Oracle Solaris 10 811 Installation Guide Flash Archives Creation

Oracle® Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide:
Flash Archives (Creation and Installation)
Part No: E23803
January 2012 E23803–03
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Contents
Preface ...................................................................................................................................................11
1
Flash Archive (Overview) ....................................................................................................................15
Flash Archive Introduction ................................................................................................................ 15
What's New in the Oracle Solaris 10 08/11 Release .................................................................. 15
What's New in the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 Release .................................................................... 16
What's New in the Solaris 10 10/09 Release .............................................................................. 18
Installing Clone Systems With an Initial Installation .............................................................. 19
Updating Clone Systems With a Flash Archive Differential Archive .................................... 20
2
Flash Archive (Planning) .....................................................................................................................23
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation ........................................................................................ 23
Designing an Initial Installation of the Master System ............................................................ 24
Planning the Creation of a Flash Archive Archive ................................................................... 28
Planning the Installation of Flash Archive ................................................................................ 33
3
Creating Flash Archive (tasks) ........................................................................................................... 35
Task map: Creating Flash Archive ..................................................................................................... 35
Installing the Master System .............................................................................................................. 36
▼ To Install the Master System for an Initial Installation ........................................................... 37
Creating Customization Scripts ......................................................................................................... 37
▼ To Create a Precreation Script .................................................................................................... 37
Using a Precreation Script to Create a User-Defined Archive Section .................................. 39
▼ To Create a Predeployment Script ............................................................................................. 39
▼ To Create a Postdeployment Script ........................................................................................... 40
▼ To Create a Reboot Script ........................................................................................................... 41
Creating a Flash Archive ..................................................................................................................... 41
3
Contents
▼ To Create a Flash Archive for an Initial Installation ................................................................ 42
Creating a Flash Archive (Examples) ........................................................................................ 43
▼ To Create a Flash Archive Differential Archive With an Updated Master Image ................ 48
▼ To Create a Flash Archive Differential Archive by Using Live Upgrade ............................... 51
4
Installing and Administering Flash Archive (Tasks) ...................................................................... 55
Installing a Flash Archive With the Oracle Solaris Installation Program ..................................... 55
▼ Installing a Flash Archive ............................................................................................................ 56
References to Procedures for Installing Flash Archive ................................................................... 57
Administering Flash Archives ........................................................................................................... 58
Splitting a Flash Archive ............................................................................................................. 58
Merging Flash Archives ............................................................................................................... 59
Extracting Information From an Archive ................................................................................. 61
5
Creating and Using a Disaster Recovery Image ............................................................................. 63
Recovery Image Procedures ............................................................................................................... 63
▼ Creating and Saving a FLAR Image ........................................................................................... 63
▼ Recovering the System Image From a FLAR Image ................................................................. 65
Additional Resources ................................................................................................................... 67
6
Flash Archive (Reference) ...................................................................................................................69
Flash Archive Section Descriptions .................................................................................................. 69
Flash Archive Keywords ..................................................................................................................... 71
General Keywords ........................................................................................................................ 71
Keywords for the Archive Identification Section ..................................................................... 71
User-Defined Section Keywords ................................................................................................ 75
Flash Archive flar Command .......................................................................................................... 75
flar Command ............................................................................................................................ 75
Glossary .................................................................................................................................................81
Index ......................................................................................................................................................93
4
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Figures
FIGURE 1–1
Solaris Flash Initial Installation ............................................................................... 20
FIGURE 1–2
Solaris Flash Update .................................................................................................. 22
5
6
Tables
TABLE 1–1
Auto Registration Impact ......................................................................................... 17
TABLE 2–1
Limitations When Creating and Installing a Flash Archive Archive .................. 23
Flash Archive Sections .............................................................................................. 32
Task map: Creating a Flash Archive to Install With an Initial Installation ......... 35
Task map: Creating a Flash Archive to Update a Clone System .......................... 36
Flash Archive Sections .............................................................................................. 69
Values for section_begin and section_end Keywords ...................................... 71
Archive Identification Section Keywords: General Keywords ............................. 72
Archive Identification Section Keywords: Contents of Archive Files Section ... 72
Archive Identification Section Keywords: User Describes the Archive .............. 73
Archive Identification Section Keywords: Software Describes the Archive ....... 75
Command-Line Options for the flar Command ................................................ 76
TABLE 2–2
TABLE 3–1
TABLE 3–2
TABLE 6–1
TABLE 6–2
TABLE 6–3
TABLE 6–4
TABLE 6–5
TABLE 6–6
TABLE 6–7
7
8
Examples
EXAMPLE 3–1
Excerpts From a Precreation Script ......................................................................... 38
EXAMPLE 3–2
Precreation Script ...................................................................................................... 39
Predeployment Script ............................................................................................... 40
Postdeployment Script .............................................................................................. 41
Creating a reboot Script ........................................................................................... 41
Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive ...................................................................... 43
Creating an Archive That Contains Large Files ..................................................... 44
Creating an Archive From an Alternate Root (/) File System .............................. 45
Creating an Archive and Adding Keywords to Describe the Archive ................. 45
Creating an Archive and Excluding and Including Files and Directories .......... 46
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using
Lists ............................................................................................................................. 46
Creating an Archive Excluding Files and Directories by Using a List and
Restoring a Directory ................................................................................................ 47
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using a
List With the -z Option ............................................................................................ 47
Creating a Differential Archive With the New Master Image on the Master
System ......................................................................................................................... 50
Creating a Differential Archive with the Images Stored on an Inactive Boot
Environment .............................................................................................................. 50
Creating a Differential Archive by Using Live Upgrade ....................................... 52
Splitting an Archive ................................................................................................... 59
Merging a Flash Archive ........................................................................................... 60
Merging a Flash Archive and Adding a User-Defined Section ............................ 60
Listing Files in an Archive Section ........................................................................... 61
EXAMPLE 3–3
EXAMPLE 3–4
EXAMPLE 3–5
EXAMPLE 3–6
EXAMPLE 3–7
EXAMPLE 3–8
EXAMPLE 3–9
EXAMPLE 3–10
EXAMPLE 3–11
EXAMPLE 3–12
EXAMPLE 3–13
EXAMPLE 3–14
EXAMPLE 3–15
EXAMPLE 3–16
EXAMPLE 4–1
EXAMPLE 4–2
EXAMPLE 4–3
EXAMPLE 4–4
9
10
Preface
This book provides planning information and instructions for creating Flash Archives and
using Flash Archive to install the Oracle Solaris OS on multiple systems.
This book does not include instructions about how to set up system hardware or other
peripherals. This book is only for installing UFS file systems. Flash Archive cannot be used for
Oracle Solaris ZFS installations.
Note – This Oracle Solaris release supports systems that use the SPARC and x86 families of
processor architectures. The supported systems appear in the Oracle Solaris OS: Hardware
Compatibility Lists. This document cites any implementation differences between the platform
types.
In this document, these x86 related terms mean the following:
■
x86 refers to the larger family of 64-bit and 32-bit x86 compatible products.
■
x64 relates specifically to 64-bit x86 compatible CPUs.
■
"32-bit x86" points out specific 32-bit information about x86 based systems.
For supported systems, see the Oracle Solaris OS: Hardware Compatibility Lists.
Who Should Use This Book
This book is intended for system administrators who are responsible for installing the Oracle
Solaris OS. These procedures are advanced Oracle Solaris installation information for
enterprise system administrators who manage multiple Oracle Solaris machines in a networked
environment.
11
Preface
Related Books
Table P–1 lists documentation for system administrators.
TABLE P–1
Are You a System Administrator Who is Installing Oracle Solaris?
Description
Information
Do you need system requirements or high-level planning information?
Or want a high-level overview of Oracle Solaris ZFS installations,
GRUB, a feature of Oracle Solaris, based booting, Oracle Solaris Zones
partitioning technology, or creating RAID-1 volumes?
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Planning for
Installation and Upgrade
Do you need to install a single system from DVD or CD media? The
Oracle Solaris installation program steps you through an installation.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
Do you need to upgrade or patch your system with almost no
downtime? Save system downtime when upgrading by using Live
Upgrade, a feature of Oracle Solaris.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live Upgrade and
Upgrade Planning
Do you need to install a secure installation over the network or Internet? Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Network-Based
Use WAN boot to install a remote client. Or, do you need to install over Installations
the network from a network installation image? The Oracle Solaris
installation program steps you through an installation.
Do you need to install Oracle Solaris on multiple machines? Use
JumpStart to automate your installation.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart
and Advanced Installations
Do you need to back up your system?
Chapter 22, “Backing Up and Restoring UFS File Systems
(Overview),” in System Administration Guide: Devices and
File Systems
Do you need troubleshooting information, a list of known problems, or
a list of patches for this release?
Oracle Solaris Release Notes
Do you need to verify that your system works on Oracle Solaris?
SPARC: Solaris Sun Hardware Platform Guide
Do you need to check on which packages have been added, removed, or
changed in this release?
Oracle Solaris Package List
Do you need to verify that your system and devices work with Oracle
Solaris SPARC and x86 based systems and other third-party vendors.
Solaris Hardware Compatibility List for x86 Platforms
Do you want to learn more about installing a ZFS root pool?
Chapter 6, “ZFS Root File System Installation (Planning),”
in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Planning for
Installation and Upgrade
12
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Preface
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired.
Typographic Conventions
The following table describes the typographic conventions that are used in this book.
TABLE P–2
Typographic Conventions
Typeface
Description
Example
AaBbCc123
The names of commands, files, and directories,
and onscreen computer output
Edit your .login file.
Use ls -a to list all files.
machine_name% you have mail.
What you type, contrasted with onscreen
computer output
machine_name% su
aabbcc123
Placeholder: replace with a real name or value
The command to remove a file is rm
filename.
AaBbCc123
Book titles, new terms, and terms to be
emphasized
Read Chapter 6 in the User's Guide.
AaBbCc123
Password:
A cache is a copy that is stored
locally.
Do not save the file.
Note: Some emphasized items
appear bold online.
Shell Prompts in Command Examples
The following table shows the default UNIX system prompt and superuser prompt for shells
that are included in the Oracle Solaris OS. Note that the default system prompt that is displayed
in command examples varies, depending on the Oracle Solaris release.
TABLE P–3
Shell Prompts
Shell
Prompt
Bash shell, Korn shell, and Bourne shell
$
13
Preface
TABLE P–3
14
Shell Prompts
(Continued)
Shell
Prompt
Bash shell, Korn shell, and Bourne shell for superuser
#
C shell
machine_name%
C shell for superuser
machine_name#
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
1
C H A P T E R
1
Flash Archive (Overview)
This book provides instructions for creating Flash Archive and using Flash Archive to install
the Oracle Solaris OS on multiple systems.
For limitations when creating or installing a Flash Archive archive, see Table 2–1.
Note – If you want an overview of all Oracle Solaris installation methods, see “Choosing an
Oracle Solaris Installation Method” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Planning for
Installation and Upgrade.
Flash Archive Introduction
The Flash Archive installation feature enables you to use a single reference installation of the
Oracle Solaris OS on a system, which is called the master system. Then, you can replicate that
installation on a number of systems, which are called clone systems. You can replicate clone
systems with a Flash Archive initial installation that overwrites all files on the system or with a
Flash Archive update that only includes the differences between two system images. A
differential update changes only the files that are specified and is restricted to systems that
contain software consistent with the old master image.
What's New in the Oracle Solaris 10 08/11 Release
Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 08/11 release, the ZFS file system has the following
installation enhancements:
■
You can use the Live Upgrade, a feature of Oracle Solaris, luupgrade command to install a
ZFS root Flash archive to a ZFS rooted alternate boot environment.
■
You can use the interactive text-mode installation method to install a system with a ZFS
Flash archive.
15
Flash Archive Introduction
■
You can use the -D option of the Live Upgrade lucreate command to create a separate
dataset for /var when you migrate a UFS root file system to a ZFS root file system.
For detailed instructions and limitations, see Chapter 5, “Installing and Booting an Oracle
Solaris ZFS Root File System,” in Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide.
Unlike the ZFS Flash Archive in the previous releases, a Flash archive created on a ZFS root
master system does not contain all the existing boot environments. Instead, the archive only
contains the active ZFS boot environment. The archive does not include those datasets that are
excluded explicitly with the -D option of the lucreate command and the user data present in
the top-level pool dataset. The swap and dump volumes are not included into the archive but
are created when the Flash archive is installed.
For more information on ZFS Flash Archive creation and installation , refer to Chapter 5,
“Installing and Booting an Oracle Solaris ZFS Root File System,” in Oracle Solaris ZFS
Administration Guide.
What's New in the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 Release
Auto Registration
Auto Registration, a feature of Oracle Solaris, is new in the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release. When
you install or upgrade your system, configuration data about your system is, on rebooting,
automatically communicated through the existing service tag technology to the Oracle Product
Registration System. This service tag data about your system is used, for example, to help Oracle
enhance customer support and services. You can learn about service tags at
http://www.oracle.com/
technetwork/server-storage/solaris/oracle-service-tag-faq-418684.html.
You can use this same configuration data to create and manage your own inventory of your
systems. By registering with your support credentials using one of the registration options
below, you have a straightforward way to inventory your systems, by recording and tracking the
service tags for the systems and for the software products installed on the systems. For
instructions about tracking your registered products, see https://support.oracle.com/CSP/
ui/flash.html.
You may elect to have your configuration data sent to the Oracle Product Registration System
anonymously. An anonymous registration means that the configuration data sent to Oracle has
no link to the name of a customer. You, also, have the option to disable Auto Registration.
For an overview of Auto Registration, see “Auto Registration” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11
Installation Guide: Planning for Installation and Upgrade.
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Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Flash Archive Introduction
Does Auto Registration Impact Flash Archives?
If you create a Solaris Flash archive based on a master system that was installed with a release
prior to the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, that archive does not include Auto Registration. Auto
Registration has no impact on your work with that archive.
If you create a Flash Archive based on a master system that was installed with the Oracle Solaris
10 9/10 release or a later release, that archive does include Auto Registration unless it was
specifically disabled on the master system. For details, see the next section.
How Does Auto Registration Impact Flash Archives?
For any archive based on the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release or a later release, Auto Registration is
enabled by default unless it was specifically disabled on the master system. When you install the
Solaris Flash archive or upgrade a clone system with the differential Flash archive, configuration
data about that installed or upgraded system is, on rebooting, automatically communicated
through the existing service tag technology to the Oracle Product Registration System.
Auto Registration uses support credentials and proxy information that you provide before or
during an installation or upgrade. The means of providing that credential and proxy
information depends on which installation method is used, as shown in the following table.
TABLE 1–1
Auto Registration Impact
Installation Method
Auto Registration Impact
Interactive installation
During the installation of a Solaris Flash archive, you are prompted in the
installer screens to provide your support credentials and, if needed, proxy
information. After the installation, the system is registered on reboot. If
you do not provide support credentials, an anonymous registration
occurs on reboot.
JumpStart, a feature of Oracle
Solaris
You can provide your support credentials and proxy information by
using the auto_reg keyword in the sysidcfg file prior to the installation
of an archive or prior to an upgrade with a differential Flash archive. If
you do not use this keyword, you are prompted to provide this
information during the installation of the archive or during the upgrade.
After the installation or upgrade, the system is registered on reboot. If you
do not provide that information, an anonymous registration occurs on
reboot.
Live Upgrade
The Solaris Flash archive uses the same Auto Registration settings,
including support credentials and proxy information, that were specified
on the master system. As long as Auto Registration was not disabled on
the master system, the archive system is, after the upgrade, automatically
registered on reboot.
Chapter 1 • Flash Archive (Overview)
17
Flash Archive Introduction
TABLE 1–1
Auto Registration Impact
(Continued)
Installation Method
Auto Registration Impact
Network Installations, including
WAN Boot installations
You can provide your support credentials and proxy information by
using the auto_reg keyword in the sysidcfg file prior to the network
installation of a Solaris Flash archive. If you do not use this keyword, you
are prompted during the network installation to provide this
information. The archive is registered when the system reboots after the
installation. If you do not provide that information, an anonymous
registration occurs on reboot.
For further information, including instructions about how to disable Auto Registration, see
“Auto Registration” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Planning for Installation and
Upgrade.
Disaster Recovery Image
Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, this document now includes instructions
about how to create a Flash Archive recovery image that can be used to restore a system to
“factory fresh” condition. See Chapter 5, “Creating and Using a Disaster Recovery Image.” This
chapter provides the simplest instructions to create a Flash Archive image that can be loaded
onto the target system to recover from a failed disk drive.
What's New in the Solaris 10 10/09 Release
Starting with the Solaris 10 10/09 release, you can set up a JumpStart profile to identify a Flash
archive of a ZFS root pool.
A Flash archive can be created on a system that is running a UFS root file system or a ZFS root
file system. A Flash archive of a ZFS root pool contains the entire pool hierarchy, except for the
swap and dump volumes, and any excluded datasets. The swap and dump volumes are created
when the Flash archive is installed.
You can use the Flash archive installation method as follows:
■
Generate a Flash archive that can be used to install and boot a system with a ZFS root file
system.
■
Perform a JumpStart installation of a system by using a ZFS Flash archive.
Note – Creating a ZFS Flash archive backs up an entire root pool, not individual boot
environments. Individual datasets within the pool can be excluded by using the flarcreate
and flar command's -D option.
For detailed instructions and limitations, see “Installing a ZFS Root File System (Oracle Solaris
Flash Archive Installation)” in Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide.
18
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Flash Archive Introduction
Installing Clone Systems With an Initial Installation
You can install a master system with a Flash Archive archive for an initial installation by using
any installation method: Oracle Solaris installation program, custom JumpStart, Live Upgrade,
or WAN boot. All files are overwritten. The Flash Archive installation is a five-part process.
1. Install the master system. You select a system and use any of the Oracle Solaris installation
methods to install the Oracle Solaris OS and any other software.
2. (Optional) Prepare customization scripts to reconfigure or customize the clone system
before or after installation.
3. Create the Flash Archive archive. The Flash Archive archive contains a copy of all of the files
on the master system, unless you excluded some nonessential files.
4. Install the Flash Archive archive on clone systems. The master system and the clone system
must have the same kernel architecture. For further information, see “Installing a Sun4U
Flash Archive on a Sun4V Machine” on page 25.
When you install the Flash Archive archive on a system, all of the files in the archive are
copied to that system. The newly installed system now has the same installation
configuration as the original master system, thus the system is called a clone system. Some
customization is possible:
■
Scripts can be used for customization.
■
You can install extra packages with a Flash Archive archive by using the custom
JumpStart installation method. The packages must be from outside the software group
being installed or a third-party package.
5. (Optional) Save a copy of the master image. If you plan to create a differential archive, the
master image must be available and identical to the image installed on the clone systems.
For step-by-step instructions, see “Installing the Master System” on page 36.
Figure 1–1 shows an installation of clone systems with an initial installation. All files are
overwritten.
Chapter 1 • Flash Archive (Overview)
19
Flash Archive Introduction
FIGURE 1–1
Solaris Flash Initial Installation
Clone
systems
before
update
Media
Install
Master
System
flar
create
Clone
systems
after
update
Archive
Installing clone systems
A system running any operating environment
A system with no operating environment
A system with a different architecture
Update fails
Updating Clone Systems With a Flash Archive
Differential Archive
If you have a clone system and want to update that system, you can create a differential archive
that contains only the differences between two images, the unchanged master image and an
updated master image. When you update a clone system with a differential archive, only the
files that are in the differential archive are changed. You can choose to install a Flash Archive
differential archive with the custom JumpStart installation method or Live Upgrade. An update
is a five-part process.
1. Prepare the master system with changes. Before changes are made, the master system should
be running a duplicate of the original archive.
20
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Flash Archive Introduction
Note – If the master system is not running a duplicate of the original archive, the differences
between the two system images might result in a large differential archive. Consequently,
installing the differential archive could be time consuming. Use an initial installation with a
full archive in this case.
2. (Optional) Prepare customization scripts to reconfigure or customize the clone system
before or after installation.
3. Mount the directory of a copy of the saved-unchanged master image. This second image is
to be used to compare the two system images. Access the image by the following methods.
■
■
■
Mounted from a Live Upgrade boot environment
Mounted from a clone system over NFS
Restored from backup by using the ufsrestore command
4. Create the differential archive with the -A option of the flarcreate command.
5. Install the differential archive on clone systems with custom JumpStart. Or, you can use Live
Upgrade to install the differential archive on an inactive boot environment.
Figure 1–2 shows the creation and installation of a differential archive. A master image is
updated with some modifications. These modifications could be as simple as the addition,
reconfiguration, or deletion of a few files, or as complex as propagating patches. The updated
master image is compared to the unchanged master image. The differences between the two
images become the differential archive. The archive can be used to update other clone systems
that are currently using the unchanged master image. If the clone system has already been
modified or is not running the unchanged master image, the update fails. If you have many
changes to make on the clone systems, you can do an initial installation at any time.
Chapter 1 • Flash Archive (Overview)
21
Flash Archive Introduction
FIGURE 1–2
Solaris Flash Update
Clone
systems
before
install
Clone
systems
after
install
Modifications
Master
System
Updated with
modifications
Old
Master
image
flar
create -A
Differential
archive
Install clone systems with modifications and
validate master and clone system images.
Exact duplicate of master
Duplicate of master but contains small changes
Duplicate of master but contains extra files
Duplicate of master but missing some files
Created from different master or installed separately
Update fails
22
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2
C H A P T E R
2
Flash Archive (Planning)
This chapter provides information necessary for planning a Flash Archive,a feature of Oracle
Solaris, installation in your environment.
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
Before you create and install a Flash Archive, you must make some decisions about how you
want to install the Oracle Solaris OS on your systems. The first time that you install a system,
you install with a full archive that is an initial installation. After a system has been installed with
an archive, the system can be updated with a differential archive. The differential archive installs
only the differences between two archives.
Note – Starting with the Solaris 10 10/09 release, you can set up a JumpStart, a feature of Oracle
Solaris, profile to identify a Flash archive of a ZFS root pool. See “What's New in the Solaris 10
10/09 Release” on page 18.
Review the following limitations before creating and installing a Flash Archive.
TABLE 2–1
Limitations When Creating and Installing a Flash Archive Archive
Limitation
Description
When installing the Oracle Solaris OS with a Flash
Archive, the archive and the installation media must
contain identical operating system versions.
For example, if the archive is a Oracle Solaris 10
operating system and you are using DVD media, then
you must use Oracle Solaris 10 DVD media to install
the archive. If the operating systems versions do not
match, the installation on the target system fails.
23
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
TABLE 2–1
Limitations When Creating and Installing a Flash Archive Archive
(Continued)
Limitation
Description
A Flash Archive cannot be properly created when a
non-global zone is installed.
The Solaris Flash feature is not compatible with the
Oracle Solaris Zones partitioning technology. If you
create a Flash Archive, the resulting archive is not
installed properly when the archive is deployed under
these conditions:
■
The archive is created in a non-global zone
■
The archive is created in a global zone that has
non-global zones installed
Starting with the Solaris 10 10/08 release, if you are
installing a Flash Archive from a release before the
Solaris 10 10/08 release, the archive fails to install.
If you need to install a Flash Archive from a previous
release, boot from the previous release and install the
archive.
Designing an Initial Installation of the Master System
The first task in the Flash Archive installation process is to install a system, the master system,
with the configuration that you want each of the clone systems to have. You can use any of the
Oracle Solaris installation methods to install an archive on the master system. The installation
can be a subset or a complete installation of the Oracle Solaris OS. After you complete the
installation, you can add or remove software or modify any configuration files. Some
limitations to installing the master system are the following:
■
The master system and the clone systems must have the same kernel architectures. For
example, you can only use an archive that was created from a master system that has a
Sun4U architecture to install clones with a Sun4U architecture. For sample instructions, see
“Installing a Sun4U Flash Archive on a Sun4V Machine” on page 25.
■
You must install the master system with the exact configuration that you want on each of the
clone systems. The decisions that you make when you design the installation of the master
system depend on the following:
■
The software that you want to install on the clone systems
■
Peripheral devices that are connected to the master system and the clone systems
■
The architecture of the master system and the clone systems
Note – If you already have installed clone systems and want to update these systems with a new
configuration, see “Planning to Create the Flash Archive Differential Archive for an Update” on
page 30.
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Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
▼ Installing a Sun4U Flash Archive on a Sun4V Machine
Before You Begin
Note the following limitations to this procedure:
■
These instructions are for simple installations only, not for the following:
■
■
■
1
Installations with zones.
Installations with attached storage.
Installations with fibre attached or with SAN in use.
■
These instructions are for installing through the primary interface only. See CR 6772769.
■
These instructions may not work with volume-managed root (encapsulated).
■
These instructions are for a UFS root only. Solaris Flash installation of a ZFS root system
uses a different installation mechanism.
Create a Flash Archive on a Sun4U machine, so that the archive can be installed on a Sun4V
machine. Use one of the following two options to add Sun4V as a supported architecture for the
archive.
Note – You must start with a Sun4U machine that has been installed with the Entire Plus OEM
Software Group, so that all the driver packages are in the image, even if these packages are not in
use. For further information about this requirement, see “SPARC: Supporting Peripheral
Devices Not Found on the Master System” on page 27.
Note that, in order for a Flash Archive to be installed on different system types, the Entire Plus
OEM distribution needs to be installed on the master system.
■
Add the following information to the /var/sadm/system/admin/.platform file. Then,
create the Flash Archive.
PLATFORM_GROUP=sun4v
Note – You can verify that the Sun4V platform group is supported by using the following
command:
# flar -i <path_to_hybrid>.flar | grep content_architectures
This command should display the following results:
content_architectures=sun4u,sun4v
■
Create the Flash Archive, using the -U option to add Sun4V as a supported architecture for
the archive. See the following example:
# flarcreate -n S10U5hybrid -U "content_architectures=sun4u,sun4v" \
-c -x /data /data/S10U5hybrid.flar
Chapter 2 • Flash Archive (Planning)
25
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
The above sample command provides /data for the -c option, to indicate the location for
the archive. Your value for this -c option should reflect your file setup.
Note – You can verify that the Sun4V platform group is supported by using the flar
command again as shown in the previous step.
2
Install the Flash Archive on the Sun4V machine. You can use JumpStart, a feature of Oracle
Solaris, and a net image to deploy the Flash Archive.
Note – At this point, the Sun4V machine may not boot. Do not try to patch the machine at this
stage. If the machine is allowed to reboot after using JumpStart, you will probably see a message
such as:
Boot device: /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/disk@0,0:a File and args:
Boot load failed.
The file just loaded does not appear to be executable.
3
Upgrade the Sun4V machine using either a network image or a DVD image.
For example, you could use a Solaris 10 Update 6 JumpStart image. Then, you could boot the
Sun4V image from that network image, selecting the upgrade option.
In this example, the upgrade completes with the following issues:
4
■
Where both .u and .v versions of a package were available, both versions will be installed.
See CR 6846077.
■
The /var/sadm/system/admin/.platform file contains incorrect information. See CR
6523030.
■
Any third party .v packages are not part of the Oracle Solaris image. So, third party
packages will probably not be upgraded.
Boot the Sun4V machine. You can now apply patches to the machine as needed.
Customizing the Oracle Solaris Installation on the Master System
After you install the Oracle Solaris OS on the master system by using any of the Oracle Solaris
installation methods, you can add or delete software and modify system configuration
information as necessary. To customize the master system's software, you can do the following:
■
26
Delete software. You can remove software that you determine is not necessary to install on
the clone systems. To see a list of software that is installed on the master system, use the
Product Registry. For detailed instructions, refer to System Administration Guide: Basic
Administration.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
■
Add software. You can install software that is included in the Oracle Solaris release. You can
also add software that is not delivered as part of the Oracle Solaris OS. All of the software
that you install on the master system is included in the Flash Archive and is installed on the
clone systems.
■
Modify configuration files. You can alter configuration files on the master system. For
example, you can modify the /etc/inet/inetd.conf file to restrict the daemons that the
system runs. All of the modifications that you make are saved as part of the Flash Archive
and are installed on the clone systems.
■
Further customization can be done when creating the archive. For example, you can exclude
large data files that you might not want in the archive. For an overview, see “Customizing an
Archive's Files and Directories” on page 30.
Creating Archives for SPARC and x86 Systems
If you want to install Oracle Solaris software by using a Flash Archive archive on both SPARC
and x86 systems, you must create a separate Flash Archive archive for each platform. Use the
Flash Archive that was created from the SPARC master system to install SPARC systems. Use
the Flash Archive that was created from the x86 master system to install x86 systems.
SPARC: Supporting Peripheral Devices Not Found on the Master System
Choosing the drivers to install on the master system has the following dependencies.
■
The type of peripheral devices attached to both the master system and the clone system.
■
The type of software group installed.
The Entire Plus OEM Software Group installs all drivers regardless of the hardware that is
present on the system. Other software groups provide limited support. If you install another
software group and the clone systems have different peripheral devices than the master system,
you need to install the appropriate drivers on the master system before you create the archive.
Note – In order for a Flash Archive to be installed on different system types, the Entire Plus OEM
distribution needs to be installed on the master system.
How to Get the Support for Peripherals That You Need
You can install support for peripherals on clone systems that are different from the master
system in by installing the Entire Plus OEM Software Group or installing selected packages.
Chapter 2 • Flash Archive (Planning)
27
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
Type of Installation
Description
Install the Entire
Plus OEM
Software Group
The Entire Plus OEM Software Group is the largest Software Group available. This group
contains every package that is found in the Oracle Solaris OS. The Entire Plus OEM
Software Group installs all drivers regardless of the hardware that is present on the system.
A Flash Archive that is created with the Entire Plus OEM Software Group works on any
clone system that has peripheral devices supported by the installed release of the Oracle
Solaris OS.
Note – In order for a Flash Archive to be installed on different system types, the Entire Plus
OEM distribution needs to be installed on the master system.
Installing master systems with the Entire Plus OEM Software Group guarantees
compatibility with other peripheral configurations. However, the Entire Plus OEM
Software Group requires at least 2.9 GB of disk space. The clone systems might not have the
space that is required to install the Entire Plus OEM Software Group.
Install other
software groups
If you install the master system with the following software groups, you are limiting the
support for peripherals. The master system supports only the peripheral devices that are
attached to the master system at the time of installation.
■
Reduced Networking Software Group
■
Core Software Group
■
End User Software Group
■
Developer Software Group
■
Entire Software Group
Installing these software groups could result in your clone systems failing to have all the
drivers needed. For example, if you install the Entire Software Group on a master system
that has a GX CG6 frame buffer, only the GX CG6 frame buffer driver is installed. This
situation is not a problem if all the clone systems that you want to install have the GX CG6
frame buffer or no frame buffer.
Install selected
packages
When you install the master system, you can install only the packages that you need for the
master system and the clone systems. By selecting specific packages, you can install only
support for the peripherals that you know exist on the master system or clone systems.
Planning the Creation of a Flash Archive Archive
You can create an archive from the master system for an initial installation. Or, if you have
already installed an archive on clone systems, you can create a differential archive from two
system images. The differential archive installs only the differences between the two images.
Planning to Create the Flash Archive Archive for an Initial Installation
After you install the master system, the next task in the Flash Archive installation process is to
create a Flash Archive. Files on the master system are copied to a Flash Archive along with
various pieces of identification information. You can create a Flash Archive while the master
system is running in multiuser mode or single-user mode. You can also create a Flash Archive
after you boot from one of the following:
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Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
■
Oracle Solaris Operating System DVD
■
Oracle Solaris Software - 1 CD
■
An image of the Oracle Solaris Software CDs and the Oracle Solaris Languages CDs
Note – Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, only a DVD is provided. Oracle
Solaris Software CDs are no longer provided.
Caution – A Flash Archive cannot be properly created when a non-global zone is installed. The
Solaris Flash feature is not compatible with the Oracle Solaris Zones partitioning technology. If
you create a Flash Archive, the resulting archive is not installed properly when the archive is
deployed under these conditions:
■
■
The archive is created in a non-global zone
The archive is created in a global zone that has non-global zones installed
Creating Flash Archive With RAID-1 Volumes
You can create a Flash Archive archive when you have Solaris Volume Manager RAID-1
volumes configured. The Flash Archive creation software removes all RAID-1 volume
information from the archive to keep the integrity of the clone system. With custom JumpStart
you can rebuild the RAID-1 volumes by using a JumpStart profile. With Live Upgrade, a feature
of Oracle Solaris, you create a boot environment with RAID-1 volumes configured and install
the archive. The Oracle Solaris installation program cannot be used to install RAID-1 volumes
with a Flash Archive.
■
For examples of RAID-1 volumes in JumpStart profiles, see “Profile Examples” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
■
For examples of Live Upgrade boot environments configured with RAID-1 volumes, see
“Creating a New Boot Environment” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live
Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Note – Veritas VxVM stores configuration information in areas not available to Flash Archive. If
Veritas VxVM file systems have been configured, you should not create a Flash Archive. Also,
Oracle Solaris install, including JumpStart and Live Upgrade do not support rebuilding VxVM
volumes at installation time. Therefore, if you are planning to deploy Veritas VxVM software
using a Flash Archive, the archive must be created prior to configuring the VxVM file systems.
The clone systems must be then configured individually after the archive has been applied and
the system rebooted.
Chapter 2 • Flash Archive (Planning)
29
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
Creating an Archive That Contains Large Files
The default copy method that is used when you create a Flash Archive is the cpio utility.
Individual file sizes cannot be over 4 GB. If you have large individual files, you can create an
archive with the pax copy method. The flarcreate command with the -L pax option uses the
pax utility to create an archive without limitations on individual file sizes. Individual file sizes
can be greater than 4 GB.
Planning to Create the Flash Archive Differential Archive for an Update
If you have a clone system that is already installed with an archive and want to update it, you can
create a differential archive that contains only the differences between two images, the
unchanged master image and an updated master image. The differences between these two
images is the differential archive.
■
One image is running on the master system that was the original software installed on the
clone system. This image might need be installed on the master system if it was saved in a
directory for future use.
■
Another image is to be accessed and used for comparison. This image contains the new
additions or deletions that will be installed on the clone systems.
After you update a clone system with a differential archive, only the files that are in the
differential archive are changed on the clone system. Scripts can be used to customize the
archive before or after installation, which is especially helpful for reconfiguration.
You can install a Flash Archive differential archive with the custom JumpStart installation
method. Or, you can use Live Upgrade to install a differential archive on an inactive boot
environment.
An unchanged master image should be saved after the initial installation so this image can be
accessed by any of the following methods.
■
A Live Upgrade boot environment, mounted on some directory that uses the lumount
command. For a description of a Live Upgrade boot environment, see Chapter 2, “Live
Upgrade (Overview),” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live Upgrade and
Upgrade Planning.
■
A clone system that is mounted over Network File System (NFS) with root permissions.
■
A system backup that can be restored with the ufsdump command.
For step-by-step instructions, see “To Create a Flash Archive Differential Archive With an
Updated Master Image” on page 48.
Customizing an Archive's Files and Directories
When you create a Flash Archive, some files and directories that are to be copied from the
master system can be excluded. If you have excluded a directory, you can also restore specified
30
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
files or subdirectories under that directory. For example, you could create an archive that
excludes all files and directories in /a/aa/bb/c. The content of the bb subdirectory could be
included. The only content would then be in the bb subdirectory.
Caution – Use the flarcreate file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude some
directories, others that you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as system
configuration files. The system would then be inconsistent and the installation would not work.
Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can easily be removed without
disrupting the system, such as large data files.
The following table lists the flarcreate command options that can exclude files and directories
and restore files and subdirectories.
How Specified?
Options That Exclude
Options That Include
Specify the name of the directory or -x exclude_dir/filename
file
-y include_dir/filename
Use a file that contains a list
-X list_filename
-f list_filename
-z list_filename
-z list_filename
For descriptions of these options, see Table 6–7.
For examples of customizing an archive, see “Creating a Flash Archive and Customizing Files
(Examples)” on page 46.
Customizing an Archive With Scripts
After the software is installed on the master system, special scripts can be run during creation,
installation, postinstallation and first reboot. These scripts enable you to do the following:
■
Configure applications on clone systems. You can use a custom JumpStart script for some
uncomplicated configurations. For more complicated configurations, special
configuration-file processing might be necessary on the master system or before or after
installation on the clone system.
■
Protect local customizations on clone systems. Local preinstallation and postinstallation
scripts reside on the clone. These scripts protect local customizations from being
overwritten by the Flash Archive software.
■
Identify nonclonable, host-dependent data that enables you to make the archive host
independent. Host independence is enabled by modifying such data or excluding it from the
archive. An example of host-dependent data is a log file.
■
Validate software integrity in the archive during creation.
■
Validate the installation on the clone system.
Chapter 2 • Flash Archive (Planning)
31
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script
When creating scripts other than the reboot script, following these guidelines to assure the
script does not corrupt the OS or otherwise disrupt the system. These guidelines enable the use
of Live Upgrade, which creates a new boot environment for installation of the OS. The new boot
environment can be installed with an archive while the current system is running.
Note – These guidelines are not for reboot scripts that are allowed to run daemons or make other
types of modification to the root (/) file system.
■
Scripts must not affect the currently running system. The currently running OS might not
be the one running when the Flash Archive is installed.
■
Scripts must not start or stop any daemon processes.
■
Scripts must not depend on the output of commands such as ps, truss, or uname, which are
dependent on the OS. These commands report information about the currently running
system.
■
Scripts must not send any signals or otherwise affect any currently running processes.
■
Scripts can use standard UNIX commands that facilitate shell scripting such as expr, cp, and
ls.
For an overview of Live Upgrade, see Chapter 2, “Live Upgrade (Overview),” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Flash Archive Sections
Flash Archive contains the following sections. Some sections can be used by you to identify and
customize the archive and view status information on the installation. For a further description
of each section, see Chapter 6, “Flash Archive (Reference).”
TABLE 2–2
Flash Archive Sections
Section Name
Informational Only Description
Archive cookie
X
The first section contains a cookie that identifies the file as a Flash Archive.
Archive identification
The second section contains keywords with values that provide identification
information about the archive. Some identification information is supplied by the
archive software. Other specific identification information can be added by you with
options to the flarcreate command.
User-defined
This section follows the archive identification section. You can define and insert these
sections to customize the archive. The Flash Archive does not process any sections that
you insert. For example, a section could contain a description of the archive or perhaps
a script to check the integrity of an application.
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Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
TABLE 2–2
Flash Archive Sections
(Continued)
Section Name
Informational Only Description
Manifest
X
This section is produced for a Flash Archive differential archive and is used for
validating a clone system. The manifest section lists the files on a system to be retained,
added to, or deleted from the clone system. This section is informational only, lists the
files in an internal format, and cannot be used for scripting.
Predeployment,
Postdeployment, Reboot
X
This section contains internal information that the Flash software uses before and after
installing an OS image. Any scripts that you have provided are included in this section.
Summary
This section contains messages about the archive creation. The section also records the
activities of predeployment and postdeployment scripts. You can view the success of the
installation in this section by writing a script to send output to this section.
Archive files
X
The archive files section contains the files that have been gathered from the master
system.
When to Create the Archive for an Initial Installation
Create the archive when the system is in as static a state as possible. Create the archive after
software is installed on the master system and before software is configured.
Where to Store the Flash Archive
After you create the Flash Archive, you can save the archive on the hard disk of the master
system or on a tape. After you save the archive, you can copy this archive to any file system or
media that you choose.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Network File System (NFS) server
HTTP or HTTPS server
FTP server
Tape
CD, DVD
Diskette
Local drive of clone system that you want to install
Compressing the Archive
When you create the Flash Archive, you can specify that the archive be saved as a compressed
file by using the compress(1) utility. An archive that is compressed requires less disk storage
space and creates less congestion when you install the archive over a network.
Planning the Installation of Flash Archive
The final task in the Flash Archive installation process is to install Flash Archive on clone
systems. You can use any of the Oracle Solaris installation methods to install Flash Archive on
clone systems.
Chapter 2 • Flash Archive (Planning)
33
Planning Your Flash Archive Installation
Note – Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, Auto Registration, a feature of Oracle
Solaris, is enabled by default. The impact of Auto Registration on your work with Flash Archive
varies depending on which installation method is used. See “What's New in the Oracle Solaris
10 9/10 Release” on page 16.
If you are using a pre-Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 archive, there is no Auto Registration impact.
Installation Program
Archives Storable on This Media
For Step-by-Step Instructions
Solaris installation
program
■
NFS server
HTTP server
FTP server
Local tape
Local device, including DVD or CD
Local file
“Installing a Flash Archive With the Oracle Solaris
Installation Program” on page 55
NFS server
HTTP or HTTPS server
FTP server
Local tape
Local device, including DVD or CD
Local file
“To Prepare to Install a Flash Archive With a
Custom JumpStart Installation” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom
JumpStart and Advanced Installations
NFS server
HTTP server
FTP server
Local tape
Local device, including DVD or CD
Local file
“Installing Flash Archives on a Boot Environment”
in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live
Upgrade and Upgrade Planning
■
■
■
■
■
Custom JumpStart
installation program
■
■
■
■
■
■
Live Upgrade
■
■
■
■
■
■
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3
C H A P T E R
3
Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
This chapter provides the procedures for creating a Flash Archive, a feature of Oracle Solaris.
These procedures include installing a master system and then creating a Flash Archive from
that master system. You can also create a differential archive if you have previously installed an
archive on a clone system. When the differential archive is created, two images are compared:
the unchanged master image and an updated image. The differential archive installs only the
differences between the two images. Also, procedures to create scripts are provided to
reconfigure or otherwise customize the archive.
For limitations when creating or installing a Flash Archive, see Table 2–1.
■
■
■
■
“Task map: Creating Flash Archive” on page 35
“Installing the Master System” on page 36
“Creating Customization Scripts” on page 37
“Creating a Flash Archive” on page 41
Task map: Creating Flash Archive
TABLE 3–1
Task map: Creating a Flash Archive to Install With an Initial Installation
Task
Description
For instructions
Install your chosen software configuration
on the master system
Determine the configuration that meets
your needs and use any of the Oracle
Solaris installation methods to install the
master system.
“To Install the Master System for an Initial
Installation” on page 37
(Optional) Create customization scripts
Determine if you need to create scripts to
“Creating Customization Scripts” on
do the following:
page 37
■
Customize or reconfigure the archive
■
Protect local changes on clone systems
35
Installing the Master System
TABLE 3–1
Task map: Creating a Flash Archive to Install With an Initial Installation
(Continued)
Task
Description
Create the Flash Archive
Use the flarcreate command to create an “To Create a Flash Archive for an Initial
archive.
Installation” on page 42
(Optional) Save a copy of the archive
Keep a copy of the archive for future
comparison to update a clone system with
a differential archive.
TABLE 3–2
For instructions
“To Create a Flash Archive for an Initial
Installation” on page 42
Task map: Creating a Flash Archive to Update a Clone System
Task
Description
For instructions
Prepare master image
Make changes to the unchanged master
image such as adding or deleting packages
or installing patches.
“Installing the Master System” on page 36
(Optional) Create customization scripts
Determine if you need to create scripts to
“Creating Customization Scripts” on
do the following:
page 37
■
Customize or reconfigure the archive
■
Protect local changes on clone systems
Create the Flash Archive differential
archive
1. Mount the unchanged master image.
2. Use the flarcreate command to
compare the two images and create the
differential archive.
“To Create a Flash Archive Differential
Archive With an Updated Master Image”
on page 48
Installing the Master System
You install the master system with the software configuration that you want other systems to
have. You can install clone systems with an initial installation that overwrites all files on the
system or with an update that only includes the differences between two images. For an initial
installation, use any of the Oracle Solaris installation methods to install the Oracle Solaris OS on
the master system.
If you have previously installed an archive on a clone system, you can update that system with
changes by using a differential archive. The changes are made to the original image such as
installing patches, or adding and removing packages. The differential archive overwrites only
the files specified in the archive. For the procedure that is for updating the original master image
and creating a differential archive, see “To Create a Flash Archive Differential Archive With an
Updated Master Image” on page 48.
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Creating Customization Scripts
▼
To Install the Master System for an Initial Installation
1
Identify the system configuration that you want to install.
2
With the use of the Oracle Solaris installation programs, install the Oracle Solaris OS on the
master system. For a discussion of the different installation program , refer to “Choosing an
Oracle Solaris Installation Method” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Planning for
Installation and Upgrade.
3
Customize your Oracle Solaris installation in any of the following ways:
■
■
■
■
Delete software.
Add software.
Modify configuration files.
Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.
You can create custom scripts or use the flarcreate command to create the archive.
■
■
To create custom scripts, see “Creating Customization Scripts” on page 37.
To create the archive, see “Creating a Flash Archive” on page 41.
Creating Customization Scripts
Scripts can customize the archive. Use these scripts for the following purposes:
■
A precreation script validates the archive at creation time and prepares the archive for later
customization, especially differential archives. This script also can create a user-defined
section in the archive.
■
A predeployment script validates the archive during installation and prepares the archive
for later customization.
■
A postdeployment script reconfigures a new system image on a clone system.
■
A reboot script processes a final reconfiguration after the system is rebooted.
For guidelines about creating scripts, see “Guidelines for Creating a Custom Script” on page 32.
▼
To Create a Precreation Script
This script runs during archive creation. The script has various uses.
■
Validates the contents and the integrity of the software. The script fails the archive creation
if the integrity is broken.
■
Prepares products for later customization on clone system.
■
Registers other installation scripts dynamically during archive creation.
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
37
Creating Customization Scripts
■
Adds a message to the flash-creation summary file. The message must be short and record
only that scripts were started and finished and the results. You can view the results in the
summary section.
1
Create the precreation script. Follow the guidelines that are described in “Guidelines for
Creating a Custom Script”on page 32.
2
Store the script in the /etc/flash/precreation directory.
Example 3–1
Excerpts From a Precreation Script
The following examples are excerpts from a precreation script.
■
To log the start time in the summary section, use the following example:
echo "Myapp precreation script started">> $FLASHDIR/summary
■
To check the software integrity, use the flcheck command. This command cannot be used
at the command line. The syntax for this command is as follows:
flcheck Software component files and directories ...| -
For example, to validate the files and directories, use the following example:
flcheck Software component files and directories
If Not in selection - refuse creation
echo "Myapp integrity damage">>$FLASHDIR/summary
Or, to keep new files and directories that are unexpected and not fail the archive creation,
use the following example:
flcheck Software component files and directories
If Not in selection include by force
flinclude Software component
■
To register deployment scripts and data, use the following example:
■
Copy the script to the following directory:
■
Or, to register the script dynamically during archive creation, copy the script to the
following directory.
cp predeployment script /etc/flash/predeployment
cp predeployment script $FLASHDIR/predeployment
■
To see application-specific data in a user-defined section, use the following example:
cp custom section $FLASHDIR/custom_sections/Myapp
■
To log the success of the installation in the summary section, use the following example:
echo "product one flash preparation started." >>$FLASH_DIR/summary
...
echo "product one flash preparation finished successfully">>$FLASH_DIR/summary
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Creating Customization Scripts
Example 3–2
Precreation Script
#!/bin/sh
echo "Test precreation script started" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
cat /opt/TestApp/critical_file_list | flcheck if [ $? != 0 ]; then
echo "Test precreation script failure" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
exit 1
fi
echo "Test precreation script started" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
/opt/TestApplication/license_cloning
$FLASH_DIR/predeployment/.TestApplicationLicenceTransfer \
$FLASH_DIR/custom_sections/TestApplicationLicenceCounter
echo "Test precreation script finished" >> $FLASH_DIR/summary
exit 0
Using a Precreation Script to Create a User-Defined
Archive Section
A precreation script can create a user-defined section in the archive to provide specific
application information. This section is intended for archive maintenance. The script must be
put in the $FLASH_DIR/sections directory. The Flash Archive does not process a user-defined
section. For example, a section could contain a description of the archive or perhaps a script to
check the integrity of an application.
A user-defined section requires the following format.
■
■
■
■
▼
Must be line oriented
Must terminate with newline (ASCII 0x0a) characters
Can have unlimited length of individual lines
Must encode binary data by using base64 or a similar algorithm
To Create a Predeployment Script
This script is run before the installation of the archive. If the script is meant to validate the
archive, it is kept in the archive. If the script is meant to preserve local configurations on the
clone system, it is kept on the clone system. This script also can analyze and collect local data
necessary for later customization. For example, client-specific information can be saved before
being overwritten by files about to be extracted. This information can then be used in the final
stage after extraction.
1
Create the predeployment script. Follow the guidelines that are described in “Guidelines for
Creating a Custom Script”on page 32.
2
Store the script in one of the following directories.
■
For archive validation, store in the /etc/flash/predeployment directory.
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
39
Creating Customization Scripts
Example 3–3
■
If you are referencing with a precreation script, store in the $FLASH_DIR/preinstall
directory.
■
If you are preserving configurations on a clone system, provide the path to the script that is
stored on the clone system with the local_customization keyword in the jumpstart
profile.
Predeployment Script
#!/bin/sh
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/check_hardware
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
echo Unsupported hardware
exit 1
fi
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/check_licence_key
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
echo No license for this host
exit 1
fi
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/deploy_license_key \
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/.TestApplicationLicenceTransfer
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/save_data_files $FLASH_DIR/flash
exit 0
▼
To Create a Postdeployment Script
This script is kept in the archive or stored in a local directory on the clone system and runs after
installation. The script reconfigures a new system image on a clone system. If the script is stored
in the archive, the changes affect all the clone systems. If the script is stored in a local directory
on the clone system, the changes affect only the clone system. For example, client-specific
information that is saved by a predeployment script can be applied to the clone environment,
completing the installation.
Postdeployment scripts can also be used to clean up files after the archive is installed. For
example, log files such as those files in /var/adm can be cleaned out.
Note – Not all log files need a script for cleanup. Log files in /var/tmp can be excluded when the
archive is created.
40
1
Create the postdeployment script. Follow the guidelines that are described in “Guidelines for
Creating a Custom Script”on page 32.
2
Store the script in one of the following directories.
■
To affect all clone systems, store the script in the /etc/flash/postdeployment directory.
■
To affect only a local clone system, provide the path to the script that is stored on the clone
system with the local_customization keyword in the jumpstart profile.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Creating a Flash Archive
Example 3–4
Postdeployment Script
#!/bin/sh
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/clone_reconfiguration
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/restore_data $FLASH_DIR/flash
▼
To Create a Reboot Script
This script is kept in the archive and runs after the system is rebooted. The script does any final
configuration after system reconfiguration.
After you install the Flash Archive on a clone system, some host-specific files are deleted and are
re-created for the clone machine. The installation program uses the sys-unconfig(1m)
command and the sysidtool(1m) programs to delete and re-create host-specific network
configuration files. The files that are re-created include, for example, /etc/hosts,
/etc/defaultrouter, and /etc/defaultdomain. You can use the reboot script for any final
reconfiguration.
1
Create the reboot script.
2
Store the script in the /etc/flash/reboot directory.
Example 3–5
Creating a reboot Script
#!/bin/sh
$FLASH_DIR/TestApplication/finalize_license
Creating a Flash Archive
You can create an archive with an initial installation that overwrites all the files on the clone
system, or you can create a differential archive that only overwrites the changes that are
specified. For an overview of a differential archive, see “Planning to Create the Flash Archive
Differential Archive for an Update” on page 30.
Caution – A Flash Archive cannot be properly created when a non-global zone is installed. The
Flash Archive feature is not compatible with the Oracle Solaris Zones partitioning technology.
If you create a Flash Archive, the resulting archive is not installed properly when the archive is
deployed under these conditions:
■
■
The archive is created in a non-global zone
The archive is created in a global zone that has non-global zones installed
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
41
Creating a Flash Archive
▼
To Create a Flash Archive for an Initial Installation
After you install the master system, create a Flash Archive to use to install other systems.
1
Become superuser or assume an equivalent role.
Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see
“Configuring RBAC (Task Map)” in System Administration Guide: Security Services.
2
Boot the master system and run it in as inactive a state as possible.
When possible, run the system in single-user mode. If that is not possible, shut down any
applications that you want to archive and any applications that require extensive operating
system resources.
You can create a Flash Archive while the master system is running in multiuser mode,
single-user mode, or while booted from one of the following:
■
Oracle Solaris Operating System DVD.
Note – Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, only a dvd is provided. Oracle
Solaris Software cds are no longer provided.
3
■
Oracle Solaris Software - 1 CD.
■
An image of the Oracle Solaris Software. If you are using cd media, the image could include
the Oracle Solaris Languages CDs if needed.
To create the archive, use the flarcreate command.
# flarcreate -n name options path/filename
4
42
name
The name that you give the archive. The name you specify is the value of the
content_name keyword.
options
For a description of options, see “flar Command” on page 75.
path
The path to the directory in which you want to save the archive file. If you do not
specify a path, flarcreate saves the archive file in the current directory.
filename
The name of the archive file.
■
If the archive creation is successful, the flarcreate command returns an exit code of 0.
■
If the archive creation fails, the flarcreate command returns a nonzero exit code.
Make a copy of the archive and save it. The copy can be used in the future to update a clone
system with a differential archive.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Creating a Flash Archive
Creating a Flash Archive (Examples)
File systems can be copied exactly or can be customized by excluding some directories or files.
You can achieve the same results by using different options. Use the options that best suit your
environment.
The file systems in the following examples have been greatly simplified for clarification. Rather
than use file system names such as /var, /usr, or /opt, the master system file structure for these
examples is the following:
/aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
/aaa/bbb/fff
/aaa/eee
/ggg
Caution – Use the flarcreate file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude some
directories, others that you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as system
configuration files. The system would then be inconsistent and the installation would not work.
Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can easily be removed without
disrupting the system, such as large data files.
Creating a Flash Archive (Various Examples)
EXAMPLE 3–6
Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive
In this example, the archive is named archive1. This archive is copied exactly from the master
system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the master system and is
stored in archive1.flar.
# flarcreate -n archive1 -c archive1.flar
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following.
# flar info -l archive1.flarlost+found
export
export/home
export/home/lost+found
var
var/sadm
var/sadm/install
var/sadm/install/admin
var/sadm/install/admin/default
var/sadm/install/logs
var/sadm/install/contents
var/sadm/install/.lockfile
var/sadm/install/.pkg.lock
var/sadm/pkg
var/sadm/pkg/sunwocfd
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
43
Creating a Flash Archive
EXAMPLE 3–6
Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive
(Continued)
var/sadm/pkg/sunwocfd/install
var/sadm/pkg/sunwocfd/install/copyright
var/sadm/pkg/sunwocfd/save
var/sadm/pkg/sunwocfd/save/pspool
var/sadm/pkg/sunwocfd/save/pspool/SUNWocfd
.....
.....
usr/bin/sparcv7
usr/bin/sparcv7/savecore
usr/bin/sparcv7/gcore
....
....
usr/lib/diff3prog
usr/lib/madv.so.1
usr/lib/mpss.so.1
usr/lib/cpu
usr/lib/cpu/sparcv8plus
....
....
devices/pseudo/udp6@0:udp6
devices/pseudo/udp@0:udp
devices/pseudo/tcp@0:tcp
devices/pseudo/iwscn@0:iwscn
devices/pseudo/wc@0:wscons
devices/pseudo/tcp6@0:tcp6
devices/pseudo/sctp6@0:sctp6
var/fm/fmd/ckpt
var/fm/fmd/rsrc
kernel/drv/st.conf
kernel/drv/st.conf
kernel/drv/st.conf
kernel/drv/st.conf
#
EXAMPLE 3–7
Creating an Archive That Contains Large Files
in this example, some individual files are greater than 4 GB. The default archiving utility, cpio,
cannot handle these large files. The -L pax copy method is used to create an archive that
contains large individual files. The archive is named archive1. This archive is copied exactly
from the master system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the master
system and is stored in archive1.flar.
# flarcreate -l pax -n archive1 -c archive1.flar
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following.
# flar info -l archive1.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb/fff
44
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Creating a Flash Archive
EXAMPLE 3–7
Creating an Archive That Contains Large Files
(Continued)
aaa/eee
aaa/eee
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–8
Creating an Archive From an Alternate Root (/) File System
In this example, the archive is named archive4. This archive is copied exactly from the master
system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the master system and is
stored in archive4.flar. The -R option is used to create the archive from another directory
tree.
# flarcreate -n archive4 -c -R /x/yy/zz archive4.flar
EXAMPLE 3–9
Creating an Archive and Adding Keywords to Describe the Archive
In this example, the archive is named archive3. This archive is copied exactly from the master
system and then compressed. Options add descriptions to the archive-identification section,
which can help you to identify the archive later. For information about keywords, their values,
and formats, see “Flash Archive Keywords” on page 71.
# flarcreate -n archive3 -i 20000131221409 -m pumbaa \
-e "Solaris 8 Print Server" -a "Mighty Matt" -U "Internal Finance" \
-T server archive3.flar
After the archive is created, you can access the archive identification section that contains the
detailed description. An example of an archive identification section follows.
section_begin=identification
files_archived_method=cpio
files_compressed_method=compress
files_archived_size=259323342
files_unarchived_size=591238111
creation_date=20000131221409
creation_master=pumbaa
content_name=Finance Print Server
content_type=server
content_description=Solaris 8 Print Server
content_author=Mighty Matt
content_architectures=sun4u
creation_node=pumbaa
creation_hardware_class=sun4u
creation_platform=SUNW,Sun-Fire
creation_processor=sparc
creation_release=5.9
creation_os_name=SunOS
creation_os_version=s81_49
x-department=Internal Finance
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
45
Creating a Flash Archive
Creating a Flash Archive and Customizing Files (Examples)
EXAMPLE 3–10
Creating an Archive and Excluding and Including Files and Directories
In this example, the archive is named archive2. This archive is copied from the master system
but is not an exact copy. The content under the /aaa directory is excluded, but the content in
/aaa/bbb/ccc remains.
# flarcreate -n archive2 -x /aaa -y /aaa/bbb/ccc archive2.flar
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories that
include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.
# flar info -l aaa
aaa
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–11
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using Lists
In this example, the archive is named archive5. This archive is copied from the master system
but is not an exact copy.
The exclude file contains the following list:
/aaa
The include file contains the following list:
/aaa/bbb/ccc
The content under the /aaa directory is excluded, but the content in /aaa/bbb/ccc remains.
# flarcreate -n archive5 -X exclude -f include archive5.flar
To check about the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories that
include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.
# flar info -l archive5.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb
ggg
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Creating a Flash Archive
EXAMPLE 3–12
Creating an Archive Excluding Files and Directories by Using a List and Restoring a
Directory
You can combine options -x, -y, -X and -f. In this example, options -X and -y are combined.
The archive is named archive5. This archive is copied from the master system but is not an
exact copy.
The exclude file contains the following list:
/aaa
The -Y option restores the /aaa/bbb/ccc directory. The following command produces the
archive.
# flarcreate -n archive5 -X exclude -y /aaa/bbb/ccc archive5.flar
To check about the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories that
include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.
# flar info -l archive5.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
ggg
EXAMPLE 3–13
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using a List With the
-z Option
In this example, the archive is named archive3. It is copied from the master system but is not
an exact copy. The files and directories to be selected are included in filter1 file. Within the
files, the directories are marked with a minus (-) or a plus (+) to indicate which files to exclude
and restore. In this example, the directory /aaa is excluded with a minus and the subdirectory
/aaa/bbb/ccc is restored with a plus. The filter1 file contains the following list.
- /aaa
+ /aaa/bbb/ccc
The following command produces the archive.
# flarcreate -n archive3 -z filter1 archive3.flar
To check the file structure of the archive, type the following command. The excluded directories
that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.
# flar info -l archive3.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
47
Creating a Flash Archive
EXAMPLE 3–13
-z Option
Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using a List With the
(Continued)
ggg
▼
To Create a Flash Archive Differential Archive With an
Updated Master Image
Before creating a differential archive, you need two images to compare: an unchanged master
image and an updated master image. One image is the unchanged master image that has been
kept unchanged. This image was stored and needs to be accessed. The second image is the
unchanged master image that is updated with minor changes. The root (/) file system is the
default for the new image, but you can access this image if it has been stored elsewhere. After
you have the two images, you can create a differential archive, which contains only the
differences between the two images. The differential archive can then be installed on clones that
were installed previously with the unchanged master image.
1
Prepare the master system with changes. Before changes are made, the master system should
be running a duplicate of the original archive.
Note – A copy of the unchanged master image must be kept protected from changes and
available for mounting later.
2
Update the unchanged master image with any of the following changes.
■
■
■
■
Delete packages.
Add packages or patches.
Modify configuration files.
Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.
3
(Optional) Create custom scripts. See “Creating Customization Scripts”on page 37.
4
Become superuser or assume an equivalent role.
Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see
“Configuring RBAC (Task Map)” in System Administration Guide: Security Services.
5
Deliver the unchanged master image in a mount point.
■
If the unchanged master image is stored on an inactive boot environment, retrieve it by
using the lumount command.
# lumount BE_name mountpoint
48
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Creating a Flash Archive
BE_name
Specifies the boot environment name where the unchanged master image is
stored
mountpoint
Specifies a root (/) file system where the image is stored
In the following example, the inactive boot environment is named unchanged_master1. The
mount point is the directory /a on the master system.
# lumount unchanged_master1 /a
■
If the image is stored on a clone, mount the clone by using NFS.
a. On the master system, share the clone's root (/) file system and give the master root
permissions on the clone system.
# share -F nfs -o rw,root=master_system "/"
master_system is the name of the master system.
b. On the master system, mount the clone.
# mount -F nfs clone_system:/ master_dir
■
6
clone_system
Specifies the name of the system to be mounted
master_dir
Specifies the directory where the unchanged master image is stored
If you saved the image with the ufsdump command, use the ufsrestore command to
retrieve a copy. For information about how to use these commands, see Chapter 26, “UFS
Backup and Restore Commands (Reference),” in System Administration Guide: Devices and
File Systems.
Create the differential archive.
# flarcreate -n archive_name -A unchanged_master_image_dir \
options path/filename
archive_name
Specifies the name that you give the archive. The
archive_name you specify is the value of the
content_name keyword. The name is listed in the
archive-identification section.
-A unchanged_master_image_dir
Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system
image with the image that is specified by the
unchanged_master_image_dir argument. By default, the
new system image is root (/). You can change the default
with the -R option. unchanged_master_image_dir is a
directory where the unchanged system image is stored or
mounted through UFS, NFS, or the lumount command.
You can include and exclude some files by using the
options for contents selection. For a list of options, see
“flar Command” on page 75.
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
49
Creating a Flash Archive
options
For a description of options, see “flar Command” on
page 75.
path
Specifies the path to the directory in which you want to
save the archive file. If you do not specify a path,
flarcreate saves the archive file in the current directory.
filename
Specifies the name of the archive file.
■
If the differential archive creation is successful, the flarcreate command returns an exit
code of 0.
■
If the differential archive creation fails, the flarcreate command returns a nonzero exit
code.
For procedures about installing an archive, see “To Prepare to Install a Flash Archive With a
Custom JumpStart Installation” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart
and Advanced Installations.
Example 3–14
Creating a Differential Archive With the New Master Image on the Master System
In this example, the directory for unchanged master image is named unchanged_master1. The
new master image that contains changes is the root (/) directory. The new master image is
compared to the unchanged master image and the resulting differential archive is then
compressed. The differential archive is stored in diffarchive1.flar file. The archive contains
files that are to be deleted, changed, or added when installed.
# flarcreate -n diffarchive1 -A /a/unchanged_master1 -c diffarchive1.flar
Example 3–15
Creating a Differential Archive with the Images Stored on an Inactive Boot
Environment
In this example, the unchanged master image, unchanged_master1, is stored on an inactive
boot environment and is accessed by mounting the boot environment. The new master image is
the root (/) directory. The new master image is compared to the unchanged master and the
resulting differential archive is then compressed. The archive is stored in diffarchive4.flar.
The archive contains files that are to be deleted, changed, or added when installed.
# lumount unchanged_master1 /a
# flarcreate -n diffarchive4 -A /a -c diffarchive4.flar
50
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Creating a Flash Archive
▼
To Create a Flash Archive Differential Archive by Using
Live Upgrade
To manage system updates, you can use Live Upgrade to copy the OS, which creates a new boot
environment. This copy can be compared to the master system that has been updated with
minor changes. The resulting Flash Archive differential archive can then be installed on clone
systems.
For more information about Live Upgrade, a feature of Oracle Solaris, see Chapter 2, “Live
Upgrade (Overview),” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live Upgrade and Upgrade
Planning.
1
From the unchanged master system, create a new boot environment by using the lucreate
command.
This new boot environment is an exact copy of the master system and can be used to create the
differential archive.
2
Become superuser or assume an equivalent role.
Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see
“Configuring RBAC (Task Map)” in System Administration Guide: Security Services.
3
Check the status of the two boot environments.
# lustatus copy_BE
boot environment Is
Active Active
Can
Copy
Name
Complete Now
OnReboot Delete
Status
-----------------------------------------------------------------------master_BE
yes
yes
yes
no
copy_BE
yes
no
no
yes
-
4
Update the master image with any of the following changes.
■
■
■
■
Delete packages.
Add packages or patches.
Modify configuration files.
Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.
5
(Optional) Create custom scripts. See “Creating Customization Scripts”on page 37.
6
Create the differential archive.
a. Mount the newly created boot environment.
# lumount BE_name /a
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
51
Creating a Flash Archive
b. Create the differential archive by comparing the master system to the boot environment.
# flarcreate -n archive_name -A new_BE_dir\ options path/filename
archive_name
Specifies the name that you give the archive.
-A new_BE_dir
Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system image with the
image that is specified by the new_BE_dir argument.
options
For a list of options, see “flar Command” on page 75.
path
Specifies the path to the directory in which you want to save the archive
file. If you do not specify a path, flarcreate saves the archive file in the
current directory.
filename
Specifies the name of the archive file.
c. Unmount the new boot environment.
# luumount copy_BE
The flarcreate command returns an exit code.
■
■
7
If the creation is successful, an exit code of 0 is returned.
If a failure occurs, a nonzero exit code is returned.
Install the Flash Archive differential archive by using a jumpstart profile.
The clone systems that are to be installed must be a duplicate of the original master system or
the installation fails.
The following example profile installs a differential archive, test.diff, on the device c1t1d0s0.
Jumpstart profile
----------------------install_type flash_update
archive_location http server /rw/test.diff
root_device c1t1d0s0
Example 3–16
Creating a Differential Archive by Using Live Upgrade
master_BE is the name of the current boot environment. copy_BE is the name of the new boot
environment. The file systems root (/) and /usr are placed on s0 and s3. The lustatus
command reports that the new boot environment copy is complete. The SUNWman package is
added to the master system. After the master system is updated by adding the SUNWman package,
the flarcreate command creates a differential archive by comparing the changed master and
the unchanged new boot environment.
# lucreate -c master_BE -m /:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0:ufs \
-m /usr:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s3:ufs -n copy_BE
# lustatus
# pkgadd SUNWman
# lumount copy_BE /a
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Creating a Flash Archive
# flarcreate -n test.diff -c -A /a /net/server/export/test.diff
# luumount copy_BE
Install the differential archive on clone systems. For procedures about installing an archive, see
“To Prepare to Install a Flash Archive With a Custom JumpStart Installation” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
The following image shows the creation of the new boot environment by using the lucreate
command.
Original Master System
2 Physical Disks
c0t0d0
c0t1d0
root (/)
/swap
Master System After
New Boot Environment Creation
c0t0d0
root (/)
/swap
c0t1d0
Copy
Share
root (/)
/swap
Command: # lucreate
-m /:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0:ufs \
-n second_disk
Chapter 3 • Creating Flash Archive (tasks)
53
54
4
C H A P T E R
4
Installing and Administering Flash Archive
(Tasks)
This chapter provides step-by-step procedures for installing a Flash Archive, a feature of Oracle
Solaris, by using the Oracle Solaris installation program. This chapter also provides references
to procedures for installing Flash Archive when using other installation programs. Also,
step-by-step procedures for administering an archive are provided.
For limitations when creating or installing a Flash Archive, see Table 2–1.
Caution – When installing the Oracle Solaris OS with a Flash Archive, the archive and the
installation media must contain identical operating system versions. For example, if the archive
is a Oracle Solaris 10 operating system and you are using DVD media, then you must use Oracle
Solaris 10 DVD media to install the archive. If the operating systems versions do not match, the
installation on the target system fails.
■
If you want to use the Oracle Solaris installation program, see “Installing a Flash Archive
With the Oracle Solaris Installation Program” on page 55.
■
If you want to use the custom JumpStart, a feature of Oracle Solaris, installation method or
Live Upgrade, a feature of Oracle Solaris, see “References to Procedures for Installing Flash
Archive” on page 57.
■
To split or merge an archive, see “Administering Flash Archives” on page 58.
Installing a Flash Archive With the Oracle Solaris Installation
Program
To use the Oracle Solaris installation program to install a Flash Archive, use the following
procedure.
55
Installing a Flash Archive With the Oracle Solaris Installation Program
▼
1
Installing a Flash Archive
Begin the Oracle Solaris installation program and proceed through the panels until you reach
the Specify Media panel. Continue with Flash Archive installation.
For the step-by-step procedures, see either of the following procedures.
2
■
SPARC: “Performing an Installation or Upgrade With the Oracle Solaris Installation
Program for UFS File Systems” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Basic
Installations
■
x86: “Performing an Installation or Upgrade With the Oracle Solaris Installation Program
for UFS File Systems” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
Specify the media you are using to install.
a. Type the information that you are prompted to enter.
Media Selected
Prompt
DVD or CD
Insert the disc where the Flash Archive is located.
Network File System
Specify the path to the network file system where the Flash Archive is
located. You can also specify the archive file name.
HTTP
Specify the URL and proxy information that is needed to access the
Flash Archive.
FTP
Specify the FTP server and the path to the Flash Archive. Specify the
user and password information that allows you access to the FTP
server. Specify any proxy information that is needed to access the FTP
server.
Local tape
Specify the local tape device and the position on the tape where the
Flash Archive is located.
If you selected to install an archive from a DVD, CD, or from an NFS server, the Select Flash
Archives panel is displayed.
b. For archives that are stored on a disc or an NFS server, on the Select Flash Archives panel,
select one or more Flash Archives to install.
c. On the Flash Archives Summary panel, confirm the selected archives and click Next.
d. On the Additional Flash Archives panel, you can install an additional Flash Archive by
specifying the media where the other archive is located. If you do not want to install
additional archives, select None.
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References to Procedures for Installing Flash Archive
3
Click Next to continue the installation.
Follow the steps from one of the following procedures to complete the installation.
■
SPARC: “Performing an Installation or Upgrade With the Oracle Solaris Installation
Program for UFS File Systems” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Basic
Installations
■
x86: “Performing an Installation or Upgrade With the Oracle Solaris Installation Program
for UFS File Systems” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
References to Procedures for Installing Flash Archive
You can use any of the Oracle Solaris installation methods to install Flash Archive for an initial
installation. You must use custom JumpStart or Live Upgrade to install a Flash Archive
differential archive.
Note – Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, Auto Registration, a feature of Oracle
Solaris, is enabled by default. The impact of Auto Registration on your work with Flash
Archives varies depending on which installation method is used. See “What's New in the Oracle
Solaris 10 9/10 Release” on page 16.
If you are using a pre-Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 archive, there is no Auto Registration impact.
Type of Installation
Reference
An initial
installation to
install a Flash
Archive
■
Oracle Solaris installation program – See the previous procedure “Installing a Flash
Archive With the Oracle Solaris Installation Program” on page 55
■
Live Upgrade – See “Installing Flash Archives on a Boot Environment” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
■
Custom JumpStart installation program – See “Creating a Profile” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations and
“To Prepare to Install a Flash Archive With a Custom JumpStart Installation” in
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced
Installations.
■
WAN boot installation method – See Chapter 10, “WAN Boot (Overview),” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Network-Based Installations.
Chapter 4 • Installing and Administering Flash Archive (Tasks)
57
Administering Flash Archives
Type of Installation
Reference
An update with a
Flash Archive
differential
archive
■
Custom JumpStart installation program – See “Creating a Profile” in Oracle
Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations and
“To Prepare to Install a Flash Archive With a Custom JumpStart Installation” in
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced
Installations.
■
Live Upgrade – See “To Install a Flash Archive With a Profile” in Oracle Solaris 10 8/11
Installation Guide: Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Administering Flash Archives
The flar command enables you to administer archives. You can split an archive into sections.
Those sections can be modified, added to, or deleted, and then merged to create an archive. You
can also obtain information about the archive.
Caution – Do not modify the Archive Files section or you compromise the integrity of the
archive.
Splitting a Flash Archive
You can split an archive into sections, which enables you to modify some sections, add new
sections, or delete sections. After you have modified the sections, you need to merge the
sections to create an new archive. For example, you might want to add a user-defined section or
modify the archive identification section. Do not modify the Archive Files section or you
compromise the integrity of the archive.
The flar split command splits a Flash Archive into sections. The flar command copies each
section into a separate file in the current directory or specified directory. The files are named
after the sections, for example, the archive cookie is saved in a file that is named cookie. You
can specify that the flar split command save only one section. The syntax of the command is
as follows:
flar split [-d dir] [-u section] [-f archive] [-S section] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]] filename
-d dir
58
Retrieves the sections to copy from dir, rather than from the current directory.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Administering Flash Archives
-u section
■
If you use this option, flar copies the cookie, identification, archive, and
section sections. You can specify a single section name or a space-separated list
of section names.
■
If you do not use this option, flar copies the cookie, identification, and
archive sections only.
-f archive
Extracts the archive section into a directory that is named archive, rather than
placing it in a file with the name archive.
-S section
Only copies the section that is named section from the archive. This section is user
defined.
EXAMPLE 4–1
Splitting an Archive
In the following example, archive1.flar is split into three files:
■
cookie – The first line of the archive, which identifies the version of the archive format. Do
not change this identifier.
■
identification – A copy of the archive identification section with all keyword-value pairs.
■
archive – The archive itself. This file can be compressed.
# flar split archive1.flar
After the archive is split, you can modify the archive identification section or add a user-defined
section. The sections can then be merged to re-create the archive.
Merging Flash Archives
After you have split an archive into sections, you can combine the sections to create a new
archive.
The flar combine command creates a Flash Archive from individual sections. The following
table describes how the flar command handles combining sections.
Conditions
Description
Minimum number of files Each section is assumed to be in a separate file, the names of which are the section
names. These three files must be present:
■
Archive cookie (cookie)
■
Archive identification (identification)
■
Archive files (archive)
Chapter 4 • Installing and Administering Flash Archive (Tasks)
59
Administering Flash Archives
Conditions
Description
Archive copy method
If archive is a directory, the contents are archived before including the directory
in the combined archive by using the cpio copy utility.
■
cpio is the default copy method. Individual file sizes cannot be greater than 4
GB.
■
pax is the copy method to handle large individual files. The flarcreate
command with the -L pax option uses the pax utility to create an archive
without limitations on individual file sizes. Individual file sizes can be greater
than 4 GB.
Compressing an archive
If the archive identification section specifies to compress the archive, flar
compresses the contents of the newly combined archive.
Validation
No validation is performed on any of the sections. In particular, no fields in the
archive identification section are validated or updated.
The following command syntax is for flar combine command.
flar combine [-d dir] [-u section] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]] filename
-d dir
Retrieves the sections to combine from dir, rather than from the current
directory.
-u section
EXAMPLE 4–2
■
If you use this option, flar copies the cookie, identification, archive, and
section sections. You can specify a single section name or a space-separated
list of section names.
■
If you do not use this option, flar copies the cookie, identification, and
archive sections only.
Merging a Flash Archive
In this example, an archive cookie section, an archive identification section, and an archive files
section are combined to become a complete archive. The archive is named newarchive.flar.
# flar combine newarchive.flar
EXAMPLE 4–3
Merging a Flash Archive and Adding a User-Defined Section
In this example, an archive cookie section, an archive identification section, an archive files
section, and a user-defined section are combined to become a complete archive. The archive is
named newarchive.flar. The user-defined section content is in the file that is named
user-defined, which is in the current directory.
# flar combine -u user_defined newarchive.flar
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Administering Flash Archives
Extracting Information From an Archive
Use the flar info command to obtain information about archives you have already created.
The syntax of the command is as follows:
flar info [-l] [-k keyword] [-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]] filename
-k keyword
Returns only the value of the keyword keyword.
-l
Lists all the files in the archive section.
EXAMPLE 4–4
Listing Files in an Archive Section
In this example, the command checks the file structure of the archive named archive3.flar.
# flar info -l archive3.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/eee
Chapter 4 • Installing and Administering Flash Archive (Tasks)
61
62
5
C H A P T E R
5
Creating and Using a Disaster Recovery Image
You can use the following procedures to create a Flash Archive recovery image that can be used
to restore a system to “factory fresh” condition.
■
■
“Creating and Saving a FLAR Image” on page 63
“Recovering the System Image From a FLAR Image” on page 65
Recovery Image Procedures
The following procedures provide the simplest instructions for creating a Flash Archive image
that can be loaded onto the target system in order to recover from a failed disk drive.
▼
Before You Begin
1
Creating and Saving a FLAR Image
To perform these procedures, you need access to the following:
■
Either the initial boot media, such as the installation CD or DVD, or a netinstall service
■
Off-system storage for the FLAR image
Record the partition table of the disk drive that the image is for.
This step assumes that the replacement disk drive will be the same size and partitioned
identically to the original drive.
Use one of the following two methods to obtain information about the partition table on the
disk drive.
■
As superuser (root), use the format command to print the partition table for the drive that
the FLAR image will be taken from.
# format
63
Recovery Image Procedures
The format command provides the names of the partitions.
a. Select the boot drive from the list.
The first disk in the list is usually the boot drive.
b. Use the partition sub-command to access the Partition Menu.
c. Use the quit sub-command to exit from the Partition Menu.
d. Use the quit sub-command to exit from the Format application.
For further information, see the format(1M) man page.
■
As superuser (root), use the prtvtoc command to generate the partition information.
# prtvtoc /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s0
The prtvtoc command provides the size of the partitions by the number of cylinders for
each partition.
Save the information to a safe location. You will use this information during the restoration of
the system image during recovery.
2
Ensure there is adequate space for the FLAR image where it will be created.
The FLAR archive will require up to 15 GB of space without compression.
# df -h /tmp
Note – If you do not have sufficient space in /tmp, try a different filesystem, such as /export,
instead. In which case, use the alternate filesystem, such as /export, instead of /tmp in the
following steps.
3
Shutdown and reboot the system into single-user mode.
For instructions on shutting down a system, see “How to Shut Down a Stand-Alone System” in
System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.
■
For SPARC systems, boot as follows:
>OK boot -s
For further information, see “How to Boot a System to Run Level S (Single-User Level)” in
System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.
■
4
64
For x86 systems, boot using instructions at “How to Boot a System to Run Level S
(Single-User Level)” in System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.
Create the FLAR archive.
Execute the flarcreate command as shown in the following example.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Recovery Image Procedures
In this example, the FLAR image will be stored to a directory under /tmp named
FLAR_recovery. The FLAR image will be named newsystem_recovery.flar.
# mkdir /FLAR_recovery
# flarcreate -n my_recovery_image -x /FLAR_recovery \
/FLAR_recovery/newsystem_recovery.flar
In this example:
■
-n my_recovery_image implants a name into the FLAR image. The name should be
something unique and meaningful to better identify it as the FLAR image for the system.
■
-x /FLAR_recovery causes the /FLAR_recovery directory and its contents to be excluded
from the FLAR image, since it will not be needed in the recovery image.
Note – By default, the flarcreate command ignores items that are located in “swap”
partitions.
■
5
/FLAR_recovery/newsystem_recovery.flar is the path and filename of the FLAR image.
The filename should be something unique and meaningful to better identify it as the FLAR
image for the system.
Save the FLAR image to a secure off-system location.
The FLAR image must be saved to a local storage device that is not the boot device, or to a
remote location across NFS. The storage device, or remote location, must be accessible to the
system at recovery time.
Copy the new FLAR to a safe location, as in this example.
# cp /FLAR_recovery/newsystem_recovery.flar \
/net/my-safe-machine/FLAR_image
▼
Recovering the System Image From a FLAR Image
The recovery process begins as a normal installation using whichever install method you
choose. Instead of installing from the boot method, the installer is used to install from the FLAR
image.
1
Begin the boot process using one of the following options.
■
■
Use the initial boot media (installation CD/DVD).
Use the netinstall service.
ok> boot net
2
Supply the network, date and time, and password information for the system.
Chapter 5 • Creating and Using a Disaster Recovery Image
65
Recovery Image Procedures
3
When the Specify Media screen appears, select Network File System.
4
In the Specify Network File System Path screen, provide the path to the off-system location of
the FLAR image.
For example, enter the following path.
/net/my-safe-machine/FLAR_image/newsystem_recovery.flar
The Flash Archive Summary screen is displayed.
5
■
If the file information is correct, click Next.
■
If the file information is incorrect, click Deselect All Archives, and you will be able to repeat
this step with the correct information.
Specify the FLAR image location.
From our example, the location would be the following.
my-safe-machine:/FLAR_image/newsystem_recovery.flar
6
At the Disk Selection screen, select the disk where the FLAR image is to be installed.
7
Choose not to preserve existing data.
8
At the File System and Disk Layout screen, select Customize to edit the disk slices to input the
values of the disk partition table from the original disk.
The partition table corresponds to each slice on the disk. Partition 0 from the partition table
maps to Slice 0 (s0) on the hard drive.
■
The slice sizes can be viewed in Cylinders to better match the output from the partition
table. Select Cyl in the Partition form to view the form by cylinders.
■
Do not change the size of Slice 2. It must span the entire disk regardless of the space being
allocated.
■
To get the Start and Size values for the Partition form, use the partition information that you
recorded earlier when you ran the prtvtoc command. To get the value for Start in the
Partition form, divide the First Sector value by the Sectors/Cylinder value , both found in the
prtvtoc command output. The Size value in the Partition form is found by dividing the
Sector Count by the Sectors/Cylinder value, information also provided by the prtvtoc
command output.
■
If the replacement disk has more storage space than the original disk, then it can be
partitioned to use the space available. However, at least as much space for each partition
must be allocated as was allocated on the original disk.
After the system reboots, the recovery is now complete.
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Recovery Image Procedures
9
(Optional) Rebuilding the Device Trees
The recovery instructions above assume that none of the hardware components have been
added, removed or moved between the time that the recovery image was created and the time
that a recovery is performed. If, however, a system has been recovered after hardware has been
changed, then it is possible that the device trees (/dev and /devices) need to be updated. This
update can be done using either a reconfiguration reboot of the system or by using the devfsadm
command.
To rebuild the device trees, as a root-level user, use the devfsadm command as follows.
# devfsadm -C
Additional Resources
■
Using Flash Archive in the Solaris Operating System for Disaster Recovery
■
“Installing a ZFS Root File System (Oracle Solaris Flash Archive Installation)” in Oracle
Solaris ZFS Administration Guide
■
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Network-Based Installations
■
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations
Chapter 5 • Creating and Using a Disaster Recovery Image
67
68
6
C H A P T E R
6
Flash Archive (Reference)
This chapter provides a description of Flash Archive sections, keywords, and keyword values.
Also, the chapter describes the flar command options.
For limitations when creating or installing a Flash Archive, see Table 2–1.
■
■
■
“Flash Archive Section Descriptions” on page 69
“Flash Archive Keywords” on page 71
“Flash Archive flar Command” on page 75
Flash Archive Section Descriptions
Each Flash Archive is grouped into sections. Some sections are generated by the Flash Archive
software and need no input from you. Some sections require input or optionally allow you to
add information. The following table describes each section.
TABLE 6–1
Flash Archive Sections
Required by
Archive?
Section Name
Description
Archive cookie
The first section contains a cookie that identifies the file as a Flash Archive. Yes
The deployment code uses the cookie for identification and validation
purposes. The cookie must be present for an archive to be valid.
Requires Input
From User?
No
69
Flash Archive Section Descriptions
TABLE 6–1
Flash Archive Sections
(Continued)
Required by
Archive?
Section Name
Description
Archive identification
Yes
The second section contains keywords with values that provide
identification information about the archive. The software generates some
information such as the following:
■
The archive ID number
■
The method of archival such as cpio
■
The creation date by default
Requires Input
From User?
Content is
generated by
both user
and the
software
You are required to specify a name for the Flash Archive. Other
information that you can specify about the archive includes the following:
■
The author of the archive
■
The date that the archive was created
■
The name of the master system that you used to create the archive
For a list of keywords that describe the archive, see “Keywords for the
Archive Identification Section” on page 71.
Manifest
A section of a Flash Archive that is used to validate a clone system. The
manifest section lists the files on a system to be retained, added to, or
deleted from the clone system. The installation fails if the files do not
match the expected file set. This section is informational only. The section
lists the files in an internal format and cannot be used for scripting.
No
No
Predeployment,
Postdeployment, Reboot
This section contains internal information that the Flash software uses
Yes
before and after installing an OS image. Any customization scripts that you
have provided are stored in this section.
No
Summary
This section contains messages about the archive creation and records the
activities of predeployment scripts.
Yes
Content is
generated by
both user
and the
software
User-defined
This section follows the archive-identification section. The archive can
contain zero or more user-defined sections. These sections are not
processed by the archive extraction code. These sections are retrieved
separately and can be used for content descriptions.
No
Yes
Archive files
The archive files section contains the files that have been gathered from the Yes
master system in binary data. This section begins with
section_begin=archive, but it does not have an ending section
boundary.
No
You can exclude this section by creating the differential archive with the
flarcreate -M option. Because no validation of the archive occurs,
excluding this section is not recommended.
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Flash Archive Keywords
Flash Archive Keywords
Flash Archive keywords are like custom JumpStart, a feature of Oracle Solaris, keywords. They
define elements of the installation. Each keyword is a command that controls one aspect of how
the Flash Archive software installs the software on a clone system.
Use the following guidelines to format keywords and values:
■
Keywords and values are separated by a single equal sign with only one pair per line
■
Keywords are case insensitive
■
Individual lines can be any length
General Keywords
Each Flash Archive section is defined by the section_begin and section_end keywords. For
example, the archive files section includes a section_begin keyword, though with a different
value. User-defined archive sections are delimited by section_begin and section_end
keywords, with values appropriate to each section. The values for the section_begin and
section_end keywords are described in the following table.
TABLE 6–2
Values for section_begin and section_end Keywords
Archive Section
Value for section_begin and section_end keywords
Archive cookie
cookie – This section is not delimited by the section_begin and
section_end keywords.
Archive identification
identification
User-defined sections
section_name – An example of a section_name keyword is
X-user_section_1.
Archive files
archive
Keywords for the Archive Identification Section
The following tables describe the keywords for use in the archive identification section and the
values you can define for them.
Every section uses the keywords in Table 6–3 to delimit each section.
Chapter 6 • Flash Archive (Reference)
71
Flash Archive Keywords
TABLE 6–3
Archive Identification Section Keywords: General Keywords
Keywords
Value Definitions
section_begin
These keywords are used to delimit sections in the archive and are Text
not limited exclusively to the archive identification section. For a
description of these keywords, see “General Keywords” on page 71.
section_end
Value
Required
Yes
The following keywords, used in the archive-identification section, describe the contents of the
archive files section.
TABLE 6–4
Archive Identification Section Keywords: Contents of Archive Files Section
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
archive_id (optional)
This keyword uniquely describes the contents of the archive. This
value is used by the installation software only to validate the contents
of the archive during archive installation. If the keyword is not
present, no integrity check is performed.
Text
No
Text
No
Numeric
No
For example, the archive_id keyword might be
FlAsH-ARcHive-2.0.
files_archived_method
This keyword describes the archive method that is used in the files
section.
■
If this keyword is not present, the files section is assumed to be in
cpio format with ASCII headers. This format is the cpio -c
option.
■
If this keyword is present, it has one of the following values:
■
cpio – The archive format in the files section is cpio with
ASCII headers.
■
pax – The archive format in the files section is pax with
extended tar interchange format. The pax utility enables
archiving and extracting files that are greater than 4 GB.
If the files_compressed_method is present, the compression
method is applied to the archive file that is created by the archive
method.
files_archived_size
72
This keyword value is the size of the archived files section in bytes.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Flash Archive Keywords
TABLE 6–4
Archive Identification Section Keywords: Contents of Archive Files Section
(Continued)
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
files_compress_method
This keyword describes the compression algorithm that is used on
the files section.
■
If the keyword is present, it can have one of the following values.
Text
No
Numeric
No
■
■
■
none – The archive file section is not compressed.
compress – The file section is compressed by using the
compress command.
If this keyword is not present, the archive files section is assumed
to be uncompressed.
The compression method that is indicated by this keyword is applied
to the archive file created by the archive method indicated by the
files_archived_method keyword.
files_unarchived_size
This keyword defines the cumulative size in bytes of the extracted
archive. The value is used for file-system size verification.
The following keywords provide descriptive information about the entire archive. These
keywords are generally used to assist you in archive selection and to aid in archive management.
These keywords are all optional and are used to help you to distinguish between individual
archives. You use options for the flarcreate command to include these keywords. For details,
see Example 3–9.
TABLE 6–5
Archive Identification Section Keywords: User Describes the Archive
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
creation_date
This keyword value is a textual timestamp that represents the
time that you created the archive.
■
You can use the flarcreate command with the -i option
to create the date.
Text
No
This keyword value is the name of the master system you used Text
to create the archive. You can use the flarcreate -m option to
create this value. If you do not specify a value, the value is taken
from the uname -n command.
No
creation_master
■
If you do not specify a creation date with the flarcreate
command, the default date is set in Greenwich mean time
(GMT).
■
The value must be in ISO-8601 complete basic calendar
format without the time designator (ISO-8601,§5.4.1(a)).
The format is CCYYMMDDhhmmss. For example,
20000131221409 represents January 31, 2000, 10:14:09
p.m.
Chapter 6 • Flash Archive (Reference)
73
Flash Archive Keywords
TABLE 6–5
Archive Identification Section Keywords: User Describes the Archive
(Continued)
Keywords
Value Definitions
Value
Required
content_name
This keyword identifies the archive. The value is generated
from the flarcreate -n option. Follow these guidelines when
you create this value:
■
The descriptive name can be no longer than 256
characters.
■
The description should contain the function and purpose
of the archive.
Text
Yes
content_type
This keyword value specifies a category for the archive. You
use the flarcreate -T option to generate the value.
Text
No
content_description
The keyword value describes the contents of the archive. The
value of this keyword has no length limit. You use the
flarcreate -E option to create this value.
Text
No
content_author
This keyword value identifies the creator of the archive. You
use the flarcreate-a option to create this value. Suggested
values include the full name of the creator and the creator's
email address.
Text
No
content_architectures
This keyword value is a comma-separated list of the kernel
architectures that the archive supports.
■
If the keyword is present, the installation software
validates the kernel architecture of the clone system
against the list of architectures that the archive supports.
The installation fails if the archive does not support the
kernel architecture of the clone system.
Text list
No
■
If the keyword is not present, the installation software does
not validate the architecture of the clone system.
The following keywords also describe the entire archive. By default, the values are filled in by
uname when the Flash archive is created. If you create a Flash archive in which the root directory
is not /, the archive software inserts the string UNKNOWN for the keywords. The exceptions
are the creation_node, creation_release, and creation_os_name keywords.
■
For creation_node, the software uses the contents of the nodename file.
■
For creation_release and creation_os_name, the software attempts to use the contents of
root directory /var/sadm/system/admin/INST_RELEASE. If the software is unsuccessful in
reading this file, it assigns the value UNKNOWN.
Regardless of their sources, you cannot override the values of these keywords.
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Flash Archive flar Command
TABLE 6–6
Archive Identification Section Keywords: Software Describes the Archive
Keyword
Value
creation_node
The return from uname -n
creation_hardware_class
The return from uname -m
creation_platform
The return from uname -i
creation_processor
The return from uname -p
creation_release
The return from uname -r
creation_os_name
The return from uname -s
creation_os_version
The return from uname -v
User-Defined Section Keywords
In addition to the keywords that are defined by the Flash Archive, you can define other
keywords. The Flash Archive ignores user-defined keywords, but you can provide scripts or
programs that process the archive identification section and use user-defined keywords. Use the
following format when creating user-defined keywords:
■
Begin the keyword name with an X.
■
Create the keyword with any characters other than linefeeds, equal signs, and null
characters.
■
Suggested naming conventions for user-defined keywords include the
underscore-delimited descriptive method used for the predefined keywords. Another
convention is a federated convention similar to the naming of Java packages.
For example, X-department is a valid name for a user-defined keyword.
For an example of using options to include user-defined keywords in the archive identification
section, see Example 3–9.
Flash Archive flar Command
Use the Flash Archive flar command to create a Flash Archive and administer the archive.
flar Command
You can use the flar command with the following options:
■
■
flarcreate creates an archive
flar combine merges two archives
Chapter 6 • Flash Archive (Reference)
75
Flash Archive flar Command
■
■
flar split breaks an archive into sections
flar info checks the structure of an archive
Use the flarcreate command to create a Flash Archive from a master system. You can use this
command when the master system is running in multiuser mode or single-user mode. You can
also use flarcreate when the master system is booted from the following media.
■
Oracle Solaris Operating System DVD
Note – Starting with the Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 release, only a DVD is provided. Oracle
Solaris Software CDs are no longer provided.
■
Oracle Solaris Software - 1 CD
■
A Oracle Solaris network installation image of the DVD or CDs.
The master system should be in as stable a state as possible when you create a Flash Archive.
Note – You can create a Flash Archive by using either of these command options:
■
■
As two words: flar with the create subcommand
As one word: flarcreate
The syntax of the command is as follows:
flarcreate -n archive_name [-R root] [-A unchanged_master_image_dir]
[-H][-I][-M][[-S]-c][-t [-p posn] [-b blocksize]][-i date][-u section ...][-m
master][-f [list_filename| -] [-F][-a author][-e descr|-E descr_file][-L pax] [-T
type][-U key=val ...][-x exclude_dir/filename] [-y include_dir/filename] [-z
list_filename] [-X list_filename]path/filename
flar combine [-d dir] [-u section...] [-t [-p posn] path/filename
flar split [-d dir] [-u section...] [-f] [-S section] [-t [-p posn] path/filename
flar info [-l] [-k keyword] [-t [-p posn] path/filename
In the previous command lines, path is the directory in which you want the archive file to be
saved. filename is the name of the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flarcreate saves the
archive file in the current directory.
TABLE 6–7
Command-Line Options for the flar Command
Option
Description
Required Options
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Flash Archive flar Command
TABLE 6–7
Command-Line Options for the flar Command
(Continued)
Option
Description
-n archive_name
The value of this flag is the name of the archive. The archive_name you specify
is the value of the content_name keyword.
Option for Compression
-c
Compresses the archive by using compress(1).
Options for Directories and Sizes
-R root
Creates the archive from the file system tree that begins at the file system
specified by root. If you do not specify this option, flarcreate creates an
archive from a file system that begins at the root (/) file system.
-S
Omits sizing information in the archive.
-H
Does not generate the hash identifier.
Options for Creating a Differential Archive
-A
Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system image with the
unchanged_master_image_dir image that is specified by the unchanged_master_image_dir argument. By
default, the new system image is root (/). You can change the default with the
-R option. unchanged_master_image_dir is a directory where the unchanged
master system image is stored or mounted through UFS, NFS, or lumount.
You can modify the effects of file selection for a differential archive by using
the options for contents selection described in the next section of the table.
-M
Excludes the manifest file. When you use this option, no validation occurs on
the differential archive. When creating a differential archive, flarcreate
creates a long list of the files in the system that are unchanged, are changed,
and are to be deleted from the archive. This list is stored in the manifest
section of the archive. When the differential archive is deployed, the software
uses this list to perform a file-by-file check, ensuring the integrity of the clone
system. Use of this option avoids such a check and saves the space that is used
by the manifest section in a differential archive. However, you must consider
the savings in time and disk space against the loss of an integrity check upon
installation. Because no validation occurs, avoid using this option.
Options for Contents Selection
Caution – Use the flarcreate file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude some directories, others that
you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as system configuration files. The system would then be
inconsistent and the installation would not work. Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can
easily be removed without disrupting the system, such as large data files.
-y include_dir/filename
Adds to the archive those files and directories that are specified on the
command line. This option is used when you have excluded a directory, but
want to restore individual subdirectories or files.
include_dir/filename is the name of the subdirectory or file to be included.
Chapter 6 • Flash Archive (Reference)
77
Flash Archive flar Command
TABLE 6–7
Command-Line Options for the flar Command
(Continued)
Option
Description
-f list_filename
Adds files and directories from a list to the archive.
list_filename is the full path to a file that contains a list. The contents of the file
are added to the file list unless -F is specified.
■
The list_filename file must contain one file per line.
■
If you specify a file system with -R root, the path to each file must be
relative to the alternate root directory or an absolute path.
■
If filename is “-”, flarcreate reads standard input as the list of files.
When you use the value “-”, the archive size is not calculated.
-F
Uses only the files in -f list_filename to create the archive. This option makes
the -f list_filename the absolute list, rather than a list that is appended to the
normal file list.
-x exclude_dir/filename
Excludes files and directories from the archive. These files and directories are
specified at the command line. You can use multiple instances of this option
to exclude more than one file or directory.
exclude_dir/filename is the name of the directory or file to be excluded.
-X list_filename
Excludes a list of files or directories from the archive.
list_filename is the full path to a file that contains the list.
■
The list_filename file must contain one file per line.
-z list_filename
■
If you specify a file system with -R root, the path to each file must be
relative to the alternate root directory or an absolute path.
■
If list_filename is “-”, flarcreate reads standard input as the list of files.
When you use the value “-”, the archive size is not calculated.
Excludes or includes a list of files or directories from the archive. Each file or
directory in the list is noted with a plus “+” or minus “-”. A plus indicates an
included file or directory and the minus indicates an excluded file or directory.
list_filename is the full path to a file that contains the list.
■
The list_filename file must contain one file per line.
■
-I
If you specify a file system with -R root, the path to each file must be
relative to the alternate root directory or an absolute path.
Override the integrity check. To prevent you from excluding important
system files from an archive, flarcreate runs an integrity check. This check
examines all files that are registered in a system package database and stops
archive creation if any of them are excluded. Use of this option overrides this
integrity check. Therefore, avoid the use of the -I option.
Options for Splitting and Merging Archives
-d dir
78
Retrieves the sections to copy from dir, rather than from the current directory.
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Flash Archive flar Command
TABLE 6–7
Command-Line Options for the flar Command
(Continued)
Option
Description
-u section
■
If you use this option, flar copies the cookie, identification, archive, and
section sections. You can specify a single section name or a
space-separated list of section names.
■
If you do not use this option, flar copies the cookie, ldentification, and
archive sections only.
-f archive
Extracts the archive section into a directory that is named archive, rather
than placing it in a file with the name archive. Used for splitting an archive.
-S section
Only copies the section that is named section from the archive. This section is
user defined. Used for splitting an archive.
Option Used To Copy Files (Archive)
-L pax
The cpio utility is the default copy method. If you have large individual files,
the -L pax option uses the pax utility to create an archive without limitations
on individual file sizes. Individual file sizes can be greater than 4 GB.
Options Used With User-Defined Sections
-u section
Includes section as a user-defined section. To include more than one
user-defined section, section must be a space-separated list of section names.
-d dir
Retrieves the section file that is specified with -u from dir.
Options Used With Tape Archives
-t
Creates an archive on a tape device. The filename argument is the name of the
tape device.
-p posn
Use only with the -t option. Specifies the position on the tape device for
flarcreate to store the archive. If you do not use this option, flarcreate
places the archive at the current position of the tape.
-b blocksize
Specifies the block size flarcreate uses when creating the archive. If you do
not specify a block size, flarcreate uses the default block size of 64 KB.
Options for Archive Identification
These keywords and values appear in the archive identification section of the archive.
-U key=val
Includes user-defined keywords and values in the archive identification
section.
-i date
Uses date as the value for the creation_date keyword. If you do not specify a
date, flarcreate uses the current system time and date.
Chapter 6 • Flash Archive (Reference)
79
Flash Archive flar Command
TABLE 6–7
80
Command-Line Options for the flar Command
(Continued)
Option
Description
-m master
Uses master as the name of the master system on which you created the
archive. master is the value for the creation_master keyword. If you do not
specify master, flarcreate uses the system name that is reported by uname
-n.
-e descr
Uses descr for the value of the content_description keyword. You cannot
use this option when you use the -E option.
-E descr_file
Retrieves the value for the content_description keyword from the descr_file
file. You cannot use this option when you use the -e option.
-a author
Uses author as the author name in the archive identification section. author is
the value for the content_author keyword. If you do not specify an author,
flarcreate does not include the content_author keyword in the archive
identification section.
-T type
Uses type as the value for the content_type keyword. type is user defined. If
you do not specify a type, flarcreate does not include the content_type
keyword.
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Glossary
3DES
([Triple DES] Triple-Data Encryption Standard). A symmetric-key encryption method that provides a key
length of 168 bits.
AES
(Advanced Encryption Standard) A symmetric 128-bit block data encryption technique. The U.S.
government adopted the Rijndael variant of the algorithm as its encryption standard in October 2000. AES
replaces DES encryption as the government standard.
archive
A file that contains a collection of files that were copied from a master system. The file also contains
identification information about the archive, such as a name and the date that you created the archive.
After you install an archive on a system, the system contains the exact configuration of the master system.
An archive could be a differential archive, which is a Flash Archive that contains only the differences
between two system images, an unchanged master image and an updated master image. The differential
archive contains files to be retained, modified, or deleted from the clone system. A differential update
changes only the files specified and is restricted to systems that contain software consistent with the
unchanged master image.
arrow keys
One of the four directional keys on the numeric keypad.
begin script
A user-defined Bourne shell script, specified within the rules file, that performs tasks before the Oracle
Solaris software is installed on the system. You can use begin scripts only with custom JumpStart
installations.
boot
To load the system software into memory and start it.
boot archive
x86 only: A boot archive is a collection of critical files that is used to boot the Oracle Solaris OS. These files
are needed during system startup before the root (/) file system is mounted. Two boot archives are
maintained on a system:
boot environment
■
The boot archive that is used to boot the Oracle Solaris OS on a system. This boot archive is sometimes called
the primary boot archive.
■
The boot archive that is used for recovery when the primary boot archive is damaged. This boot archive
starts the system without mounting the root (/) file system. On the GRUB menu, this boot archive is called
failsafe. The archive's essential purpose is to regenerate the primary boot archive, which is usually used to
boot the system.
A collection of mandatory file systems (disk slices and mount points) that are critical to the operation of
the Oracle Solaris OS. These disk slices might be on the same disk or distributed across multiple disks.
81
boot loader
The active boot environment is the one that is currently booted. Exactly one active boot environment can
be booted. An inactive boot environment is not currently booted, but can be in a state of waiting for
activation on the next reboot.
boot loader
x86 only: The boot loader is the first software program that runs after you turn on a system. This program
begins the booting process.
boot server
A server system that provides client systems on the same network subnet with the programs and
information that they need to start. A boot server is required to install over the network if the install server
is on a different subnet than the systems on which Oracle Solaris software is to be installed.
bootlog-cgi
program
The CGI program that enables a web server to collect and store remote client-booting and installation
console messages during a WAN boot installation.
certificate
authority
(CA) A trusted third-party organization or company that issues digital certificates that are used to create
digital signatures and public-private key pairs. The CA guarantees that the individual who is granted the
unique certificate is who she or he claims to be.
certstore file
A file that contains a digital certificate for a specific client system. During an SSL negotiation, the client
might be asked to provide the certificate file to the server. The server uses this file to verify the identity of
the client.
CGI
(Common Gateway Interface) An interface by which external programs communicate with the HTTP
server. Programs that are written to use CGI are called CGI programs or CGI scripts. CGI programs
handle forms or parse output the server does not normally handle or parse.
checksum
The result of adding a group of data items that are used for checking the group. The data items can be
either numerals or other character strings that are treated as numerals during the checksum calculation.
The checksum value verifies that communication between two devices is successful.
client
In the client-server model for communications, the client is a process that remotely accesses resources of a
compute server, such as compute power and large memory capacity.
clone system
A system that you install by using a Flash Archive archive. The clone system has the same installation
configuration as the master system.
cluster
A logical collection of packages (software modules). The Oracle Solaris software is divided into software
groups, which are each composed of clusters and packages.
command line
A string of characters that begins with a command, often followed by arguments, including options, file
names, and other expressions, and terminated by the end-of-line character.
concatenation
A RAID-0 volume. If slices are concatenated, the data is written to the first available slice until that slice is
full. When that slice is full, the data is written to the next slice, serially. A concatenation provides no data
redundancy unless it is contained in a mirror. See also RAID-0 volume.
Core Software
Group
A software group that contains the minimum software that is required to boot and run the Oracle Solaris
OS on a system. Core includes some networking software and the drivers that are required to run the
Common Desktop Environment (CDE) desktop. Core does not include the CDE software.
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diskless client
critical file systems File systems that are required by the Oracle Solaris OS. When you use Live Upgrade, a feature of Oracle
Solaris, these file systems are separate mount points in the vfstab file of the active and inactive boot
environments. Example file systems are root (/), /usr, /var, and /opt. These file systems are always
copied from the source to the inactive boot environment.
custom JumpStart
A type of installation in which the Oracle Solaris software is automatically installed on a system that is
based on a user-defined profile. You can create customized profiles for different types of users and systems.
A custom JumpStart installation is a JumpStart installation you create.
custom probes file
A file, which must be located in the same JumpStart directory as the rules file, that is a Bourne shell script
that contains two types of functions: probe and comparison. Probe functions gather the information you
want or do the actual work and set a corresponding SI_ environment variable you define. Probe functions
become probe keywords. Comparison functions call a corresponding probe function, compare the output
of the probe function, and return 0 if the keyword matches or 1 if the keyword doesn't match. Comparison
functions become rule keywords. See also rules file.
dataset
A generic name for the following ZFS entities: clones, file systems, snapshots, or volumes.
decryption
The process of converting coded data to plain text. See also encryption.
derived profile
A profile that is dynamically created by a begin script during a custom JumpStart installation.
DES
(Data Encryption Standard) A symmetric-key encryption method that was developed in 1975 and
standardized by ANSI in 1981 as ANSI X.3.92. DES uses a 56-bit key.
Developer Oracle
Solaris Software
Group
A software group that contains the End User Oracle Solaris software Group plus the libraries, include files,
man pages, and programming tools for developing software.
DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) An application-layer protocol. Enables individual computers, or
clients, on a TCP/IP network to extract an IP address and other network configuration information from a
designated and centrally maintained DHCP server or servers. This facility reduces the overhead of
maintaining and administering a large IP network.
differential archive A Flash Archive that contains only the differences between two system images, an unchanged master
image and an updated master image. The differential archive contains files to be retained, modified, or
deleted from the clone system. A differential update changes only the files that are specified and is
restricted to systems that contain software consistent with the unchanged master image.
digital certificate
A nontransferable, nonforgeable, digital file issued from a third party that both communicating parties
already trust.
disc
An optical disc, as opposed to a magnetic disk, which recognizes the common spelling that is used in the
compact disc (CD) market. For example, a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM is an optical disc.
disk
A round platter, or set of platters, of a magnetized medium that is organized into concentric tracks and
sectors for storing data such as files. See also disc.
disk configuration
file
A file that represents a structure of a disk (for example, bytes/sector, flags, slices). Disk configuration files
enable you to use the pfinstall command from a single system to test profiles on different–size disks.
diskless client
A client on a network that relies on a server for all of its disk storage.
83
document root directory
document root
directory
The root of a hierarchy on a web server machine that contains the files, images, and data you want to
present to users who are accessing the web server.
domain
A part of the Internet naming hierarchy. A domain represents a group of systems on a local network that
share administrative files.
domain name
The name that is assigned to a group of systems on a local network that share administrative files. The
domain name is required for the Network Information Service (NIS) database to work properly. A domain
name consists of a sequence of component names that are separated by periods (for example:
tundra.mpk.ca.us). As you read a domain name from left to right, the component names identify more
general (and usually remote) areas of administrative authority.
encryption
The process of protecting information from unauthorized use by making the information unintelligible.
Encryption is based on a code, called a key, which is used to decrypt the information. See also decryption.
End User Oracle
Solaris software
Group
A software group that contains the Core Software Group plus the recommended software for an end user,
including the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) and DeskSet software.
Entire Oracle
Solaris software
Group
A software group that contains the entire Solaris release.
Entire Oracle
Solaris software
Group Plus OEM
Support
A software group that contains the entire Oracle Solaris release plus additional hardware support for
OEMs. This software group is recommended when installing Oracle Solaris software on SPARC based
servers. In order for a Flash archive to be installed on different system types, the Entire Plus OEM
distribution needs to be installed on the master system.
/etc directory
A directory that contains critical system configuration files and maintenance commands.
/etc/netboot
directory
The directory on a WAN boot server that contains the client configuration information and security data
that are required for a WAN boot installation.
/export file system A file system on an OS server that is shared with other systems on a network. For example, the /export file
system can contain the root (/) file system and swap space for diskless clients and the home directories for
users on the network. Diskless clients rely on the /export file system on an OS server to boot and run.
failsafe boot
archive
x86 only: A boot archive that is used for recovery when the primary boot archive is damaged. This boot
archive starts the system without mounting the root (/) file system. This boot archive is called failsafe on
the GRUB menu. The archive's essential purpose is to regenerate the primary boot archive, which is
usually used to boot the system. See boot archive.
fallback
A reversion to the environment that ran previously. Use fallback when you are activating an environment
and the boot environment that is designated for booting fails or shows some undesirable behavior.
fdisk partition
A logical partition of a disk drive that is dedicated to a particular operating system on x86 based systems.
To install the Oracle Solaris software, you must set up at least one fdisk partition on an x86 based system.
x86 based systems allow up to four different fdisk partitions on a disk. These partitions can be used to
hold individual operating systems. Each operating system must be located on a unique fdisk partition. A
system can only have one fdisk partition per disk.
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HMAC
file server
A server that provides the software and file storage for systems on a network.
file system
In the SunOS operating system, a tree-structured network of files and directories that you can access.
finish script
A user-defined Bourne shell script, specified within the rules file, that performs tasks after the Oracle
Solaris software is installed on the system but before the system reboots. You use finish scripts with custom
JumpStart installations.
Flash Archive
A Oracle Solaris installation feature that enables you to create an archive of the files on a system, called the
master system. You can then use the archive to install other systems, making the other systems identical in
their configuration to the master system. See also archive.
format
To put data into a structure or divide a disk into sectors for receiving data.
function key
One of the 10 or more keyboard keys that are labeled F1, F2, F3, and so on that are mapped to particular
tasks.
global zone
In Oracle Solaris Zones, the global zone is both the default zone for the system and the zone used for
system-wide administrative control. The global zone is the only zone from which a non-global zone can be
configured, installed, managed, or uninstalled. Administration of the system infrastructure, such as
physical devices, routing, or dynamic reconfiguration (DR), is only possible in the global zone.
Appropriately privileged processes running in the global zone can access objects associated with other
zones. See also Oracle Solaris Zones and non-global zone.
GRUB
x86 only: GNU GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) is an open source boot loader with a simple menu
interface. The menu displays a list of operating systems that are installed on a system. GRUB enables you
to easily boot these various operating systems, such as the Oracle Solaris OS, Linux, or Microsoft
Windows.
GRUB edit menu
x86 only: A boot menu that is a submenu of the GRUB main menu. GRUB commands are displayed on
this menu. These commands can be edited to change boot behavior.
GRUB main menu x86 only: A boot menu that lists the operating systems that are installed on a system. From this menu, you
can easily boot an operating system without modifying the BIOS or fdisk partition settings.
hard link
A directory entry that references a file on disk. More than one such directory entry can reference the same
physical file.
hash
A number that is produced by taking some input and generating a number that is significantly shorter
than the input. The same output value is always generated for identical inputs. Hash functions can be used
in table search algorithms, in error detection, and in tamper detection. When used for tamper detection,
hash functions are chosen such that it is difficult to find two inputs that yield the same hash result. MD5
and SHA-1 are examples of one-way hash functions. For example, a message digest takes a variable-length
input such as a disk file and reduces it to a small value.
hashing
The process of changing a string of characters into a value or key that represents the original string.
HMAC
Keyed hashing method for message authentication. HMAC is used with an iterative cryptographic hash
function, such as MD5 or SHA-1, in combination with a secret shared key. The cryptographic strength of
HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function.
85
host name
host name
The name by which a system is known to other systems on a network. This name must be unique among
all the systems within a particular domain (usually, this means within any single organization). A host
name can be any combination of letters, numbers, and minus signs (-), but it cannot begin or end with a
minus sign.
HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) (n.) The Internet protocol that fetches hypertext objects from remote hosts.
This protocol is based on TCP/IP.
HTTPS
A secure version of HTTP, implemented by using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
initial installation
An installation that overwrites the currently running software or initializes a blank disk.
An initial installation of the Oracle Solaris OS overwrites the system's disk or disks with the new version of
the Oracle Solaris OS. If your system is not running the Oracle Solaris OS, you must perform an initial
installation. If your system is running an upgradable version of the Oracle Solaris OS, an initial installation
overwrites the disk and does not preserve the OS or local modifications.
install server
A server that provides the Oracle Solaris DVD or CD images from which other systems on a network can
install Oracle Solaris (also called a media server). You can create an install server by copying the Oracle
Solaris DVD or CD images to the server's hard disk.
IPv6
IPv6 is a version (version 6) of Internet Protocol (IP) that is designed to be an evolutionary step from the
current version, IPv4 (version 4). Deploying IPv6, by using defined transition mechanisms, does not
disrupt current operations. In addition, IPv6 provides a platform for new Internet functionality.
job
A user-defined task to be completed by a computer system.
JumpStart
directory
When you use a profile diskette for custom JumpStart installations, the JumpStart directory is the root
directory on the diskette that contains all the essential custom JumpStart files. When you use a profile
server for custom JumpStart installations, the JumpStart directory is a directory on the server that contains
all the essential custom JumpStart files.
JumpStart
installation
A type of installation in which the Oracle Solaris software is automatically installed on a system by using
the factory-installed JumpStart software.
Kerberos
A network authentication protocol that uses strong, secret-key cryptography to enable a client and server
to identify themselves to each other over an insecure network connection.
key
The code for encrypting or decrypting data. See also encryption.
keystore file
A file that contains keys shared by a client and server. During a WAN boot installation, the client system
uses the keys to verify the integrity of, or decrypt the data and files transmitted from, the server.
LAN
(local area network) A group of computer systems in close proximity that can communicate by way of
some connecting hardware and software.
LDAP
(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) A standard, extensible directory access protocol that is used by
LDAP naming service clients and servers to communicate with each other.
Live Upgrade
An upgrade method that enables a duplicate boot environment to be upgraded while the active boot
environment is still running, thus eliminating downtime of the production environment.
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locale
A geographic or political region or community that shares the same language, customs, or cultural
conventions (English for the U.S. is en_US, and English for the U.K. is en_UK).
logical device
A group of physical slices on one or more disks that appear to the system as a single device. A logical device
is called a volume in Solaris Volume Manager. A volume is functionally identical to a physical disk for the
purposes of an application or file system.
manifest section
A section of a Flash Archive that is used to validate a clone system. The manifest section lists the files on a
system to be retained, added to, or deleted from the clone system. This section is informational only. The
section lists the files in an internal format and cannot be used for scripting.
master system
A system that you use to create a Flash Archive archive. The system configuration is saved in the archive.
MD5
(Message Digest 5) An iterative cryptographic hash function that is used for message authentication,
including digital signatures. The function was developed in 1991 by Rivest.
media server
See install server.
menu.lst file
x86 only: A file that lists all the operating systems that are installed on a system. The contents of this file
dictate the list of operating systems that is displayed on the GRUB menu. From the GRUB menu, you can
easily boot an operating system without modifying the BIOS or fdisk partition settings.
metadevice
See volume.
miniroot
A minimal, bootable root (/) file system that is included in Oracle Solaris installation media. A miniroot
consists of the Oracle Solaris software that is required to install and upgrade systems. On x86 based
systems, the miniroot is copied to the system to be used as the failsafe boot archive. See failsafe boot
archive.
mirror
See RAID-1 volume.
mount
The process of accessing a directory from a disk that is attached to a machine that is making the mount
request or a remote disk on a network. To mount a file system, you need a mount point on the local system
and the name of the file system to be mounted (for example, /usr).
mount point
A workstation directory to which you mount a file system that exists on a remote machine.
name server
A server that provides a naming service to systems on a network.
naming service
A distributed network database that contains key system information about all the systems on a network
so that the systems can communicate with each other. With a naming service, the system information can
be maintained, managed, and accessed on a network-wide basis. Without a naming service, each system
has to maintain its own copy of the system information in the local /etc files. Oracle supports the
following naming services: LDAP, NIS, and NIS+.
network
installation
A way to install software over the network from a system with a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive to a system
without a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive. Network installations require a name server and an install server.
networked systems A group of systems (called hosts) that are connected through hardware and software so that they can
communicate and share information. Referred to as a local area network (LAN). One or more servers are
usually needed when systems are networked.
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NIS
NIS
The SunOS 4.0 (minimum) Network Information Service. A distributed network database that contains
key information about the systems and the users on the network. The NIS database is stored on the master
server and all the slave servers.
NIS+
The SunOS 5.0 (minimum) Network Information Service. NIS+ replaces NIS, the SunOS 4.0 (minimum)
Network Information Service.
non-global zone
A virtualized operating system environment created within a single instance of the Oracle Solaris
Operating System. One or more applications can run in a non-global zone without interacting with the
rest of the system. Non-global zones are also called zones. See also Oracle Solaris Zones and global zone.
nonnetworked
systems
Systems that are not connected to a network or do not rely on other systems.
/opt file system
A file system that contains the mount points for third-party and unbundled software.
Oracle Solaris
DVD or CD
images
The Oracle Solaris software that is installed on a system, which you can access on the Oracle Solaris DVDs
or CDs or an install server's hard disk to which you have copied the Oracle Solaris DVD or CD images.
Oracle Solaris
installation
program
A graphical user interface (GUI) or command-line interface (CLI) installation program that uses wizard
panels to guide you step-by-step through installing the Oracle Solaris software and third-party software.
Oracle Solaris
Zones
A software partitioning technology used to virtualize operating system services and provide an isolated
and secure environment for running applications. When you create a non-global zone, you produce an
application execution environment in which processes are isolated from all other zones. This isolation
prevents processes that are running in a zone from monitoring or affecting processes that are running in
any other zones. See also global zone and non-global zone.
OS server
A system that provides services to systems on a network. To serve diskless clients, an OS server must have
disk space set aside for each diskless client's root (/) file system and swap space (/export/root,
/export/swap).
package
A collection of software that is grouped into a single entity for modular installation. The Oracle Solaris
software is divided into software groups, which are each composed of clusters and packages.
panel
A container for organizing the contents of a window, a dialog box, or applet. The panel might collect and
confirm user input. Panels might be used by wizards and follow an ordered sequence to fulfill a designated
task.
patch analyzer
A script that you can run manually or as part of the Oracle Solaris installation program. The patch
analyzer performs an analysis on your system to determine which (if any) patches will be removed by
upgrading to a Oracle Solaris update.
platform group
A vendor-defined grouping of hardware platforms for the purpose of distributing specific software.
Examples of valid platform groups are i86pc and sun4u.
platform name
The output of the uname -i command. For example, the platform name for the Ultra 60 is
SUNW,Ultra-60.
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pool
A logical group of devices describing the layout and physical characteristics of the available ZFS storage.
Space for datasets is allocated from a pool.
Power
Management
Software that automatically saves the state of a system and turns it off after it is idle for 30 minutes. When
you install the Oracle Solaris software on a system that complies with Version 2 of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Energy Star guidelines, the Power Management software is installed by default. A
sun4u SPARC based system is an example of a system that has Power Management installed by default.
After a subsequent reboot, you are prompted to enable or disable the Power Management software.
Energy Star guidelines require that systems or monitors automatically enter a “sleep state” (consume 30
watts or less) after the system or monitor becomes inactive.
primary boot
archive
A boot archive that is used to boot the Oracle Solaris OS on a system. This boot archive is sometimes called
the primary boot archive. See boot archive.
private key
The decryption key used in public-key encryption.
probe keyword
A syntactical element that extracts attribute information about a system when using the custom JumpStart
method to install. A probe keyword does not require you to set up a matching condition and run a profile
as required for a rule. See also rule.
profile
A text file that defines how to install the Oracle Solaris software when using the custom JumpStart method.
For example, a profile defines which software group to install. Every rule specifies a profile that defines
how a system is to be installed when the rule is matched. You usually create a different profile for every
rule. However, the same profile can be used in more than one rule. See also rules file.
profile diskette
A diskette that contains all the essential custom JumpStart files in its root directory (JumpStart directory).
profile server
A server that contains all the essential custom JumpStart files in a JumpStart directory.
public key
The encryption key used in public-key encryption.
public-key
cryptography
A cryptographic system that uses two keys: a public key known to everyone, and a private key known only
to the recipient of the message.
RAID-0 volume
A class of volume that can be a stripe or a concatenation. These components are also called submirrors. A
stripe or concatenation is the basic building block for mirrors.
RAID-1 volume
A class of volume that replicates data by maintaining multiple copies. A RAID-1 volume is composed of
one or more RAID-0 volumes called submirrors. A RAID-1 volume is sometimes called a mirror.
RAID-Z storage
pool
A virtual device that stores data and parity on multiple disks that can be used as a ZFS storage pool.
RAID-Z is similar to RAID-5.
Reduced Network
Support Software
Group
A software group that contains the minimum code that is required to boot and run a Oracle Solaris system
with limited network service support. The Reduced Networking Software Group provides a multiuser
text-based console and system administration utilities. This software group also enables the system to
recognize network interfaces, but does not activate network services.
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reslivering
reslivering
For a ZFS storage pool, the process of transferring data from one device to another device is known as
resilvering. For example, if a mirror component is replaced or taken offline, the data from the up-to-date
mirror component is copied to the newly restored mirror component. This process is referred to as mirror
resynchronization in traditional volume management products. For more information about ZFS
resilvering, see “Replacing a Device in a ZFS Storage Pool” in Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide
root
The top level of a hierarchy of items. Root is the one item from which all other items are descended. See
root directory or root (/) file system.
root (/) file system
The top-level file system from which all other file systems stem. The root (/) file system is the base on
which all other file systems are mounted, and is never unmounted. The root (/) file system contains the
directories and files critical for system operation, such as the kernel, device drivers, and the programs that
are used to start (boot) a system.
root directory
The top-level directory from which all other directories stem.
rule
A series of values that assigns one or more system attributes to a profile. A rule is used in a custom
JumpStart installation.
rules file
A text file that contains a rule for each group of systems or single systems that you want to install
automatically. Each rule distinguishes a group of systems, based on one or more system attributes. The
rules file links each group to a profile, which is a text file that defines how the Oracle Solaris software is to
be installed on each system in the group. A rules file is used in a custom JumpStart installation. See also
profile.
rules.ok file
A generated version of the rules file. The rules.ok file is required by the custom JumpStart installation
software to match a system to a profile. You must use the check script to create the rules.ok file.
Secure Sockets
Layer
(SSL) A software library establishing a secure connection between two parties (client and server) used to
implement HTTPS, the secure version of HTTP.
server
A network device that manages resources and supplies services to a client.
SHA1
(Secure Hashing Algorithm) The algorithm that operates on any input length less than 264 to produce a
message digest.
shareable file
systems
File systems that are user-defined files such as /export/home and /swap. These file systems are shared
between the active and inactive boot environment when you use Live Upgrade. Shareable file systems
contain the same mount point in the vfstab file in both the active and inactive boot environments.
Updating shared files in the active boot environment also updates data in the inactive boot environment.
Shareable file systems are shared by default, but you can specify a destination slice, and then the file
systems are copied.
slice
The unit into which the disk space is divided by the software.
snapshot
A read-only image of a ZFS file system or volume at a given point in time.
software group
A logical grouping of the Oracle Solaris software (clusters and packages). During a Oracle Solaris
installation, you can install one of the following software groups: Core, End User Oracle Solaris Software,
Developer Oracle Solaris software, or Entire Oracle Solaris software, and for SPARC systems only, Entire
Oracle Solaris software Group Plus OEM Support.
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standalone
A computer that does not require support from any other machine.
state database
A database that stores information about the state of your Solaris Volume Manager configuration. The
state database is a collection of multiple, replicated database copies. Each copy is referred to as a state
database replica. The state database tracks the location and status of all known state database replicas.
state database
replica
A copy of a state database. The replica ensures that the data in the database is valid.
submirror
See RAID-0 volume.
subnet
A working scheme that divides a single logical network into smaller physical networks to simplify routing.
subnet mask
A bit mask that is used to select bits from an Internet address for subnet addressing. The mask is 32 bits
long and selects the network portion of the Internet address and 1 or more bits of the local portion.
superuser
A special user who has privileges to perform all administrative tasks on the system. The superuser has the
ability to read and write to any file, run all programs, and send kill signals to any process.
swap space
A slice or file that temporarily holds the contents of a memory area till it can be reloaded in memory. Also
called the /swap or swap volume.
sysidcfg file
A file in which you specify a set of special system configuration keywords that preconfigure a system.
system
configuration file
(system.conf) A text file in which you specify the locations of the sysidcfg file and the custom JumpStart
files you want to use in a WAN boot installation.
time zone
Any of the 24 longitudinal divisions of the earth's surface for which a standard time is kept.
truststore file
A file that contains one or more digital certificates. During a WAN boot installation, the client system
verifies the identity of the server that is trying to perform the installation by consulting the data in the
truststore file.
unmount
The process of removing access to a directory on a disk that is attached to a machine or to a remote disk on
a network.
update
An installation, or to perform an installation, on a system that changes software that is of the same type.
Unlike an upgrade, an update might downgrade the system. Unlike an initial installation, software of the
same type that is being installed must be present before an update can occur.
upgrade
An installation that merges files with existing files and preserves modifications where possible.
An upgrade of the Oracle Solaris OS merges the new version of the Oracle Solaris OS with the existing files
on the system's disk or disks. An upgrade saves as many modifications as possible that you have made to
the previous version of the Oracle Solaris OS.
upgrade option
An option that is presented by the Oracle Solaris installation program. The upgrade procedure merges the
new version of Oracle Solaris with existing files on your disk or disks. An upgrade also saves as many local
modifications as possible since the last time Oracle Solaris was installed.
URL
(Uniform Resource Locator) The addressing system used by the server and the client to request
documents. A URL is often called a location. The format of a URL is protocol://machine:port/document.
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/usr file system
A sample URL is http://www.example.com/index.html.
/usr file system
A file system on a standalone system or server that contains many of the standard UNIX programs.
Sharing the large /usr file system with a server rather than maintaining a local copy minimizes the overall
disk space that is required to install and run the Oracle Solaris software on a system.
utility
A standard program, usually furnished at no charge with the purchase of a computer, that does the
computer's housekeeping.
/var file system
A file system or directory (on standalone systems) that contains system files that are likely to change or
grow over the life of the system. These files include system logs, vi files, mail files, and UUCP files.
virtual device
A logical device in a ZFS pool, which can be a physical device, a file, or a collection of devices.
volume
A group of physical slices or other volumes that appear to the system as a single logical device. A volume is
functionally identical to a physical disk for the purposes of an application or file system.
In some command-line utilities, a volume is called a metadevice. Volume is also called pseudo device or
virtual device in standard UNIX terms.
Volume Manager
A program that provides a mechanism to administer and obtain access to the data on DVD-ROMs,
CD-ROMs, and diskettes.
WAN
(wide area network) A network that connects multiple local area networks (LANs) or systems at different
geographical sites by using telephone, fiber-optic, or satellite links.
WAN boot
installation
A type of installation that enables you to boot and install software over a wide area network (WAN) by
using HTTP or HTTPS. The WAN boot installation method enables you to transmit an encrypted Flash
Archive over a public network and perform a custom JumpStart installation on a remote client.
WAN boot
miniroot
A miniroot that has been modified to perform a WAN boot installation. The WAN boot miniroot contains
a subset of the software in the Oracle Solaris miniroot. See also miniroot.
WAN boot server
A web server that provides the configuration and security files that are used during a WAN boot
installation.
wanboot-cgi
program
The CGI program that retrieves and transmits the data and files that are used in a WAN boot installation.
wanboot.conf file
A text file in which you specify the configuration information and security settings that are required to
perform a WAN boot installation.
wanboot program
The second-level boot program that loads the WAN boot miniroot, client configuration files, and
installation files that are required to perform a WAN boot installation. For WAN boot installations, the
wanboot binary performs tasks similar to the ufsboot or inetboot second-level boot programs.
ZFS
A file system using storage pools to manage physical storage.
zone
See non-global zone
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Index
A
administering, Flash Archives, 58
archive
See also scripts
administering, 58
compressing, 33
Archive
Creating an archive, 41
Examples, 43
archive
creating an archive
requirements for platforms, 27
customizing
description, 30
with scripts, 31
description of process, 15–21
flarcreate command, 75–80
getting information, 61
installing
description, 15–21
how to install, 55–61
installation programs, 33–34
Oracle Solaris installation program, SPARC, 56
installing non-global zones, 24
Archive
Installing non-global zones, 41
archive
keywords
archive identification section, 71–75
description, 71
section_begin and section_end, 71
user-defined, 75
archive (Continued)
planning
creating a differential archive, 30
creating an archive, 28
installing an archive, 33–34
master system, 24–28
sections
archive cookie, description, 69
archive identification, description, 70
archives files, description, 70
description, 32, 69–71
manifest, description, 70
summary, description, 70
user-defined, description, 70
Archive
Task map, 35–36
archive
updating a clone
description, 20
C
clone systems
See also archive
description, 15–21
creating
Flash Archive archives
customizing, 30
planning, 28
requirements for platforms, 27
93
Index
Creating
Flash Archive archives
Task map, 35–36
Flash Archives
Initial installation, procedure, 41
Update, procedure, 48, 51
creating
limitations, 23
Customizing files, example, 46, 47
customizing Flash Archive archives
master system, 26
with scripts, 31
installing, Flash Archives (Continued)
references to procedures, 57
with Oracle Solaris installation program, 55
limitations, 23
installing clone systems
initial installation, 19
updating, 20
Installing master systems, 36
K
keywords, Flash Archive, 71
D
L
differential archive
See also archive
description, 20
planning, 30
large file handling, 30
Large file handling, 44
limitations, 23
Live Upgrade
Differential archive creation, example, 52
Differential archive creation, procedure, 51
F
files
customizing, 30
Files
Excluding, example, 46, 47
Excluding and including, example, 47
Including, example, 46
files
large file handling, 30
Files
Large file handling, 44
flarcreate command, 75–80
Flash, See archive
Flash Archive, See archive
M
master system
See also archive
customizing an installation of, 26
description, 24–28
peripheral devices, 27–28
merging a Flash Archive, 59
N
non-global zone, installing with a Flash Archive, 24
Non-global zone, Installing with a Flash Archive, 41
I
installation, Flash Archive archives, description, 15–21
installing
Flash Archives
how to install, 55–61
94
O
Oracle Solaris Zones partitioning technology, installing
with a Flash Archive, 24
Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 Installation Guide: Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) • January 2012 E23803–03
Index
Oracle Solaris zones partitioning technology, Installing
with a Flash Archive, 41
P
planning, for a Flash Archive archive installation, 23
predeployment script, description, 70
R
recovery image, creating, 63–67
restoring system, recovery image, 63–67
S
Scripts
Flash Archive archives
Creating, 37
scripts
Flash Archive archives
customizing, 31
Flash Archive archives
guidelines, 32
splitting a Flash Archive, 58
U
updating a clone system, description, 20
95
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