Superconducting Cable Technology for Renewable

SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES, LTD.
General Manager
Kazuhiko Hayashi
March 6, 2008
HTS Cable
Superconducting Cable Technology
for Renewable Energy Transmission
WIREC2008 (March 6, 2008)
1
Voltage (μV)
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
0
50
100
Current (A)
150
DI-BSCCO
0.9mm2
Ic=210A (-196℃)
No Resistance
Resistance
Cu
200mm2
(-196℃)
200
①Super High
! !
①Super
HighCarrying
CarryingCurrent
Current
Loss
! !
②No Transmission
Transmission(Current)
(Current)
Loss
250
Unbelievable Performances of HTS DI-BSCCO
2
Yield
Unit Length
90% and above
Longer than 1 mile
210A
150~210A
Critical Current (Ic) (525A/cm-width)
Tensile Strength
>150MPa
(at R.T.)
Density: 100%
-
4 times
1990
10A
10A
110A
110A
3
2010
210A
150~ 210 A/mm2(77k:LiN2)
~ 420 A/mm2(65k:LiN2)
≒1A/mm2
~1,200A/mm2(20k:LiH2)
[with Loss]
~1,500A/mm2(4k:LiHe)
[with No Loss]
HTS
BI-BSCCO
2005
201A
201A
165A
165A
1995
2000
Year
40A
40A
0.9mm2
20A
20A
Ic(77K)4mm
Ic (77K)
DI-BSCCO
BSCCO
YBCO
Traditional
Copper
0
1985
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
>1.5 times
100%up
10µm
Smaller & Less Different Phases
DI-BSCCO
Pressure: 300
300 bar(=30MPa)
bar(=30MPa)
Pressure:
Temp.: 900℃
Content of O2 is controlled
Ic(A, 77K) × Wire Length (m)
CT-OP (ConTrolled Over Pressure)
2004: Epoch Making Year to DI-BSCCO
0.23mm
Bi-2223
tape
0.5mm
Superconducting
conductor
former
PPLP Electric insulation
(high dielectric stress,
small dielectric loss)
Developed by SEI
Superconducting shield
φ39mm
Corrugated SUS pipe cryostat
(thermal insulation)-High Integrity
φ136mm
Cold dielectric designed 3-Phase in One Cryostat
100m-114MVA-1000A Cable
4
Power Cable
Green
(No Degradation Cable)
21st Century-Style
Advanced
No Thermal Expansion
or Contraction
HTS
Cable
❊Disaster Prevention
❊Green
❊Ultra Long Life
Liquid Nitrogen
Coolant
No Industrial
Waste
Green
Extinguishable
Non-Flammable
Non-Explosive
Merits of HTS Cable
Superconductivity
DC
❊Large Capacity Transmission
❊Energy Saving
❊EMI-free
EMI-Free
No Electromagnetic
Pollution
Ultra Low Loss
Large Current
Carrying
AC
5
Installation Cost
(M$/km)
0
20
40
60
80
0
5
10
15
0
200
400
600
800
Loss Reduction
(conv. to Initial Cost)
& CO2 Emission
(M$/km)
〈CO2 Reduction〉
Transmission
Loss
(kW/km)
Condition
Ic of Wire:200A
COP:0.1
Generation:0.1$/kWh
Load Factor:1.0
Tunnel Cost:70k$/m
Installation
Model
Capacity:1500MVA
2100
600
1/2
Cable
Tunnel Cost
Reduction of
Loss
CO2 Emission
(100$/t-C)
1/4
Tunnel
340
〈778ton-C/km/year〉
800
Troughing
Conventional
Cable
Conventional Cable
(275kV Single Phase)
AC
Loss Reduction
CO2 Emission
〈210ton-C/km/year〉
150
HTS Cable
150
230
Duct
HTS Cable
(66kV 3-in-One)
1/10
1/4
DC
Loss Reduction
CO2 Emission
〈21ton-C/km/year〉
HTS Cable
150
Duct
HTS Cable
(66kV 3-in-One)
Economical Evaluation of HTS Cable
6
Supported by Federal (DOE) and NY
State (NYSERDA) Funds
Design, construct and operate the
Cryogenic Refrigeration System, and
provide overall cable remote
monitoring and utility interface
Design, build, install, and test the
HTS cable, terminations, & joint
Host utility, conventional cable &
system protection, system impact
studies
Project Manager; Site Infrastructure,
Manufacture of 2nd generation
HTS conductor
•350m long - 34.5kV - 800Arms - 48MVA
•Cold dielectric, 3 phases-in-1 cryostat
•World first in-grid operation in Albany, NY
Albany Project : Project Overview
7
Cooling System
North Termination
South termination
<-World’s 1st demo.
July 20,2006 21:00EST Online
Joint
Cable
World First in-Grid Underground HTS cable
8
OH line
Termination
Duct
350m
Joint
Vault
Duct
3-in-One HTS Cable
Highway 34.5kV, 0.8kA
Cooling
System
NY State Governor
G. E. Pataki
SEI President & CEO
M. Matsumoto
Opening Ceremony on August 2
Grid Connection on July 20, 2006
9
Tem perature [K ]
60
8/3
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
8/4
8/5
8/6
Transm itted
Electricity
D ate
8/7
8/8
8/9
C able Inlet Tem p.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0
8/10
C able O utlet Tem p.
Operation from July 20th.
Operation in GRID
10
Transm itted Electricity (M V A )
Electricity
HTS Cable Grid
Local-Size Power Network
Solar-battery
Array
The American
Continent
Global-size
Power Network
“HTS DC Cable”
Cable” + “Solar
“Solar Battery
“HTS
BatteryFarm”
Farm”
“GENESIS” Project
“GENESIS”
Project
Country-size
Power Network
Japan
The Asian
Continent
Transmission
Station
Private Houses
England &
The European
Continent
Toward Materialization of “GENESIS” Project
International Superconductor Grids will
make the global electricity, flowing from
Day to Night and Sunshine to Rainy with
very little loss, possible.
Only 4 % of the world’s desert area can
satisfy the world’s demand of electricity
generated with Solar Cell of 10%
efficiency.
Equipped with S
Energy N
Network E
Solar cells and
G lobal E
Superconductor grids
IInternational S
GENESIS Project
11
Wind Power
Photovoltaic
Power
12
[From Dr. Koichi Kitazawa]
HTS Cable
Clean Power Network All Around The World
Utilizing “High Temperature Super Conducting Cables”
Transmission over a long
distance can be achieved
through low-voltage highcurrent HTS DC cable.
Electricity of 1 GW is generated
by 10 to100 units of generators
located at offshore, desert or
other remote areas.
Wind Farm & Solar Farm of
21st Century
Electricity of 1 GW is generated
at a plant at sea side and
transmitted over a long distance
through high-voltage, low-current
OHL.
Conventional Nuclear Plant of
20th Century
Overhead Line (OHL)
Wind Farm
Output Voltage
Several 100 V
to Several kV
S/S
変電所
Solar Farm
500 to 1,000 kV
OHL
Underground
Transmission
Cable
HTS Cable (small loss and compact)
Conventional Cu or Al cables have large
transmission loss and extremely large number
of cables need to be installed
DC Cable
(1kV×1 Million A)
Substation
(Voltage Increase)
Submarine cable
(1 kV x 1 Million A)
(1GW Nuclear Plant)
1,000 to 2,000 A
500 to 1,000 kV
1-GW Low-voltage, High-current Transmission System
Using HTS DC Cable at & from Wind & Solar Farms
13
(DC)
Concept of Genewable Energy Transmission by HTS DC cables
Over several hundred
thousand kw
② Multilateral power network
① Plurality of HTS DC cables
Key points
Other groups of solar or
wind farms
(DC)
Solar
battery Seconda
ry
(2)
Inverter/conver
変換所
battery
ter station
Cooling
station
DC/AC inverter
*DC/AC
Inverter
(2)
(DC) *Voltage-up
Transformer
(Long-distance, low-voltage & large-capacity)
Fault current
*Fault
Current limiter
Limiter
HTS DC cables
*Current control
Solar
battery Seconda
(1)
ry
battery
Cooling
station
(1)
*Several to several ten kV
*Several ten thousand to
several hundred thousand
amperes
Wind
風力発電
farm [n]
ファーム[n]
:
:
太陽電池
Solar
farm
[n]
ファーム[n]
:
:
太陽電池
Solar
farm
[1]
ファーム[1]
既存のACネットワーク
Existing AC network
(AC)
AC (or
DC)
network
for
consume (AC)
rs
(AC)
14
90φ
DC/DC
converter
Solar farm
Solar battery unit
of several
hundred kW class
DC/DC
converter
Solar farm
Solar battery unit
of several
hundred kW class
HTS DC cable (1,500 V DC)
Solar Farm
Total space: About 2,750 m x 500 m
Inner cryostat pipe
Thermal insulation
Outer cryostat pipe
Anti-corrosion jacket
Li N2 circulation
100-MW-class System
HTS shield
Former
HTS conductor
Insulation
Cable core
(monopolar, 1,500 V to12 kA)×6 cables
HTS DC Cable System
15
Battery
Battery
Solar
farm
Partially in practice
Consumption
area
Existing AC network
Inverter (Si)
(Cu cable)
Inverter
Battery
Solar
farm
(Local: Domestic)
*Small solar/wind farms
*Connection to existing grid
*Small to medium-sized battery
& conversion system
*Cu cable & Si-based converter
*Sale of generated power
Step Ⅱ
II
Step
Solar farm
(2)
(From 2010 to 2050 )
HTS DC cable interconnection
Solar farm
(4)
Consumption
area
Solar farm
(3)
Existing AC
network
Solar farm
(1)
Within individual power company’s service
territory: Domestic
(*1) Battery can be omitted when
network has sufficent power storage
capability.
(From (2020-2050-)
2020 to 2050 )
PP
DC LP S
Su
b
ca olid
int ma
bl e
er c r i n
on e c
ne ab
cti le
on
HTS DC cable interconnection
Solar
farm
Solar
farm
Multinational:
International interconnection
[*No battery is needed in principle]
(Ultra-long international interconnection)
*SiC low-loss converter
*International interconnection of
electric power
*PPLP Solid DC submarine cable
→ Establishment of “global power grid”
*Small to large solar/wind farms
*HTS
cable
network
HTSDCDC
cable
network (Ultra(Ultra-long,
Large Power
Transmission
long-distance,
large-power
with Low Loss) with low loss)
transmission
*Small to large solar/wind farms
*Connection to existing AC network &
network between farms
*Middle to large-scale battery(*1) &
converter
*Cu cable+HTS DC cable
As many SiC
as
Application
of Asconverters
Many SiC Devices
possible
As
Possiblecan be applie
*Sale of power is dominant
16
Step
StepIV
Ⅳ
Step III
Step
Ⅲ
Step-by-step development of
“Genesis Project”
In practice
Conversi
on
system
es)
tteri
a
b
ar
(Sol
(Local)
*Individual houses
*Small-scale communities
*Battery & converter
*Autonomous consumption
StepⅠ
I
Step
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