Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies -

Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies -
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing
Methodologies
Efi Fogel
Tel Aviv University
Ultimaker 3 & Cura
Mar. 13th , 2017
Outline
1
Cura
Additive Manufacturing
Ultimaker 3
Cura
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
2
Outline
1
Cura
Additive Manufacturing
Ultimaker 3
Cura
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
3
Additive Manufacturing
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the official term for 3D-printing.
3D printing is the fabrication of objects
through the deposition of some material under computer control. The deposition forms successive layers using
one of several technologies.
A large number of different AM processes exist.
The deposition technique differentiates between the different types.
1,000 different 3D printer models are available on the market today.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
4
Additive Manufacturing Main Types
Additive
Manufacturing
Material
Deposition
Processes
Cold Spray
Blown
Powder
Extrusion
Metals
Powder Bed
Processes
Electron
Beam Melting
Laser Sinter
Laser Melting
Binder Jet
Metals
Thermoplastic
Graphite
Elastomers
Other
Materials
that melt
and harden
Thermosetting Resin
Metals
Elastomers
Metals
Stereolithography
Non-Ferrous Alloys
Metals
Thermoplastic
Liquid Bed
Processes
Ceramics
Other
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
Materials
that are in
powder form
5
Additive Manufacturing Main Types
Additive
Manufacturing
Material
Deposition
Processes
Cold Spray
Blown
Powder
Extrusion
Metals
Powder Bed
Processes
Electron
Beam Melting
Laser Sinter
Laser Melting
Binder Jet
Metals
Thermoplastic
Graphite
Elastomers
Other
Materials
that melt
and harden
Thermosetting Resin
Metals
Elastomers
Metals
Stereolithography
Non-Ferrous Alloys
Metals
Thermoplastic
Liquid Bed
Processes
Ceramics
Other
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
Materials
that are in
powder form
6
Fused Filament Fabrication (Fused Deposition Modeling)
Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is the most popular additive
manufacturing (AM) process by number of machines.
The term Fused Deposition Modeling™ and its abbreviation FDM™
are trademarks of Stratasys Ltd..
FFF is equivalent to FDM and is used by the rest of the world.
The machine may dispense multiple materials, either
multiple colored thermoplastic materials to build the object, or
one thermoplastic material and another soluble support material.
The object is produced by extruding
small flattened strings of molten
material to form layers.
The material hardens immediately
after it is extruded from the nozzle.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Fused Filament Fabrication Types
BigRep, Large
Baam, Huge
Prusa,
Drag,
Cartesian XZ-head Cartesian Z-head
Ultimaker,
Go,
Cartesian Kossel,
Cartesian XY-head, XYZ-head, mobile Delta technique
Bowden extruder
1 Selective
Polar 3D,
Polar bed
Felix,
Cartesian X-head
Morgan, Scara1
Compliance Assembly Robotic Arm
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Fused Filament Fabrication Types, more
Controlling all 6 degrees of freedom
of the nozzle, Sextupteron
A curved house by
Contour Crafting, a
computerized construction company
Lunar settlement of
space colonies, simulation by Nasa
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
Printing
3dimensional curves
instead of layers by
Mataerial.
9
Bioprinting
Artificially construct living tissue, printing layers of living cells.
Bioprinters print replacements of human organs
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Outline
1
Cura
Additive Manufacturing
Ultimaker 3
Cura
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3
Ultimaker 3 printers are designed and built for FFF.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3 Specification
Property
Value
Dimensions
Net
Gross
342 x 380 x 389
342 x 505 x 588
Build Volume
Single extrusion
Dual extrusion
215 x 215 x 200
197 x 215 x 200
Weight
10.6 kg
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Ultimaker 3 Specification, cont.
The thickness of a 3D printed layer. Thin layers
are used for high detailed prints, thick layers are
used to high speed printing.
Build plate temperature 20°–100°
Affects the selection of printing materials.
Build speed
≤ 16 mm3 /secs
The filament extrusion speed, which affects the
printing speed.2
Print head travel speed 30–300 mm/secs The speed of the printer head.2
XYZ accuracy
12.5, 12.5, 2.5 µm The accuracy of the stepper motors, which determines the accuracy of the the print.
Nozzle diameter
0.4 mm
Affects the printing speed,2 accuracy, grabbing
to the print bed, and sticking to the layer underneath, which affects the support requirements.
Nozzle temperature
180°–280°
Affects the selection of printing materials.
Nozzle heat up time
< 2 min
Affects the overhead time it takes to start printing and melting the material.
Build plate heat up time < 4 min
Affects the time it takes to start printing.
Operating sound
50 dBA
Suitable for use in quite environments.
Layer resolution
20–200 µm
2 High printing speed decreases the risk that the process will fail at a late stage, wasting material and time.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3 Head
Dual extrusion: Enables the combination of (i) build and support
materials, or (ii) two build materials of different colors.
Swappable print cores: Enables easy and quick replacement of print cores.
The Ultimaker 3 comes with two print cores, namely, AA and BB, with
different inner nozzle geometries customized for build material and
water-soluble support material, respectively.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3 Build Plate
Refined design: The Ultimaker 3 features a light & stiff build plate, which
reduces vibrations, and a removable glass plate, which allows
easy cleaning.
Heated glass build plate: Increases the range of usable printing material.
Active leveling: Build-plate calibration is done automatically.
The capacitive sensor in the print head measures distances between the
print bed and the nozzles.
The tilt angle is compensated by adjusting the z-height in the first layers.
Manual calibration
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3 Materials
Various Materials can be used by the Ultimaker 2 printer.
Nylon
PLA
ABS
CPE
PVA
(polyamide) has high strength-to-weight ratio, low-friction and is
flexible.
(polylactic acid) is reliable, offers good surface quality, and is made
from organic, renewable sources.
(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) has good mechanical properties,
e.g., it can withstand temperatures of up to 85°.
(co-polyester) is chemical and temperature resistant, with dimensional stability.
is a water soluble support material.
Material recognition with NFC scanner: Detects and identifies the
material on the spool holder and checks the correspondence
of a filament and print core type being used.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3 Additional Features
Optimized Cooling: Ultimaker 3 has a low-noise fan system featuring two
radial fans and fan shrouds; it builds up pressure for an
improved airflow. This ensures better cooling, high quality
bridging, faster print runs and smooth print surfaces.
LED status indicators: Alerts when a user interaction is needed.
EEPROM print core chip: The chip memorizes the size and type of the
nozzle, notifies the user in case of misuse.
USB port
Wi-Fi, LAN
Live camera
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Ultimaker 3 Software
Ultimaker 3 application: The user of the application can start and monitor
the printing process. Together with the integrated camera
the user can check the progress and inspect the intermediate
print.
Cura Prepares your model for 3D printing.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Outline
1
Cura
Additive Manufacturing
Ultimaker 3
Cura
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Cura
Cura is slicing software for 3D printers.
It accepts a digital 3D model, typically in the STL format, as input.
It computes the toolpath that the printhead(s) need to take to print
the model.
It emits the instructions to the printer, in the Gcode format, to a file.
G0 F7200 X19 . 6 9 8 Y28 . 2 6 2 Z . 3 6
G1 F1500 E0
G1 F1350 X22 . 4 6 7 Y26 . 1 7 5 E0 . 1 5 6 5 4
G1 X23 . 3 3 8 Y25 . 5 6 8 E0 . 2 0 4 4 7
G1 X24 . 2 4 6 Y25 . 0 2 7 E0 . 2 5 2 1 8
Cura is maintained by Ultimaker Ltd..
Cura is well suited for Bowden-extruder machines,
e.g., RepRap, Ultimaker and most Delta-bots.
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Where Do Models Come From?
The Internet
A matrix of sources of printable models can be found here.
Thingiverse
Youmagine
GrabCAD
The product of a modeler running 3D-modeling software
A list of 3D modeling software can be found here
A collection of useful software can be found here.
Tinkercad—freeware, cloud
Sketchup—freemium
The output of a 3D-reconstruction process
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Cura Software
Cura is Open Source software released under the AGPLv3 license.
Cura is made of two parts:
The GUI, written in Python, is based on the Uranium framework.
F
A Python framework for building 3D printing related applications.
The slicing engine, namely CuraEngine, is written in C++.
There are additional optional parts and plugins,
e.g., OrientationPlugin—a wrapper around Tweaker, a Python module
that finds the optimal printing orientation of a 3D model.
Cura is a multiplatform app. for Linux, Mac, and Windows.
Cura 2.3.1 is now available.
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Cura Features (Version 2.3)
There are two operational modes:
basic offers few settings, good for novice users.
advanced offers all settings, good for experienced users.
Handles various profiles
Maintains a set of predefined profiles
Automatically adjusts the settings for each material and print core
Accepts files in the STL, 3MF, and OBJ file formats
Supports dual extrusion printing
Supports various infill types
Provides time and weight estimation
Supports wireless printing
Enables live monitoring
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Cura Simple Mode
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Profile selection
2
Simple mode settings
25
Cura Interface
1
Open file
4
Brim/skirt margin
2
Toolbar: move, scale, rotate, mirror &
per-object settings
5
3D model
6
Profile settings
View modes: solid, X-ray & layers
7
Printer selection
3
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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Print core & material
selection
9
Simple/advanced mode
10
Save Gcode
11
Progress bar
12
Estimated print time &
cost
13
3D-model dimensions
14
Print-job name
26
Cura Model Viewing
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
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X-ray view mode
2
View mode
3
3D viewer
4
Error in model
1
Layers view mode
2
View mode
3
Model preview
4
Layer slider
5
Layer number
27
Cura Custom Mode
Machine Machine related settings.
Quality Settings that define the (visual) quality of the print.
Shell Settings related to the outside of the print.
Infill All settings that have to do with the inside of the print.
Material Material related settings.
Speed Speeds at which the print head moves while printing.
Travel How the print head behaves during travel moves.
Cooling Settings that define how the plastic is cooled.
Support Options for printing with support structures.
Platform adhesion Defines the adhesion of your model to the build plate.
Mesh fixes Options for fixing faults in models.
Special modes Features that influence the way of printing.
Experimental Experimental new features.
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Cura Quality
Layer height
The thickness of one printed layer.
Acceptable values must be in [0.06–0.20mm].
Thinner layer height increases the quality.
Thicker layer height decreases printing time.
Options:
F
F
First layer height.
All other layers.
Line width
The width of a single printed line.
Affects the extrusion rate.
Options:
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
Wall line width
Top/bottom line width
Infill line width
Skirt line width
Support line width
Support interface line width
Prime tower line width
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Cura Support
Enable Support
Placement options:
Touching build plate
Everywhere
Overhang angle the maximum angle of overhangs
for which support material is added.
Support pattern
Connect zig zags
Support density
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Cura Platform Adhesion
Skirt A line printed around the object on the first layer.
It is not connected to the model.
It helps priming the extrusion.
Brim A flat area around the base of the model on the first layer.
It is connected to the model.
It prevents warping.
It may enlarge the bounding box.
Raft Several sparse layers between the model and the build plate.
Useful when the bottom surface of a model is not flat, or
the contact area with the build plate is small.
Visualization of
the raft settings
Algorithms for 3D Printing and Other Manufacturing Methodologies
The printed raft
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