 (1.91)
1.5 (3.81)
1.5 (3.81)
1.5 (3.81)
1.5 (3.81)
2 (5.08)
2 (5.08)
1.5 (3.81)
1.5 (3.81)
2 (5.08)
2 (5.08)
3.5 (8.89)
3.5 (8.89)
4 (10.16)
4 (10.16)
6 (15.24)
6 (15.24)
0.12 (0.3)
0.12 (0.3)
0.25 (0.64)
0.25 (0.64)
0.31 (0.79)
0.31 (0.79)
0.31 (0.79)
0.31 (0.79)
0.31 (0.79)
0.31 (0.79)
0.33 (0.84)
0.33 (0.84)
0.39 (0.99)
0.39 (0.99)
0.64 (1.63)
0.64 (1.63)
0.77 (1.96)
0.77 (1.96)
1.02 (2.59)
1.02 (2.59)
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
3.25 (8.26)
3.25 (8.26)
4.25 (10.8)
4.25 (10.8)
6.5 (16.51)
6.5 (16.51)
8 (20.32)
8 (20.32)
11 (27.94)
11 (27.94)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Reaction Torque Sensors 2000 – 500k in-lb
Sub Head w/Rule Here
Specifications
Extraneous Load Limits
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capacity
Safe
Torsional Stiffness Ringing
Weight
Material
Overhung
Shear
Thrust
Model
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number
in-lb (N-m)
Overload
in-lb/rad
Frequency
lb (kg)
Moment WxS
W
P
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(N-m/rad)
Hz
in-lb (N-m)
lb (N)
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Flange Mount Reaction Torque Sensors
2301-01A
2000 (225)
3000 (340)
380k (42.9k)
1000
5 (2.27)
steel
1000 (115)
1000 (4450)
2000 (8900)
1.29M (145k)
1800
5 (2.27)
steel
2500 (280) 2500 (11.1k)
5000 (22.2k)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2302-01A
10k (1130)
15k (1700)
2.98M (337k)
1400
10 (4.54)
steel
5000 (565) 5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2302-02A
20k (2250)
30k (3400)
7.5M (847k)
2200
10 (4.54)
steel
10k (1130)
10k (44.5k)
20k (89k)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2303-01A
50k (5650)
75k (8500)
10.2M (1.15M)
750
58 (26.3)
steel
25k (2825)
10k (44.5k)
50k (220k)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2303-02A
100k (11.3k)
150k (16.9k)
25.7M (2.9M)
1250
58 (26.3)
steel
50k (5650)
20k (89k)
100k (450k)
2304-01A
100k (11.3k)
150k (16.9k)
21.4M (2.4M)
690
106 (48.1)
steel
50k (5650)
15k (66.7k)
100k (450k)
2304-02A
200k (22.6k)
300k (33.9k)
53.9M (6.1M)
1100
106 (48.1)
steel
100k (11.3k)
30k (130k)
200k (900k)
2305-01A
300k (33.9k)
450k (50.8k)
75.8M (8.6M)
560
220 (99.8)
steel
150k (16.9k)
30k (130k)
300k (1.3M)
2305-02A
500k (56.5k)
750k (84.7k)
150M (16.9M)
780
220 (99.8)
steel
250k (28.2k)
50k (220k)
500k (2.2M)
Sub
Head w/Rule
2301-02A
5000 (565)Here7500 (850)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal) ........................................................................2 mV/Volt
Non-linearity (max)........................................................................0.1% FS
Hysteresis (max)............................................................................0.1% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.02% FS
Bridge Resistance (nom) ..............................................................350 ohm
Excitation (recommended) ............................................................10 Volts
Excitation (max) ......................................................20 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated) ..........+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ......................-65 °F to +200 °F (-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ....................0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ......................................0.002% reading/°F
(0.0036% reading/°C)
Extraneous load limits are extraneous side force, thrust and bending moment that may be
applied without electrical or mechanical damage to the torque sensor. Do not exceed moment
(W x S) or shear (W) whichever attained first.
Wiring Diagram
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.11
Reaction Torque Sensors 5 – 1000 in-lb
Small Capacity Flange Mount Reaction Torque Sensors
■
■
Bearing Friction
Fractional HP Motor Testing
■
■
Viscosity Measurements
Small Motor Dynamometer
Series 2308, 2309, 2508 — small capacity flange mount reaction torque sensors
Capacities from 5 to 1000 in-lb FS (0.56 to 115 N-m FS)
2 mV/V output sensitivity
■ Flange mount both ends
■ High torsional stiffness
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see page 5.3 & 8.6
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
beginning on page 5.2 & 8.2
Series 2308 and 2309
Series 2508
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters).
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
Series
A
B
C
D
F
H
J
K
2308
2309
2508
2.25 (57.2)
2.75 (69.9)
3 (76.2)
2 (50.8)
3.5 (88.9)
2 (50.8)
0.25 (6.4)
0.25 (6.4)
0.31 (7.9)
1.39 (35.3)
2.5 (63.5)
1.63 (41.4)
0.13 (3.3)
0.28 (7.1)
10-24
3
4
4
1.69 (42.9)
3 (76.2)
1.25 (31.8)
1.75 (44.5)
2.25 (57.2)
2.38 (60.5)
4.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Reaction Torque Sensors 5 – 1000 in-lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
in-lb (N-m)
2308-01A
2308-02A
2308-03A
2309-01A
2309-02A
2309-03A
2508-01A
2508-02A
2508-03A
2508-04A
2508-05A
5 (0.56)
10 (1.1)
20 (2.3)
5 (0.56)
10 (1.1)
20 (2.3)
50 (5.6)
100 (11)
200 (23)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
Extraneous Load Limits
Safe
Torsional Stiffness Ringing
Overload
in-lb/rad
Frequency
in-lb (N-m)
(N-m/rad)
Hz
Flange Mount Reaction Torque Sensors
7.5 (0.85)
15 (1.69)
30 (3.4)
50 (5.6)
50 (5.6)
50 (5.6)
75 (8.5)
150 (17)
300 (34)
750 (85)
1500 (170)
175 (20)
500 (55)
1400 (160)
340 (38)
960 (110)
2700 (300)
2350 (266)
6700 (775)
18.8k (2100)
73.6k (8200)
127k (14.3k)
200
350
580
90
150
250
380
620
1040
2050
2700
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
0.2 (0.09)
0.2 (0.09)
0.2 (0.09)
1.3 (0.59)
1.3 (0.59)
1.3 (0.59)
1 (0.45)
1 (0.45)
1 (0.45)
1 (0.45)
1 (0.45)
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
Overhung
Moment WxS
in-lb (N-m)
Shear
W
lb (N)
2.5 (0.28)
5 (0.56)
10 (1.1)
2.5 (0.28)
5 (0.56)
10 (1.1)
50 (5.6)
100 (11.3)
200 (22.6)
250 (28.2)
500 (56.5)
2.5 (11)
5 (22)
10 (45)
2.5 (11)
5 (22)
10 (45)
13 (57)
20 (90)
26 (116)
500 (2225)
800 (3560)
Thrust
P
lb (N)
5 (22)
10 (45)
20 (90)
5 (22)
10 (45)
20 (90)
200 (900)
280 (1250)
400 (1780)
500 (2225)
660 (2950)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal)..........................................................................2 mV/Volt
Non-linearity (max) ........................................................................0.1% FS
Hysteresis (max) ............................................................................0.1% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.05% FS
Bridge Resistance (nom) ............................................................700 ohm [1]
Excitation (recommended)..............................................................10 Volts
Excitation (max) ......................................................20 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated)............+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ........................-65 °F to +200 °F (-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ....................0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ......................................0.002% reading/°F
(0.0036% reading/°C)
Note: [1] 500 and 1000 in-lb capacities — 350 ohm
Extraneous load limits are extraneous side force, thrust and bending moment that may be
applied without electrical or mechanical damage to the torque sensor. Do not exceed moment
(W x S) or shear (W) whichever attained first.
Wiring Diagram
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.13
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors 100 – 100k in-lb
Shaft End Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors Non-contact rotary transformer
Pump Testing
■ Efficiency Testing
Engine Dynamometer
■ Transmission Testing
■
Electric Motor Testing
■ Gear Box Efficiency Testing
■
■
Series 4203, 4204, 4205, 4206, 4207
Capacities from 100 to 100k in-lb FS
(11 to 11.3k N-m FS)
■ 2 mV/V output sensitivity
■ Shaft ends
■ Optional foot-mounted housing
■ Integral shunt calibration network
■ Temperature compensated
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see page 5.3
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
on page 5.2
Series 4203, 4204, 4205, 4206 and 4207
Dimensions — Inches (cm)
Series
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4.14
A
B
C
D
10 (25.4)
6 (15.24)
2 (5.08)
4 (10.16)
10 (25.4)
6 (15.24)
2 (5.08)
4 (10.16)
3.38 (8.59) 4 (10.16)
12.75 (32.39) 6 (15.24)
15.75 (40.01) 8.25 (20.96) 3.75 (9.53) 5.5 (13.97)
19 (48.26) 8.75 (22.23) 5.13 (13.13) 6.5 (16.51)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
E
F
4 (10.16) 2.75 (6.99)
4 (10.16) 2.75 (6.99)
5.25 (13.34) 3 (7.62)
6 (15.24)
4 (10.16)
7 (17.78)
4 (10.16)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
G
0.28 (0.71)
0.28 (0.71)
0.41 (1.03)
0.53 (1.35)
0.53 (1.35)
716-684-0001
H
I
J
2.13 (5.4) 4.75 (12.07) 3.5 (8.89)
2.13 (5.4) 4.75 (12.07) 3.5 (8.89)
2.5 (6.35) 6.25 (15.88) 4 (10.16)
3 (7.62)
7 (17.78) 5.25 (13.34)
3.5 (8.89) 8.5 (21.59)
5 (12.7)
www.pcb.com
K
L
0.19 (0.48) 0.75 (1.91)
0.25 (0.64) 1 (2.54)
0.38 (0.97) 1.5 (3.81)
0.5 (1.27) 2.25 (5.72)
0.75 (1.91) 3 (7.62)
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors 100 – 100k in-lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
in-lb (N-m)
Maximum
Overload
Speed
in-lb (N-m)
RPM
Rotating Transformer Torque Sensors with Shaft Ends
4203-01A
4203-02A
4204-01A
4204-02A
4204-03A
4205-01A
4205-02A
4205-03A
4206-01A
4206-02A
4206-03A
4207-01A
4207-02A
4207-03A
100 (11)
200 (23)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
2000 (225)
2000 (225)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
10k (1130)
20k (2250)
36k (4065)
36k (4065)
50k (5650)
100k (11.3k)
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
6700
6700
6700
6000
6000
6000
Torsional Stiffness
in-lb/rad
(N-m/rad)
300 (34)
600 (68)
1500 (170)
3000 (340)
3000 (340)
6000 (675)
15k (1700)
15k (1700)
30k (3400)
60k (6775)
60k (6775)
100k (11.3k)
150k (16.9k)
150k (16.9k)
Rotating Inertia
in-lb sec2
(N-m sec2)
Weight
lb (kg)
Housing
Material
15k (1700)
30k (3400)
85k (9600)
150k (16.9k)
150k (16.9k)
700k (79.1k)
950k (107k)
950k (107k)
4.1M (460k)
11.8M (1.33M)
11.8M (1.33M)
17.7M (2.0M)
20M (2.3M)
20M (2.3M)
0.004 (0.0005)
0.004 (0.0005)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.008 (0.0009)
0.008 (0.0009)
0.008 (0.0009)
0.036 (0.0004)
0.036 (0.0004)
0.036 (0.0004)
0.15 (0.017)
0.15 (0.017)
0.15 (0.017)
10 (4.5)
10 (4.5)
10 (4.5)
10 (4.5)
10 (4.5)
12 (5.4)
12 (5.4)
12 (5.4)
40 (18.2)
40 (18.2)
40 (18.2)
80 (36.3)
80 (36.3)
80 (36.3)
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
15k (1700)
30k (3400)
85k (9600)
150k (16.9k)
150k (16.9k)
700k (79.1k)
950k (107k)
950k (107k)
4.1M (460k)
11.8M (1.33M)
11.8M (1.33M)
17.7M (2.0M)
20M (2.3M)
20M (2.3M)
0.004 (0.0005)
0.004 (0.0005)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.008 (0.0009)
0.008 (0.0009)
0.008 (0.0009)
0.0036 (0.0004)
0.0036 (0.0004)
0.0036 (0.0004)
0.15 (0.017)
0.15 (0.017)
0.15 (0.017)
17 (7.7)
17 (7.7)
17 (7.7)
17 (7.7)
17 (7.7)
22 (10)
22 (10)
22 (10)
44 (20)
44 (20)
44 (20)
85 (38.6)
85 (38.6)
85 (38.6)
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
Rotating Transformer Torque Sensors with Shaft Ends and Foot Mount
4203F-01A
4203F-02A
4204F-01A
4204F-02A
4204F-03A
4205F-01A
4205F-02A
4205F-03A
4206F-01A
4206F-02A
4206F-03A
4207F-01A
4207F-02A
4207F-03A
100 (11)
200 (23)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
2000 (225)
2000 (225)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
10k (1130)
20k (2250)
36k (4065)
36k (4065)
50k (5650)
100k (11.3k)
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
6700
6700
6700
6000
6000
6000
300 (34)
600 (68)
1500 (170)
3000 (340)
3000 (340)
6000 (675)
15k (1700)
15k (1700)
30k (3400)
60k (6775)
60k (6775)
100k (11.3k)
150k (16.9k)
150k (16.9k)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal)..........................................................................2 mV/Volt
Non-linearity (max) ......................................................................0.05% FS
Hysteresis (max) ..........................................................................0.05% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.02% FS
Bridge Resistance (nominal)..........................................................350 ohm
Excitation Frequency (calibrated) ..............................................3.28k Hz [1]
Excitation Voltage (AC/RMS)..................................................2 to 10 Volts
Bridge Current @ 5VAC (max) ..........................................................50 mA
Temp. Range (compensated)............+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ........................-25 °F to +170 °F (-32 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ....................0.001% FS/°F (0.0018% FS/°C) [2]
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ....................................0.001% reading/°F [2]
(0.0018% reading/°C) [2]
Note: [1] Consult factory for use with 3.0k to 5.0k Hz excitation frequencies [2] Series 4203 - temp. effect on output (max) 0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C).
Temp. effect on zero (max) 0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C).
Wiring Diagram
Typical systems located on page 2.5
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.15
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors 50 in-oz – 100k in-lb
Shaft End Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors
■
■
Fuel Pump Testing
Transmission
Development
■
■
■
Hydraulic Motor
Dynamometer
Hydraulic Pump
■
■
■
Chassis Dynamometer
Blower Testing
Aerospace
Series 4102, 4103, 4104, 4105, 4106, 4107
Capacities from 50 in-oz to 100k in-lb FS
(5.6 to 11.3k N-m FS)
■ 2 mV/V or 2.5 mV/V output sensitivity
■ Shaft ends
■ High signal to noise ratio
■ High accuracy
■ High torsional stiffness
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see page 5.3
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
on page 5.2
Series 4102
Series 4103, 4104, 4105, 4106 and 4107
Dimensions — Inches (cm)
Series
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
4102
6.5 (16.51)
4.5 (11.43)
1 (2.54)
4 (10.16)
3.5 (8.89)
2 (5.08)
13/64
2.1 (5.33)
I
J
KxL
S
4 (10.16) 2.5 (6.35) 0.34 x 0.75 (0.86 x 1.91) 0.38 (0.97)
Dimensions — Inches (cm)
Series
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4.16
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
6 (15.24)
2 (5.08)
4 (10.16)
4 (10.16) 2.75 (6.99) 0.28 (0.71) 2.13 (5.41) 4.75 (12.07) 3.5 (8.89)
10 (25.4)
10 (25.4)
6 (15.24)
2 (5.08)
4 (10.16)
4 (10.16) 2.75 (6.99) 0.28 (0.71) 2.13 (5.41) 4.75 (12.07) 3.5 (8.89)
12.75 (32.39) 7.25 (18.42) 2.75 (6.99) 4.75 (12.07) 5.25 (13.34) 3 (7.62) 0.41 (1.03) 2.5 (6.35) 6.25 (15.88) 4 (10.16)
15.75 (40.01) 8.25 (20.96) 3.75 (9.53) 5.5 (13.97)
6 (15.24)
4 (10.16) 0.53 (1.35)
3 (7.62)
7 (17.78) 5.25 (13.34)
19 (48.26) 8.75 (22.23) 5 (12.7) 6.5 (16.51)
7 (17.78)
4 (10.16) 0.53 (1.35) 3.5 (8.89) 8.5 (21.59)
5 (12.7)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
K
S
0.19 (0.48) 0.75 (1.91)
0.25 (0.64)
1 (2.54)
0.38 (0.97) 1.5 (3.81)
0.5 (1.27) 2.25 (5.72)
0.75 (1.91)
3 (7.62)
Reaction Torque Sensors 50 in-oz – 100k in-lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
in-oz (N-m)
Maximum
Speed
RPM
Overload
in-oz (N-m)
10k
10k
10k
10k
10k
150 (1.06)
300 (2.10)
600 (4.25)
1500 (10.6)
3000 (21.2)
Torsional Stiffness
in-lb/rad
(N-m/rad)
Rotating Inertia
in-lb sec2
(N-m sec2)
Weight without
Foot Mount
lb (kg)
Weight with
Foot Mount
lb (kg)
Housing
Material
0.0009 (0.0001)
0.0009 (0.0001)
0.0009 (0.0001)
0.0009 (0.0001)
0.0009 (0.0001)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
15 (6.8)
15 (6.8)
15 (6.8)
15 (6.8)
15 (6.8)
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
Shaft Ends with One Flat
4102-01A
4102-02A
4102-03A
4102-04A
4102-05A
50 (0.35)
100 (0.71)
200 (1.41)
500 (3.53)
1000 (7.06)
400 (45)
1000 (113)
2500 (280)
5500 (625)
8000 (904)
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
in-lb (N-m )
Maximum
Speed
RPM
Shaft Ends with Two Key Ways
4103-01A
4103-02A
4104-01A
4104-02A
4104-03A
4105-01A
4105-02A
4105-03A
4106-01A
4106-02A
4106-03A
4107-01A
4107-02A
4107-03A
100 (11)
200 (23)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
2000 (225)
2000 (225)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
10k (1130)
20k (2260)
36k (4065)
36k (4065)
50k (5650)
100k (11.3k)
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
6700
6700
6700
6000
6000
6000
Overload
in-lb (N-m)
Torsional Stiffness
in-lb/rad
(N-m/rad)
Rotating Inertia
in-lb sec2
(N-m sec2)
Weight without
Foot Mount
lb (kg)
Weight with
Foot Mount
lb (kg)
Housing
Material
300 (33)
600 (66)
1500 (170)
3000 (340)
3000 (340)
6000 (675)
15k (1700)
15k (1700)
30k (3400)
60k (6775)
60k (6775)
100k (11.3k)
150k (16.9k)
150k (16.9k)
13.5k (1500)
33k (3700)
85k (9600)
150k (16.9k)
150k (16.9k)
700k (79.1k)
950k (107k)
950k (107k)
4.1M (460k)
11.8M (1.3M)
11.8M (1.3M)
17.7M (2M)
20M (2.3M)
20M (2.3M)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0026 (0.0003)
0.0084 (0.001)
0.0084 (0.001)
0.0084 (0.001)
0.036 (0.004)
0.036 (0.004)
0.036 (0.004)
0.152 (0.017)
0.152 (0.017)
0.152 (0.017)
18 (8.2)
18 (8.2)
18 (8.2)
18 (8.2)
18 (8.2)
28 (12.7)
28 (12.7)
28 (12.7)
40 (18.2)
40 (18.2)
40 (18.2)
80 (36.3)
80 (36.3)
80 (36.3)
19.5 (8.8)
19.5 (8.8)
19.5 (8.8)
19.5 (8.8)
19.5 (8.8)
30.5 (13.8)
30.5 (13.8)
30.5 (13.8)
44 (20)
44 (20)
44 (20)
85 (38.6)
85 (38.6)
85 (38.6)
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
Common Specifications
Output (nominal) ......................................................................2 mV/Volt [1]
Non-linearity (max) ......................................................................0.05% FS
Hysteresis (max) ..........................................................................0.05% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.02% FS
Bridge Resistance (nominal)..........................................................350 ohm
Excitation Frequency (calibrated) ..................................................3.28k Hz
Excitation Voltage (AC/RMS)..................................................2 to 10 Volts
Bridge Current @ 5VAC (max) ..........................................................50 mA
Temp. Range (compensated)............+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable)......................-65 °F to +170 °F (-54 °C to +77 °C) [2]
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ..................0.001% FS/°F (0.0018% FS/°C) [2][3]
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ..................................0.001% reading/°F [2][3]
(0.0018% reading/°C) [3]
Note: [1] Series 4104, 4105 - output (nominal) 2.5 mV/V [2] Series 4102 - temp. range (usable) -20 °F to +170 °F (-29 °C to +77 °C) temp. effect on zero (max)
0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C) temp. effect on output (max) 0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C)[3] Series 4103 - temp. effect on zero (max) 0.002% FS/°F
(0.0036% FS/°C) temp. effect on output (max) 0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C)
Wiring Diagram
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.17
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors 50 – 10k in-lb
AND Flange-shaft Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors
Specifically designed for testing of
■ Cantilevered Aerospace Hydraulic Pumps
■
Cantilevered Aerospace Hydraulic Motors
Series 4115A, 4115K
Capacities from 50 to 10k in-lb FS (5.6 to 1130 N-m FS)
2.5 mV/V output sensitivity
■ Splined shaft drive
■ High signal-to-noise ratio
■ High torsional stiffness
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see page 5.3
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
on page 5.2
Series 4115A, 4115K
Dimensions shown are in inches (centimeters).
Internal and External Spline Data
Dimensions — Inches (cm)
Series
A
B
C
D
E
Pressure Angle
Pitch Dia — in (cm)
Pitch
Number of Teeth
4115A
4115K
9.35 (23.75)
9.94 (25.25)
1.10 (2.79)
1.69 (4.29)
0.25 (0.64)
0.38 (0.97)
1.58 (4)
1.58 (4)
0.6 (1.52)
1 (2.54)
30°
30°
0.8 (2.03)
1.2 (3.05)
20/30
20/30
16
24
4.18
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensors 50 – 10k in-lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
in-lb (N-m)
Maximum
Overload
Speed
in-lb (N-m)
RPM
Flange-Shaft Rotating Transformer Torque Sensors
4115A-01A
4115A-02A
4115A-03A
4115A-04A
4115A-05A
4115K-01A
4115K-02A
4115K-03A
4115K-04A
4115K-05A
4115K-06A
4115K-07A
4115K-08A
4115K-09A
4115K-10A
4115K-11A
4115K-12A
4115K-13A
50 (5.6)
100 (11)
200 (23)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
50 (5.6)
100 (11)
200 (23)
500 (55)
600 (68)
1000 (115)
1200 (135)
2000 (225)
2400 (270)
3600 (405)
5000 (565)
6000 (675)
10k (1130)
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
15k
150 (17)
300 (34)
600 (68)
1500 (170)
1500 (170)
150 (17)
300 (34)
600 (68)
1500 (170)
1800 (200)
3000 (340)
3600 (405)
6000 (675)
7200 (815)
10.8k (1220)
15k (1700)
15k (1700)
15k (1700)
Torsional Stiffness
in-lb/rad
(N-m/rad)
Rotating Inertia
in-lb sec2
(N-m sec2)
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
4500 (500)
13.5k (1500)
33k (3700)
94k (10.6k)
94k (10.6k)
4500 (500)
13.5k (1500)
33k (3700)
94k (10.6k)
120k (13.6k)
204k (23k)
204k (23k)
204k (23k)
380k (42.9k)
420k (47.5k)
500k (56.5k)
500k (56.5k)
500k (56.5k)
0.0047 (0.0005)
0.0048 (0.0005)
0.0049 (0.0005)
0.005 (0.0006)
0.005 (0.0006)
0.0048 (0.0005)
0.0049 (0.0005)
0.005 (0.0006)
0.0051 (0.0006)
0.0051 (0.0006)
0.0052 (0.0006)
0.0052 (0.0006)
0.0052 (0.0006)
0.0055 (0.0006)
0.0058 (0.0007)
0.0062 (0.0007)
0.0062 (0.0007)
0.0062 (0.0007)
46 (20.9)
46 (20.9)
46 (20.9)
46 (20.9)
46 (20.9)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
47 (21.3)
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
Common Specifications
Output (nominal) ......................................................................2.5 mV/Volt
Non-linearity (max) ......................................................................0.05% FS
Hysteresis (max) ..........................................................................0.05% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.03% FS
Bridge Resistance (nominal)..........................................................350 ohm
Excitation Frequency (calibrated) ..................................................3.28k Hz
Excitation Voltage (AC/RMS)..................................................2 to 10 Volts
Bridge Current @ 5VAC (max) ..........................................................50 mA
Temp. Range (compensated)............+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ......................-65 °F to +225 °F (-54 °C to +107 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (from +70 °F to +225 °F) ..........................................
..................................................................0.002% FS/°F (0.0036% FS/°C)
Temp. Effect on Span (from +70 °F to +225 °F) ..........................................
..................................................0.002% reading/°F (0.0036% reading/°C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (from -65 °F to +70 °F)..............................................
......................................................................0.02% FS/°F (0.036% FS/°C)
Temp. Effect on Span (from -65 °F to +70 °F) ............................................
......................................................................0.02% FS/°F (0.036% FS/°C)
Maximum Bending Moment..................................1200 in-lb (135 N-m) [1]
Note: [1] Bending moment induced by overhung pump weight
Wiring Diagram
Typical systems located on page 2.5
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.19
TORKDISC ® Rotary Torque Sensor System 1000 – 225k in-lb
TORKDISC® — Rotary Torque Sensor System
For dynamometer and other applications requiring a robust rotary
torque transducer where axial space is at a premium. On-board the
transducer is a field-proven electronic module that converts the
torque signals into a high-speed digital representation. Once in
digital form, this data is transmitted to a non-contacting pick-up
loop, with no risk of noise or data corruption. A remote receiver unit
converts the digital data to a high-level analog output voltage,
frequency output, and a serial digital output.
chassis dynamometer
4-square dynamometer
■ drive shaft torque measurement
■ engine dynamometer
■ efficiency testing
■
■
Series 5302C, 5308C, 5309C, 5310C
Compact
Low weight
■ High torsional stiffness
■ 16-bit digital telemetry
■ Immune to RF interference
■ Low sensitivity to axial and thrust
bending moments
■ Robust construction
■
■
Series 5302C
4.20
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
TORKDISC ® Rotary Torque Sensor System 1000 – 225k in-lb
TORKDISC® Rotary Torque Sensor System
5302C-04A
5308C-01A
5308C-02A
Continuous Rated Capacity
in-lb (N-m)
2000 (226)
5000 (565)
1000 (113)
6250 (706)
Bolt Joint Slip Torque [1]
in-lb (N-m)
3300 (373)
10k (1130)
3300 (373)
10k (1130)
Safe Overload
in-lb (N-m)
6000 (678)
15k (1695)
3000 (339)
15k (1695)
Failure Overload
in-lb (N-m)
8000 (904)
20k (2260)
4000 (452)
20k (2260)
Torsional Stiffness
in-lb/rad (N-m/rad)
5.8M (655k) 14.5M (1.6M) 2.9M (328k) 14.5M (1.6M)
Torsional Angle @ Capacity
degrees
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
Rotating Inertia
in-lb sec2 (N-m sec2) 0.056 (0.006) 0.117 (0.013) 0.056 (0.006) 0.117 (0.013)
Axial Load Limit [2]
lb (N)
500 (2224) 1000 (4448)
250 (1112)
1000 (4448)
Lateral Load Limit [2]
lb (N)
500 (2224) 1000 (4448)
250 (1112)
1000 (4448)
Bending Moment Limit [2]
in-lb (N-m)
1500 (169)
3000 (339)
750 (85)
3000 (339)
Maximum Speed
RPM
15k
15k
15k
15k
Rotor Weight
lb (kg)
3.5 (1.59)
9 (4.08)
3.5 (1.59)
9 (4.08)
Rotor Material
aluminum
steel
aluminum
steel
Model Number
Unit
5302C-01A
5302C-02A
5302C-03A
10k (1130)
35k (4000)
30k (3400)
40k (4500)
33.5M (3.8M)
0.017
0.24 (0.027)
1350 (6000)
1650 (7300)
5000 (565)
10k
10 (4.5)
steel
20k (2260)
30k (3400)
35K (4000)
35k (4000)
60k (6775)
75k (8475)
80k (9040)
100k (11.3k)
67M (7.6M) 100M (11.3M)
0.017
0.017
0.24 (0.027)
0.24 (0.027)
2700 (12k) 4000 (17.8k)
3375 (15k) 5000 (22.2k)
7500 (850)
10k (1130)
10k
10k
10 (4.5)
10 (4.5)
steel
steel
5308C-03A
TORKDISC® Rotary Torque Sensor System (Con’t)
Model Number
Unit
5309C-01A
5309C-02A
5310C-01A
5310C-02A
5310C-03A
5310C-04A
Continuous Rated Capacity
Bolt Joint Slip Torque [1]
Safe Overload
Failure Overload
Torsional Stiffness
Torsional Angle @ Capacity
Rotating Inertia
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb/rad (N-m/rad)
degrees
in-lb sec2 (N-m sec2)
50k (5650)
85k (9600)
100k (11.3k)
125k (14k)
115M (13M)
0.017
100k (11.3k)
110k (12.4k)
200k (22.6k)
250k (28.2k)
230M (26M)
0.017
180k (20.3k)
268k (30.3k)
540k (61.0k)
720k (81.3k)
1.1B (124M)
0.01
200k (22.5k)
268k (30.3k)
600k (67.8k)
800k (90.4k)
1.2B (138M)
0.01
120k (13.5k)
268k (30.3k)
360k (40.7k)
480k (54.2k)
730M (82.5M)
0.01
225k (25.4k)
268k (30.3k)
675k (76.3k)
900k (101.7k)
1.35B (152.5M)
0.01
0.874 (0.099)
5000 (22.2k)
5000 (22.2k)
25k (2825)
10k
30 (13.6)
steel
0.874 (0.099)
10k (44.5k)
10k (44.5k)
50k (5650)
10k
30 (13.6)
steel
7.514 (0.849)
13.5k (60k)
13.5k (60k)
90k (10.2k)
4500
100 (45)
steel
7.514 (0.849)
14k (62k)
14k (62k)
95k (10.7k)
4500
100 (45)
steel
7.514 (0.849)
12k (53k)
12k (53k)
80k (9040k)
4500
100 (45)
steel
7.514 (0.849)
15k (66.7k)
15k (66.7k)
100k (11.3k)
4500
100 (45)
steel
Axial Load Limit [2]
Lateral Load Limit [2]
Bending Moment Limit [2]
Maximum Speed
Rotor Weight
Material
lb (N)
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
RPM
lb (kg)
Common Specifications
Output at rated capacity (analog/voltage) ............................0 ± 10 Volts
(Frequency) ....................................................................10k Hz ± 5k Hz
(Digital) [3] ........................................................................................QSPI
Combined effect of non-linearity, hysteresis, and non-repeatability
..................................................................................................± 0.1% FS
Temperature range, compensated ................................+70 °F to +170 °F
Temperature effect on output within the compensated range
..........................................................................................± 0.003% FS/°F
Temperature effect on zero within the compensated range
..........................................................................................± 0.003% FS/°F
Temperature range, usable ..........................................+32 °F to +185 °F
Electronics measuring bandwidth [4] ..............................................2000 Hz
Digital resolution..............................................................................16-Bit
Digital sample rate..............................................26,000 samples/second
Permissible radial float, rotor to stator ......................................± 0.25 in.
Permissible axial float, rotor to stator........................................± 0.25 in.
Power requirements ..............................................90-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz
Note: The acceptable cable lengths between the electronics box and the stator portion of the TORKDISC® is 24, 80, or 112 ft (7.3, 24.4, or 34.1 m), as supplied
from factory. Do not shorten cable; coil any excess. [1] Bolt joint slip torque is calculated assuming a coefficient of friction (µ) of 0.1 and that grade 8 socket
head cap screws are used and tightened to 75% of yield for steel sensors and 30% of yield for aluminum sensors. Model 5309C-02A requires the use of
Supertanium bolts on the inner bolt circle diameter to maintain proper clamping frictional forces, tightened to 70% of yield. [2] Extraneous load limits reflect
the maximum axial load, lateral load, and bending moment that may be applied singularly without electrical or mechanical damage to the sensor. Where
combined extraneous loads are applied, decrease loads proportionally. Request Application Note AP-1015 regarding the effects of extraneous loads on the
torque sensor output. [3] Request Technical Note FTQ-STN5 regarding digital output signal. [4] Output can be filtered via internal DIP switch (33, 55, 125, 250,
450 Hz), 2-pole low pass Butterworth.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.21
TORKDISC ® Rotary Torque Sensor System 1000 – 225k in-lb
(E) Driven (inner)
Bolt Circle (typical)
Drawing View Shows
Mounting Surface for
Driven Bolt Circle
Direction for
Positive Output
~
D
C
~
A
(F) Load (outer)
Bolt Circle (typical)
Telemetry Collar
B
Request Detailed Drawing for Installation
TORKDISC® Sensor Dimensions
A
B
C
Series O.D. - Outside
Overall Thickness Male Pilot
Diameter (including
Diameter
telemetry collar)
5302C 7.00 in (177.8 mm) 1.10 in (27.9 mm) 1.999 in (50.8 mm)
D
Female Pilot
Diameter
E
Driven (inner) Bolt Circle
4.375 in (111.1 mm) (8) 3/8-24 threaded holes, equally
spaced on a 3.00 in (76.20 mm) B.C.
5308C 8.49 in (215.5 mm) 1.10 in (27.9 mm) 2.748 in (69.9 mm) 5.513 in (140.0 mm) (8) 5/8-11 threaded holes, spaced
on a 3.75 in (95.25 mm) B.C.
5309C 10.49 in (241.0 mm) 1.64 in (41.7 mm) 3.998 in (101.5 mm) 7.500 in (190.5 mm) (12) 5/8-11 threaded holes, spaced
on a 6.0 in (152.4 mm) B.C.
5310C 17.98 in (456.7 mm) 2.09 in (53.0 mm) 5.499 in (139.7 mm) 11.001 in (279.4 mm) (12) 7/8-14 threaded holes, spaced
on a 9.0 in (288.6 mm) B.C.
4.22
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
F
Load (outer) Bolt Circle
(8) 0.406 in (10.31 mm) dia through holes
equally spaced on a 5.00 in (127.0 mm) B.C.
(8) 0.531 in (13.49 mm) dia through holes
equally spaced on a 6.5 in (165.0 mm) B.C.
(16) 0.531 in (13.49 mm) dia through holes
equally spaced on a 8.5 in (215.9 mm) B.C.
(16) 0.780 in (19.8 mm) dia through holes
equally spaced on a 13.0 in (330.2 mm) B.C.
TORKDISC ® Rotary Torque Sensor System 1000 – 225k in-lb
The TORKDISC® and receiver make up a complete system. No additional signal
conditioning is required. The receiver box provides voltage, frequency, and digital output
via a 25-pin (F) D-sub connector.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
4.23
Photo Courtesy of Mustang Dynamometer.
Photo Courtesy of Mustang Dynamometer.
The robust construction, high stiffness, and low rotating inertia of the TORKDISC® make it ideal
for applications such as chassis and engine dynamometers. The TORKDISC® system consists of
a rotating sensor flange, a fixed receiving antenna, and a signal conditioning module. Torque
is measured using a unique strain gage structure within the rotating flange. The measurement
signal is then digitized, and is transmitted without wires to the receiving antenna. The signal is
conditioned to a voltage, frequency, and digital output.
Model 5308 Shown installed in chassis dynamometer.
4.24
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
-------------------
Torque Sensor
Accessories and Services
Highlights
■
Strain gage signal conditioners
■
Cable assemblies
■
Speed sensors
■
Shunt calibration modules and
thermocouples
■
Calibration services
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
5.1
Signal Conditioners For use with Torque or Speed Sensors
The Series 8120 family of signal conditioners are designed for use
with either strain gage reaction torque sensors, strain gage rotary
torque sensors, or Hall Effect speed (RPM) sensors. Within each
category, the series offers a choice of either a basic signal
conditioner, signal conditioner with digital display, or signal
conditioner with digital display and Hi-Lo set points. Each unit
delivers a 0 to ± 5 Volts analog output signal.
Available
Signal Conditioner Options
(Consult Factory)
Can be Combined with One of the
Options Listed
B
12 Volt DC Power
P
Peak Capture
C
4 to 20 mA Current Output
F
230 VAC Power
G
± 10 Volt Output (0.1% FS Non-linearity)
Dual Limits - Mechanical Relays
R*
S*
Dual Limits - Solid State Relays
* Model 8120-X30A Only
Supplied Accessories
Models: 8120-110A, 8120-130A, 8120-410A,
8120-430A, 8120-710A, and 8120-730A
P, C, G, R
F, B
F, B
P, C, G, R, S
F, B
F, B
F
Star Bridge Sensor Simulator* (if precision shunt calibration module is not supplied)
Mating Connector (if cable is not purchased)
Power Cord
* Hall Effect signal conditioners are not supplied with a star bridge, as they contain built-in crystal
oscillators
Models: 8120-100A, 8120-400A, and 8120-700A
Sensor/Excitation
*Strain Gage
DC Excitation
(Reaction)
Strain Gage
AC Excitation
(Rotary)
Hall Effect
(Speed)
Basic Signal Conditioner
Signal Conditioner
with 4 1/2 digit LED display
3 Hz refresh rate
8120-100A
8120-110A
8120-400A
8120-410A
8120-700A
8120-710A
Signal Conditioner
with LED display and Hi-Lo
set points (TTL compatible)
8120-130A
8120-430A
8120-730A
Input transducers
90-2000 ohm
90-1000 ohm
0.1-200V
Excitation
5 or 10 VDC
2 VAC (RMS) @ 3.28 kHz
9 VDC
Accuracy
± 0.05% FS
± 0.05% FS
± 0.05% FS
Balance range
10 turn coarse and fine pots,
± 1.5 mV/V imbalance
10 turn coarse and fine pots,
± 1.5 mV/V imbalance
—
Span range
10 turn coarse and fine pots,
1 to 8 mV/V
10 turn coarse and fine pots,
0.5 to 5 mV/V
Selectable ranges of 0, 100, 200, 500,
1000, 2000, 5000, 10k, 20k, 50k
Selectable 2, 200, 2000 Hz
Selectable 2, 400 Hz
2 Hz on input ranges of 0-500 Hz,
10 Hz on all other
Output ripple and noise
0.02% FS (RMS) with 2 Hz filter
0.15% all other filter ranges
0.02% FS (RMS) with 2 Hz filter
0.15% all other filter ranges
0.1% FS (RMS) from 20%-100%
of input range
Input power
110/120 VAC @ 50-400 Hz,
9 watts max
110/120 VAC @ 50-400 Hz,
9 watts max
110/120 VAC @ 50-400 Hz,
9 watts max
Operating temp. range
0 to +130 ºF (0 to +54 ºC)
0 to +130 ºF (0 to +54 ºC)
0 to +130 ºF (0 to +54 ºC)
Weight (approx.)
2 lb (0.9 Kg)
2 lb (0.9 Kg)
2 lb (0.9 Kg)
Active filter
* For additional signal conditioners for use with reaction torque sensors, see section 8
5.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Recommended Cables and Accessories
Code
Model #
Description
8311-01-10A
Cable assembly for sensors with PT conn., 10-ft, PT conn. to pigtails, 4-cond. cable
8315-01-10A
Cable assembly for sensors with PC conn., 10-ft, PC conn. to pigtails, 4-cond. cable
8310-06-10A
Cable assembly for Series 4100 w/Series 8120, 10-ft, MS conn. to to card edge conn.,
6-cond. cable
8310-09-10A
Cable assembly for Series 4200 w/Series 8120, 10-ft, MS conn. to to card edge conn.,
8-cond. cable
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
5.3
Speed Sensor Cables
Speed Sensor Cable Specifications and Standard Models
The following tables provide specifications and configuration diagrams for the variety of cable types available. Where applicable, standard cable
assembly model numbers are provided. Standard models can be less costly than custom cables and available for immediate shipment. For alternate
cable lengths or custom models, contact the factory.
General Purpose Twisted, Shielded Pair Cables
Usage
General purpose, 2-conductor, twisted, shielded, pair cable
with a black polyurethane jacket. Use with speed sensors.
Outer Jacket
Polyurethane, black
Diameter
0.25 in
6.35 mm
Capacitance
36 pF/ft
118 pF/m
Temperature Range
-58 to +250 ºF
-50 to +121 ºC
Construction
Polyurethane Jacket
Shield
Conductor #1
(red)
Drain
Conductor #2 (blue)
Standard Cable Assemblies for Passive Speed Sensors
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
8312-01-05A
8312-01-10A
8312-01-20A
8312-01-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
8312-02-05A
8312-02-10A
8312-02-20A
8312-02-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
Twisted, Shielded, Four-Conductor Cables
Usage
General purpose, use with speed sensors. 24AWG common
stranded tinned copper drain wire, polypropylene insulated,
twisted pair in a chrome PVC jacket.
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.168 in
4.27 mm
Capacitance
35 pF/ft
44.3 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
45 ohm
Standard Cable Assemblies For Active Speed Sensors
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
8313-03-05A
8313-03-10A
8313-03-20A
8313-03-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
8313-04-05A
8313-04-10A
8313-04-20A
8313-04-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
2-Socket Plug
2-Socket Plug
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Card Edge
Construction
Shield
Conductors
(4)
PVC
Jacket
Drain
3-Socket Plug
3-Socket Plug
5.4
Pigtails
716-684-0001
Pigtails
Card Edge
www.pcb.com
Reaction Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies
Recommended Reaction Torque Sensor Signal Conditioners and Cables
Recommended Signal Conditioners
8160A
8161A, 8162, &
Pigtails
8311-15-xxA
8311-15-xxA
8311-01-xxA
8311-02-xxA
8159 Series
8120 Series
Reaction Torque Sensor Type
Reaction Torque with PT connector <20 ft (6.1 m)
8311-04-xxA
Reaction Torque with PT connector ≥20 ft (6.1 m)
8311-05-xxA
”xx” indicates length in feet.
Standard lengths include 5 ft (1.5 m), 10 ft (3 m), 20 ft (6.1 m), & 50 ft (15.2 m).
Recommended Cables
8311-17-xxA
8311-18-xxA
Reaction Torque Sensor Cable Specifications and Standard Models
The following tables provide specifications and configuration diagrams for the variety of cable types available. Where applicable, standard cable
assembly model numbers are provided. Standard models can be less costly than custom cables and available for immediate shipment. For alternate
cable lengths or custom models, contact the factory.G
Four-Conductor Cables
Usage
Construction
General purpose, use with reaction torque sensors. 24AWG common
stranded tinned copper drain wire, polypropylene insulated, twisted
pair in a chrome PVC jacket. Use when desired cable is < 20 feet (6.1 m).
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.168 in
4.27 mm
Capacitance
35 pF/ft
44.3 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
45 ohm
Shield
PVC
Jacket
Conductors
(4)
Drain
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
8311-01-05A
8311-01-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
PT
8311-04-05A
8311-04-10A
5 ft
10 ft
Pigtails
1.5 m
3.0 m
PT
8311-15-05A
8311-15-10A
8311-15-20A
8311-15-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
8311-17-05A
8311-17-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
Card Edge
PT
9-pin (M) D-sub
PT
9-pin (M) D-sub
Continued on next page
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
5.5
Reaction Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies
Length (feet) Length (meters)
Model #
8314-20-05A
8314-20-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
8314-21-05A
8314-21-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
9-socket (F) D-sub
Pigtails
15-pin (M) D-sub
Pigtails
Eight-Conductor Cables
Usage
Construction
General purpose, use with reaction torque sensors. 24AWG
common stranded tinned copper drain wire, polypropylene
insulated, twisted pair in a chrome PVC jacket. Use when
desired cable is ≥ 20 feet (6.1 m).
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.363 in
9.22 mm
Capacitance
13.5 pF/ft
44.3 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
100 ohm
Shield
Conductors
(8)
PVC
Jacket
Drain
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model #
Length (feet)
8311-02-20A
8311-02-50A
20 ft
50 ft
Length (meters)
6.1 m
15.2 m
PT
8311-05-20A
8311-05-50A
20 ft
50 ft
6.1 m
15.2 m
PT
8311-18-20A
8311-18-50A
20 ft
50 ft
Pigtails
Card Edge
6.1 m
15.2 m
9-pin (M) D-sub
5.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
PT
www.pcb.com
Rotary Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies
Recommended Rotary Torque Sensor Signal Conditioners and Cables
Signal Conditioners
8120 Series
Rotary Torque Sensor Type
Series 4100 Rotary Transformer Torque
8310-06-xxA
Series 4200 Rotary Transformer Torque
8310-09-xxA
”xx” indicates length in feet.
Standard lengths include 5 ft (1.5 m), 10 ft (3 m), 20 ft (6.1 m), & 50 ft (15.2 m).
Pigtails (other)
Recommended Cables
8310-03-xxA
8310-11-xxA
Rotary Torque Sensor Cable Specifications and Standard Models
The following tables provide specifications and configuration diagrams for the variety of cable types available. Where applicable, standard cable
assembly model numbers are provided. Standard models can be less costly than custom cables and available for immediate shipment. For alternate
cable lengths or custom models, contact the factory.General PurposeTwisted, Shielded Pair
Six-Conductor Cables
Usage
Construction
General purpose, use with rotary torque sensors. Aluminum
polyester shielded 24AWG common stranded tinned copper
drain wire, twisted pair in a PVC jacket.
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.359 in
9.12 mm
Capacitance
12.5 pF/ft
41.0 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
100 ohm
Shield
Conductors
(6)
PVC
Jacket
Drain
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model #
Length (feet)
8310-03-20A
8310-03-50A
20 ft
50 ft
Length (meters)
6.1 m
15.2 m
5-Socket Plug
8310-06-05A
8310-06-10A
8310-06-20A
8310-06-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
Pigtails
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
5-Socket Plug
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Card Edge
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
5.7
Rotary Torque Sensor Cable Assemblies
Eight-Conductor Cables
Usage
Construction
General purpose, use with rotary torque sensors. Aluminum
polyester shielded 24AWG common stranded tinned copper drain
wire, twisted pair in a PVC jacket.
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.359 in
9.12 mm
Capacitance
12.5 pF/ft
41.0 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
100 ohm
Shield
PVC
Jacket
Conductors
(8)
Drain
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model #
Length (feet)
Length (meters)
8310-11-05A
8310-11-10A
8310-11-20A
8310-11-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
8310-09-05A
8310-09-10A
8310-09-20A
8310-09-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
5-Socket Plug
5-Socket Plug
5.8
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
Pigtails
Card Edge
www.pcb.com
----------------------
Torque Sensor Accessories
Speed Sensors
Speed sensors may be used with rotary torque sensors to provide a
measurement of rotational speed. Horsepower can then be
calculated using the speed and torque measurements by the
following relationship:
HP = Torque (in-lbs) x RPM
63025
These devices install into ports provided on Series 4100 and Series
4200 torque sensors. The output of a speed sensor switches in the
presence of ferromagnetic material such as steel gear teeth.
Model A-30775-1A — active speed sensor kit
■
■
■
Output amplitude and wave-form are affected by gear speed and
tooth shape.
Speed sensor gears are usually made with 60 teeth. A speed sensor
used with a 60 tooth gear will have an output of 100 Hz for a shaft
speed of 100 RPM.
Proper orientation of the sensor tip, relative to gear movement, is
required. See drawing below for orientation information.
Kit Components
Requires supply voltage
0 to 20,000 RPM max
3-pin connector
Speed
Sensor
Mating
Connector
Cable
Clamp
Assembled Kit
Active Speed Sensor
* Length with mating connector
Model A-30774A — passive speed sensor kit
■
■
■
Self-generating
200 RPM to rated speed of torque sensor
2-pin connector
Speed Sensors Kits
Model Number
Specifications
Unit
Type
Supply Voltage
VDC
Supply Current - typical mA
Frequency Range
Hz
Output Voltage - logic 0 VDC
- logic 1 VDC
Output Voltage
V P-P
A-30775-1A
A-30774A
Active
5 to 15
15
0 to 20k
0.6 max
2.4 min
—
Passive
Self-generating
—
200 to 20k
—
—
10 to 170
180-021A
(MS3106A-10SL-3S)
180-018A
(MS3057-4A)
180-017A
(MS3106A-10SL-4S)
180-018A
(MS3057-4A)
5 to 15 VDC
Signal
Common
Signal Output
Signal Common
—
Supplied Accessories
Mating Connector
Cable Clamp
Passive Speed Sensor
* Length with mating connector
Pin Out
A
B
C
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
5.9
Torque Sensor Accessories
----------------------
Thermocouples — K-type
Thermocouples are offered as an option on our rotating
torque sensors to monitor bearing temperatures.
A pre-drilled hole (3/8-24) is provided on each torque sensor for easy
installation. Available Type "K" thermocouples are housed in 304
stainless steel and are supplied with a 5 feet long, 0.275 inch
diameter (1.5 m, 7 mm) flexible steel armored cable.
Model 201-004A
Description
Thermocouple with 90° bend
Bayonet Adaptor (supplied with
thermocouplefor all other models)
Bayonet Adaptor (supplied with
thermocouple for Models 4115K
and 4115A)
Model Number
Cold End Termination
201-004A
201-002A
2-pin male connector
N/A
201-008A
N/A
Model 8113-105A — relay activated precision shunt calibration modules with built-in star bridge
Supplied with all Series 4100 Rotary
Transformer Torque Sensors
■ Card edge connectors
■
Card Edge Receptacle
Model 8113-105A
Precision Shunt Calibration Module
(use with Series 4100 Rotary Transformers)
Shunt calibration modules provide a known resistance which
produces a known signal that simulates an output from the strain
gages in the torque sensor.
Typical Installation Including Shunt Calibration Module
Series 4100
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensor
5.10
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Series 8310-06
Cable Assembly
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Precision Shunt
Calibration Module
716-684-0001
Series 8120 Rotary Torque
Sensor Signal Conditioner
www.pcb.com
----------------------
Torque Sensor Calibration Services
PCB® maintains a completely equipped calibration laboratory for calibration and
re-certification of strain gage based torque sensors, single axis load cells, and multiaxis transducers. These services are available for sensors manufactured by PCB® as
well as other companies.
Calibrations and recertifications performed by PCB® are traceable to the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and conform to ISO/IEC 17025-1999
and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994. PCB®’s calibration laboratory is accredited by The
American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) to ISO 17025 standards,
as documented on the company’s A2LA ”Scope of Calibration”.
The scope of our accreditation for torque sensors is:
Range
Cutaway view of a rotary transformer torque
sensor with optional speed sensor installed.
Best Uncertainty [1] (±)
10 to 25k in-lb (1.1 to 2.8k N-m)
0.04% FS
25k to 100k in-lb (2.8k to 11.3k N-m)
0.14% FS
100k to 300k in-lb (11.3k to 33.8k N-m)
0.09% FS
[1] Best uncertainties represent expanded uncertainties expressed at approximately the 95%
confidence level using a coverage factor k = 2.
Basic Calibration
Standard calibration services include five (5) ascending and descending points in the
clockwise and counterclockwise directions for torque sensors. Charted calibration
data is provided in a theoretical vs. actual format with mV/V, non-linearity, and
hysteresis provided at each increment. Shunt calibration data is also provided along
with a precision shunt calibration resistor. The standard calibration service includes a
basic certificate of NIST traceability.
Torque Sensor Calibration Services
PCB Sensor
Competitor Sensor
Calibration Code
Calibration Code
TCS-1A
TCS-1B
TCS-1C
TCS-1D
TCS-2A
TCS-0
TCS-0
TCS-0
TCS-0
TCS-0
TCS-2B
TCS-0
TCS-2C
TCS-0
TCS-2D
TCS-0
Calibration of torque sensor, 5-point, single bridge, up to 5000 in-lb (565 N-m)
Calibration of torque sensor, 5-point, single bridge, above 5000 in-lb (565 N-m) and up to 30k in-lb (3400 N-m)
Calibration of torque sensor, 5-point, single bridge, above 30k in-lb (3400 N-m) and up to 250k in-lb (28.2k N-m)
Calibration of torque sensor, 5-point, single bridge, above 250k in-lb (28.2k N-m) and up to 500k in-lb (56.5k N-m)
System calibration (torque sensor, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, up to 5000 in-lb (565 N-m)
System calibration (torque sensor, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, above 5000 in-lb (565
N-m) and up to 30k in-lb (3400 N-m)
System calibration (torque sensor, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, above 30k in-lb (3400
N-m) and up to 250k in-lb (28.2k N-m)
System calibration (torque sensor, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, above 250k in-lb (28.2k
N-m) and up to 500k in-lb (56.5k N-m)
Other calibration services available; contact factory for more information.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
5.11
Photo Courtesy of Mustang Dynamometer.
Torque sensors are used for many non-automotive applications, such as motorcycles,
agricultural vehicles, hydraulic pumps, motors, and lawn and garden equipment.
5.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Torque Sensor
Technical Information
Principle of Operation
All torque sensors manufactured by PCB® are strain gage based measuring instruments
whose output voltage is proportional to applied torque. The output voltage produced by
a resistance change in strain gages that are bonded to the torque sensor structure. The
magnitude of the resistance change is proportional to the deformation of the torque
sensor and therefore the applied torque.
Highlights
■
Introduction to torque sensors
■
Glossary of terms
The four-arm Wheatstone Bridge configuration shown in Figure 1 depicts the strain gage
geometry used in the torque sensor structures. This configuration allows for temperature
compensation and cancellation of signals caused by forces not directly applied about the
axis of the applied torque.
A regulated 5 to 20 volt excitation is required and is applied between points A and D of
the Wheatstone bridge. When torque is applied to the transducer structure the
Wheatstone bridge becomes unbalanced, thereby causing an output voltage between
points B and C. This voltage is proportional to the applied torque.
Series 2300 reaction torque sensors have the wiring code illustrated in Figure 2.
Series 4100 rotary transformer torque sensors have the wiring code illustrated in Figure 3.
Series 4200 rotary transformer torque sensors have the wiring code illustrated in Figure 4.
Axis Definition
PCB® torque sensors comply with the Axis and Sense Definitions of NAS-938 (National
Aerospace Standard-Machine Axis and Motion) nomenclature and recommendations of
the Western Regional Strain Gage committee.
Figure 1.
Wheatstone Bridge
Axes are defined in terms of a “right-handed” orthogonal coordinate system, as shown
in Figure 5.
The principal axis of a transducer is normally the z-axis. The z-axis will also be the axis
of radial symmetry or axis of rotation. In the event there is no clearly defined axis, the
following preference system will be used: z, x, y.
Figure 2.
Series 2300 Reaction Torque Sensor Wiring Code
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Series 4100
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensor Wiring Code
Series 4200
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensor Wiring Code
Right-handed Orthogonal
Coordinate System
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
6.1
Introduction to Torque Sensors
The principal axis of a transducer is normally the z-axis. The z-axis will also be the axis
of radial symmetry or axis of rotation. In the event there is no clearly defined axis, the
following preference system will be used: z, x, y.
Figure 6 shows the axis and sense nomenclature for our torque sensors. A (+) sign
indicates torque in a direction which produces a (+) signal voltage and generally defines
a clockwise torque.
Torque Sensor Structure Design
Figure 6.
Axis and Sense Nomenclature for Torque Sensors
Torque sensor structures are symmetrical and are typically manufactured from steel (SAE
4140 or 4340) that has been heat-treated Rc 36 to 38. Common configurations are solid
circular shaft, hollow circular shaft, cruciform, hollow cruciform, solid square, and hollow
tube with flats.
The solid square offers advantages over the solid circular design, especially in capacities
greater than or equal to 500 in-lb (55 N-m). The solid square offers high bending strength
and ease of application of strain gages. Torque sensors with capacities less than 500
in-lb (55 N-m) are usually of the hollow cruciform type. The hollow cruciform structure
produces high stress at low levels of torque, yet has good bending strength. Common
configurations are shown in Figure 7.
A variety of end configurations are available, including: keyed shaft, flange, and spline.
(See below).
Keyed Shaft
Spline Drive
Reaction Torque Sensors
Typical reaction torque sensor applications include:
■ Bearing friction
■ Starter testing
■ Stepping switch torque
■ Automotive brake testing
■
Axle torsion test
Reaction torque is the turning force or moment, imposed upon the stationary portion of
a device by the rotating portion, as power is delivered or absorbed. The power may be
transmitted from rotating member to stationary member by various means, such as the
magnetic field of a motor or generator, brake shoes or pads on drums or rotors, or the
lubricant between a bearing and a shaft. Thus, reaction torque sensors become useful
tools for measuring properties such as motor power, braking effectiveness, lubrication,
and viscosity.
Figure 7.
Common Torque Sensor Configurations
6.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Reaction torque sensors are suitable for a wide range of torque measurement
applications, including motor and pump testing. Due to the fact that these sensors do not
utilize bearings, slip-rings, or any other rotating elements, their installation and use can
be very cost effective. Reaction torque sensors are particularly useful in applications
where the introduction of a rotating inertia due to a rotating mass between the driver
motor and driven load is undesirable. An example of this can be found in small motor
testing, where introduction of a rotating mass between the motor and load device will
result in an error during acceleration. For these applications, the reaction torque sensor
can be used between the driver motor, or driven load, and ground. An added benefit is
that such an installation is not limited in RPM by the torque sensor. PCB® manufactures
reaction torque sensors with capacities ranging from a few inch ounces to 500k in-lb
(56.5k N-m), in configurations including keyed shaft and flange.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
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Introduction to Torque Sensors
Rotary Torque Sensors
Typical rotary torque sensor applications include:
■ Chassis dynamometer
■ Clutch testing
■ Engine dynamometer
■ Blower or fan testing
■ Efficiency testing
■ Small motor / pump testing
Figure 8.
Rotating torque sensors are similar in design and in application to reaction torque
sensors, with the exception that the torque sensor is installed in-line with the device
under test. Consequently, the torque sensor shaft rotates with the device under test. In
PCB® Series 4100 and 4200 models, the rotating torque sensor shaft is supported in a
stationary housing by two bearings. Signal transfer between the rotating torque sensor
shaft and the stationary housing is accomplished by means of rotary transformers.
Rotary Transformers
Rotary Transformers provide a non-contact means of transferring signals to and from the
rotating torque sensor structure. Rotary transformers are similar to conventional
transformers, except that either the primary and secondary winding is rotating. For
rotating torque sensors, two rotary transformers are used. One serves to transmit the
excitation voltage to the strain gage bridge, while the second transfers the signal output
to the non-rotating part of the transducer. Thus no direct contact is required between the
stationary and rotating elements of the transducer (see Figure 8).
Figure 9.
Rotary transformers are made up of a pair of concentrically wound coils, with one coil
rotating within or beside the stationary coil. The magnetic flux lines are produced by
applying a time varying voltage (carrier excitation) to one of the coils (see Figure 9).
Figure 10 depicts a typical rotary transformer torque sensor:
Transmission of energy through any transformer requires that the current be alternating.
A suitable signal conditioner with carrier excitation in the range of 3 to 5000 Hz is
required to achieve this.
Mechanical Installation of Keyed Shaft Torque Sensors
Proper installation must be observed when assembling a torque sensor into a driveline.
Careful selection of components must be made so that problems are not created which
could lead to part failure or danger to personnel.
Shaft misalignment
Figure 10.
Rotary Transformer Torque Sensor Diagram
Provision must be made to eliminate the effects of bending and end loading on the
torque sensors shaft due to parallel offset of shafts, angular misalignment, and shaft end
float. The proper use of couplings can reduce these problems to a negligible level.
All shafts must first be aligned mechanically, as accurately as possible, to lessen the
work the couplings must do. Alignment within 0.001 inch per inch of shaft diameter is
normally satisfactory, however, for some critical applications such as high speed, this
level of alignment is not acceptable, and a tighter tolerance must be achieved. Please
contact our factory, or your coupling vendor, for information regarding your application.
Torque sensor with foot-mounted housing installation
A foot-mounted torque sensor has a plate on its housing, which can be securely attached
to a machine base or bedplate. This installation reduces the mass in suspension on the
couplings and can increase the shaft’s critical speed, if the torque sensor is within its
speed rating. Normally, if both the driving and load sources are fully bearing-supported
in foot-mounted housings, and the torque sensor housing is foot-mounted, double-flex
couplings should be used on each shaft end. Double-flex couplings provide for two
degrees of freedom, meaning they can simultaneously allow for angular and parallel
misalignment, and reduce the effects of bending on the torque sensor shaft. Half of each
coupling weight is supported on the torque sensor’s shaft, and the other half is carried
by the driving and load shafts.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
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6.3
Introduction to Torque Sensors
Torque sensor with floating shaft installation
A floating shaft torque sensor does not have a foot-mount plate on the housing, nor is
the housing affixed to a bedplate in any other fashion. It depends on being carried by the
driver and load shafts for its support. The housing, which is meant to remain stationary
and not rotate with the shaft, must be restrained from rotating with a conductive flexible
strap. Tapped threaded holes are provided on the side of the housing for this purpose.
The other end of the strap is bolted to a bedplate or other stationary-grounded member,
which will electrically ground the torque sensor housing to the electrical system ground.
Therefore, with the floating shaft, there is just one degree of freedom between each
shaft end of the torque sensor and the adjacent mating shaft, which is bearingsupported (driver and load shafts) on the bedplate. Consequently, a single flex coupling
is required at each end of the torque sensor.
Error Analysis
PCB® typically supplies accuracy information on its products in the form individual errors.
They are non-linearity, hysteresis, non-repeatability, effect of temperature on zero
unbalance, and effect of temperature on output.
The customer can combine these individual errors to establish the maximum possible
error for the measurement, or just examine the applicable individual error. If the
temperature remains stable during the test, the temperature related errors can be
ignored. If the sensor is used for increasing load measurement only, ignore the hysteresis
error. If the load measurement is near the full capacity, the linearity error can be ignored.
If the capability exists to correct the data through linearization-fit or a look-up-table, the
error in the measurement can be minimized. A sophisticated user can get rid of all the
errors except for the non-repeatability error in the measurement.
Often overlooked by the customer is error due to the presence of non-measured forces
and bending moments. Even though the single axis of measurement sensors are
designed and built to withstand these non-measured forces and bending moments
(extraneous loads), the errors due to them are present. The user can design the set-up to
eliminate or minimize these extraneous loads. However, if these extraneous loads are
present, the errors due to them should be considered.
Application Questionnaire
Determine the capacity
required
How will the torque sensor be
integrated into the system?
A. What is the maximum expected
torque, including transients?
B. What is the minimum expected
torque?
C. What is the typical expectedtorque?
D. What are the dynamics of the system,
(i.e. frequency response)?
E. What are the maximum extraneous
loads to which the torque sensor will
be subjected?
6.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
A. What are the physical constraints,
(e.g. length, diameter)?
B. Will the torque sensor be
foot-mounted or floated?
C. Couplings, torsionally stiff,
or torsionally soft?
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
What type of environment
will the torque sensor be
operating in?
A. Maximum temperature?
B. Minimum temperature?
C. Humidity?
D. Contaminants,
(e.g. water, oil, dirt, dust)?
What speed will the torque
sensor be required to rotate?
A. What length of time will the torque
sensor be rotating, and at what
speed?
716-684-0001
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Glossary of Terms
Accuracy —
Creep Recovery —
Natural Frequency —
Stated as a limit tolerance, which defines the
average deviation between the actual output
versus theoretical output.
The change in no-load output occurring with
time, after removal of a load, which has been
applied for a specific period of time.
The frequency of free oscillations under
no-load conditions.
In practical transducer applications, the
potential errors of non-linearity, hysteresis,
non-repeatability and temperature effects do
not normally occur simultaneously, nor are
they necessarily additive.
Therefore, accuracy is calculated based upon
RMS value of potential errors, assuming a
temperature variation of ± 10 °F (± 5.5 °C),
full rated load applied, and proper set-up and
calibration. Potential errors of the readout,
cross-talk, or creep effects are not included.
Nominal Load Limit Capacity —
Cross-talk —
With one component loaded to capacity, and
the other unloaded, the output of the
unloaded component will not exceed the
percentage specified of its full-scale capacity.
It is the designed normal maximum capacity
of a transducer. Output sensitivity of the
transducer is based on this capacity unless
specified.
Non-linearity —
Deflection —
The change in length along the primary axis
of the load cell between no-load and rated
load conditions.
The maximum deviation of the calibration
curve from a straight line drawn between the
no load and rated load output, expressed
as a percentage of the rated output and
measured on increasing load only.
Drift —
Ambient Conditions —
The conditions (humidity, pressure, temperature, etc.) of the medium surrounding the
transducer.
Ambient Temperature —
The temperature of the medium surrounding
of transducers.
A random change in output under constant
load conditions.
Output —
Error —
Note: Where the output is directly proportional to
excitation, the signal must be expressed in terms of
volts per volt, volts per ampere, etc. of excitation.
The algebraic difference between the
indicated and true value of the load being
measured.
Output, Rated —
Excitation, Electrical —
Calibration —
The comparison of transducer output against
standard test loads.
The voltage or current applied to the input
terminals of the transducer.
a record (graph) of the comparison of
transducer output against standard test loads.
Combined Error
(Non-linearity & Hysteresis) —
the maximum deviation from a straight line
drawn between the original no-load and
rated load outputs expressed as a percentage
of the rated output and measured on both
increasing and decreasing loads.
Compensation —
The utilization of supplementary devices,
materials, or processes to minimize known
sources of error.
Capacity as percentage of the nominal load
limit capacity, and based on 100 X 106 cycles
(minimum) from zero to full fatigue capacity
and 50 X 106 cycles (minimum) from full
fatigue capacity tension to full fatigue
capacity compression load.
Hysteresis —
The maximum difference between the
transducer output readings for the same
applied load, one reading obtained by
increasing the load from zero and the other
by decreasing the load from rated load.
Note: Usually measured with rated load applied
and expressed as a percent of rated output over a
specific period of time.
The maximum load in percent of rated
capacity, which can be applied without
producing a permanent shift in performance
characteristics beyond those specified.
Primary Axis —
The axis along which the transducer is
designed to be loaded; normally its geometric
centerline.
Rated Capacity (Rated Load) —
The maximum axial load that the transducer
is designed to measure within its specifications.
Note: Usually measured at half rated output and
expressed in percent of rated output. Measurements
should be taken as rapidly as possible to minimize
creep.
Repeatability —
Insulation Resistance —
Resolution —
Creep —
The change of transducer output occurring
with time, while under load, and with all
environmental conditions and other variables
remaining constant.
The algebraic difference between the outputs
at no-load and at rated load.
Overload Rating —
Fatigue Capacity —
Calibration Curve —
This signal (voltage, current, etc.) produced
by the transducer.
The DC resistance measured between the
transducer circuit and the transducer structure.
Note: Normally measured at fifty volts DC and
under standard test conditions.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
The maximum difference between transducer
output readings for repeated loading under
identical loading and environmental conditions.
The smallest change in mechanical input,
which produces a detectable change in the
output signal.
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6.5
Glossary of Terms
Sensitivity —
Temperature Range, Usable —
The ratio of the change in output to the
change in mechanical input.
The extremes of temperature within which
the transducer will operate without
permanent adverse change to any of its
performance characteristics.
Shunt Calibration —
Electrical simulation of transducer output by
insertion of known shunt resistors between
appropriate points within the circuitry.
Shunt-to-load Correlation —
The difference in output readings obtained
through electrically simulated and actual
applied loads.
Standard Test Conditions —
The environmental conditions under which
measurements should be made, when
measurements under any other conditions
may result in disagreement between various
observers at difference times and places.
These conditions are a follows:
Temperature 72 °F ± 3.6 °F (23 °C ± 2 °C)
Relative Humidity: 90% or less
Barometric Pressure: 28 to 32 inch Hg
Static Extraneous
Load Limits —
To order copies of the following application
notes, call PCB® toll-free at 888-684-0004.
Application Notes
Terminal Resistance —
The resistance of the transducer circuit
measured at specific adjacent bridge
terminals at standard temperature, with
no-load applied, and with the excitation and
output terminals open-circuited.
Terminal Resistance,
Excitation —
The resistance of the transducer circuit
measured at the excitation terminals, at
standard temperature, with no-load applied,
and with the output terminals open-circuited.
Terminal Resistance, Signal —
The resistance of the transducer circuit
measured at the output signal terminals,
at standard temperature, with no-load
applied, and with the excitation terminals
open-circuited.
Traceability —
Static Extraneous Load Limits are calculated
such that only one extraneous load (Fx or
Fy or Mx or My or Mz) can be applied
simultaneously with 50% of the nominal
load limit applied.
Application Notes and
Technical Articles
The step-by-step transducer process by
which the transducer calibration can be
related to primary standards.
AP-1001 Extraneous Loads
AP-1002 Equivalent Force of a Falling Object
AP-1003 Mechanical Installation of
PCB® Torque Transducers
AP-1004 Installation of PCB® Driveline
Torque Transducers
AP-1007 Dynamometer Installation of PCB
Model 1401 Load Cell
AP-1008 Spline Lubrication PCB® Model 4115A
& K, Preliminary Release
AP-1009 Explosive Environment
AP-1011 Effects of Thrust and Bending
Moment on The Torque Output of
Torque Disk. Model 5304-101-01
AP-1012 Grease Lubrication
AP-1013 Effects of Thrust, Lateral, Loads and
Bending Moment on the Torque
Output. Models 5307-01 & 5307-02
AP-1015 Effects of Extraneous Loads on
TORKDISC® Series 5308 and 5309
AP-1016 Shunt Calibration of a Strain Gage
Sensor
Zero Balance —
Technical Articles
TA-1001 What is a Transducer?
Temperature Effect on Output —
The output signal of the transducer with
rated excitation and with no-load applied,
usually expressed in percent of rated output.
The change in output due to a change in
transducer temperature.
Zero Return —
Note: Usually expressed as a percentage of
load reading per degree Fahrenheit change in
temperature.
Temperature Effect
on Zero Balance —
The change in zero balance due to a change
in transducer temperature.
Note: Usually expressed as the change in zero
balance in percent of rated output per degrees
Fahrenheit (change in temperature).
Temperature Range,
Compensated —
TA-1002 Cross-talk in a Multi-Component
Sensor
TA-1003 Accuracy
The difference in zero balance measured
immediately before rated load application of
specified duration and measured after
removal of the load, and when the output has
stabilized.
Zero Shift, Permanent —
A permanent change in the no-load output.
Zero Stability —
The degree to which the transducer
maintains its zero balance with all
environmental conditions and other variables
remaining constant.
The range of temperature over which the
transducer is compensated to maintain rated
output and zero balance within specified limits.
6.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Load Cells
PCB® load cells address many force measurement, monitoring and control requirements
in laboratory testing, industrial, and process control applications. All models utilize strain
gages, which are configured into a Wheatstone bridge circuit as their primary sensing
element, along with temperature and pressure compensation. A variety of configurations
and capacities address a wide range of installation scenarios. Fatigue-rated load cells
are offered for applications where high cyclic loads are being monitored, such as with
fatigue testing machines or repetitive processes.
Table of Contents
Model Number Index
1102
1203
1204
1208
......................7.8, 7.9
..................7.10, 7.11
..................7.12, 7.13
..................7.12, 7.13
1302
1303
1403
1404
1408
..................7.18, 7.19
..................7.18, 7.19
..................7.14, 7.15
..................7.16, 7.17
..................7.16, 7.17
Configurations..................................................................................................................7.2
Typical Measurement Systems ..................................................................................7.3
Typical Applications ......................................................................................................7.4
Selection Guide ..............................................................................................................7.4
Options ..............................................................................................................................7.6
Product Information ......................................................................................................7.7
General Purpose Load Cells ..........................................................................................7.8
Low Profile Load Cells..................................................................................................7.10
Fatigue-rated Load Cells..............................................................................................7.14
Rod-style Load Cells ....................................................................................................7.18
General Accessories ....................................................................................................8.1
Load Cell Signal Conditioners ......................................................................................8.2
Stock Cable Assemblies ................................................................................................8.6
Load Cell Accessories..................................................................................................8.10
Calibration Services ....................................................................................................8.12
Technical Information....................................................................................................9.1
Introduction to Load Cells..............................................................................................9.2
Load Cell Application Questionnaire ............................................................................9.2
Glossary of Terms ..........................................................................................................9.3
Application Notes & Technical Articles........................................................................9.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.1
Strain Gage load Cell Configurations
General Purpose Load Cells
General purpose load cells are suitable for a wide range of general force measurement
applications, including weighing, dynamometer testing, and material testing machines.
Most of these designs operate in both tension and compression, and offer excellent
accuracy and value.
A variety of configurations are available as shown below. Units range in capacity from
as small as 25 lb, to as large as 100k lb (110 N to 450k N) full-scale.
Canister
Low Profile
Rod End
Fatigue-rated load cells
Fatigue-rated load cells are specifically designed for fatigue testing machine
manufacturers and users, or in any application where high cyclic loads are present. All
fatigue-rated load cells are guaranteed against fatigue failure for over 100 million fully
reversed cycles.
These rugged load cells are manufactured using premium, fatigue-resistant,
heat-treated steels. Internal flexures are carefully designed to eliminate stress
concentration areas. Close attention is paid to the proper selection and installation of
internal strain gages and wiring to ensure maximum life.
Fatigue-rated load cells are available in a variety of configurations, and in capacities
from 250 lb to 50k lb (1100 N to 220k N) full-scale.
Canister
7.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Low Profile
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Typical Load Cell Measurement Systems
Typical measurement system for Series 1000 load cells
All PCB® strain gage load cells utilize strain gages that are configured in a Wheatstone
bridge as their primary sensing element. The resistance value of the strain gages
changes when load is applied to the sensing structure and consequently, any voltage
through the Bridge circuit will be varied. The Wheatstone bridge requires a regulated DC
voltage excitation that is commonly provided by a strain gage signal conditioner. The
resultant output signal from the load cell is typically expressed in units of millivolt per
volt of excitation. This millivolt signal then varies proportionately to the force applied to
the load cell. The strain gage signal conditioner provides zero and span adjustments to
scale its 0 to 5 VDC analog output to be proportional to any desired input range.
Additional features of the signal conditioner may include a digital display and alarm set
point limits.
Load cells are provided with either an electrical connector or integral cable. Cable
assemblies are necessary to interface load cells having an electrical connector to the
strain gage signal conditioner. Two types of cable are commonly available, and their use
is dependent upon signal transmission distance. Cable assemblies may be selected with
a terminating connector, which makes it easier to connect to a PCB® strain gage signal
conditioner, or with a pigtail termination that allows connection to screw terminal
connections on other styles of strain gage signal conditioners.
Rod-style, Series 1300
General Purpose, Low Profile,
Low Profile Fatigue-rated
Series 1100, 1200 and 1400
Load Cell Cables
(see section 8)
Models 8159, 8160A, 8161A and 8162
Load Cell Signal Conditioners
(see section 8)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.3
Typical Load Cell Applications
Typical Load Cell Applications
Component Testing
Weighing
■ Quality Control
■ Material Testing
■ Seat Testing
■ Torque Arm
■ Life Cycle Testing
Bumper Impact
Structural Testing
■ Press Applications
■ Calibration Standard
■ Wire or Cable Tension
■ Hydraulic Actuators
■ Production Monitoring
■ Safety Testing
Biomedical Applications
Crash Barriers
■ Push/Pull Testing
■ Brake Pedal Testing
■ Bumper Testing
■ Steering Column Impact
■ Fatigue Testing
■ Bridge Testing
Concrete Testing
Seat Structure Testing
■ Fabric Wear Testing
■ Bushing and
Bearing Testing
■ Plugs and Seal Testing
■ Dynamometer
■ Engine Performance
Testing
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Selection Guide
General Purpose Canister Load Cells
Size (dia x height) - in
Size (dia x height) - mm
Thread
Connector
Page
2.75 x 1.5
69.9 x 38.1
1/4-28
6-pin PT
3.8
Capacity
25 lb
50 lb
100 lb
200 lb
300 lb
Model Number
(110 N)
(225 N)
(445 N)
(900 N)
(1350 N)
1102-05A
1102-01A*
1102-02A*
1102-03A*
* Aluminum load cells (low weight). All other models are steel.
General Purpose Low Profile Load Cells
Size (dia x height) - in
Size (dia x height) - mm
Thread
Connector
Page
Capacity
500 lb
(2225 N)
(4450 N)
1000 lb
(8900 N)
2000 lb
5000 lb
(22.2 k N)
10k lb
(44.5k N)
(89k N)
20k lb
50k lb
(220k N)
100k lb
(450k N)
200k lb
(900k N)
7.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
4.12 x 1.37
104.6 x 34.8
5/8-18
6-pin PT
3.10
1203-01A
1203-02A
1203-03A
1203-04A
1203-05A
www.pcb.com
6.06 x 1.75
153.9 x 44.5
1 1/4-12
6-pin PC
3.10
Model Number
1204-01B
1204-02B
1204-03B
8 x 2.5
203.2 x 63.5
1 3/4-12
6-pin PC
3.10
1208-01B
1208-02B
Selection Guide
Fatigue-rated Low Profile Load Cells
Size (dia x height) - in
Size (dia x height) - mm
Thread
Connector
Page
Capacity
250 lb (1100N)
500 lb (2225 N)
1000 lb (4450 N)
2500 lb (11.1k N)
5000 lb (22.2k N)
10k lb (44.5k N)
25k lb (111k N)
50k lb (220k N)
100k lb (450k N)
4.12 x 1.37
104.6 x 34.8
5/8-18
6-pin PT
3.12
6.06 x 1.75
153.9 x 44.5
1 1/4-12
6-pin PC
3.12
Model Number
1403-01A
1403-02A
1403-03A
1403-04A
1403-05A
8 x 2.5
203.2 x 63.5
1 3/4-12
6-pin PC
3.12
1404-01B
1404-02B
1404-03B
1408-01B
1408-02B
General Purpose Rod-style Load Cells
Size (dia x height) - in
Size (dia x height) - mm
Thread
Connector
Page
Capacity
1000 lb (4450 N)
2000 lb (8900 N)
5000 lb (22.2k N)
10k lb (44.5k N)
20k lb
(89k N)
50k lb (220k N)
2.25 x 4.5
57.2 x 114.3
5/8-18
6-pin PT
3.14
1.71 x 4.5
43.4 x 114.3
1-14
6-pin PT
3.14
Model Number
1302-01A*
1302-02A*
1302-03A
1302-04A
1303-01A*
1303-02A*
1303-03A
1303-04A
* Aluminum load cells (low weight). All other models are steel.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.5
Options
Options For Load Cells
Shunt Resistor — A fixed resistor which is placed in parallel or
shunted across a strain gage bridge to provide a known test signal
to permit the user with a means of easily performing an accurate
system calibration of a load cell and signal conditioner.
Dual-Bridge — Provides two signals for purposes of redundancy
or to send a signal to two devices, such as a local area display and
a data recorder.
7.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Trimmed Output — The output of a strain gage based load cell is
typically nominal (± 15%) of specification. A trimmed output is
within a 1/4% of the specified output.
Metric Threads and Capacities — Our standard product is
manufactured with English attachment threads and English
capacities and is calibrated with English standards. All load cell
models are available with metric attachment threads, metric
capacities, and metric calibration data (converted from English
calibration data).
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Strain Gage Load Cells
Highlights
■
Low-profile
■
Low-deflection
■
Fatigue-rated
■
NIST-traceable calibration
■
Temperature & pressure
compensated
PCB® manufactures a wide range of strain gage load cells for aerospace, automotive,
industrial, and process control applications.
General purpose load cells are suitable for a wide range of routine static force
measurement applications, including weighing, dynamometer testing, and material
testing machines. Most general purpose designs operate in both tension and
compression, and are available in configurations including: canister, low profile and rod
end, styles. Capacities from 25 lb to 100k lb (110 N to 450k N) full-scale are available.
Fatigue-rated load cells are specifically designed for fatigue testing machine
manufacturers and users, or in any application where high cyclic loads are present.
Applications include material testing, component life cycle testing, and structural
testing. All fatigue-rated load cells are guaranteed against fatigue failure for 100 million
fully reversed cycles. Capacities are available from 250 lb to 50k lb (1100 N to 220k N)
full-scale.
For special or unusual applications, please call to discuss your needs with one of our
force application specialists.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.7
General Purpose Load Cells / 25-300 lb
General Purpose Load Cells
component testing
■ quality control
■ material testing
weighing
■ seat testing
■ torque arm
■
Tension and compression measurements
■
Series 1102 — general purpose canister-style with 6-pin connector
Capacities from 25 to 300 lb (110 to 1350 N) FS
2 mV/V output sensitivity
■ Low profile design
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
PT
(21R-10-6P)
Series 1102
Dimensions — inches (mm)
Series
1102
7.8
A
B
2.75 (69.9) 1.75 (44.5)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
C
D
E
F
1.5 (38.1)
0.1 (2.5)
0.06 (1.5)
0.75
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
G
H
0.13 (3.3) 2.05 (52.07)
716-684-0001
J
K
0.22 (5.5)
0.13 (3.3)
www.pcb.com
L
T
U
0.44 (11.2) 1/4-28 0.38 (9.7)
General Purpose Load Cells / 25-300 lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
lb (N)
Overload
lb (N)
Deflection
at Capacity
in (mm)
Extraneous Load Limits
Ringing
Frequency
Hz
Weight
lb (gm)
Material
Side Force Bending Moment
Torque
Fx or Fy
Mx or My
Mz
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
2100
2800
3800
5400
7000
0.67 (304)
0.67 (304)
0.67 (304)
0.67 (304)
0.67 (304)
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
aluminum
25 (110)
50 (225)
100 (445)
200 (900)
300 (1350)
Canister Load Cells with 6-Pin Connector
1102-05A
1102-01A
1102-02A
1102-03A
1102-04A
25 (110)
50 (225)
100 (445)
200 (900)
300 (1350)
37.5 (165)
75 (330)
150 (675)
300 (1350)
450 (2000)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
25 (2.8)
50 (5.6)
100 (11)
200 (23)
300 (34)
35 (4)
35 (4)
65 (7.3)
65 (7.3)
65 (7.3)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal) (±25%) ....................................................2 mV/V
Non-linearity (max) ....................................................0.05% FS [1]
Hysteresis (max) ........................................................0.05% FS [1]
Non-repeatability (max) ............................................0.02% FS [1]
Bridge Resistance (nom) ..................................................700 ohm
.
Excitation
(recommended) ........................10 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated) ............................+70 °F to +170 °F
(+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ........- 65 °F to +200 °F (-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ..0.002% FS/ °F (0.0036% FS / °C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ..................0.002% of reading / °F
(0.0036% of reading / °C)
Note: [1] Model 1102-05A — non-linearity 0.1%, hysteresis 0.1%, non-repeatability 0.05%
The above chart tabulates maximum
extraneous side force, bending
moment and torque that may be
applied singularly without electrical
or mechanical damage to the load
cell. Where combined extraneous
loads are applied, decrease above
loads proportionally.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Wiring Diagram
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.9
Low Profile Load Cells / 500 - 10k lb
Low Profile Load Cells
component testing
■ life cycle testing
■ material testing
bumper impact
■ structural testing
■ press applications
■
For higher range tension and compression measurements
■
Series 1203
Capacities from 500 to 10k (2225 N to 44.5k N) FS
2 mV/V or 3 mV/V output sensitivity
■ 6-pin connector
■ Optional mounting base available
■
■
PT(02E-10-6P)
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
Series 1203
Load cell shown with
optional mounting base.
Series 1203
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
Series
A
B
C
D
E
J
K
L
M
R
T
1203
4.12 (104.6)
1.37 (34.8)
1.27 (32.3)
2.85 (75.5)
0.12 (3.1)
0.28 (7.1)
8
3.5 (88.9)
1/4-28
1.25 (31.8)
5/8-18
7.10
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
U
W
0.03 (0.8) 1.13 (28.7)
Base PN
C-30396-6A
Low Profile Load Cells / 500 - 10k lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
lb (N)
Overload
lb (N)
Deflection
at Capacity
in (mm)
Low Profile Aluminum Load Cells with 5/8-18 Thread
1203-01A
1203-02A
1203-03A
1203-04A
1203-05A
500 (2225)
1000 (4450)
2000 (8900)
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
750 (3300)
1500 (6675)
3000 (13.3k)
7500 (33.3k)
15k (66.7k)
0.002 (0.05)
0.002 (0.05)
0.001 (0.03)
0.0015 (0.038)
0.0015 (0.038)
Extraneous Load Limits
Ringing
Frequency
Hz
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
2350
3500
5500
7000
10k
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
Side Force Bending Moment
Torque
Fx or Fy
Mx or My
Mz
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
250 (1100)
500 (2225)
1000 (4450)
2500 (11.1k)
5000 (22.2k)
250 (28)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
2500 (280)
5000 (565)
250 (28)
500 (55)
1000 (115)
2500 (280)
5000 (565)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal)
500 – 2000k lb Capacity ..........................................................2 mV/V
5k – 100k lb Capacity................................................................3 mV/V
Non-linearity (max) ......................................................................0.05% FS
Hysteresis (max) ..........................................................................0.05% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.02% FS
Bridge Resistance (nom)................................................................700 ohm
Excitation (recommended) ......................................10 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated) ..........................................+70 °F to +170 °F
(+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ......................................................-65 °F to +200 °F
(-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ........................................0.001% FS / °F [2]
(0.0018% FS / °C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ....................................0.002% reading / °F
(0.0036% reading / °C)
The above chart tabulates maximum
extraneous side force, bending
moment and torque that may be
applied singularly without electrical
or mechanical damage to the load
cell. Where combined extraneous
loads are applied, decrease above
loads proportionally.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Wiring Diagram
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.11
Low Profile Load Cells / 10k - 100k lb
Low Profile Load Cells
component testing
■ Life cycle testing
■ material testing
bumper impact
■ structural testing
■ press applications
■
For higher range tension and compression measurements
■
Series 1204, 1208
Capacities from 10k to 100k lb (44.5k to 450k N) FS
3 mV/V output sensitivity
■ 6-pin connector
■ Optional mounting base available
■ Built-in temperature compensation
■ Barometric pressure compensation
■
■
PC04A-10-6P
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
Series 1204, 1208
Load cell shown with
optional mounting base.
Series 1204, 1208
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
Series
A
B
C
1204
1208
6.06 (153.9)
8 (203.2)
1.75 (44.5)
2.5 (63.5)
2.42 (61.5)
3.5 (88.9)
7.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
D
E
4.33 (110) 0.12 (3.1)
5.25 (133.4) 0.25 (6.4)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
J
K
L
M
0.41 (10.4) 12 5.13 (130.3) 3/8-24
0.53 (13.5) 16 6.5 (165.1) 1/2-20
716-684-0001
R
T
U
W
2.25 (57.2) 1 1/4-12 0.03 (0.8) 1.75 (44.5)
3.5 (88.9) 1 3/4-12 0.06 (1.5) 2 (50.8)
www.pcb.com
Base PN
D-30427-3A
D-30110-1A
Low Profile Load Cells / 10k - 100k lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
lb (N)
Overload
lb (N)
Extraneous Load Limits
Deflection
at Capacity
in (mm)
Ringing
Frequency
Hz
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
Side Force Bending Moment
Torque
Fx or Fy
Mx or My
Mz
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
0.0015 (0.038)
0.0015 (0.038)
0.0015 (0.038)
5500
8000
12k
8.96 (4.06)
8.96 (4.06)
8.96 (4.06)
steel
steel
steel
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
25k (111k)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
25k (2825)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
25k (2825)
8550
9550
25.5 (11.57)
25.5 (11.57)
steel
steel
25k (111k)
50k (220k)
25k (2825)
50k (5650)
25k (2825)
50k (5650)
Low Profile Load Cells with 1 1/4-12 Thread
1204-01B
1204-02B
1204-03B
10k (44.5k)
20k (89k)
50k (220k)
15k (66.7k)
30k (130k)
75k (335k)
Low Profile Load Cells with 1 3/4-12 Thread
1208-01B
1208-02B
50k (220k)
100k (450k)
75k (335k)
150k (667k)
0.002 (0.05)
0.002 (0.05)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal)
10k – 100k lb Capacity..............................................................3 mV/V
Non-linearity (max) ..................................................................0.05% FS [1]
Hysteresis (max)........................................................................0.05% FS [1]
Non-repeatability (max) ............................................................0.02% FS [1]
Bridge Resistance (nom)................................................................700 ohm
Excitation (recommended) ......................................10 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated) ..........................................+70 °F to +170 °F
(+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ......................................................-65 °F to +200 °F
(-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ........................................0.001% FS / °F [2]
(0.0018% FS / °C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ....................................0.002% reading / °F
(0.0036% reading / °C)
Note: [1] Series 1208 — non-linearity 0.1% FS, hysteresis 0.1%, non-repeatability 0.05%.
The above chart tabulates maximum
extraneous side force, bending
moment and torque that may be
applied singularly without electrical
or mechanical damage to the load
cell. Where combined extraneous
loads are applied, decrease above
loads proportionally.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Wiring Diagram
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.13
Fatigue-Rated Load Cells / 250 - 5k lb
Low Profile,Fatigue-Rated Load Cells
■
■
Fatigue-rated load cells are rugged devices manufactured using premium
heat-treated, fatigue-resistant steels.
■
■
material testing
torque arm
■ structural testing
component testing
life cycle testing
■ calibration standard
Series 1403 — low profile, fatigue-rated
Capacities from 250 to 5000k lb (1100 to 22.2k N) FS
1 mV/V or 1.5 mV/V output sensitivity
■ 6-pin connector
■ Fatigue-resistant steel
■ Optional mounting base available
■ Over 100 million fully reversed cycles
without failure
■ Built-in temperature compensation
■ Barometric pressure compensated construction
■ Low deflection
■
■
PT(02E-10-6P)
Series 1403
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
Load cell shown with
optional mounting base.
Series 1204
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
Series
1403
7.14
A
B
C
4.12 (104.6) 1.37 (34.8) 1.27 (32.3)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
D
E
J
K
L
2.85 (75.5)
0.12 (3.1)
0.28 (7.1)
8
3.5 (88.9)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
M
R
5/8-18 1.25 (31.8)
www.pcb.com
T
5/8-18
U
W
Base PN
0.03 (0.8) 1.13 (28.7) C-30396-6A
Fatigue-Rated Load Cells / 250 - 5k lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
lb (N)
Overload
lb (N)
1403-01A
1403-02A
1403-03A
1403-04A
1403-05A
250 (1100)
500 (2225)
1000 (4450)
2500 (11.1k)
5000 (22.2k)
500 (2225)
1000 (4450)
2000 (8900)
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
Extraneous Load Limits
Deflection
Ringing
at Capacity
Frequency
in (mm)
Hz
Fatigue-rated Low Profile Aluminum Load Cells with 5/8-18 Thread
0.001 (0.03)
0.001 (0.03)
0.0005 (0.013)
0.001 (0.03)
0.001 (0.03)
2350
3500
5500
7000
10k
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
2.88 (1.31)
steel
steel
steel
steel
steel
Side Force Bending Moment
Torque
Fx or Fy
Mx or My
Mz
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
250 (1100)
500 (2225)
1000 (4450)
2500 (11.1k)
5000 (22.2k)
250 (28)
500 (56)
1000 (115)
2500 (280)
5000 (565)
250 (28)
500 (56)
1000 (115)
2500 (280)
5000 (565)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal)
250 – 1000 lb Capacity ..............................................................1 mV/V
5k lb Capacity ..........................................................................1.5 mV/V
Non-linearity (max) ........................................................................0.05% FS
Hysteresis (max) ............................................................................0.05% FS
Non-repeatability (max) ................................................................0.02% FS
Bridge Resistance (nom)..................................................................700 ohm
Excitation (recommended) ........................................10 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated)..............+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ..........................-65 °F to +200 °F (-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ..................0.001% FS / °F (0.0018% FS / °C)
Temp. Effect on Output ....................................................0.002% reading / °F
(0.0036% reading / °C)
The above chart tabulates maximum
extraneous side force, bending
moment and torque that may be
applied singularly without electrical
or mechanical damage to the load
cell. Where combined extraneous
loads are applied, decrease above
loads proportionally.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Wiring Diagram
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.15
Fatigue-Rated Load Cells / 5k - 50k lb
Low Profile,Fatigue-Rated Load Cells
■
■
Fatigue-rated load cells are rugged devices manufactured using premium
heat-treated, fatigue-resistant steels.
■
■
material testing
torque arm
■ structural testing
component testing
life cycle testing
■ calibration standard
Series 1404, 1408 — low profile, fatigue-rated
Capacities from 5k to 50k lb (22.2k to 220k N) FS
1 mV/V and 1.5 mV/V output sensitivity
■ 6-pin connector
■ Fatigue-resistant steel
■ Optional mounting base available
■ Over 100 million fully reversed cycles
without failure
■ Built-in temperature compensation
■ Barometric pressure compensated design
■ Low deflection
■
PC04A-10-6P
■
Series 1404, 1408
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
Load cell shown with
optional mounting base.
Series 1404, 1408
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
Series
1404
1408
7.16
A
B
C
D
6.06 (153.9) 1.75 (44.5) 2.42 (61.5)
8 (203.2)
2.5 (63.5) 3.5 (88.9)
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
E
4.33 (110) 0.12 (3.1)
5.25 (133.4) 0.25 (6.4)
J
K
L
M
R
T
U
W
Base PN
0.41 (10.4) 12 5.13 (130.3) 3/8-24 2.25 (57.2) 1 1/4-12 0.03 (0.8) 1.75 (44.5) D-30427-3A
0.53 (13.5) 16 6.5 (165.1) 1/2-20 3.5 (88.9) 1 3/4-12 0.06 (1.5) 2 (50.8) D-30110-1A
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Fatigue-Rated Load Cells / 5k - 50k lb
Specifications
Model
Number
Capacity
lb (N)
1404-01B
1404-02B
1404-03B
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
25k (111k)
Extraneous Load Limits
Overload
lb (N)
Deflection
Ringing
at Capacity
Frequency
in (mm)
Hz
Fatigue-rated Low Profile Load Cells with 1 1/4-12 Thread
10k (44.5k)
20k (89k)
50k (222k)
0.001 (0.03)
0.001 (0.03)
0.001 (0.03)
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
Side Force Bending Moment
Torque
Fx or Fy
Mx or My
Mz
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
5500
8000
12k
8.96 (4.06)
8.96 (4.06)
8.96 (4.06)
steel
steel
steel
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
25k (111k)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
25k (2825)
5000 (565)
10k (1130)
25k (2825)
6750
9550
25.5 (11.57)
25.5 (11.57)
steel
steel
25k (111k)
50k (220k)
25k (2825)
50k (5650)
25k (2825)
50k (5650)
Fatigue-rated Low Profile Load Cells with 1 3/4-12 Thread
1408-01B
1408-02B
25k (110k)
50k (220k)
50k (220k)
100k (450k)
0.001 (0.03)
0.001 (0.03)
Common Specifications
Output (nominal)
5000 – 50k lb Capacity ............................................................1.5 mV/V
Non-linearity (max) ......................................................................0.05% FS [1]
Hysteresis (max) ..........................................................................0.05% FS [1]
Non-repeatability (max) ..............................................................0.02% FS [1]
Bridge Resistance (nom)..................................................................700 ohm
Excitation (recommended) ........................................10 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated)..............+70 °F to +170 °F (+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ..........................-65 °F to +200 °F (-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ..................0.001% FS / °F (0.0018% FS / °C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ........................................0.002% reading / °F
(0.0036% reading / °C)
Note: [1] Series 1408 — non-linearity 0.1% FS, hysteresis 0.1%, non-repeatability 0.05%.
The above chart tabulates maximum
extraneous side force, bending
moment and torque that may be
applied singularly without electrical
or mechanical damage to the load
cell. Where combined extraneous
loads are applied, decrease above
loads proportionally.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Wiring Diagram
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.17
Rod-Style Load Cells / 1000 - 20k lb
Small Diameter Rod-Style Load Cells
ideal for tension applications
■ process automation
■ quality assurance
■
Lower weight aluminum for lower ranged units, high-strength steel for
higher ranged units
hydraulic actuators
■ cable, chain, or wire tension
■ production monitoring
■
Series 1302 — small diameter with female threads
Capacities from 1000 to 10k lb (4450 to 44.5k N) FS
2 mV/V output sensitivity
■ 6-pin connector
■
■
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
Series 1302
Series 1303 — small diameter with male/female threads
Capacities from 2000 to 20k lb (8900 to 89k N) FS
2 mV/V output sensitivity
■ 6-pin connector
■ Splash-proof construction
■
■
PT(21R-10-6P)
Recommended cables and accessories
– see section 8
Select a signal conditioner from those featured
in section 8
Series 1303
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
Series
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
1302
1303
4.5 (114.3)
4.5 (114.3)
2.25 (57.2)
1.71 (43.4)
0.38 (9.7)
0.63 (16)
2.75 (69.9)
3.5 (88.9)
1.5 (38.1)
1.37 (34.8)
2 (50.8)
N/A
1 (25.4)
1.25 (31.8)
2 (50.8)
1.44 (36.6)
N/A
1-14
5/8-18
1-14
0.75 (19.1)
1 (25.4)
7.18
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Rod-Style Load Cells / 1000 - 20k lb
Specifications
Extraneous Load Limits
Model
Number
Capacity
lb (N)
Overload
lb (N)
Deflection
Ringing
at Capacity
Frequency
Hz
in (mm)
Rod-style Load Cells with 5/8-18 Female/Female Thread
Weight
lb (kg)
Material
Side Force Bending Moment
Torque
Fx or Fy
Mx or My
Mz
lb (N)
in-lb (N-m)
in-lb (N-m)
1302-01A
1302-02A
1302-03A
1302-04A
1000 (4450)
2000 (8900)
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
1500 (6675)
3000 (13.3k)
7500 (33.3k)
15k (66.7k)
2600
3500
3500
5000
1.7 (0.77)
1.7 (0.77)
4.2 (1.9)
4.2 (1.9)
aluminum
aluminum
steel
steel
500 (2225)
700 (3100)
2000 (8900)
2500 (11.1k)
1000 (115)
1500 (170)
4000 (450)
6000 (675)
2000 (225)
3000 (340)
4000 (450)
6000 (675)
6000
9000
8000
10k
0.5 (0.23)
0.5 (0.23)
1.25 (0.57)
1.25 (0.57)
aluminum
aluminum
steel
steel
50 (225)
150 (667)
300 (1335)
700 (3114)
125 (14)
500 (56)
800 (90)
2000 (226)
150 (17)
600 (68)
1100 (124)
3000 (339)
0.002 (0.05)
0.002 (0.05)
0.002 (0.05)
0.002 (0.05)
Rod-style Load Cells with 1-1/4-12 Male/Female Thread
1303-01A
1303-02A
1303-03A
1303-04A
2000 (8900)
5000 (22.2k)
10k (44.5k)
20k (89k)
3000 (13.3k)
7500 (33.3k)
15k (66.7k)
30k (133k)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
0.003 (0.08)
Common Specifications
Model Number
1302
1303
Output: mV/Volt (nominal) ....................................2..................................2
Non-linearity: % FS (max) ................................0.05 ..............................0.2
Hysteresis: % FS (max) ....................................0.05 ..............................0.2
Non-repeatability: % FS max)..........................0.02 ............................0.05
Bridge Resistance (nom)................................................................350 ohm
Excitation (recommended) ......................................10 Volts DC or AC rms
Temp. Range (compensated) ..........................................+70 °F to +170 °F
(+21 °C to +77 °C)
Temp. Range (usable) ....................................................- 65 °F to +200 °F
(-54 °C to +93 °C)
Temp. Effect on Zero (max) ................................................0.002% FS / °F
(0.0036% FS / °C)
Temp. Effect on Output (max) ....................................0.002% reading / °F
(0.0036% reading / °C)
The above chart tabulates maximum
extraneous side force, bending
moment and torque that may be
applied singularly without electrical
or mechanical damage to the load
cell. Where combined extraneous
loads are applied, decrease above
loads proportionally.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
Wiring Diagram
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
7.19
Load Cells
Load cell structures may be machined into a variety of configurations to adapt to a multitude of
measurement, monitoring, and control applications.
Strain gage sensing elements are examined and tested to insure integrity, accuracy, and longevity.
7.20
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Load Cell Accessories
and Services
Highlights
■
Strain gage signal conditioners
■
Cable assemblies
■
Mounting accessories
■
Calibration services
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
8.1
Signal Conditioners
A variety of signal conditioners are offered for use with strain gage
load cells and reaction torque sensors. These units provide the
necessary, regulated excitation voltage and deliver conditioned
output signals for recording, control, or analysis purposes.
Series 8159 — Digital Force Indicator / Controller
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Operates from 115 or 230 VAC power
Provides 5 or 10 VDC strain gage bridge excitation
Delivers ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals
5-digit, red LED display with 1/8 DIN panel mounting
4 programmable set points with LED status indicators
Easy, menu-driven setup
Optional RS-232 output
1.90
(48.3)
Series 8159
5.60 (142.2)
3.78 (96.0)
Series 8159
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters)
How to Order
Base Model
8159 –
115 VAC Powered Indicator with Transducer Excitation
F
Prefix for 230 VAC Powered Version (internal jumper selectable)
Communications
0
None
1
RS-232 (transmit only)
Sense Leads (internal jumper selectable)
0 Disabled
1 Enabled (recommended for cables >20 ft (6.1 m))
Bridge Excitation (internal jumper selectable)
1
10 VDC
5
5 VDC
Full-scale Input (internal switch selectable)
1
1.5 mV/V
2
2.5 mV/V
3
3.5 mV/V
Version Code
A
Initial Release
A
115 VAC Powered Indicator with 10 VDC Transducer Excitation and
2.5 mV/V Full Scale Input
Example
8159– 0
8.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
0 1
2
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Signal Conditioners
Series 8160 — In-line Strain Gage Signal Conditioner
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Operates from 12 to 24 VDC power
Provides 5 or 10 VDC strain gage bridge excitation
Delivers ± 5 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals
Adjustable zero and span
Small size
Multi-pin input and output connectors
Built-in, switch-activated, shunt calibration
1.68 (42.7)
0.83
(21.0)
Female J1
Connector
3.12
(79.2)
Series 8160
Male P1
Connector
Series 8160
Dimensions shown are in inches
(millimeters)
How to Order
Base Model
8160–
In-line Strain Gage Signal Conditioner
Calibrated Output Signal
0
Voltage
1
Current
Bridge Excitation (internal jumper selectable)
1 10 VDC
5 5 VDC
Version Code
A Initial Release
Example
8160–
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
0
1 A Strain gage signal conditioner with ± 5 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals,
10 VDC bridge excitation, and calibrated in voltage.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
8.3
Signal Conditioners
Series 8161 — DIN Rail Mount Signal Conditioner
■
■
■
■
Operates from 12 to 28 VDC power
Provides 5 or 10 VDC strain gage bridge excitation
Delivers ± 5 or ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals
Built-in, switch-actuated, shunt calibration
3.53 (89.7)
Series 8161
0.69
(17.5)
2.27 (57.7)
Series 8161
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters)
Sensitivity (mV/V)
Vexc = 5 VDC
7.0 to 11.0
4.6 to 7.0
3.0 to 4.6
2.0 to 3.0
1.5 to 2.0
1.0 to 1.5
0.9 to 1.0
Switch Positions for Input Signal Range Adjustment
Sensitivity (mV/V)
SW2 Settings
SW2
Vexc = 10 VDC
1 2 3 4
1 = SW “ON”
3.5 to 5.5
0 0 0 1
“ON”
2.3 to 3.5
0 0 1 0
1.5 to 2.3
0 1 0 0
1
1.0 to 1.5
1 0 0 0
0
0.75 to 1.0
1 0 1 0
1 2 3 4
0.50 to 0.75
1 1 0 1
0.45 to 0.50
1 1 1 1
How to Order
Base Model
8161–
DIN Rail Mount Strain Gage Signal Conditioner
Calibrated Output Signal
0
1
Voltage
Current
Output Signals (internal jumper selectable)
1 ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA
5 ± 5 Volts and 4 to 20 mA
Bridge Excitation (internal jumper selectable)
1
5
10 VDC
5 VDC
Version Code
A
Initial Release
A
Strain gage signal conditioner with ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals,
10 VDC bridge excitation, and calibrated in voltage.
Example
8161–
8.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
0
1 1
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Signal Conditioners
Series 8162 — In-line Strain Gage Signal Conditioner
■
■
■
■
■
■
Operates from 12 to 28 VDC power
Provides 5 or 10 VDC strain gage bridge excitation
Delivers ± 5 or ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals
Built-in, switch-actuated, shunt calibration
IP66 (NEMA 4X) enclosure
Screw terminal connections
0.19 (4.8) dia
mounting hole
(4 places)
Series 8162
2.23 (56.5)
3.70 (94.0)
2.55 (64.8)
Series 8162
Dimensions shown are in inches (millimeters)
Sensitivity (mV/V)
Vexc = 5 VDC
7.0 to 11.0
4.6 to 7.0
3.0 to 4.6
2.0 to 3.0
1.5 to 2.0
1.0 to 1.5
0.9 to 1.0
Switch Positions for Input Signal Range Adjustment
Sensitivity (mV/V)
SW2 Settings
SW2
Vexc = 10 VDC
1 2 3 4
1 = SW “ON”
3.5 to 5.5
0 0 0 1
“ON”
2.3 to 3.5
0 0 1 0
1.5 to 2.3
0 1 0 0
1
1.0 to 1.5
1 0 0 0
0
0.75 to 1.0
1 0 1 0
1 2 3 4
0.50 to 0.75
1 1 0 1
0.45 to 0.50
1 1 1 1
How to Order
Base Model
8162- Strain Gage Signal Conditioner
Calibrated Output Signal
0
1
Voltage
Current
Output Signals (internal jumper selectable)
1 ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA
5 ± 5 Volts and 4 to 20 mA
Bridge Excitation (internal jumper selectable)
ˇ
1
5
10 VDC
5 VDC
Version Code
A
Initial Release
A
Strain gage signal conditioner with ± 10 Volts and 4 to 20 mA output signals,
10 VDC bridge excitation, and calibrated in voltage.
Example
8162- 0
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
1 1
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
8.5
Recommended Cables and Accessories
Code
8.6
Model #
Description
8311-01-10A
Cable assembly for sensors with PT conn., 10-ft, PT conn. to pigtails, 4-cond. cable
8315-01-10A
Cable assembly for sensors with PC conn., 10-ft, PC conn. to pigtails, 4-cond. cable
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Stock Cable Assemblies
Recommended Load Cell Signal Conditioners and Cables
Recommended Signal Conditioners
Series 8159
Series 8160A
Series 8120
Series 8161A,
8162, & Pigtails
Load Cell Type
Recommended Cables
Load cell with PT connector ≤ 20-ft
8311-04-xxA
8311-17-xxA
8311-15-xxA
Load cell with PT connector ≥ 20-ft
8311-05-xxA
8311-18-xxA
8311-15-xxA
Load cell with PC connector < 20-ft
8315-04-xxA
8315-17-xxA
8315-15-xxA
Load cell with PC connector ≥ 20-ft
8315-05-xxA
8315-18-xxA
8315-15-xxA
”xx” indicates length in feet.
[Standard lengths include 5 ft (1.5 m), 10 ft (3 m) 20 ft (6.1 m), & 50 ft (15.2 m).]
8311-01-xxA
8311-02-xxA
8315-01-xxA
8315-02-xxA
Load Cell Cable Specifications and Standard Models
The following tables provide specifications and configuration diagrams for the variety of cable types available. Where applicable, standard cable
assembly model numbers are provided. Standard models can be less costly than custom cables and available for immediate shipment. For alternate
cable lengths or custom models, contact the factory.
Four-Conductor Cables
Usage
Construction
General purpose, use with load cells. 24AWG common stranded tinned
copper drain wire, polypropylene insulated, twisted pair in a chrome PVC
jacket. Use when desired cable is < 20 feet (6.1 m).
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.168 in
4.27 mm
Capacitance
35 pF/ft
44.3 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
45 ohm
Shield
PVC
Jacket
Conductors
(4)
Drain
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
8311-01-05A
8311-01-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
PT
8311-04-05A
8311-04-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
PT
8311-15-05A
8311-15-10A
8311-15-20A
8311-15-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
Pigtails
Card Edge
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
9-pin (M) D-sub
PT
Continued on next page.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
8.7
Stock Cable Assemblies
Four-Conductor Cables, continued
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
8311-17-05A
8311-17-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
PT
8315-01-05A
8315-01-10A
5 ft
10 ft
9-pin (M) D-sub
1.5 m
3.0 m
PC
8315-04-05A
8315-04-10A
5 ft
10 ft
Pigtails
1.5 m
3.0 m
PC
8315-15-05A
8315-15-10A
8315-15-20A
8315-15-50A
5 ft
10 ft
20 ft
50 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
6.1 m
15.2 m
8315-17-05A
8315-17-10A
5 ft
10 ft
1.5 m
3.0 m
8314-20-05A
8314-20-10A
8314-21-05A
8314-21-10A
8.8
5 ft
10 ft
5 ft
10 ft
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Card Edge
PC
9-pin (M) D-sub
PC
9-pin (M) D-sub
1.5 m
3.0 m
9-socket (F) D-sub
Pigtails
15-socket (F) D-sub
Pigtails
1.5 m
3.0 m
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Stock Cable Assemblies
Eight-Conductor Cables
Usage
Construction
General purpose, use with load cells. 24AWG common stranded tinned
copper drain wire, polypropylene insulated, twisted pair in a chrome PVC
jacket. Use when desired cable is ≥ 20 feet (6.1 m).
Outer Jacket
PVC, grey
Diameter
0.363 in
9.22 mm
Capacitance
13.5 pF/ft
44.3 pF/m
Temperature Range
-4 to +140 ºF
-20 to +60 ºC
Impedance
100 ohm
Shield
PVC
Jacket
Conductors
(8)
Drain
Standard Cable Assemblies
Model # Length (feet) Length (meters)
8311-02-20A
8311-02-50A
20 ft
50 ft
6.1 m
15.2 m
PT
8311-05-20A
8311-05-50A
20 ft
50 ft
6.1 m
15.2 m
PT
8311-18-20A
8311-18-50A
20 ft
50 ft
Pigtails
Card Edge
6.1 m
15.2 m
PT
8315-02-20A
8315-02-50A
20 ft
50 ft
9-pin (M) D-sub
6.1 m
15.2 m
PC
8315-05-20A
8315-05-50A
20 ft
50 ft
6.1 m
15.2 m
PC
8315-18-20A
8315-18-50A
20 ft
50 ft
Pigtails
Card Edge
6.1 m
15.2 m
PC
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
9-pin (M) D-sub
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
8.9
Mating Connectors
Mating Connectors
Optional mating connectors are used for load cells and signal conditioners.
Model #
181-012A
Features cable strain relief. For use with
load cells which have an “A” at end of
model number, and Series 1500 S-beam
load cells.
6-socket PT Connector & Back Shell
182-025A
Features cable strain relief. For use with
load cells which have a “B” at end of model
number, except for Series 1500 S-beam
load cells.
6-socket PC Connector & Back Shell
182-026A
For transducer connection to Series 8159
Signal Conditioner (see page 3.20).
9-pin (M) D-sub Connector & Back Shell
182-027A
For input/output connection to Series 8159
Signal Conditioner (see page 3.20).
15-socket (F) D-sub Connector & Back Shell
182-022A
For input/output connection to Series 8160
Signal Conditioner (see page 3.21).
9-socket (F) D-sub Connector & Back Shell
182-023A
For transducer connection to Series 8160
Signal Conditioner (see page 3.21).
9-pin (M) D-sub Connector & Back Shell
8.10
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Load Cell Accessories
Rod Ends
Rod ends are designed to maintain tension loading alignment between a load cell and mounting surface.
Series A-20357
Rod Ends
Model
Number
Thread
UNF-3A
A-20357-1A
A-20357-2A
A-20357-3A
A-20357-4A
A-20357-5A
A-20357-6A
A-20357-7A
1/4-28
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
3/4-16
1-14
1 1/4-12
B
0.19
0.31
0.44
0.5
0.63
1
1.25
(4.8)
(7.9)
(11.2)
(12.7)
(16)
(25.4)
(31.8)
W
0.31
0.44
0.56
0.63
0.75
1.38
1.09
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
H
A
(7.9)
(11.2)
(14.2)
(16)
(19.1)
(35.1)
(27.7)
0.281
0.406
0.5
0.562
0.687
1.0
1.0
(7.14)
(10.3)
(12.7)
(14.3)
(17.5)
(25.4)
(25.4)
1.56
1.94
2.44
2.63
2.88
4.13
4.13
(39.6)
(49.3)
(62)
(66.8)
(73.2)
(104.9)
(104.9)
D
0.75
1
1.312
1.5
1.75
2.75
2.75
a
(deg.)
C
(19.1)
(25.4)
(33.3)
(38.1)
(44.5)
(69.9)
(69.9)
1
1.25
1.5
1.625
1.75
2.125
2.125
(25.4)
(31.8)
(38.1)
(41.4)
(44.5)
(54.1)
(54.1)
16
12
12
16
14
17
17
Static Load
lb (N)
2150
5300
23k
31k
40k
43k
44k
(9600)
(23k)
(100k)
(135k)
(180k)
(190k)
(195k)
Weight
lb (g)
0.04
0.25
0.25
0.38
0.6
2.1
2.4
(18)
(113)
(113)
(172)
(272)
(953)
(1089)
Load Buttons
Load buttons are designed to direct applied forces to the measuring axis of a load cell used in compression.
Series C-20099
Load Button
Model
Number
Thread
T
C-20099-1A
C-20099-2A
C-20099-3A
C-20099-4A
C-20099-5A
C-20099-6A
C-20099-7A
C-20099-8A
1/4-28
3/8-24
1/2-20
5/8-18
1-14
1 1/4-12
2 3/4-8
3/4-16
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Dimensions — Inches (mm)
B
A
0.37
0.5
0.62
0.62
0.87
1
2.5
0.6
(9.4)
(12.7)
(15.7)
(15.7)
(22.1)
(25.4)
(63.5)
(15.2)
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
0.25
0.375
0.5
0.625
0.75
1.0
1.0
0.3
(6.35)
(9.53)
(12.7)
(15.9)
(19.1)
(25.4)
(25.4)
(7.6)
716-684-0001
C
0.75
2
2
2
4
4
6
6
www.pcb.com
(19.1)
(50.8)
(50.8)
(50.8)
(101.6)
(101.6)
(152.4)
(152.4)
8.11
Load Cell Calibration Services
PCB® maintains a completely equipped calibration laboratory for calibration and
re-certification of strain gage based torque sensors, single axis load cells, and multi-axis
transducers. These services are available for sensors manufactured by PCB® as well as
other companies.
Calibrations and re-certifications performed by PCB® are traceable to the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and conform to ISO/IEC 17025-1999 and
ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994. PCB®’s calibration laboratory is accredited by The American
Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA) to ISO 17025.
The scope of our accreditation for load cells is:
Range
Best Uncertainty [1] (±)
10 to 500 lb
(0 to 2225 N)
0.04% FS
100 to 10k lb
(445 to 45k N)
0.06% FS
10k to 100k lb
(45k to 445k N)
0.08% FS
[1] Best Uncertainties represent expanded uncertainties expressed at approximately the
95% confidence level using a coverage factor k = 2.
Basic Calibration
Standard calibration services include five (5) points ascending and descending in tension
and compression. Charted calibration data is provided in a theoretical vs. actual format
with mV/V, non-linearity, and hysteresis provided at each increment. Shunt calibration
data is also provided along with a precision shunt calibration resistor. The standard
calibration service includes a basic certificate of NIST traceability.
Load Cell Calibration Services
PCB Sensor
Competitor Sensor
Calibration Code
Calibration Code
LCS-1A
LCS-1B
LCS-1C
LCS-2A
LCS-0
LCS-0
LCS-0
LCS-0
Calibration of load cell, 5-point, single bridge, up to 5000 lb (22.2k N)
Calibration of load cell, 5-point, single bridge, above 5000 lb (22.2k N) and up to 50k lb (220k N)
Calibration of load cell, 5-point, single bridge, above 50k lb (220k N)
System calibration (load cell, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, up to 5000 lb (22.2k N)
System calibration (load cell, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, above 5000 lb
LCS-2B
LCS-0
(22.2k N) and up to 50k lb (220k N)
LCS-2C
LCS-0
System calibration (load cell, signal conditioner, cable), 5-point, single bridge, above 50k lb (220k N)
Other calibration services available; contact factory for more information.
8.12
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Certification of Calibration
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
8.13
Photo courtesy of MGA Research Corp.
Series 1302 rod end load cell shown on a durability test rig.
8.14
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Load Cell
Technical Information
Principal of Operation
PCB® manufactures a wide variety of load cells whose output voltage is proportional to
the applied force produced by a change in resistance in strain gages which are bonded
to the load cell’s structure. The magnitude of the change in resistance corresponds to the
deformation of the load cell and therefore the applied load.
Highlights
■
Introduction to load cells
■
Glossary of terms
The four-arm Wheatstone bridge configuration shown in Figure 1 depicts the strain
gages used in our load cells. This configuration allows for temperature compensation and
cancellation of signals caused by forces not directly applied to the axis of the applied load.
A regulated 5 to 20 volt DC or AC rms excitation is required and is applied between A
and D of the bridge. When a force is applied to the transducer structure, the Wheatstone
bridge is unbalanced, causing an output voltage between B and C which is proportional
to the applied load.
Most all PCB® load cells follow a wiring code established by the Western Regional Strain
Gage committee as revised in May 1960. The code is illustrated in Figure 2.
Axis Definition
Our load cells comply with the Axis and Sense Definitions of NAS-938 (National
Aerospace Standard-Machine Axis and Motion) nomenclature and recommendations of
the Western Regional Strain Gage committee.
These axes are defined in terms of a "right handed" orthogonal coordinate system as
shown in Figure 3.
Figure 1.
Wheatstone Bridge
A tensile load exhibits a positive (+) polarity going output, while a compressive load
exhibits a negative (-) polarity going output.
The primary axis of rotation or axis of radial symmetry of a load cell is the z-axis.
Principal of Operation
PCB® manufactures load cells under two classifications. They are general purpose and
fatigue-rated.
Figure 2.
Load Cell Wiring Code
General Purpose
Figure 3.
Right-handed
Orthogonal
Coordinate System
General purpose load cells are designed for a multitude of applications across the
automotive, aerospace, and industrial markets. The general purpose load cell, as the
name implies, is designed to be utilitarian in nature. Within the general purpose load cell
market there are several distinct categories. They are: precision, universal, weigh scale,
and special application. PCB® primarily supplies general purpose load cells into the
universal and special application categories. Universal load cells are the most common
in industry. Special application load cells are load cells that have been designed for
a specific unique force measurement task.
Continued on next page.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
9.1
Introduction to Load Cells
Special application load cells can be single axis or multiple axis. They include but not
limited to:
■ pedal effort
■ steering column
■ crash barrier
■ hand brake
■ femur
■ skid trailer
■ tire test
■ gear shift
Fatigue-rated Load Cells
Fatigue-rated load cells are specially designed and manufactured to withstand millions
of cycles. They are manufactured using premium fatigue-resistant steel or aluminum and
special processing to ensure mechanical and electrical integrity, as well as accuracy.
Fatigue-rated load cells manufactured by PCB® are guaranteed to last 100 million fully
reversed cycles (full tension through zero to full compression). An added benefit of
fatigue-rated load cells is their extreme resistance to extraneous bending and side
loading forces.
Error Analysis
PCB® typically supplies accuracy information on its products in the form of individual
errors. They are: non-linearity, hysteresis, non-repeatability, effect of temperature on
zero, and effect of temperature on output.
The customer can combine individual errors to establish the maximum possible error for
the measurement, or just examine the applicable individual error. If the temperature
remains stable during the test, the temperature related errors can be ignored. If
the sensor is used for increasing load measurement only, ignore the hysteresis error.
If the load measurement is near the full capacity, the linearity error can be ignored. If the
capability exists to correct the data through linearization-fit or a look-up table, the error
in the measurement can be minimized. A sophisticated user can get rid of all the errors
except for the non-repeatability error in the measurement.
Often overlooked by the customer is the error due to the presence of non-measured
forces and bending moments. Even though the single axis of measurement sensors are
designed and built to withstand these non-measured forces and bending moments
(extraneous loads), the errors due to them are present. PCB® engineers can design the
set-up to eliminate or minimize these extraneous loads. However, if these extraneous
loads are present, the errors due to them should be considered.
Due to cost restraints, PCB®, as with its competition, does not typically measure or
compensate for errors due to extraneous loads. If the presences of these extraneous
loads are known, the user should request the transducer manufacturer to run a special
test, at extra cost, to define and quantify the extraneous load errors. These errors are
defined as cross-talk errors.
Typical Application Examples:
Hydraulic Actuators
Life Cycle Testing
Quality Control
Material Fatigue Testing
Torque Arm
Tank Weighing
Application Questionnaire
Determine the capacity
required
How will the load cell be
integrated into the system?
A. What is the maximum expected load?
B. What is the minimum expected load?
C. What is the typical expected load?
D. What are the dynamics of the system,
i.e. frequency response?
E. What are the maximum extraneous
loads to which the load cell will be
subjected?
9.2
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
A. What are the physical constraints, e.g.
height, diameter, thread?
B. Will the load cell be in the primary
load path or will the load cell see
forces indirectly?
What type of environment will
the load cell be operating in?
A. Maximum temperature?
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
B. Minimum temperature?
C. Humidity?
D. Contaminants,
(e.g. water, oil, dirt, dust)?
What accuracy is required?
A.
B.
C.
D.
www.pcb.com
Non-linearity?
Hysteresis?
Repeatability?
Cross-talk?
Glossary of Terms
Accuracy —
Creep Recovery —
Natural Frequency —
Stated as a limit tolerance, which defines the
average deviation between the actual output
versus theoretical output.
The change in no-load output occurring with
time, after removal of a load, which has been
applied for a specific period of time.
The frequency of free oscillations under noload conditions.
In practical transducer applications, the
potential errors of non-linearity, hysteresis,
non-repeatability and temperature effects do
not normally occur simultaneously, nor are
they necessarily additive.
Therefore, accuracy is calculated based upon
RMS value of potential errors, assuming a
temperature variation of ± 10 °F (± 5.5 °C),
full rated load applied, and proper set-up and
calibration. Potential errors of the readout,
cross-talk, or creep effects are not included.
Nominal Load Limit Capacity —
Cross-Talk —
With one component loaded to capacity, and
the other unloaded, the output of the
unloaded component will not exceed the
percentage specified of its full-scale capacity.
It is the designed normal maximum capacity
of a transducer. Output sensitivity of the
transducer is based on this capacity unless
specified.
Non-linearity —
Deflection —
The change in length along the primary axis
of the load cell between no-load and rated
load conditions.
The maximum deviation of the calibration
curve from a straight line drawn between the
no load and rated load output, expressed as
a percentage of the rated output and
measured on increasing load only.
Drift —
Ambient Conditions —
The conditions (humidity, pressure,
temperature, etc.) of the medium surrounding
the transducer.
Ambient Temperature —
The temperature of the medium surrounding
of transducers.
A random change in output under constant
load conditions.
Output —
Error —
Note: Where the output is directly proportional to
excitation, the signal must be expressed in terms
of volts per volt, volts per ampere, etc., of excitation.
The algebraic difference between the
indicated and true value of the load being
measured.
Excitation, Electrical —
Calibration —
The comparison of transducer output against
standard test loads.
The voltage or current applied to the input
terminals of the transducer.
Fatigue Capacity —
Calibration Curve —
a record (graph) of the comparison of
transducer output against standard test
loads.
Combined Error —
(Non-linearity and Hysteresis) — the
maximum deviation from a straight line
drawn between the original no-load and
rated load outputs expressed as a
percentage of the rated output and measured
on both increasing and decreasing loads.
Compensation —
Capacity as percentage of the nominal load
limit capacity, and based on 100 X 10^6
cycles (minimum) from zero to full fatigue
capacity and 50 X 10^6 cycles (minimum)
from full fatigue capacity tension to full
fatigue capacity compression load.
Hysteresis —
The maximum difference between the
transducer output readings for the same
applied load, one reading obtained by
increasing the load from zero and the other
by decreasing the load from rated load.
The utilization of supplementary devices,
materials, or processes to minimize known
sources of error.
Note: Usually measured at half rated output
and expressed in percent of rated output.
Measurements should be taken as rapidly as
possible to minimize creep.
Creep —
Insulation Resistance —
The change of transducer output occurring
with time, while under load, and with all
environmental conditions and other variables
remaining constant.
Note: Usually measured with rated load applied
and expressed as a percent of rated output over a
specific period of time.
The DC resistance measured between the
transducer circuit and the transducer
structure.
Note: Normally measured at 50 Volts DC and
under standard test conditions.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
This signal (voltage, current, etc.) produced
by the transducer.
Output, Rated —
The algebraic difference between the
outputs at no-load and at rated load.
Overload Rating —
The maximum load in percent of rated
capacity, which can be applied without
producing a permanent shift in performance
characteristics beyond those specified.
Primary Axis —
The axis along which the transducer is
designed to be loaded; normally its
geometric centerline.
Rated Capacity
(Rated Load) —
The maximum axial load that the transducer
is designed to measure within its
specifications.
Repeatability —
The maximum difference between
transducer output readings for repeated
loading under identical loading and
environmental conditions.
Resolution —
The smallest change in mechanical input,
which produces a detectable change in the
output signal.
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
9.3
Glossary of Terms
Sensitivity —
Temperature Range, Usable —
The ratio of the change in output to the
change in mechanical input.
The extremes of temperature within which
the transducer will operate without permanent
adverse change to any of its performance
characteristics.
Shunt Calibration —
Electrical simulation of transducer output by
insertion of known shunt resistors between
appropriate points within the circuitry.
Shunt-to-load Correlation —
The difference in output readings obtained
through electrically simulated and actual
applied loads.
Standard Test Conditions —
The environmental conditions under which
measurements should be made, when
measurements under any other conditions
may result in disagreement between various
observers at difference times and places.
These conditions are a follows:
Temperature 72 °F ± 3.6 °F (23 °C ± 2 °C)
Relative Humidity: 90% or less
Barometric Pressure: 28 to 32 inch Hg
The resistance of the transducer circuit
measured at specific adjacent bridge
terminals at standard temperature, with
no-load applied, and with the excitation
and output terminals open-circuited.
Terminal Resistance,
Excitation —
The resistance of the transducer circuit
measured at the excitation terminals, at
standard temperature, with no-load applied,
and with the output terminals open-circuited.
Terminal Resistance, Signal —
The resistance of the transducer circuit
measured at the output signal terminals, at
standard temperature, with no-load applied,
and with the excitation terminals opencircuited.
Traceability —
The step-by-step transducer process by
which the transducer calibration can be
related to primary standards.
Note: Usually expressed as a percentage of load
reading per degree Fahrenheit change in temperature.
Temperature Effect
on Zero Balance —
The change in zero balance due to a change
in transducer temperature.
Note: Usually expressed as the change in zero
balance in percent of rated output per degrees
Fahrenheit (change in temperature).
AP-1001 Extraneous Loads
AP-1002 Equivalent Force of a Falling Object
AP-1003 Mechanical Installation of PCB®
Torque Transducers
AP-1004 Installation of PCB® Driveline Torque
Transducers
AP-1007 Dynamometer Installation of PCB®
Model 1401 Load Cell
AP-1008 Spline Lubrication PCB® Model 4115A
& K, Preliminary Release
AP-1009 Explosive Environment
AP-1011 Effects of Thrust and Bending
Moment on The Torque Output of
Torque Disk. Model 5304-101-01
AP-1012 Grease Lubrication
AP-1015 Effects of Extraneous Loads on
TORKDISC® Series 5308 and 5309
AP-1016 Shunt Calibration of a Strain Gage
Sensor
Static Extraneous Load Limits are calculated
such that only one extraneous load (Fx or
Fy or Mx or My or Mz) can be applied
simultaneously with 50% of the nominal
load limit applied.
The change in output due to a change in
transducer temperature.
To order copies of the following application
notes, call PCB® toll-free at 888-684-0004.
Application Notes
Terminal Resistance —
Static Extraneous Load Limits —
Temperature Effect on Output —
Application Notes and
Technical Articles
Technical Articles
TA-1001 What is a Transducer?
TA-1002 Cross-talk in a Multi-Component
Sensor
Zero Balance —
The output signal of the transducer with
rated excitation and with no-load applied,
usually expressed in percent of rated output.
TA-1003 Accuracy
Zero Return —
The difference in zero balance measured
immediately before rated load application of
specified duration and measured after
removal of the load, and when the output has
stabilized.
Zero Shift, Permanent —
A permanent change in the no-load output.
Zero Stability —
Temperature Range,
Compensated —
The range of temperature over which the
transducer is compensated to maintain rated
output and zero balance within specified limits.
9.4
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
The degree to which the transducer
maintains its zero balance with all
environmental conditions and other variables
remaining constant.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Notes
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
9.5
Notes
9.6
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0004
716-684-0001
www.pcb.com
Depew, New York
PCB Group Companies
PCB®, IMI Sensors and Larson Davis, are members of the PCB “Measurement”
Group, a family of technology-based companies offering a wide range of sensor
technologies. With PCB Piezotronics as its flagship, individual PCB Group
companies and their core competencies include:
PCB Piezotronics, Inc. (www.pcb.com) specializes in piezoelectric, ICP®,
charge output, piezoresistive and capacitive accelerometers, microphones, pressure
sensors, force sensors, load cells, torque sensors, and signal conditioners for test,
measurement, monitoring, and research & development.
Toll-free in USA: 800-828-8840 ■ 24-hour SensorLine : 716-684-0001
SM
Provo, Utah
IMI Sensors (www.imi-sensors.com) division of PCB Piezotronics
specializes in vibration sensors, transmitters, switches, instrumentation, and
accessories for machinery vibration monitoring and predictive maintenance in
harsh industrial environments.
Toll-free in USA: 800-959-4464
24-hour SensorLine : 716-684-0001
SM
Lackawanna, New York
Rochester, New York
Virginia Beach, Virginia
Cincinnati, Ohio
Larson Davis (www.larsondavis.com) division of PCB Piezotronics
specializes in sound level meters and precision microphones, portable and fixed
noise monitoring systems, noise dosimeters, human vibration meters, and report
generation software for industrial hygiene.
Toll-free in USA: 888-258-3222 ■ Phone: 716-926-8243
The Modal Shop, Inc. (www.modalshop.com) specializes in multichannel sound and vibration sensing systems for lab measurements and industrial
process monitoring, including calibration systems and test and measurement equipment
rental. Also, smart sensing systems applied to parts quality NDT analysis, process
monitoring and machinery gauging.
Toll-free in USA: 800-860-4867 ■ Phone: 513-351-9919
Oceana Sensor Technologies (www.oceanasensor.com) specializes
in automated assembly of piezoelectric sensors for high-volume, low-cost OEM
applications; Wireless e-Diagnostics® products, highlighting open system wireless
platforms, including Bluetooth® and 802.11b.
Phone: 757-426-3678
STI Technologies, Inc. (www.sti-tech.com) is a mechanical engineering
consulting firm specializing in finite element analysis, advanced analytical techniques,
experimentation, technology development, and design optimization for life prediction,
condition-based monitoring, as well as performance enhancement of turbomachinery,
rotating machinery systems, and mechanical structures/components.
Phone: 585-424-2010
PCB Machining Solutions, Inc. (www.pcbmsi.com) specializes in
precision machine components for the industrial, medical, aerospace, and defense
industries. Phone: 716-823-3193
PCB Piezotronics – Worldwide Offices
Corporate Headquarters
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
3425 Walden Avenue
Depew, NY 14043-2495 USA
24-hour SensorLineSM 716-684-0001
Fax: 716-684-0987
E-mail: [email protected]
www.pcb.com
Shock & Vibration
Toll-Free in USA: 888-684-0013
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: 716-685-3886
IMI Sensors
Toll-Free in USA: 800-959-4464
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: 716-684-3823
Force, Torque, Load, & Strain
Toll-Free in USA: 888-684-0004
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: 716-684-8877
Pressure
Toll-Free in USA: 888-684-0011
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: 716-686-9129
Acoustics
Toll-Free in USA: 800-258-3222
E-mail: [email protected]
Fax: 716-926-8215
Domestic Sales Offices
New York State
Phone: 888-843-4648 ■ Fax: 585-547-2395
E-mail: [email protected]
Central
Phone: 888-412-7191 ■ Fax: 636-272-0291
E-mail: [email protected]
Central-East
Phone: 888-412-7196 ■ Fax: 865-777-0587
E-mail: [email protected]
Cleveland
Phone: 888-412-7101 ■ Fax: 440-647-4764
E-mail: [email protected]
Cincinnati
Phone: 888-412-7043 ■ Fax: 513-575-3288
E-mail: [email protected]
Gulf Coast
Michigan
Phone: 888-412-7106 ■ Fax: 586-754-5993
E-mail: [email protected]
France
Phone: 888-412-7192 ■ Fax: 804-378-1850
E-mail: [email protected]
PCB Piezotronics SA
Phone: +33 (0) 1 69 33 1960
Fax: +33 (0) 1 69 33 1976
E-mail: [email protected]
Midwest
Germany
Phone: 888-412-9565 ■ Fax: 608-368-1337
E-mail: [email protected]
Synotech GmbH
Phone: +49 (0) 2462 99190
Fax: +49 (0) 2462 99197
E-mail: [email protected]
Mid-Atlantic
Northern California
Phone: 888-412-7412 ■ Fax: 831-426-7019
E-mail: [email protected]
Italy
Phone: 888-412-7038 ■ Fax: 610-430-1249
E-mail: [email protected]
PCB Piezotronics srl
Phone: +39 035 201421
Fax: +39 035 203754
Email: [email protected]
Northwest
Japan
Northeast
Phone: 866-508-7352 ■ Fax: 716-684-0987
Email: [email protected]
Philadelphia
Phone: 888-412-7413 ■ Fax: 215-684-2497
E-mail: [email protected]
Southeast
Phone: 888-412-9560 ■ Fax: 386-532-9164
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 888-538-9700 ■ Fax: 803-628-0759
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 888-412-9563 ■ Fax: 714-970-1133
E-mail: [email protected]
Chicago
Southwest
Phone: 888-412-7193 ■ Fax: 815-399-5587
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 888-425-4722 ■ Fax: 480-671-9125
E-mail: [email protected]com
ISO 9001:2000 Certified
Visit www.pcb.com to locate
your nearest sales office
PCB Piezotronics, Inc.
Beijing Representative Office
Phone: (86) 010 84477840
Fax: (86) 010 84477840
E-mail: [email protected]
Shanghai Representative Office
Phone: (86) 021 6374 1517
Fax: (86) 021 6374 1510
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 888-412-7097 ■ Fax: 509-357-0659
E-mail: [email protected]
Southern California
Charlotte
Worldwide Sales Offices
China
Toyo Corporation - Team PCB
Phone: +81 (0) 3 3245 1240
Fax: +81 (0) 3 5205 2030
E-mail: [email protected]
Sweden
PCB Scandinavia AB
Phone: +46 (0) 8 444 3870
Fax: +46 (0) 8 444 3875
E-mail: [email protected]
United Kingdom
PCB Piezotronics Ltd.
Phone: +44 (0) 1462 429710
Fax: +46 (0) 1462 429798
E-mail: [email protected]
A2LA Accredited to ISO 17025
AS9100:2004 Certified
PCB Piezotronics, Inc. manufactures accelerometers, force sensors, load cells, microphones, pressure transducers and transmitters,
strain sensors, torque sensors, vibration sensors, signal conditioners, cables, and accessories. This instrumentation is used for test,
measurement, monitoring, and feedback control requirements in automotive, aerospace, industrial, R&D, military, educational,
commercial, and OEM applications. PCB Piezotronics offers exceptional customer service, 24-hour technical assistance, and a
Total Customer Satisfaction guarantee.
© 2007 PCB Group, Inc. In the interest of constant product improvement, specifications are subject to change without notice. PCB, ICP, IMI with associated logo, and
Torkdisc are registered trademarks of PCB Group, Inc. SensorLine is a service mark of PCB Group, Inc. All other trademarks are properties of their respective owners.
FTQ-200G-0107
Printed in U.S.A.
PCB Piezotronics, Inc. 3425 Walden Avenue, Depew, NY 14043-2495 USA
USA Toll-Free ☎ 888-684-0004 24-hour SensorLineSM ☎ 716-684-0001 Fax 716-684-8877 E-mail [email protected] Web www.pcb.com
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