Wireless Audio Hardware

Wireless Audio Hardware
Reference Manual
JN-RM-2033
Revision 1.4
11-Jan-2008
Jennic
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Wireless Audio Hardware
Reference Manual
© Jennic 2008
JN-RM-2033 v1.4
Jennic
Wireless Audio Hardware
Reference Manual
Contents
About this Manual
4
Organisation
Conventions
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Related Documents
Feedback Address
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1 The Reference Design
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1.1 Design Features
1.2 Pre-requisites
1.3 Board Set-up
1.3.1 Connecting External Audio Devices
1.3.2 Using the Surface Mount Microphone
1.3.3 Using an External 5V Speaker Supply (SPKVDD)
1.4 Operation
1.4.1 Pairing
1.4.2 Test Tone
1.4.3 Digital Volume Control
1.4.4 Push-To-Talk Facility
1.4.5 Sample Rate Switch
1.4.6 Security
1.5 Features Summary
1.6 Data Rates
2 Hardware
15
2.1 Microphone Bias
2.2 Outputs
2.3 Control and Audio Interfaces
2.4 Additional CODEC Features
2.5 Performance
2.6 Pinout
2.7 Schematic
2.8 Component List
2.9 Component Placement
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3 Software
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3.1 Binary Files and Communication Modes
3.2 Association and Pairing
Appendix: Association and Pairing
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About this Manual
This manual describes a reference design for an IEEE802.15.4 compliant, voice
quality, audio link based around a Jennic JN513x series wireless microcontroller.
Organisation
This manual consists of 3 chapters and an appendix, as follows:
• Chapter 1 introduces the reference design, and describes board set-up,
operation, features and performance
• Chapter 2 provides hardware information on the design
• Chapter 3 introduces the supplied application software
• The appendix contains a flow diagram that illustrates association and pairing
Conventions
Files, folders, functions and parameter types are represented in bold type.
Function parameters are represented in italics type.
Code fragments are represented in the Courier typeface.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
ADC
Analogue to Digital Converter
ADPCM
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
ALC
Automatic Level Control
API
Application Programming Interface
DAC
Digital to Analogue Converter
PTT
Push-To-Talk
Related Documents
4
[1]
Jennic JN513x Wireless Microcontroller Datasheet (JN-DS-JN513x)
[2]
Jennic Integrated Peripherals API Reference Manual (JN-RM-2001)
[3]
Jennic 802.15.4 Stack API Reference Manual (JN-RM-2002)
[4]
Jennic Application Queue API Reference Manual (JN-RM-2025)
[5]
Wolfson WM8510 Data Sheet
© Jennic 2008
JN-RM-2033 v1.4
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Wireless Audio Hardware
Reference Manual
Feedback Address
If you wish to comment on this manual, or any other Jennic user documentation,
please provide your feedback by writing to us (quoting the manual reference number
and version) at the following postal address or e-mail address:
Applications
Jennic Ltd
Furnival Street
Sheffield S1 4QT
United Kingdom
doc@jennic.com
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Reference Manual
1 The Reference Design
Jennic’s Audio Reference Design provides the necessary information to build a
mezzanine board to achieve wireless audio transmissions using the IEEE 802.15.4
protocol. The design allows voice-quality audio applications to be evaluated and
developed for the Jennic JN513x wireless microcontroller.
The reference design package includes the following items:
• Schematics and PCB data for an audio reference board
• Sample .wav sound files to demonstrate audio quality for voice transmissions
at 16-kHz and 8-kHz sample rates
• Separate software binaries for each of the communication modes, as
described in Section 3.1
The audio reference board can be evaluated with carrier boards from a Jennic
JN5139 evaluation kit (JN5139-EK000 or JN5139-EK010). The audio board is
connected to a sensor board of the evaluation kit via the 40-way expansion header
(see Figure 1 below). The voice-quality wireless audio link can be assessed using
two audio boards, each connected to the necessary audio peripherals such as
microphones, speakers and headphones. Simplex, half-duplex or full-duplex audio
links can be configured using the supplied software.
Figure 1: Audio Reference Board Mounted on a Sensor Board
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1.1 Design Features
The audio reference board has the following features:
• Wireless audio, 2.4-GHz IEEE 802.15.4 compliant
• Simplex, half-duplex and full-duplex options
• 3.5-mm headphone and microphone jacks
• Line input
• Speaker output capable of driving 0.8W into 8Ω at 5V
• Headphone output capable of driving 40mW into 16Ω at 3.3V
• Programmable sample rates of 6, 8, 11.025 and 16 kHz
• 16-bit ADC and DAC
• Software based ADPCM compression
• Intelligent channel agility
• Pairing facility
• LOS Range > 200 m
• Secure 128-bit AES transmission
• PTT (Push-To-Talk) capability
• Digital volume control
• RF signal quality indication
• Low battery indication
• Out-of-range indication
• Low power
• Low BOM with ‘cap-less’ connect headphone output
• Input signal automatic level control
• Low-noise microphone bias
• Low voltage operation (2.5V to 3.6V)
• Industrial temperature range (-20°C to +70°C)
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1.2 Pre-requisites
The sections that follow make the following assumptions:
• You have at least two audio reference boards (which can be constructed with
the aid of the hardware information provided in Chapter 2, and the schematics
and gerbers packaged with the reference design).
• You have two sensor boards from a Jennic JN5139 evaluation kit.
• You have downloaded the relevant application binaries, one to each sensor
board, using the JN51xx Flash Programmer (for further details of the supplied
binary files, refer to Section 3.1).
1.3 Board Set-up
This section describes how to set up a system for evaluating a wireless audio link
that uses the audio reference boards.
Connect each audio board to a sensor board from the evaluation kit, as follows:
1. Plug the audio board onto the sensor board’s 40-way expansion connector,
as illustrated in Figure 1.
2. Insert batteries into the sensor board (correct orientation is indicated on the
board).
3. Ensure J2 on the sensor board is located in position J2(1-2), where pin 1 is
located nearest the fuse.
4. Ensure J13 on the audio reference board is located in position J13(1-2),
where pin 1 is located nearest the green 3.5-mm jack.
5. Connect the required input (microphone or line input) and output (speaker or
headphones) to the audio board, as detailed in the sections below.
1.3.1 Connecting External Audio Devices
The following input/output connectivity is provided on the audio reference board:
• Inputs: A microphone input is provided, along with a line input for connecting
other audio equipment.
• Outputs: Speaker terminals and a 3.5-mm headphone socket are provided:
The audio reference board can drive an 8-Ω speaker (bridge-tied load
configuration).
The hardware includes a jack insert detect function which automatically
mutes the speaker output when a headphone jack is inserted.
The above connectivity is illustrated in Figure 2 below.
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Audio Reference Board
Control
Interface
Mic
40 Way Expansion Header
I2S Audio
Interface
Volume
Up/Down
Mono Audio Codec
Two Wire
Control
Interface
Digital
Filter
ADC
DAC
Digital
Filter
Microphone
Jack
Line Input
J5
1
-
Headphone
Jack
BTL Speaker Output
+
-
V
+
SPKVDD (5V)
Figure 2: Audio Reference Board Connection Diagram
Note: To keep noise to a minimum, headphones and/or a
speaker must be connected.
1.3.2 Using the Surface Mount Microphone
In addition to the 3.5-mm jack microphone input, a surface mount microphone is
available on the board. This microphone can be enabled as follows:
1. Ensure J11 is fitted.
2. Ensure J13 is located in position J13(2-3).
1.3.3 Using an External 5V Speaker Supply (SPKVDD)
The power supply for the speaker and headphone output drivers is connected to
VDD on the board, by default. To achieve higher volume, lower distortion
headphone and speaker outputs, SPKVDD can be supplied from an external source
on jumper J5 (5.5V maximum) - see Figure 4: Audio Reference Design Schematic.
Note: R6 must be removed when supplying SPKVDD externally.
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1.4 Operation
This section describes how to operate the audio reference boards once they have
been programmed with simplex, half-duplex or full-duplex software. Note that some
of the features described are not available with all of these software configurations,
as noted below.
1.4.1 Pairing
Before audio communication between two devices can commence, the two boards
must be paired. To do this:
1. Turn on the sensor boards.
LED D1 on both boards should start to flash rapidly, indicating that both
boards have detected each other. If D1 flashes slowly, reset both boards
using the reset button.
2. To pair the boards, press and hold switches SW1 and SW2 on both sensor
boards. If pairing has been successful, LED D1 will remain illuminated.
LED D2 will toggle every time a packet is received.
For further information, refer to Section 3.2 Association and Pairing.
Note: Pairing information is cleared when a device is turned off.
1.4.2 Test Tone
A 400-Hz test tone can be transmitted by pressing the switch SW1 on the sensor
board.
1.4.3 Digital Volume Control
The speaker output volume can be adjusted up and down by pressing switches S1
and S2 respectively on the audio reference board.
1.4.4 Push-To-Talk Facility
The Push-To-Talk (PTT) function is assigned to switch SW2 on the sensor board.
When SW2 is pressed, the radio changes from receive to transmit mode.
Note: This function is only available in half-duplex mode.
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1.4.5 Sample Rate Switch
The sample rate can be switched between 8 kHz and 16 kHz by pressing and
holding down switches S1 and S2 simultaneously on the audio board. When LED
D1 illuminates, this indicates a sample frequency of 16 kHz. This operation must be
done at both ends of the link.
Note: This function is not available when operating in full-duplex
mode (sample rate is fixed at 8 kHz).
1.4.6 Security
When secured mode transmission is enabled, security is applied to data frames
using AES-CCM* 128-bit encryption, as defined in the IEEE 802.15.4-2006
specification. The encryption and decryption operations are performed on-the-fly
using the JN513x hardware co-processor. This alleviates the need for software
support and ensures that the encryption and decryption process is transparent to the
CPU.
1.5 Features Summary
The following table summarises the main features of the audio reference boards.
Link Type
Feature
Simplex
Half-Duplex
Full-Duplex
Sample Rate Switch
Yes
Yes
No
PTT
No
Yes
No
Volume Control
Yes
Yes
Yes
Channel Agility
Yes
No
Yes
Test Tone
Yes
Yes
Yes
Security*
Yes
Yes
Yes
Table 1: Feature Summary
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1.6 Data Rates
The software-based compression running on the JN513x greatly reduces the
amount of data that must be transmitted by the radio. The following table illustrates
the raw and on-air data rates at 16-bit resolution.
Sampling Rate
(kHz)
Resolution
(bits)
Raw Data
Rate
Simplex
Radio Data
Rate
Half-Duplex
Radio Data
Rate
Full-Duplex
Radio Data
Rate
8
16
128 kbps
32 kbps
32 kbps
64 kbps
16
16
256 kbps
64 kbps
64 kbps
Not applicable
Table 2: Data Rates
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2 Hardware
The audio reference board includes the Wolfson WM8510 Mono Audio CODEC that
performs all the necessary audio filtering, signal amplification and output drivers.
The solution operates down to 2.5V, with a maximum VDD of 3.6V (5.5V SPKVDD),
and has an operating temperature range of -25˚C to +85˚C. A number of features
are provided which simplify the system design and reduce the component count.
2.1 Microphone Bias
The microphone bias output provides a low-noise reference circuit suitable for
biasing electret type microphones and their associated external resistor bias
network. The MICBIAS source current is limited to 3 mA maximum.
2.2 Outputs
The headphone output can drive loads of 16 Ω or 32 Ω, and is configured with DC
blocking capacitors. The DC blocking capacitance in conjunction with the
headphone load resistance determine the lower cut-off frequency of the audio
output. The reference design is fitted with a 100-µF DC blocking capacitor (C7),
which gives a 100-Hz cut-off, assuming a 16-Ω load – that is:
f c = 1 2π Rload C1 = 1 (2π × 16Ω × 100 μF )
where the output is driving two 32-Ω loads in parallel.
Note: The WM8510 Mono Audio CODEC can also be configured
to provide a cap-less headphone output drive. In this
configuration, DC blocking capacitors are not required, thus
reducing the BOM cost significantly. Please refer to the Wolfson
WM8510 data sheet for further details.
The outputs can provide up to 40 mW into 16 Ω, and are capable of driving up to
1.5V RMS. The speaker output can drive up to 0.8 W into an 8-Ω bridge-tied load
speaker configuration.
2.3 Control and Audio Interfaces
The JN513x includes an industry standard 2-wire synchronous serial interface. With
the WM8510 operating as a slave device, the JN513x wireless microcontroller writes
to the WM8510 register set and controls the device through this control interface.
The flexibility of the JN513x Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) allows this port to be
configured to interface with the WM8510 digital audio interface. To achieve
compatibility, the WM8510 audio interface is configured to support the ‘left justified’
audio data format and operate as a slave device. With the JN513x SPI port
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configured for the desired transaction size and clock edge polarity, the automatic
slave select functionality allows the SPI select signal to be used as the audio
interface FRAME signal. Thus, high-speed synchronous data transfer between the
JN513x and WM8510 is achieved without the need for software intervention.
2.4 Additional CODEC Features
Application-specific filters are also available on the WM8510 to help reduce the
effects of specific noise sources, such as wind. These filters include a
programmable high-pass filter and notch filter. Full details of the CODEC’s electrical
characteristics, and additional features such as ALC, can be obtained from the
Wolfson data sheet, available for download from the Wolfson Microelectronics web
site (www.wolfsonmicro.com).
2.5 Performance
The THD+N performance has been measured on a single board in loopback
configuration, and also for an over-the-air end-to-end link. The moderate effect of
the ADPCM compression (only applied in the over-the-air link) can be seen to
impact the performance at high audio levels. Harmonic distortion increases, as
expected, at high output levels.
THD + Noise (A-weighted)
0
dBr
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-80
Output (dBV)
-40
Loopback
0
Over air link
Figure 3: Audio Link THD+N Results
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2.6 Pinout
The table below summarises the pinout of the board’s 40-way connector.
Pins
Signal
Function
Alternate Function
1
DIO0
WM8510 Audio Interface (FRAME)
2
DIO1
U2 Buffer IC Output Enable
3-8
DIO2-7
Not Connected
9
DIO8
LED D1 Control
10
DIO9
Not Connected
11
DIO10
Not Connected
12
DIO11
Not Connected
13
DIO12
Not Connected
14
DIO13
WM8510 Audio Interface (MCLK)
15
DIO14
WM8510 Control Interface (SCLK)
16
DIO15
WM8510 Control Interface (SDIN)
17
DIO16
Not Connected
18
DIO17
Not Connected
19
DIO18
Switch S1 Control
20
DIO19
LED D2 Control
21
DIO20
Switch S2 Control
22
SCLK
WM8510 Audio Interface (BCLK)
23
MISO
WM8510 Audio Interface (ADCDAT)
24
MOSI
WM8510 Audio Interface (DACDAT)
25 - 40
-
Not Connected
WM8510 Audio Interface (MCLK)
when R11 fitted
Table 3: 40-way Connector Pinout
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2.7 Schematic
Figure 4: Audio Reference Design Schematic
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2.8 Component List
The audio reference design presented in this manual consists of the following
components mounted on a 2-layer PCB:
Item
Ref
Part
Manufacturer
Part Number
1
J4
5-pole 3.5-mm audio socket (Green)
KYCON
STX-3120-5B-577C
2
J7
5-pole 3.5-mm audio socket (Blue)
KYCON
STX-3120-5B-284C
3
J8
5-pole 3.5-mm audio socket (Pink)
KYCON
STX-3120-5B-701C
4
C1
100-nF 603 X7R 16V
Phycomp
2238-786-15649
5
C4, C6, C19
1-µF 0603 Y5V 16V
Flint
CC0603CY5V105ZTR
6
C2, C5, C8,
C10, C11, C17,
C18
220-nF 0603 X7R 10V
Farnell InOne
335-2020
7
C3, C9, C12,
C13, C14, C15,
C16
4.7-µF 0603 X5R 6.3V
Farnell InOne
922-7784
8
C7
100-µF 6.3V Tant
AVX
TAJB107K006R
9
J5, J6, J11
Header 2-Way 2.54-mm pitch
HARWIN
M20-9990246
10
J1
Header 40-way 2.54-mm pitch
Farnell InOne
359-970
11
R2, R6, R9, R19
0R 0603 1%
ROHM
MCR03EZP000
12
R7, R10, R12
10K 0603 1%
Phycomp
232270461003
13
R13, R14
2K2 0603 1%
Phycomp
232270260222
14
R8
33K 0603 1%
Farnell InOne
933-1034
15
R3, R5
43K 0603 1%
Farnell InOne
357-1592
16
R4, R15, R16
680R 0603 1%
ROHM
MCR03EZPFX6800
17
S1-2
Switch push button SW-SPST
Farnell InOne
947-1677
18
U1
IC CODEC
Wolfson
WM8510
19
J13
Header 3-Way 2.54mm pitch
HARWIN
M20-9990346
20
U2
IC, SM Logic Buffer
TI
SN74AHC1G125DBVR
21
-
Jumper 10-mm
VISHAY
TLMC3100-GS08
22
D1, D2
SMD LED PLCC-2 GREEN
HARWIN
M7687-05
22
M1
Surface Mount Microphone
Knowles
Acoustics
SPM0204HE5-2
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2.9 Component Placement
Figure 5: Top Silk Screen
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3 Software
This chapter describes the basic functionality of the binaries supplied with the
reference design.
3.1 Binary Files and Communication Modes
Pre-built application binary files are supplied in the reference design package. There
are two applications:
• audio_master which must be downloaded to and run on the sensor board that
will act as the master device (as well as the network Co-ordinator).
• audio_slave which must be downloaded to and run on the sensor board that
will act as the slave device (as well as a network End Device).
These applications have been built for the three different link types: simplex, halfduplex and full-duplex.
• Full-duplex allows communication in both directions, with both ends able to
transmit and receive simultaneously.
• Half-duplex allows communication in both directions, but NOT simultaneously.
By default, both ends are in receive mode. When the Push-To-Talk (PTT)
button is pressed, the device switches into transmit mode.
• Simplex allows communication only in one direction (with the slave board as
the transmitter and the master board as the receiver).
A performance summary of the available link types can be found in Table 1 and
Table 2.
Separate pairs of binary files are provided for the different link types. Each pair of
application binaries is supplied in a separate folder, as illustrated below.
Binaries/<Version>/
Simplex/
audio_master.bin
audio_slave.bin
Half Duplex/
audio_master.bin
audio_slave.bin
Full Duplex/
audio_master.bin
audio_slave.bin
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3.2 Association and Pairing
When the network is first formed, the two devices must associate as follows (also
refer to Figure 6 below):
1. When powered on, the Co-ordinator (running audio_master) initiates an
energy scan to determine the quietest channel on which to establish the
network.
2. When powered on, the End Device (running audio_slave) initiates an active
scan to find a Co-ordinator with a specific PAN ID.
3. Once the Co-ordinator has been detected, the End Device initiates an
association request for the Co-ordinator.
4. On receiving this request, the Co-ordinator reads the extended address of the
End Device and returns a response.
5. On receiving the Co-ordinator’s response, the End Device reads the
extended address of the Co-ordinator.
6. LED D1 on both boards now flash rapidly, indicating successful association
(further association requests received by the Co-ordinator are refused).
In the case where two or more separate audio links are being established
simultaneously, an additional manual pairing routine is performed to ensure the End
Device has associated with the intended Co-ordinator (see the figures below).
C
C
C
ED
ED
ED
Association Transmission
Successfull PairingTransmission
Figure 6: Correct Association and
Pairing
x
C
ED
Association Transmission
Unsuccessfull PairingTransmission
Figure 7: Cross Association and
Failed Pairing
To establish the audio link, the two devices must now be paired, as follows:
1. When the sensor board switches SW1 and SW2 on the End Device are held
down, a pair request command frame is transmitted to the Co-ordinator.
2. If the sensor board switches SW1 and SW2 on the Co-ordinator are also
being held down, the Co-ordinator will then send a pair response command
frame back to the End Device.
This process is illustrated in the Appendix.
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Appendix: Association and Pairing
Association
C
ED
E_STATE_IDLE
E_STATE_IDLE
vStartEnergyScan()
vStartActiveScan()
E_STATE_ENERGYSCANNING
E_STATE_ACTIVESCANNING
vHandleEnergyScanResponse()
vHandleActiveScanResponse()
Slow Flash
LED
SW1
Slow Flash
LED
SW1
vStartCoordinator()
E_STATE_COORDINATOR_STARTED
vStartAssociate()
Association Request
vHandleNodeAssociation()
Rapid Flash
LED
E_STATE_ASSOCIATED
E_STATE_ASSOCIATING
Association Response
vHandleAssociateResponse()
SW1
Rapid Flash
LED
E_STATE_ASSOCIATED
SW1
Pairing
vReadPairSwitch()
vReadPairSwitch()
E_STATE_PAIRING
vHandleMcpsDataInd()
Pair Request Command
Frame
E_STATE_PAIRING
E_STATE_PAIRING?
No
Yes
vHandleCommandFrame()
Pair Response Command
Frame
vHandleMcpsDataInd()
Ack
LED On
vHandleMcpsDataDcfm()
vHandleCommandFrame()
E_STATE_WAITING_PAIR_SW_RELEASE
E_STATE_WAITING_PAIR_SW_RELEASE
vReadPairSwitch()
vReadPairSwitch()
E_STATE_PAIRED
E_STATE_PAIRED
SW2
SW2
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Revision History
Version
Date
Description
1.0
20-June-2007
First release
1.1
29-June-2007
Software descriptions updated
1.2
08-Aug-2007
Security description added
1.3
14-Aug-2007
Figure 2 updated
1.4
11-Jan-2008
Design features list updated to include iFA and 6KHz sampling
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Important Notice
Jennic reserves the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements and other changes to its
products and services at any time, and to discontinue any product or service without notice. Customers should
obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders, and should verify that such information is current and
complete. All products are sold subject to Jennic’s terms and conditions of sale, supplied at the time of order
acknowledgment. Information relating to device applications, and the like, is intended as suggestion only and may
be superseded by updates. It is the customer’s responsibility to ensure that their application meets their own
specifications. Jennic makes no representation and gives no warranty relating to advice, support or customer
product design.
Jennic assumes no responsibility or liability for the use of any of its products, conveys no license or title under any
patent, copyright or mask work rights to these products, and makes no representations or warranties that these
products are free from patent, copyright or mask work infringement, unless otherwise specified.
Jennic products are not intended for use in life support systems/appliances or any systems where product
malfunction can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury, death, severe property damage or
environmental damage. Jennic customers using or selling Jennic products for use in such applications do so at their
own risk and agree to fully indemnify Jennic for any damages resulting from such use.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Taiwan Sales Office
19F-1, 182, Sec.2
Tun Hwa S. Road
Taipei 106
Taiwan
Tel
+44 (0)114 281 2655
Fax
+44 (0)114 281 2951
E-mail info@jennic.com
Tel
+81 3 5449 7501
Fax
+81 3 5449 0741
E-mail info@jp.jennic.com
Tel
+886 2 2735 7357
Fax
+886 2 2739 5687
E-mail info@tw.jennic.com
United States Sales Office
1060 First Avenue, Suite 400
King of Prussia
PA 19406
USA
Korean Sales Office
601, Bethel B/D, #324-1
Yangjae-dong Seocho-gu
Seoul 137-897
Korea
Tel
+1 619 223 2215
Fax
+1 619 223 2081
E-mail info@us.jennic.com
Tel
+82 2 552 5325
Fax
+82 2 577 9130
E-mail info@kr.jennic.com
© Jennic 2008
JN-RM-2033 v1.4
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