Technology Enrichment Session 4: Electronics 10/23/2015 Visit us at: Today’s Agenda ● Electricity primer ● Safety ● Control Systems ● Common Tools and Techniques ● Common Robotic Components ● Cable Management Electrical Basics ● Electrical Power Source ● Most often a battery ● Electrcity flows from positive to negative- the terminals on a battery ● This is called “polarity” ● An electrical “circuit” works only when it forms a loop starting from the + terminal and ending at the - terminal Electrical Circuit ● A very simple circuit where a battery is driving a motor Voltage and Current ● Voltage - Potential difference of charge between two pts. ● Current - The rate at which charge flows through a section of the circuit ● Voltage is cause and current is its effect Resistance & Ohm’s Law Wiring – Types of Wire ● Solid Core Wire ● Contains continuous length of solid metal/conductor ● More rigid- can fail due to bending ● Preferred for permanent installations and soldering ● Stranded Wire ● Contains multiple strands of metal ● More flexible Wiring ● Wires are measured by gauges (AWG) ● Determines how thick the wire is ● Lower number is thicker, and can carry more current ● Common wire sizes for FRC ● 6 AWG for battery in FRC (very high current connection) ● 10-14 AWG usually for connecting motors ● >26 AWG for connecting sensors Connectors ● “PWM” Pin header ● “Male” pins, and “Female” casing with a connection ● Mostly for PWM and I/O connections Connectors ● WAGO Connector ● A class of connectors that secure cables generally through snap connects ● Found on the Power Distribution board in FRC ● Usually needs a screwdriver to open Connectors ● Lugs and Ring Connectors ● Connects cable to a device by bolting it together ● Often used to connect the battery or motor controllers Connectors ● Anderson Powerpole Connector ● Connects power cables usually to batteries ● Quick connect allows for easy replacement Tools & Techniques: Crimping ● Crimp Tool ● Crushes a metal connector around wire ● Most often used to attach a connector to a wire Tools & Techniques: Soldering ● Soldering Iron ● Solder- Specially formulated metal ● Soldering Iron is used to quickly melt metal to join metal wires, pins, and points on a circuit board Tools and Techniques- Wire Strippers ● Removes insulation from a wire, so that you can access the conducting metal Tools and Techniques- Multi-Meter ● Measures the current, voltage, and connectivity of an electric circuit ● Uses probes to measure into the circuit. ● Measure voltage in parallel to the circuit ● Measure Current, and connectivity in series Techniques- Measuring Voltage ● Measure voltage in parallel to the circuit ● Example: Techniques- Measuring Current ● Measure voltage in parallel to the circuit ● Example: Electrical Safety ● Always wear Eye Protection: Goggles ● Do Not Complete a circuit with YOURSELF! Use plastic gloves if needed. ● When Soldering, remember to unplug it and let it cool down before putting it away. Do Not Play around with it!!! ● Replace any damaged wires and Secure any loose wires ● Always be cautious of your surrounding and other people ● Do not wear any metal hand jewelry while working on circuits Electrical Components ● Battery ● Power Distribution ● Radio ● Controller ● NXT Brick, RoboRio, Vex Cortex ● Motor Controller ● Sensors The Battery ● 12 Volt DC Battery ● Connects through the breaker to turn on the robot 120 Volt breaker ● Discharges over time ● Even faster if under use, like driving the robot ● Make sure to keep it charged Power Distribution Panel ● Allows other parts of the robot to use the battery power safely ● Contains connectors for: ● 12 Volt connection to motors ● 12 Volt to supply the VRM, RoboRio, and Pneumatic Module ● Fuses to prevent high current draw from damaging your robot ● CAN connection to get diagnostics on RoboRIO Voltage Regulator Module and Pneumatic Module ● The VRM Supplies regulated 5V power to important devices ● Radio ● Camera ● The Pneumatics Module provides power pneumatic hardware ● Solenoid drivers to drive the pneumatic valves ● Circuit to power compressor, with pressure switch cutoff ● Controlled over CAN Radio ● The radio communicates to the field and driver ● Allows the competition to enable the robot to play ● Is a normal wireless router that you might find in your house ● Connects to the RoboRio over ethernet ● All communication is over internet protocols ● New Radio for 2016, not sure about power Pneumatics ● Solenoid Valves drive open a valve when a signal is applied, and allows air to drive cylinder ● Either 12 or 24 Volt solenoids, controlled by jumper on Pneumatic Module ● Compressor charges pneumatic storage tanks with compressed air ● Runs off of 12v from the Pneumatic Module ● Wired into a pressure switch to turn off when a certain pressure is reached for safety Motor Controllers ● Takes in 12V from the PDP, and outputs between 0-12V to the motor based on signal from RoboRio ● 2 Options for motor controllers Talon SRX and Victor SP ● PWM is most common, allows for control of the motor voltage with PWM signal ● CAN allows control of the motor over the CAN bus and allows for more advanced controls and feedback, but is much harder to utilize ● Only available on the Talon SRX The Controller ● FRC Controller is the RoboRio and runs the software to control the robot ● The Robot Signal Light is attached to show the state of your robot during the match ● Manages the input and output for the motors and sensors ● PWM pins to drive motors ● Digital I/O pins for sensors ● Analog Input Pins for sensors ● I2C,CAN,SPI bus pins ● USB, and Ethernet ports FRC Wiring Diagram Sensor Basics ● Sensors are useful to determine what state your robot is in, and make more reliable programming ○ Allows you to know where you are instead of guessing ● Many types of sensors that allow you to know specific things about your robot Sensor Types ● Switches and Buttons ● Acceleration and Motion Sensors ● ○ Accelerometer ○ Gyro Rotational Sensors ○ Digital Encoder ○ Potentiometer ● Hall Effect Sensor(Magnetic Sensor) ● Rangefinder ○ Ultrasonic Rangefinder ● IR Sensor ● Camera Switches and Buttons ● Completes or breaks a circuit when a condition is met ○ Usually a lever or button, but can be something like pressure or a magnet in the area. ● The signal is high either or low when the switch is closed ○ If the signal is high when closed that means the switch is normally open ○ If it is low then it is normally closed (Pneumatic pressure switch) ○ Keep track what type of switch it is, especially if you are connecting it to hardware (like the pneumatic pressure switch) ● Uses: ○ Setting limits for an arm ○ Pneumatic pressure switch Accelerometer ● Measures acceleration- how fast an object changes velocity ● Constantly measures gravity downward ● Possible to measure position over short distances by double integrating the reading ● Uses: ○ Knowing if the robot is tilted ○ Measuring movement over small distances Gyroscope ● ● ● ● Measures changes in orientation or angular velocity ○ Pitch: tilt up and down ○ Roll: tilt side to side ○ Yaw: tilt around the upwards axis Yaw is hopefully the only measurement needed for a FRC robot Gets noisy readings and becomes inaccurate over time Uses: ○ Keep constant heading while moving ○ Get field centric control for a holonomic drive Potentiometer ● ● ● Changes voltage as it turns, due to the variable resistor ○ 0 at minimum rotation and 5V at fully rotated Only limited degree of motion (usually 180-270°) ○ Some can wrap around, but the voltage resets ○ Good for when there is only one rotation being measured Uses: ○ Measure position of an arm Encoder ● ● ● Counts the marks on a disk as it spins by, the count tells how many fractions of a rotation there has been ○ The fraction depends on the number of marks, or cycles per revolution Since it is just a count the rotation is continuous, and doesn’t reset after a revolution ○ Does require a starting point to start from ○ This is usually done with a limit switch Uses: ○ Distance driven by the robot ○ Height of an elevator lift Magnet Sensor ● ● ● Measures the magnetic field around the sensor Functions most often as a switch or an encoder ○ The encoder functions by counting every time a magnet on a rotating disk passes under the sensor Uses: ○ Track rotational motion by counting the magnet on a wheel ○ Put setpoint positions on an arm Ultrasonic Rangefinder ● ● ● Produces an ultrasonic sound, and measures the time to hear a reflection ○ By knowing the speed of sound you can measure distance ○ This is often done in the software libraries or onboard the sensor Can cause inaccurate readings at close distance or certain jaggy geometry (such as corners) Uses: ○ Measures the distance to a goal ○ Check if you are close to a wall to prevent a collision Infrared Sensor ● Measures infrared radiation ○ Can measure pulses, or radiant heat ● Uses: ○ Use IR pulse and wait for reflection to use as a rangefinder ○ Locate IR targets in FTC, but not used often in FRC Camera ● ● ● Creates an computer readable image This image can be manipulated and analyzed to provide additional information ○ Use image processing and computer vision techniques ○ This is very difficult to do well, especially in teleop Uses: ○ Give the human driver another view of the field ○ Perform computer vision to target a goal ○ Score when a certain visual signal is given in auto, this usually gives bonus points Cable management tips Use zip ties to hold wires in place. Label wires properly. Ideally, you should be able to unplug all wires and know where they go from the labels. Plan ahead when it comes to your electronics board layout. Cut wires to correct lengths. Needlessly long wires only get in the way. Wire management Ideas Cable Carriers ● Protects wiring and allows maneuvering of wires easily when wires need to extend to high heights on robot Tubing Sleeves Velcro Wraps/Fasteners ● A good substitute for zip ties, and can be taken off easily if needed to access those wires.
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