January 2004
FACT SHEET
B&W PAPER
DEVELOPERS
DEVELOPERS FOR THE DISH/TRAY PROCESSING OF
BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS
ILFORD MULTIGRADE developer
MULTIGRADE is a rapid liquid concentrate
dimezone-s/hydroquinone developer suitable for
the dish/tray developing of all black and white
photographic papers both resin coated, RC, and
traditional fibre based, FB ones. It is usually used
at a dilution of 1+9 but for greater development
control and economy it can be used at 1+14.
MULTIGRADE developer is clean working, has
excellent keeping properties and gives a neutral
image tone with most papers. MULTIGRADE
developer is designed for use at ambient room
temperatures, nominally 20ºC/68ºF. We do not
recommend its use for high temperature or
machine processing applications. It is not suitable
for developing films.
ILFORD PQ UNIVERSAL developer
PQ UNIVERSAL is a liquid concentrate dimezones/hydroquinone developer suitable for the
dish/tray developing of all RC and FB black and
white photographic papers. Used at a dilution of
1+9 it is clean working and has excellent keeping
properties. It gives a slightly warm of neutral
image tone with most papers.
In addition PQ UNIVERSAL can be used to
dish/tray process ILFORD and some other
technical films. It is also suitable for dish/tray
developing of general purpose sheet films when a
fast working, high contrast developer is needed
and a high degree of enlargement is not required.
For film processing applications it is diluted either
1+9 (high contrast) or 1+19 (pictorial contrast).
PQ UNIVERSAL is not recommended for
processing general purpose 35mm and roll film
formats.
PQ UNIVERSAL developer is designed for use at
ambient room temperatures, nominally 20ºC/68ºF.
We do not recommend its use for high temperature
or machine processing applications
Page 1 of 5
ILFORD BROMOPHEN developer
BROMOPHEN is a phenidone/hydroquinone
developer supplied in powder form. It is suitable
for dish/tray developing all RC and FB black and
white photographic papers. It is made into a stock
solution that is diluted 1+3 for use. It is
economical, clean working and has good keeping
properties. It gives a slightly warm of neutral
image tone with most papers. It is particularly
recommended for dish/tray developing
MULTIGRADE Warmtone RC and FB papers to get
the warmest image tone.
BROMOPHEN developer is designed for use at
ambient room temperatures, nominally 20ºC/68ºF.
We do not recommend its use for high
temperature or machine processing applications.
It is not suitable for developing films.
Mixing instructions
Note Photographic chemicals are not hazardous
when used correctly. It is recommended that
gloves, eye protection and an apron or overall are
worn when handling and mixing all chemicals.
Always follow the specific health and safety
recommendations on the chemical packaging.
Photochemical material safety data sheets
containing full details for the safe handling,
disposal and transportation of ILFORD chemicals
are available from ILFORD agents or directly from
the ILFORD web site at www.ilford.com.
B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS
Preparing MULTIGRADE and PQ
UNIVERSAL developer
MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL liquid
concentrates are mixed with water for use.
MULTIGRADE can be used at a dilution of either
1+9 or 1+14. PQ UNIVERSAL is used at a dilution
of 1+9 for paper or 1+9/1+19 for technical films
and sheet films.
Prepare the working strength solutions of
MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL developers
directly before they are needed. Determine the
amount of solution needed for the processing
session, making sure that it is a least enough to fill
the developing dish/tray to a depth of about half
full. Measure out the appropriate amount of
concentrate using the smallest measuring cylinder
appropriate to the liquid volume: it is easier and
more accurate to measure 100 ml of solution in a
100 ml cylinder than a 1000 ml cylinder.
Add the concentrate to the mixing vessel. A large
measuring jug is a good mixing vessel as it
provides a check on the total quantity of solution
mixed. Using an appropriately sized measuring
cylinder, measure out the required dilution water
using hot and cold water to get to the solution’s
working temperature, 20ºC/68ºF. Rinse out the
measuring cylinder used for the concentrate into
the mixing vessel with some of the dilution water.
Finally add the remainder of the dilution water to
make up to the final working volume and stir the
solution thoroughly. The developer is then ready to
use.
Preparing BROMOPHEN stock
developer
BROMOPHEN cartons contain two parts, A and B
that must be dissolved in water for use. Always
make up the developer stock solution to the volume
stated on the carton, do not attempt to prepare
smaller solution quantities by using fractional parts
of each powder, however larger stock solution
quantities can be prepared by using multiples of
whole packs.
To prepare stock developer, dissolve the contents
of part A (the smaller bag) in about three-quarters
of the total solution volume (see carton) of warm
water at about 40ºC/104ºF. Stir until most of the
part A powder has dissolved, continue to stir while
gradually adding the contents of part B (the larger
bag). Keep stirring until no more powder dissolves.
NB, it is normal for a few grains of powder to
remain un-dissolved. Add cold water to make up
to the final volume (see carton) and stir. Allow to
cool to room temperature, nominally 20ºC/68ºF.
Store in a tightly capped bottle until needed for
use.
Page 2 of 5
Preparing working strength
BROMOPHEN.
To use BROMOPHEN the stock solution is diluted
1+3 with water to make a working strength
solution. Prepare the working strength solution from
the stock solution directly before it is needed. Treat
the BROMOPHEN stock solution as if it were a
liquid concentrate and use the mixing method and
information given above in the section called
“Preparing MULTIGRADE and PQ UNIVERSAL
developer”.
As most water drawn from pressure mains is highly
aerated, we advise that users draw off the water
they need and leave it to stand for a few minutes
before using it to make up developers.
Thoroughly wash all utensils, measuring and
mixing vessels after use. Do not contaminate
developer solutions with either stop bath or fixer
solutions.
pH and specific gravity
The following table gives the pH and specific
gravity (SG) for fresh solutions of MULTIGRADE,
PQ UNIVERSAL and BROMOPHEN developers.
These figures were obtained under carefully
controlled laboratory conditions and may differ
slightly from measurements made by users in their
own working areas. Users should make their own
control measurements from their own accurately
mixed fresh solutions for later comparison. Ideally
a pH meter should be used to measure solution pH
but if one is not available pH measurement sticks
can be used. These are available in various pH
ranges and those covering a range from pH 7 to
pH 10 are sufficient. SG can be measured by
using a hydrometer and one covering the range
from 1.000 to 1.200 is useful for a wide range of
photographic process solutions.
Developer
MULTIGRADE
dilution
1+9
1+14
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9
1+19
BROMOPHEN
stock
1+3
pH
SG at 20ºC
10.45–10.55
1.022
1.011
10.48– 10.58
1.022
1.011
10.30–10.50
1.106
1.025
PROCESSING PAPER
Dish/tray processing
MULTIGRADE, PQ UNIVERSAL and BROMOPHEN
working strength developer solutions should be
used in a dish/tray at ambient room temperature.
The recommended developing temperature is 20ºC
(68ºF) ±1ºC (2ºF). Slightly lower temperatures can
be used but development would need to be
extended slightly. Slightly higher temperatures can
also be used but development times would need to
be reduced. These developers are not designed for
high temperature processing. High temperatures
will reduce the effective solution life considerably
and may give very short development times that
can lead to uneven processing being seen.
B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS
Before starting to process prepare the require
volume of all the process solutions according to
dish/tray size used and number of sheets of
paper to be processed. The solution volume should
be enough to fill the processing dish/tray to a
depth of about half full, it must be enough to cover
the paper completely during processing. Check the
temperatures of all the process solutions and adjust
them to be ± 1ºC (2ºF) of the temperature being
used.
When dish/tray processing intermittent agitation is
used. For a single sheet immerse the paper
completely in the developer and gently rock the
dish from side to side taking care to avoid any
spillage. This method of agitation is used for all
subsequent processing steps.
When developing multiple sheets of paper at
once, intermittent agitation is given by interleaving
them. To interleave paper, slip the sheets into the
solution one at a time, emulsion side down. When
all the sheets are in the solution, pull the sheet
from the bottom and place it on the top of the pile
of sheets in the dish/tray. Continue this process of
moving the bottom sheet to the top until the
process time is complete. Use this method of
agitation for all subsequent processing steps.
The number of sheets that can be interleaved at
one time is up to the individual, however do take
care as too many sheets with too little agitation
can lead to uneven processing. FB papers are
more difficult to interleave than the waterproof RC
based papers that remain rigid when wet. The
traditional FB papers absorb far more liquid than
RC ones and when they are wet they go rather
limp and without careful handling they are more
prone to damage.
Remove the paper(s) from the dish/tray 10
seconds before the end of the development time
and allow developer to drain before placing it the
stop bath.
Development times
RC paper
ILFORD
Dilution ºC/ºF
Time
developer
(min:sec)
Liquids
MULTIGRADE
1+9
20/68
1:00
MULTIGRADE
1+14
20/68
1:30
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9
20/68
2:00
Powder
BROMOPHEN 1+3
20/68
2:00
Approximately double these times are
recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE
paper to obtain the coolest image colour – see the
MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE fact sheet.
Page 3 of 5
FB paper
ILFORD
developer
Dilution ºC/ºF Time (min)
RecomRange
mended
Liquids
MULTIGRADE 1+9
1+14
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9
Powder
BROMOPHEN 1+3
20/68
20/68
20/68
2
3
2
11/2–3
2–5
11/2–3
20/68
2
11/2–3
On correctly exposed FB prints, the image will
begin to appear after 35 seconds with these
developers. Development may be extended to 6
minutes without any noticeable change in contrast
or fog.
To maintain print to print consistency when batch
processing a large number of either RC or FB
prints, it may be advantageous to reduce exposure
slightly and extend development.
Developer capacities
The following table gives the developing capacity
of 1 litre of working strength developer.
ILFORD
developer
Dilution
Liquids
MULTIGRADE 1+9
MULTIGRADE 1+14
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9
Powder
BROMOPHEN 1+3
20.3x25.4cm
(8x10 inch)
ILFORD prints
RC paper
20.3x25.4cm
(8x10 inch)
ILFORD prints
FB paper
100
70
70
50
40
45
70
45
Approximately half these capacities are achieved
if only MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE is processed.
This is because of the longer development times
recommended with MULTIGRADE RC COOLTONE
paper.
Stop
ILFORD
stop bath
Liquid
ILFOSTOP
ILFOSTOP PRO
Dilution
ºC/ºF
1+19 18–24/64–75
1+19 18–24/64–75
Time
(sec)
10
10
Fix
ILFORD
Dilution
non-hardening
ºC/ºF
FIXER
Liquids
ILFORD RAPID 1+4 18–24/64–75
FIXER
1+9 18–24/64–75
HYPAM
1+4 18–24/64–75
1+9 18–24/64–75
Powder
ILFOFIX II
stock 18–24/64–75
RC
FB
time
(min)
time
(min)
1/2
1
1
2
1
2
2
3
1
1/2
B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS
Washing RC paper
Fresh, running water
Temperature
(ºC/ºF)
Above 5/41
Time
(sec)
120
When it is important to obtain a print in the
shortest possible time, vigorously wash ILFORD
resin coated papers for 30 seconds in running
water.
Prolonged immersion in water can cause edge
penetration and print curl with resin coated
papers: for this reason, avoid wet times longer
than 15 minutes.
Washing FB paper
Fresh,
ºC/ºF
running water
Double weight
Above 5/41
Time
(min)
60
Do not wash ILFORD papers with some non-ILFORD
papers which ‘yellow’ on prolonged washing,
because this can cause the papers to have a bloom
or haze over the black areas on the prints.
A washing aid is not needed when conventionally
processing fibre base papers, but its use does
reduce the final wash times, thus saving time and
water. If a hardening fixer has been used, a
washing aid is recommended as hardened prints
take longer to wash. When using ILFORD
WASHAID, wash prints for at least 5 minutes in
running water before using the washing aid, then
wash prints in running water for 20 minutes.
Washing aid
ILFORD
Dilution
ºC/ºF
Time
washing aid
(min)
Liquid
ILFORD WASHAID 1+4 18–24/64–75 10
To develop sheet film formats in a dish/tray with
PQ UNIVERSAL developer use the same
techniques described above for dish/tray
development of paper. We do not recommend the
interleaving method for processing multiple sheets
of film, even if great care is taken it may cause
damage to the emulsion.
Film Development times
The development times given here are intended
only as a guide and may be adjusted to suit
individual preferences for density and contrast.
EI
Time
(min:sec)
Gbar
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+19
20ºC/68ºF
FP4 Plus
64
HP5 Plus
320
Delta 100
80
4:00
4:30
4:00
0.62
0.62
0.62
ORTHO Copy Plus
Daylight
Tungsten
4:00
4:00
0.62
0.62
4:00–8:00
4:00–8:00
4:00–8:00
0.85–1.00
0.90–1.00
0.80–1.00
4:00–12:00
4:00–12:00
080–1.00
0.80–1.00
PQ UNIVERSAL 1+9
20ºC/68ºF
FP4 Plus
125–200
HP5 Plus
400–800
100 Delta
125–200
ORTHO Copy Plus
Daylight
Tungsten
PQ UNIVERSAL can also be used to develop the
technical and sheet films of other manufacturers.
Do not use PQ UNIVERSAL to process general
purpose 35mm and roll film formats.
Page 4 of 5
50–80
25–40
Developer Capacity for film
The following table gives the developing capacity
of 1 litre of working strength developer.
PQ UNIVERSAL
PROCESSING SHEET FILM
FP4 Plus, HP5 Plus, DELTA 100 Professional and
ORTHO Copy Plus Sheet films can all be
developed in a dish/tray using PQ UNIVERSAL
developer 1+9 or 1+19 at 20ºC/68ºF.
Development with dilution at 1+9 gives higher
contrast but also an increase in granularity.
Dilution 1+19 is recommended for pictorial
contrast, Gbar 0.62, and lower grain but there is
some loss of film speed and so for exposure a
lower EI rating must be used.
25
12.5
Dilution
20.3x25.4cm
(8x10in)
sheet film
1+9
1+19
10
5
Stop
After development the film can be rinsed in water
but we recommend that an acid stop bath is used
such as ILFORD ILFOSTOP (with indicator dye) or
ILFOSTOP PRO (without indicator dye). When
tanks or dishes (trays) of process solutions are in
use a stop bath immediately stops development
and reduces carry over of excess developer into
the fixer bath. This helps to maintain the activity
and prolong the life of the fixer solution.
B&W PAPER DEVELOPERS
ILFORD Stop
Bath
Dilution
Temperature
range
Time (seconds)
at 20ºC (68ºF)
ILFOSTOP
ILFOSTOP PRO
1+19
1+19
18–24ºC
(64–75ºF)
18–24ºC
(64–75ºF)
10
10
Capacity
15 x
films/litre
20.3x25.4cm
(unreplenished)
(8x10in)
22 x
20.3x25.4cm
(8x10in)
The process time given is the minimum required, if
necessary a longer time may be used and should
not cause any process problems provided it is not
excessive.
Fix
The recommended fixers are ILFORD RAPID FIXER
and ILFORD HYPAM liquid fixers and ILFORD
ILFOFIX II powder fixer,all are non-hardening
fixers.
ILFORD Fixer
ILFORD HYPAM &
ILFORD RAPID FIXER
1+4
ILFORD
ILFOFIX II
stock
Temperature
range
Time (mins)
at 20ºC (68ºF)
18–24ºC
(64–75ºF)
18–24ºC
(64–75ºF)
2–5
4–8
Capacity
films/litre
(unreplenished)
24 x
20.3x25.4cm
(8x10in)
24 x
20.3x25.4cm
(8x10in)
Dilution
Wash
When a non-hardening fixer has been used wash
the films in running water for 5–10 minutes at a
temperature within 5ºC (9ºF) of the process
temperature.
Rinse
For a final rinse use ILFORD ILFOTOL wetting
agent added to water, it helps the film to dry
rapidly and evenly. Start by using 5ml per litre of
rinse water (1+200), however the amount of
ILFOTOL used may need some adjustment
depending on the local water quality and drying
method. Too little or too much wetting agent can
lead to uneven drying. Remove excess rinse
solution from the film before drying.
WORKING SOLUTION LIFE
BROMOPHEN stock solution should last for up to:6 months in full capped containers
3 month in a half full tightly capped container.
Working strength MULTIGRADE developer, PQ
UNIVERSAL and BROMOPHEN left in an open
dish should not be kept for more than one working
day. If stored in a tightly capped bottle they may
last up to 24 hours.
STORAGE
Full unopened bottles of MULTIGRADE and PQ
UNIVERSAL developer concentrates stored in cool
conditions, 5–20ºC, (41–68ºF), will keep for 2
years. Once opened use the concentrate
completely within six months and keep all bottles
tightly sealed until used.
Unopened packets of BROMOPHEN powder
stored in cool and dry conditions, 5–20ºC,
(41–68ºF), will keep indefinitely. Once opened
prepare the stock solution immediately.
AVAILABILITY AND CAPACITY
MULTIGRADE developer is available in bottles of
500ml, 1 litre, 2.5 litres, and 5 litres as well as a
10 litres “bag in box” carton.
A 1 litre bottle of MULTIGRADE developer makes
enough working strength solution at 1+9 to
process 1000 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of RC
paper or 500 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of FB
paper.
PQ UNIVERSAL is available in bottles of 500ml, 1
litre, and 5 litres.
A 1 litre bottle of PQ UNIVERSAL developer
makes enough working strength solution at 1+9 to
process 700 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of RC
paper or 450 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of FB
paper or 100 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheet films.
BROMOPHEN is available in cartons of 1 and 5
litres.
A 1 litre carton of BROMOPHEN developer
makes enough working strength solution at 1+3 to
process 700 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of RC
paper or 450 20.3x25.4cm (8x10in) sheets of FB
paper.
ILFORD Imaging UK Limited, Town Lane, Mobberley,
Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 7JL, England
www.ilford.com
Page 5 of 5
03212.GB.www
January 2004
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