A parent`s guide to eating for under 5s

A parent`s guide to eating for under 5s
A parent’s guide to eating for under 5s
Give children a healthy start in life by helping
them to eat well.
What children eat is important in helping
them to grow healthy and strong.
How and when we feed children is important
in helping them learn about food and eating
and develop healthy habits for life.
•T
his book has tips to help parents and carers
give their children a healthy start.
•R
emember every child is different and as a
parent you decide what works for you.
Acknowledgments
Contents
Thank you to all the parents,
educators and health
professionals who helped
us update Start Them Right.
We hope that Start Them Right
continues to help families give
their children the best start.
Breastfeeding 7
Infant formula 8
Drinks for your baby 11
Starting solid food 13
Eating is a time for learning
and exploring 19
Family meals 20
Children and eating 21
Drinks for children 23
A guide of what and
how much to offer 24
Food ideas 26
Australian Guide to
Healthy Eating 30
Contact information 31
© Copyright 2015, Public Health Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmania.
This booklet has been produced by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) in partnership with Lady Gowrie Tasmania.
More information about
breastfeeding is available from:
Breastfeeding
Child Health and Parenting Service:
See page 31 for contact details
Breastfeeding Helpline:
1800 mum 2 mum (1800 686 268)
Australian Breastfeeding Association:
www.breastfeeding.asn.au
Raising Children Network:
www.raisingchildren.net.au
Breastfeeding is the natural way to feed your baby. Until around 6 months
of age, breast milk is the only food or drink your baby needs.
Why breastfeed?
For baby
• keeps baby healthy and strong
• helps mum and baby feel close
• helps to fight sickness
• helps to prevent health problems later in life.
For mum
• helps recovery from giving birth
• helps mum and baby feel close
• helps to prevent health problems later in life
• breast milk is free and does not need any
preparation.
Try to breastfeed your baby for the first 12
months. Any breastfeeding is good for both you
and your baby. From then on breastfeed for as
long as you and your baby are happy to.
How many breastfeeds
does your baby need?
• Breast milk is made when your baby feeds.
The more your baby feeds the more milk is
made.
• A baby’s stomach is very small, so it is
common for new babies to feed often. In the
first few weeks of life babies may feed 8 to12
times in 24 hours.
• As your baby grows this will change. Older
babies will feed less often and get faster at
feeding.
• Remember all babies are different.
• If your baby has about 6 or more wet nappies
in 24 hours and is growing, your baby is
having enough to drink.
• A young baby will usually have 3 or more
soft and runny bowel motions each day for
several weeks. An older baby is likely to have
fewer bowel motions.
If you are breastfeeding
• Get plenty of rest.
• Drink lots of water.
• Eat a variety of foods from the 5 food groups.
This means foods made from grains,
vegetables, fruit, meat and meat alternatives
and dairy foods, see page 30.
• Take an iodine supplement with 150
micrograms of iodine per day.
• The safest option is not to drink alcohol.
Expressing and storing breast milk
• Expressing breast milk can be useful if you
are away from your baby for any reason.
• Breast milk can be expressed by hand or by
using a manual or electric breast pump.
• The Child Health and Parenting Service can
help you learn about expressing breast milk
and storing it safely.
7
Infant formula
If breastfeeding is not possible, use an infant formula until your baby is 12 months
of age. After 12 months of age you can give your baby full-cream cow’s milk.
Making up infant
formula
3. A
dd the correct amount of
cooled boiled water into a
sterilised feeding bottle.
6. Your
baby can have infant
formula cold, warm or at room
temperature. See opposite on
how to warm up infant formula.
8
Using a feeding bottle
Only put expressed breast milk, infant formula
or cooled boiled water in feeding bottles.
Feeding your baby is a special time
• Hold and talk to your baby during
feeding time.
• Do not leave your baby to feed themselves,
as they may choke.
1. W
ash your hands and have a
clean bench.
2. F
ollow the instructions on
the infant formula tin for your
baby’s age.
4. Using the scoop provided in
the infant formula tin add the
right amount of powder. Do not
heap or pack down.
5. Put the teat and cap on the
bottle and shake it until the
powder dissolves.
7. Test the temperature by
squirting a few drops of milk
on the inside of your wrist.
If the infant formula does not
feel hot, it is okay for your baby.
8. Any infant formula left at the
end of a feed should be thrown
out. It is not safe to keep for
later.
How do you know when your baby has had
enough
• Babies know when they are hungry and
when they have had enough.
• Your baby may turn away from the bottle
when they have had enough.
• Your baby may not always finish their bottle.
• How much your baby drinks can change
from day to day.
• If your baby has about 6 or more wet
nappies in 24 hours and is growing, your
baby is having enough to drink.
Warming up expressed breast milk
or infant formula
1. Place the bottle upright in a container of
warm water.
2. Leave standing in warm water for about
2 to 4 minutes to warm.
3. Squirt a few drops of milk on the inside
of your wrist. If the milk feels warm and
not hot, it is okay for your baby.
Do not use the microwave or stovetop to
heat up milk, this can cause hot spots in
the milk and may burn your baby’s mouth.
How to sterilise bottle feeding
equipment
All bottles and teats need to be sterilised
to kill germs and to make sure they are
safe to use. To sterilise by boiling:
1. Wash bottles, teats and caps in hot
soapy water with a bottle or teat brush.
2. Place bottles, teats and caps in a
saucepan on the stove.
3. Cover with water.
4. Bring the water to the boil and boil for 5
minutes.
5. Allow bottles, teats and caps to cool
in the saucepan then remove and use
them.
6. Store any equipment that is not used in
a clean container in the refrigerator.
7. Any stored equipment that is not used
within 24 hours must be re-sterilised.
You can also sterilise by using a steam
steriliser or a chemical solution.
Follow the instructions provided by the
manufacturer.
Making water safe to use
1. Boil fresh tap water.
2. If you use an electric kettle, boil
water until it switches off. If you use a
stovetop, boil water until it comes to a
rolling boil. This means the water does
not stop boiling when stirred.
3. Cool the boiled water until lukewarm.
You can keep any extra boiled water in a
sterilised container in the refrigerator.
9
Drinks for your baby
Birth to around 6 months old
Starting on a cup
• Your baby only needs breast milk or infant
formula.
• Breastfed babies do not need any other
drinks until around 6 months of age.
• In hot weather offer extra breastfeeds.
• If your baby is having infant formula offer
cooled boiled water if extra fluid is needed.
• Bottle feeding can cause some young
children to drink more milk than they need
because it is easier than eating.
• Drinking from a bottle can also cause tooth
decay.
• Around 6 months of age is a good time for
your baby to start trying to use a cup.
• Most babies can drink from a cup by around
12 months of age.
6 months to 12 months old
• Breast milk or infant formula is still your
baby’s main drink.
• Around 6 months of age is a good time to
start to offer some cooled boiled water in a
cup or small drink bottle.
• Cow’s milk should not be given as the
main drink before 12 months of age. Young
babies cannot digest cow’s milk very well.
• It is okay to use a small amount of fullcream cow’s milk in a meal such as on
breakfast cereal or in a cheese sauce.
Making water safe for your baby to
drink
Drinking water for babies under 12
months of age should be boiled to make
it germ free. If using an electric kettle,
boil water until it switches off. If using
a stovetop, boil water until it comes to
a rolling boil. This means the water
does not stop boiling when stirred. Cool
the boiled water to room temperature
before giving it to your baby. Store it in
a sterilised bottle in the refrigerator.
See page 9 for more information on
sterilising equipment.
Tips:
• From 6 months of age start swapping
between using a cup and a bottle.
• When your baby can use a cup well, only
put water in the bottle. This may make
them want the bottle less. It is also
better for their teeth.
• Encourage them to use a cup by giving
them a special cup and making a big
deal of them growing older.
• If a bottle is given before bed or at rest
time try to change the routine. Try
swapping the bottle for a cuddly toy or
read a story.
• Ask your toddler to give their bottle to
another baby or the ‘bottle-fairy’ and
replace it with a special toy.
11
For more advice about when
and how to start your baby
on solid food contact:
Child Health and Parenting Service:
See page 31 for contact details.
Starting solid food
At around 6 months babies need solid food. Keep breastfeeding or giving
infant formula when solid food is introduced. It is still your baby’s main
food and drink.
Signs that your baby is ready
for solid food
Do not wait too long after 6 months
to try solid food because
• they can hold their head up without support
• they can sit up with support, such as in a high
chair
• they can control their tongue and do not stick
it out when given food.
• your baby needs extra food to grow healthy
and strong
• your baby needs more iron than they can get
from breast milk or formula
• some older babies may not be as willing to
try new tastes and textures.
How to start your baby on solid food
• Start with a small amount of pureed food
on a spoon after your baby has had their
breastfeed or bottle feed.
• Feed your baby when you are having your
meal.
• It is normal for babies to refuse solid food at
first. They are learning how to eat.
• It is normal for babies to cough or gag a little
on food. They may spit the food out or it may
have to be taken out. Always stay with your
baby when they are eating.
Babies do not need food before
4 months because
• breastfeeding or infant formula is all they
need
• they cannot digest food very well.
13
Start with foods high in iron
Food allergies
• Your baby needs iron to grow healthy and strong.
There is still a lot we do not know about
allergies. These tips might help:
• If possible breastfeed your baby and keep
breastfeeding when they start solid food.
Continue to breastfeed until they are at least
12 months old.
• Do not delay starting solid food. Offer solid
food at around 6 months of age, but not
before 4 months.
• When starting solid food there are no
foods that should be avoided. Foods can be
introduced in any order, although iron rich
foods should be offered first.
Pureed red meat
• Meat, poultry and fish need
to be well cooked and tender.
• Remove skin, bones and any
gristle.
• Add liquid such as water
or casserole juices
without added salt. Or add
vegetables such as cooked
potato, pumpkin, sweet
potato, carrot or zucchini.
• Blend in a food processor or
with a stick blender.
Pureed baked beans,
Baby rice cereal
legumes or tofu
•M
ake cereal into a smooth
paste with breast milk or
•W
ell cooked legumes,
infant formula.
lentils and tofu. For example
chickpeas, red lentils or
kidney beans.
•A
dd liquid such as water
or casserole juices without
added salt. Or add vegetables
such as cooked potato,
pumpkin, sweet potato,
carrot or zucchini.
•B
lend in a food processor or
with a stick blender.
Tips:
• If offering canned legumes like baked
beans choose the no added salt variety.
• There is no need to add sugar or salt to
your baby’s food.
• If your baby is only eating small amounts
of pureed food, freeze food in ice cube
trays so you can defrost a small amount at
a time.
14
Foods that commonly cause reactions are
foods containing nuts (including peanuts),
eggs, dairy, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish.
Signs that a baby might be having a reaction
include swelling of the face, vomiting, watery
poos, skin rashes or wheezing.
If you think your baby has a food allergy or
there is a history of food allergy in your family
and you want more information before starting
solids contact the Child Health and Parenting
Service or your GP. See page 31 for contact
details.
Safe eating
• Children under the age of 3 years are at risk of choking because they are still learning to
eat, chew and swallow.
• Always stay with your child while they are eating.
• Ask your child to sit down to eat.
• Make foods safer to eat by cooking, chopping, mashing and grating:
Foods not to give babies
Some foods can cause food poisoning and
can make babies and young children sick.
Do not give:
• honey to children under the age of 12
months
• uncooked eggs (raw or runny)
• raw milk. By law milk sold in Australia
should be pasteurised.
Grate, cook or
mash hard fruit and
vegetables.
Chop small round fruit and
vegetables in half.
Give nut paste rather than
whole nuts.
15
The next step, add different foods from each of the five food groups
• The five food groups are grain (cereal) foods,
vegetables, fruit, meat and meat alternatives
and dairy foods. See page 30.
• Foods can be introduced in any order.
• Gradually vary the texture from pureed to
Offer finger foods
mashed, then minced and chopped foods as
your baby gets older.
•C
hanging the texture will help your baby learn
how to bite and chew. They do not need teeth
to be able to do this.
• Finger foods can be given as soon as your
baby can sit up by themselves.
• Cut food into small pieces so they are easy
for your baby to pick up.
Tip:
Finger foods are great to pack and take
for baby to eat when you are away from
home.
Grain (cereal) foods
Vegetables
Fruit
Meat and alternatives
Dairy foods
Choose mostly wholegrain or
high fibre varieties.
Cook hard vegetables until soft
and puree or mash. Grate or
mash fresh vegetables.
Choose soft fresh fruit and cook
hard fruit until soft.
Choose lean meats and trim off
excess fat and gristle.
Choose full cream dairy foods for
children under 2 years old.
Puree
Baby cereal
Pureed sweet potato
Pureed apple
Blended tuna casserole
Plain yoghurt
Porridge
Mashed avocado
Mashed banana
Scrambled eggs
Fruit and yoghurt
Toast fingers
Cherry tomatoes and cucumber slices
Watermelon slices
Meat balls
Cheese sticks
Minced and
Mashed
Finger
Foods
16
17
For more advice about your
babies eating, daily routine or
how they are growing contact:
Child Health and Parenting Service
See page 31 for contact details.
Eating is a time for learning and exploring
• It is normal for a baby to refuse food at first.
Do not worry, just try again another time.
• It is okay if your baby does not eat much when
they first start solids. They are still getting
most of their nutrition from breast milk or
infant formula.
• Most babies need to be offered a food many
times before they learn to eat it. Let your
baby touch, feel, smell and taste the food.
This can be messy but helps your baby learn
about food and eating.
• Eating at the same time as your baby will
help them learn from you.
• Do not add solid food to your baby’s bottle as
this will not help them learn to eat.
Tip:
Put a plastic mat or newspaper under your
child’s chair if you are worried about the
mess.
16
As your baby grows
• You may find they are eating more solid food
and need less milk feeds.
• Food can be offered at family meal times and
they may breastfeed or have infant formula in
between.
• This will be different for each baby and every
family.
How much food does
your baby need
• Every baby is different.
• Babies are born knowing when they are
hungry and when they are full.
• How much your baby eats will change from
day to day.
• Offer a breastfeed, infant formula or solid
food at regular times over the day.
• When offering food, trust that your baby will
eat when they are hungry and stop when they
are full.
• When babies are not interested in eating they
will:
- turn their head away from the food
- push the spoon away from their mouth
- lean back in their chair.
19
For advice about your child’s
eating, their behaviour or how
they are growing contact:
Child Health and Parenting Service
See page 31 for contact details.
Children and eating
Childhood is when healthy food
habits are started
All babies will learn to eat food of
different textures at different ages.
By around 12 months most babies
will be able to manage foods eaten
by the rest of the family.
Family meals
You do not have to make a special meal for
your baby or child. You can just make small
changes to the family meal:
•B
lend, mash, chop or cut the food into
smaller pieces.
• Do not use salt or sugar in your cooking.
•A
dd stronger spices and herbs such as chilli
to the family meal after you have removed
some for your baby or child.
• Children are born knowing when they are
hungry or full.
• Children have small stomachs and need to
be offered regular meals and snacks over the
day.
• It is good to offer children food about 5 times
over the day as part of your daily routine. For
example offer your child food from the 5 food
groups at breakfast, lunch and dinner and for
a snack in between each meal. See page 26
for food ideas.
• Let them decide how much they will eat.
• Forcing or bribing a child to eat can make
them forget how it feels to be hungry or full.
• It is normal for some children to eat more or
less than others.
• Eating is an important social time. Eat
together as a family as often as you can. Turn
off the TV and electronic devices and put toys
away so there is less distraction.
• Try not to label foods as good or bad.
Talk about food from the 5 food groups as
everyday food (see page 30). Explain that
sometimes foods are not for everyday.
Sometimes foods
Foods like chocolate, lollies, biscuits, cakes,
pastries, deep fried foods and sweet drinks are
not needed. They can fill children up and leave
little room for everyday foods. It is okay to say
no to sometimes foods.
Tip:
Let older children help with meals. Let them
set up the table or wash the vegetables.
Tip:
Sometimes family life can get busy.
Plan meals ahead of time, cook extra and
freeze for another time.
20
21
It is normal for children to be
fussy with food. This is part of
growing up.
If your child does not want
the meal offered
Children may
• eat more some days than others
• eat some foods sometimes and refuse them
at other times
• take a long time to try new foods.
• Keep calm and take it away.
•R
e-offer the food at the next meal or as a
snack.
•S
et your child up for success by offering an
everyday food that you know they enjoy as
part of a meal. This way you know your child
will be more likely to eat something.
Help your child to try new foods by
If you are concerned your
child is eating too much
• Offering a new food as part of the family meal .
• Letting them touch or smell the new food.
• Talking about the new food, such as how it
grows, where it comes from, what it tastes
like.
• Eating the food yourself.
• Try not to fuss if your child will not eat a food.
You can always try another time.
Remember some children need to see, smell
and taste a new food many times before they
will eat it. Be patient and praise your child if
they do try a new food.
22
•R
emember how much children eat will vary
from day to day.
•O
ffer regular meals and mid-meal snacks.
Offer a variety of foods from the 5 food
groups.
•T
ry not to use food or drinks to keep children
quiet or entertained.
•T
ry not to reward children with food.
Reward them by giving praise, reading a
story or playing a game instead.
Drinks for children
12 months and beyond
• Keep breastfeeding for as long as you and
your baby are happy to.
• Infant formula is not needed after 12 months.
You can give your baby full-cream cow’s milk.
• From around 12 months of age your child
does not need more than 500 mL or 2 cups
of milk a day.
• Too much milk can stop children from eating
other everyday foods because it fills them up.
• When your child is 2 years old, they can have
low fat or reduced-fat milk (not skim or fat
free milk).
• Sweet drinks such as juice, cordial and soft
drink are high in sugar and are not good for
teeth.
Make water the main drink
• Tap water is the best everyday drink for
children and adults.
• Give water whenever your child asks for a
drink.
• Have water on the table at mealtimes.
• Show that you enjoy drinking water by
drinking it too.
• Take a water bottle when you go out.
Tip:
Fun items such as straws, drink bottles
or decorated cups can make drinking
water fun.
23
A guide of what and how much to offer
An example of a days
food for a 1-2 year old
Breakfast
Snack
Lunch
Snack
Dinner
•B
reakfast biscuit with full-cream milk
• Fresh fruit
• Fresh fruit
• Small cup of full-cream milk
• Vegetable omelette
• Toast
• Sliced vegetables
• Cheese
• Pasta and bolognaise sauce
• Cooked vegetables
• Fresh fruit and yoghurt
Breakfast
Snack
Lunch
Snack
Dinner
• Wholegrain cereal flakes with milk
• Crumpet
• Small cup of milk
• Egg and lettuce sandwich
• Fresh fruit
• Vegetable sticks and hommus dip
• Homemade hamburger
• Oven-baked potatoes and pumpkin
• Salad vegetables
• Fresh fruit
Breakfast
Snack
Lunch
Snack
Dinner
• Baked beans
• Wholegrain toast
• Pikelets
• Fresh fruit
• Tuna and salad wrap
• Fresh fruit
• Cup of reduced-fat milk
• Wholegrain crackers and cheese
• Roast chicken
• Mashed potato
• Cooked vegetables
• Canned fruit and custard
An example of a days
food for a 2-3 year old
An example of a days
food for a 4-8 year old
24
25
Food ideas
Breakfast
Lunch at home
Breakfast gives children energy for the day.
Eating foods from the 5 food groups helps them
grow healthy and strong.
• Tub of yoghurt or a glass of milk and a piece
of fresh fruit.
• Porridge with canned or fresh fruit.
• Toasted English muffin or crumpets with
cheese.
• Scrambled eggs on toast with tomato.
• Homemade fruit smoothie – blend soft
fruit and milk.
• Baked beans.
• Vegetable omelette.
• Wholegrain cereal biscuit with milk and
canned or fresh fruit.
• Wholegrain cereal flakes with milk and
canned or fresh fruit.
• Fruit bread.
• Toasted sandwich with:
- baked beans and cheese
- tuna, cheese and tomato
- ham, cheese and pineapple
- creamed corn, cheese and asparagus.
• Mini pizza made with an English muffin and
topped with cheese, pineapple and ham.
• Left-overs like spaghetti bolognaise,
vegetable stir fry or fried rice.
• Sweet corn scrambled eggs made with eggs,
creamed corn and grated cheese.
Fresh fruit and yoghurt
Roast meat, lettuce, carrot and cheese sandwich
Lunch away from home
Toasted English muffin with cheese
• Cheese and cucumber sandwich.
• Tuna, corn, lettuce and mayonnaise wrap.
• Roast meat, lettuce, carrot and cheese
sandwich.
• Slices of cold roast meat, cheese, cherry
tomatoes and cucumber slices.
• Vegetable and egg slice.
• Pasta salad with corn, peas and capsicum.
English muffin topped with cheese, pineapple and ham
Keep lunches safe
Porridge with canned or fresh fruit
Fruit bread
26
Use a frozen ice brick and insulated
lunch box.
Vegetable and egg slice
Slices of cold roast meat, cheese, cherry tomatoes
and cucumber slices
27
Food ideas
continued
Snacks
Family meals
Food offered between meals should be from the
5 food groups and not just something extra or a
‘treat’.
Children have small stomachs and may need
about 5 small meals a day to grow healthy and
strong.
Offer snacks made from the 5 food groups
every day.
• Fresh fruit - apple, pear, grapes, strawberries
or mandarin pieces.
• Canned fruit and custard.
• Dip and vegetable sticks - cucumber, carrot,
celery or snow peas.
• Rice cakes with avocado and tomato.
• Bread and cheese.
• Grilled bread fingers with cheese and
pineapple.
• Pikelets topped with berries and yoghurt.
• Celery sticks filled with peanut butter and
sultanas*.
• Cup of milk.
• Homemade banana smoothie - blend banana
and milk.
• Baked beans.
• Cooked pasta spirals and grated cheese.
• Boiled egg.
• Air popped popcorn*.
• Creamed rice and fruit.
• Meals such as savoury mince, meat and
vegetable stew or soup made in the slow cooker.
Try adding lentils or legumes like kidney
beans or chickpeas for a change.
• Shepherd’s pie made with savoury mince,
topped with mashed potato. Try sweet potato
for a change.
• Roast chicken, corn on the cob and salad
vegetables.
• Oven-baked or grilled fish with homemade
baked potatoes, carrot, corn and peas.
• Omelette with grated or diced vegetables
such as zucchini, mushroom, onion, tomato
or corn.
• Homemade chicken nuggets made with
chicken breast cut into pieces and coated in
egg and crushed cornflakes or bread crumbs.
• Jacket potato topped with baked beans and
grated cheese.
• Tuna pasta made with tomato pasta sauce,
canned tuna and vegetables such as grated
zucchini, carrot, mushrooms or capsicum.
• Pizza made with a store bought base and
topped with tomato paste, pineapple, ham,
mushrooms, tomato, capsicum and cheese.
• Easy Mexican made with pan fried chicken,
vegetables such as capsicum, corn, tomato,
spices, cheese and natural yoghurt and
served in a tortilla wrap.
• Stir fried tofu, lean meat or chicken with
vegetables and served with rice or noodles.
Celery sticks filled with peanut butter and sultanas*
Pikelets topped with berries and yoghurt
Cup of milk
*Not for under 3 years.
Children under the age of 3 years are at risk of
choking. Make foods safer to eat by cooking,
chopping, mashing and grating.
Tip:
Fruit and vegetables in season are usually
cheaper.
28
Cooked pasta spirals and grated cheese
Tips:
It is okay to use frozen or canned
vegetables.
Freeze some meals to have when
life gets busy.
It is okay to use store-bought items like
tomato pasta sauce, pizza bases or roast
chicken to save time.
Jacket potato topped with baked beans
Easy Mexican tortilla wrap
Homemade chicken nuggets
Stir fried chicken with vegetables and rice
29
Contact information
Further information on topics covered in this
book are available from:
Child Health and Parenting Service (CHaPS):
www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/children/child_health
Parent Line: 1300 808 178
For 24 hour information and support
across Tasmania.
CHaPS Statewide: 1300 064 544
To be directed to the nearest Child Health and
Parenting Service near you.
Australian Breastfeeding Association:
www.breastfeeding.asn.au
Breastfeeding helpline
1800 mum 2 mum (1800 686 268)
Raising Children Network:
www.raisingchildren.net.au
Nutrition Information:
Public Health Services
www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/nutrition
Australian Dietary Guidelines:
www.eatforhealth.gov.au/guidelines
An Accredited Practising Dietitian:
www.daa.asn.au/for-the-public/find-an-apd/
Your family General Practitioner (GP)
For further information on the
Start Them Right book please contact:
Public Health Services
Department of Health and Human Services Tasmania
Email: [email protected]
Source: National Health and Medical Research Council
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