Buses

Buses
Definition Of A Bus
Buses
COMP375 Computer Architecture
and
dO
Organization
i ti
Basic Computer Components
CPU
• Digital interconnection mechanism
• A set of parallel wires with rules for putting
and retrieving information on the wires.
• A digital communication mechanism that
allows two or more functional units to
transfer control signals or data
data.
• The connection medium allowing the CPU,
memory and I/O controllers to communicate
Physical Connections
I/O Device
I/O Controller
cache
Bus
Memory
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Buses
Physical Bus Interface
External and Internal
• Internal buses
– connect the primary computer components
– transfer data at up to 20 GB/sec
– about 30 – 40 cm maximum length
• External buses
– USB,
USB IEEE-1394
IEEE 1394 and Firewire
– USB 2.0 runs at 60 MB/sec
– USB 2.0 cables can be 5m in length
– Allow hot swapping of devices
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Bus Design Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Dedicated or Multiplexed
Width
Access Protocol
Arbitration
Timing
Operation
Bus Lines
• Transfer of data
• Address information
• Control of the bus
– Memory fetch or store
– Ready
– Bus Request and Bus Grant
– Interrupt and Interrupt Acknowledge
– Clock
2
Buses
Bus Width
• The width of a bus is the number of lines.
• The more data lines, the more data that
can be transferred simultaneously.
• A “32 bit bus” has 32 data lines.
• The more address lines, the larger the
maximum amount of memory that can be
accessed.
• The greater the width, the more hardware
required to implement the bus.
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Example Bus Width
• Pentium is a 32-bit processor with a 64-bit data bus
• Itanium is a 64-bit processor with a 128-bit data bus
• Address bus width
– Determines the system addressing capacity
– N address lines directly address 2N memory locations
• 8086: 20 address lines
– Can address 1 MB of memory
• Pentium: 32 address lines
– Can address 4 GB of memory
• Itanium: 64 address lines
– Can address 264 bytes of memory
• AMD Athlon™ 64: 40 address lines
– Can address 1 TB of memory
Dedicated or Multiplexed
Dedicated Bus
• With a dedicated bus there are separate
wires
i
ffor data
d t and
d addresses.
dd
• With a multiplexed bus, the same lines are
used at different times to hold either data
or addresses.
• A store operation can put both the address
and
d th
the d
data
t on the
th bus
b att the
th same time.
ti
• Having separate data and address lines
simplifies the bus protocol.
3
Buses
Multiplexed Bus
• Multiplexed buses require fewer lines.
• Chips can be limited in the number of pins
that can be physically attached.
• For a given number of pins, it is usually
advantageous to transfer more data.
• Data and addresses may appear on the
bus at different times.
Fetch-Store Paradigm
• A processor can fetch a value from
memory or store
t
a value
l tto memory.
• Fetch and store are also used to transfer
data to an I/O device.
• Only one device at a time can put a value
on the bus data or address lines
lines.
Fetch
1. Use control lines to obtain access to bus
2 Place an address on the address lines
2.
3. Use control lines to request a fetch
operation
4. Wait until operation complete
5 Read the value from the data lines
5.
6. Set controls line to allow another device to
use the bus
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Store
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Use control lines to obtain access to bus
Place an address on the address lines
Place value on the data lines
Use control lines to specify a store function
Wait until operation complete
Set controls line to allow another device to
use the bus
4
Buses
Block Transfers
Wait States
• With cache systems, memory requests to
th RAM are ffor a whole
the
h l liline off d
data.
t
• The CPU requests an address and the
RAM provides a series of data values.
• I/O controllers may still communicate with
the CPU or the memory with arbitrarily
sized data.
• Some devices are not as fast as the CPU.
• When the CPU requests data from RAM or
an I/O device, it may not be able to get it
the next clock cycle.
• A wait state is created when the CPU must
wait for a device to be ready
ready.
• The CPU needs to wait until a device
signals it is ready to provide the data.
Memory read with no wait states
Memory read with a wait state
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Buses
Block transfer of data
Cycles and Bus Width
• If a bus is n bits wide, it can transfer n bits
( n/8
(or
/8 bytes)
b t ) every cycle.
l
• If you need to transfer more than n bits, it
will take multiple cycles.
• To transfer x bytes over an n bit wide bus,
it takes 8x / n cycles plus any cycles
previous to the data transfer.
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Synchronous or Asynchronous
Asynchronous Bus
• In a synchronous bus, a clock signal
provides
id titiming
i ffor allll operations.
ti
• A device presents the address on a given
clock pulse and expects the data during
another predefined clock pulse.
• In an asynchronous bus
bus, a device waits for
a ready signal to know when data is
available.
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Buses
Arbitration
Centralized Arbitration
• Only one device can put data on the bus
at a time. Many devices can sense the
data, but only one can assert it.
• The bus arbitration protocol determines
which device gets to use the bus at any
given time.
• Bus
B s arbitration can be centralized
centrali ed or
distributed.
Daisy Chain Bus
The devices determine who gets to
use the bus.
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Multiple Buses
• A single computer usually has several buses.
• Different devices have different requirements
• A 56K modem only needs about 7 KB/sec
bandwidth while a graphics device may need
70 MB/sec or more.
• Multiple buses allow devices using different
technologies to connect to the same
computer.
7
Buses
Chipsets
Bridging Buses
• A bridge is a device that connects two
buses.
• A bridge converts the addresses and
protocols of one bus to another.
• The chipset controls the bus.
• Intel Pentium® 4 processors are available
with system bus speeds of 400, 533, 800
and 1066 MHz
• Intel’s latest chipset is the Intel X38 Express
chipset which operates at 1333 MHz and
can transfer data at up to 21
21.2
2 GB/s
Bridge
PC
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Frontside Bus
• The Frontside bus is the primary bus
connecting
ti the
th processor to
t the
th RAM.
RAM
• It is the fastest bus in the system.
• All other buses connect to the frontside
bus, either directly or indirectly.
• The computers chipset controls the
frontside bus and bus bridges.
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Bus Standards
• To allow different equipment to connect
t
together,
th devices
d i
need
d tto ffollow
ll
standards
t d d
• Bus designs are often developed by
individual companies and then
standardized by industry organizations.
8
Buses
ISA Bus
PCI Bus
• The Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)
bus was used in the first 8088 PCs.
• It was originally a 8 bit data bus with 20
dedicated address lines.
• Bus design similar to 8088 local bus.
• The bus was updated to have 16 data
lines and operate at 8.33 MHz providing
8 MB/second bandwidth.
• Updated again to the Extended ISA (EISA)
• The Peripheral Component Interconnection
(PCI) b
bus was d
developed
l
db
by IIntel
t l iin th
the
early 1990s.
• PCI has 64 data lines running at 66 MHz
providing up to 528 MB/sec bandwidth.
• Data and address lines are multiplexed
multiplexed.
• Centralized arbitration.
SCSI Bus
Types of SCSI Buses
• Pronounced “scuzzy”
• Small Computer System Interface
– Supports both internal and external connection
• Comes in multiple bus widths
• Allows the connection of up to 16 devices.
E h device
Each
d i h
has a b
bus ID
ID.
• Popular for hard drive
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Buses
Accelerated Graphics Port
• Designed to provide a high speed path to
th monitor.
the
it
• Provides connection for only one device.
• AGP 8x, double-pumped at 266 MHz to
give a maximum of 2.133 MB / second.
• Double-pumping
Double pumping means transferring data
on both the rising and falling edges of the
clock waveform
Beyond Buses
• Although there are several devices that
communicate over the bus, onlyy one device
can send data at a time.
• Other interconnection schemes allow
multiple simultaneous connections.
• There are many designs of switching fabrics
to interconnect
i
d
devices.
i
• Most switching fabrics can be expensive to
implement.
Crossbar Switch
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