Surveys of benthic reef communities using underwater video

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE
OF MARINE SCIENCE
Surveys of benthic reef
communities using
underwater video
D. Abdo, S. Burgess, G. Coleman and
K. Osborne
L ong - term M onitoring
of the
G reat B arrier R eef
S t a n d a rd O p e ra t i o n a l P ro c e d u r e • N u m b e r 2 ,
3 rd R e v i s e d E d i t i o n / 2 0 0 4
Surveys of benthic reef communities
using underwater video
D. Abdo, S. Burgess, G. Coleman and K. Osborne
Long-term Monitoring of
the Great Barrier Reef
Standard
Operational Procedure
Number 2, 3rd Revised Edition
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Townsville
2004
© Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2004
Copies available from:
Science Communication
Australian Institute of Marine Science
PMB No 3, Townsville Mail Centre
Townsville Q 4810 Australia
Long-term Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef Standard
Operational Procedure: ISSN 1327-0184
National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data:
Surveys of benthic reef communities using underwater video.
3rd rev ed.
ISBN 0 642 32234 1.
1. Benthos - Queensland - Great Barrier Reef. 2. Video
recording - Queensland - Great Barrier Reef. 3. Reef
organisms - Queensland - Great Barrier Reef. 4. Underwater
cinematography. I. Abdo, Dave. II. Australian Institute
of Marine Science. (Series : Long-term monitoring of the
Great Barrier Reef standard operational procedure ; 2).
577.78909943
CONTENTS
Preface
Introduction
Sampling design
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
Personnel
Trip information
Equipment
Preparation of equipment
Equipment maintenance
Quick setup procedures
Camera troubleshooting guide
Field sampling procedure
Recording video data for each transect
Data management
Laboratory sampling
Prior to video analysis
Analysis of the video transect
Benthic and species codes used in video analysis
Dichotomous key for the identification of benthic life forms Training others in the use of underwater video
Quality control
Initial training
Annual training
References
Aknowledgements
Appendix i
Appendix ii
Appendix iii
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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
Figure 1. Sample table screen
32
Figure 2. Data table screen
33
Table 1. Troubleshooting guide for common video camera problems
19
Table 2. Structure of benthic group codes
34
iv
PREFACE
The Australian Institute of Marine Science’s Long-term Monitoring Program annually
monitors the cover of benthic organisms, reef fish abundance and crown-of-thorns
starfish populations on various reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Both reef fish and
assemblages of benthic organisms are monitored using permanently marked transects. This is Standard Operational Procedure number nine, produced by the Long-term
Monitoring Program at the Australian Institute of Marine Science. This volume details
the procedures for the use of video to sample reef benthos along permanent transects
and for analysis of video transects in the laboratory using AVTAS, a software system
developed at the Institute. Further details of the Long-term Monitoring Program are
described in Sweatman et al. (2001) or go to http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/
reef-monitoring/reef-monitoring-index.html
INTRODUCTION
The major objective of the sessile benthic component of the Long-term Monitoring
Program (LTMP) is to monitor the status of benthic coral reef communities, and to
detect and quantify major spatial and temporal changes in the cover of a variety of
benthos types. This is achieved through an underwater video technique developed at
the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS).When underwater video was first
incorporated into surveys it was a relatively new method used to quantify percentage
cover of reef benthos (Carleton and Done 1995). In recent years underwater video has
replaced the time consuming line intercept method (Marsh et al. 1984;Loya 1978). This
video method has the advantage of requiring less diving time than the line intercept
method and also provides a permanent record of the reef benthos (the video tape) that
may be revisited. This survey technique can be used in most diving conditions, even
when visibility is limited, and is an easy method for a competent diver to learn. The
purpose of this Standard Operational Procedure document is to be an explicit account
of the methods presently used by the LTMP at AIMS. As a consequence, some aspects
of the manual are specific to the equipment used in this program. This Standard
Operational Procedure is also intended to act as a guide for other users who wish to
use videography to monitor the benthic communities of coral reefs (also see the Video
Transects FAQ web page on the AIMS website at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/
research/reef-monitoring/reef-monitoring-index.html).
SAMPLING DESIGN
Benthic coral reef communities are surveyed annually by the AIMS LTMP. The surveys
occur within six sectors of the Great Barrier Reef (Cooktown/Lizard Island, Cairns,
Townsville, Whitsunday, Swain and Capricorn Bunker sectors), which are defined
according to latitude. Within each of these sectors, reefs are classified according to
their position across the continental shelf (shelf position). With the exception of the
Capricorn Bunker and the Swains sectors, three shelf positions (inner, mid and outer)
have been identified. Shelf position is determined by the position of the reef relative to
the coast and continental slope, with inner shelf reefs closest to the coast. Three reefs
are nested within each of these shelf position/sector combinations. In the Capricorn
Bunker sector, only outer shelf reefs are represented, with four reefs being surveyed. In the Swains sector there are no inner-shelf reefs represented, however five mid-shelf
reefs and two outer-shelf reefs are represented.
On each reef a single habitat, the northeast flank of the reef, is surveyed. This habitat
is defined as the first stretch of continuous reef with a slope less than vertical, when
moving in a clockwise direction from the back reef zone towards the reef front. The
selection of a common habitat allows comparisons to be made between reefs, both
within and between sectors and shelf positions. Within the northeast flank habitat,
three sites were originally selected at each reef, and five permanently marked, 50 m
long transects were set-up. Transects are located along the reef slope, lying roughly
parallel to the reef crest at a depth between 6 and 9 m’s. Each transect is marked at the
beginning and at the end with a star-picket and at 10 m intervals with steel reinforcing
rods (10 mm diameter). A tape stretched between the star-pickets and rods marks
the centre line of each transect. Each star-picket is labelled with an aluminium tag
(identifying the transects as belonging to AIMS project 221). The GPS position of the
star-picket at the beginning of the first transect for each site is recorded in a database. This star-picket is also marked with a subsurface buoy to aid in locating the site. Further details of this sampling design can be found in Sweatman et al. (2001) or at
http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reef-monitoring/reef-monitoring-index.html
Benthic surveys are conducted on the upper slope side of the centre line of the transect,
approximately 50 cm from tape. The video camera is held at a consistent distance from
the substrate (approximately 20 cm). The resulting video belt transect to be analysed is
approximately 25 cm by 50 m.
USING UNDERWATER VIDEO TO
SURVEY REEF BENTHOS
The following procedures are used by the AIMS LTMP as a standard survey method for
sessile benthic communities using underwater video. They are specific to the objectives
of the program but may be easily modified to satisfy other research objectives. The video technique has three components; Personnel, Equipment and Equipment
Preparation and Maintenance; the Field Sampling procedure; and the Laboratory
Sampling of videotapes.
Personnel
A minimum of three people are required for the collection of sessile benthic data using
this survey technique. One person is required to lay a tape measure along the centre line
of each transect and a second person to follow filming the transect. The third person is
required to remain in the boat as a divers attendant and surface support.
However, benthic surveys are normally conducted by the AIMS LTMP concurrently
with visual census surveys of reef fish, surveys of coral mortality and the presence of
Crown-of-thorns starfish and Drupella along the same transects.
In these circumstances, two additional people are required with the one person
conducting the visual fish surveys and the second conducting SCUBA searches for
Crown-of-thorns starfish and Drupella. The procedures for visual fish surveys and
SCUBA searches are detailed in the Standard Operational Procedure No. 3 (Halford and
Thompson 1994) (or found at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reef-monitoring/
reef-monitoring-index.html) and the Standard Operational Procedure No. 1 (Bass and
Miller 1996) (or found at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reef-monitoring/reefmonitoring-index.html) respectively.
Trip information
Before departure a record of the trip number, cruise code and the last sequence number
of previous video tapes (e.g. M658) should be made from the database to ensure that
tapes recorded on the upcoming field trip are labelled correctly and in sequence with
previous tapes.
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
Equipment
The following list of equipment is required for the collection of sessile benthic data
using underwater video.
List of equipment required
In the field
• Hand held Geographical Positioning System (GPS) (datum set to WGS-84)
• Two complete sets of SCUBA diving equipment
• Underwater slate, pencil and data sheets
• 5 × 50 m fibreglass measuring tapes
• Waterproof camera carry case (for transporting housing and camera to sites)
Waterproof carry case for video housing containing:
• Underwater housing
• A few 5c pieces
• Users guide and set up instructions for Gates underwater housing
• Orange non-silicone O-ring
• Black lens O-ring
• Screws for attaching camera to housing base plate
• Spare O-rings
Waterproof camera carry case containing:
• Sony Digital video camera (DCR-TRV950E) with lens cap
• Sony DVM60EX2 cassettes or other professional miniDV video cassettes (2
cassettes per reef)
• Sony BC-VM50 battery charger
• Sony InfoLITHIUM M Series battery pack (2)
• Sony AC power adaptor and mains lead
• A/V connecting cable
• S-video cable
• USB cable
• iLink (DV interface) cable
• Remote control for camera
• Instruction manual for video camera
• MiniDV player
• Video data sheets (3 per reef) (Appendix I)
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Blower brush
Lens cleaning tissue
Lens cleaning fluid
Lens cleaning cloth
Lens polishing spray
Cotton buds
Video head cleaning cassette (Sony DVM12CL)
Silicone grease
In the laboratory
• Large television monitor
• Digital video cassette recorder/player
• Personal computer (with DVD player, video card and preferably a hardware DVD
decoder)
• AVTAS video data entry software system
Preparation of equipment
Instructions to prepare the housing and video camera are given below, however, for
a more comprehensive coverage of housing and video camera features refer to the
relevant manufacturer’s instruction manual and operation procedures. A summary of
housing and camera set up and maintenance procedures (Quick Set-up and Maintenance
Procedures) is provided at the end of this section.
Recharging the video camera battery packs
Prior to the use of the video cameras, battery packs should be completely recharged. InfoLITHIUM batteries used with the digital Sony cameras do not require discharging
prior to recharging. Batteries should always be charged after the day’s activities have
been completed.
Battery packs maybe recharged using either an AC Adaptor/charger or an AC Adaptor,
and battery packs should be recharged on a flat surface without vibration. When the
remaining battery indicator on either the camera or the Adaptor/charger shows the
battery to be completely charged, a NORMAL charge level is achieved. To fully
charge the battery, which allows longer than normal use of the battery pack, leave the
battery pack charging until FULL appears on the display window. FULL charging takes
approximately one hour longer than NORMAL charging.
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
Recharging the battery packs using the AC Adaptor
With the battery pack attached to the video camera connect the AC power adaptor to
the camera and the AC power adaptor to the mains lead and the power supply. Set
the Power switch on the camera to OFF. The remaining battery time is indicated on
the LCD display window. Charge until either a NORMAL or FULL charge level is
achieved. Remove the AC power adaptor before using the video camera.
Recharging the battery packs using the AC Adaptor/charger
Remove the battery pack from the video camera and attach the battery to the AC
Adaptor/charger. The battery pack is attached to the adaptor by sliding the battery into
the adaptor so that the arrow on the battery slides towards the right of the Adaptor/
charger. Ensure the switch on the adaptor/charger is switched to CHARGE. If the
battery is inserted correctly a diagram of a battery filling up will appear on the LCD
screen. To display the life of the battery or the time to either FULL or NORMAL
Charge on the LCD display screen, press the Display Charge button nearest the LCD
display screen.
Underwater video housing preparation
1. Open the housing by firstly releasing the latch on the top of the housing and then
simultaneously releasing the latches on the sides of the housing. Latches are
released by depressing the centre bar release on the catch while lifting the lever. Care should be taken when releasing latches from the catch hook on the front half
of the housing to avoid scratching the housing paint. Dust and particulate matter
should be removed from inside the housing with a lens cloth and from the lens,
eyepiece and colour filter using the blower brush. Both sides of the lens, eyepiece
and colour filter should be wiped carefully using a circular motion starting at the
centre of the lens and working to the edge using a small amount of cleaning fluid
on a lens cleaning tissue. The lens cover should then be replaced.
2. The orange non-silicon O-ring should be removed from the housing using a
toothpick or similar non-metal device and checked for cracks and scratches. The
O-ring and the O-ring groove should then be cleaned with either a non-lint tissue
(e.g. lens tissue) or cotton bud and a small amount of cleaning fluid. Carefully
place the O-ring back into the groove without twisting.
Note: O-ring grease must not be applied to this O-ring.
3. The black O-ring within the lens port should also be cleaned and is accessed by
removing the lens port. To remove the lens port, turn the port so that the small
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
11
alignment dots on the port and similar dots on the housing are approximately ¼
of a turn apart from each other. When the alignment dots are in this position the
bayonet tabs on the port should align with corresponding slots on the housing
and should then pull straight out. The black O-ring should then be removed and
cleaned in the same way as the orange non-silicon O-ring. Pure silicone lubricant
or silicone grease should then be applied by applying a little silicone between
thumb and forefinger and then running the entire loop of the o-ring between
fingers several times coating the entire surface with a film of lubricant. Carefully
place the O-ring back into the groove without twisting, taking care not to place
grease on the lens. During the course of fieldwork O-rings need to be removed
once per week for cleaning.
4. Withdraw all controls as far as they can be withdrawn to allow for the camera to
be easily placed within the housing.
Video camera preparation
1. Place the video camera on a clean flat surface and carefully attach a fully charged
battery pack to the rear of the video camera. Check the lens and viewfinder
eyepiece and clean if necessary. Extend the viewfinder backwards by sliding it
gently towards the back of the camera.
2. Insert a miniDV videocassette into the camera, ensuring that the copy protect
switch is off and that you have closed the cassette hatch by pushing the Push button. Note: If inserting a cassette already containing some footage, ensure the tape is
at the correct place to ensure footage is not taped over, and/or, it is important
to ensure there are no empty frames after the previously recorded footage as the
camera will restart the time code on the tape.
3. Slide the lock switch (on the side of the power switch) to its locked position
stop the selection of the Memory/Network setting. This is to stop the accidental
selection of Memory/Network setting and recording video onto the camera’s
Memory Stick.
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
4. Set the camera to Auto focus by placing the Focus button located near the front of
the camera to Auto.
5. Select the desired camera shutter speed according to the day’s conditions. This is
achieved by pushing the Shutter button located at the rear of the camera on the left
hand side. Using the Sel/Push/Exec button scroll through the menu until desired
speed shows on the display panel. Scroll up or down until 120 is shown and then
place the Auto Lock Selector switch, located at the left rear of the camera, to
Hold.
Note: The camera shutter speed should normally be set to 120. However, if light
conditions are high then set the shutter speed to a maximum of 150. Moreover, if
light conditions are low the shutter speed should not be set any less than 100.
6. Once the chosen settings have been set turn the Power switch to off and remove
the camera lens cover. The camera is now ready to be placed into the housing.
7. The Sony TRV950 cameras are permanently mounted on a removable base
plate. The camera is mounted into the housing via the base plate by using a small
screw and a five-cent piece. Carefully mate the housing halves by lining up the
alignment pins and holes and hooking the three safety latches. Close both side
latches simultaneously and then the top latch.
8. Check all controls for proper alignment and access to buttons by pushing all
control levers inwards and moving left/right or up/down and ensure that the
eyepiece of the camera and the viewfinder of the housing are aligned. If a control
lever does not move a button, withdraw the lever, reposition and try again. Initially you may have to open the housing and reposition levers and close the
housing again to get some buttons to work. With practice, however, it becomes
possible to manipulate the levers so that opening the housing after closure is
unnecessary.
9. Approximately 60 seconds of footage should be recorded on each new
videocassette to assist with the dubbing of the videocassettes. This should be
done in the laboratory to ensure all housing controls are operational and the
camera is recording properly.
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
13
10. Turn the camera off and place the housing in a closed cracked camera case in a
non air-conditioned environment to acclimatise for a short period of time before
the camera case is sealed. This ensures condensation on the lens is kept to a
minimum. The camera case should be sealed before moving to the boat.
Pre-filming checks
Before entering the water remove the lens cover from the housing. After entering the water,
but before descending on each dive, ensure that the equipment is functioning properly.
1. Check the housing for leaks. A leak is best detected by looking inside the housing
from the viewfinder while holding the lens down as you submerge the housing. Any water entering the housing will pool at the lens. If a leak is detected return to
the boat, locate the leak and inspect the camera for water damage. A habit should
be made of occasionally looking inside the housing to check for leaks, particularly
if the housing encounters any knocks or impacts.
2. Check the video camera functions (i.e. On/Off, Record and Zoom controls).
3. Check that there is no condensation in the front lens port or the viewfinder. If
condensation is present, delay filming until it disappears.
4. Ensure the zoom button is set to full wide-angle (W), indicated in the viewfinder
when the Zoom lever is moved
5. Ensure the Colour Filter is positioned so that it covers the lens entirely and does
not obscure any part of the camera view by using the lever located under the lens
at the front of the housing.
Equipment maintenance
After every use
1. Immediately after leaving the water, the lens cover of the housing should be
replaced and the housing stored in a closed waterproof camera carry case.
2. Wash salt water from the housing with freshwater paying particular attention to
controls and recesses around the O-ring seals. This is best done by submerging
the sealed housing in a container such as a nally bin filled with freshwater for as
long as possible. If the housing is not opened between dives there is no need to
remove the housing from the fresh water until the camera is required.
14
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
3. Remove the housing from the water and dry with a clean towel. Leave the
housing in a safe, clean, airy, salt-free environment to dry completely.
Note: It is important to keep wet and dry areas separate in the vessels’ laboratory.
This ensures that any electronic equipment does not become damaged.
4. Wipe carefully around the O-ring seals of the housing before opening, so that
no water falls onto the video camera upon opening. Open the housing by
simultaneously releasing the two latches on the sides of the housing and then the
latch on the top of the housing. Withdraw all control levers on the outside of the
housing before carefully removing the back half of the housing. Carefully wipe
any water on the mating surfaces of the two housing halves.
Note: Do not open the housing where salt spray is present.
5. Remove the mounting screw attaching the base plate to the housing using a fivecent piece and remove the camera from the housing.
6. Carefully wipe all water from the housing halves and leave in a safe, clean, salt
free environment to dry completely.
7. Rewind the videotape, remove it from the video camera and switch the copy
protect switch on to prevent recording over the data. Indicate on the tape
cover any situations where any non-standard filming occurred, e.g. repeated or
incomplete transects, transects out of order or with false starts and any additional
footage taken. Label the tape cover with reef name, site details, date of filming
and a tape number (issued consecutively to tapes used for survey reefs) using a
permanent marker pen. Store the video tapes in a waterproof camera case at all
times.
8. Remove the battery and recharge it. Place the lens cap on the camera and return it
to its case. Always store the video camera and housing in their cases when not in use.
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
15
Regular maintenance
Video camera
1. Heads of the video camera
Clean the video heads with a Sony DVM12CL head-cleaning cassette after
approximately 10 hours of use. Alternatively, clean the video camera heads if
the Cleaning Cassette message appears in the viewfinder or the filmed picture
becomes fragmented (see instruction manual)
Note: Do not overuse the head cleaning tape as its abrasive nature may damage
the heads.
2. Servicing of video camera
The video cameras should be serviced at approximately 30-hour intervals, or
when problems are detected.
Housing
1. O-rings
O-rings, between housing halves and between the housing and lens port should
be removed for storage and closely examined for nicks, scratches etc. If any are
detected the O-ring should be replaced, otherwise the O-ring should be cleaned
as previously described. Some O-rings in the Gates housing are inaccessible,
such as those inside the mechanical control lever shafts. These require light
lubrication with silicone lubricant after the housing has been used approximately
twenty times. Apply a little lubricant to the shaft and move the control lever in
and out several times. All O-rings should all be replaced after 2 years regardless
of the amount of use.
2. Lens, colour filter and viewfinder
The lens, colour filter and viewfinder of the housing should be checked for dust
and cleaned before each use. If scratches appear on either the lens or the colour
filter these should be replaced, as scratches may affect the quality of video footage.
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
Equipment storage
Camera
When not in a housing, cameras should always be stored in an air-conditioned
environment in a closed but cracked waterproof carry cases with lens cover in
place. Camera cases should be closed to protect the camera, but cracked to allow air
circulation.
Housing
While the housing and camera is being transported to the survey site, the camera
should be stored in a closed waterproof camera carry case with the lens cover in place. Between dives and when batteries do not require recharging or cassettes do not require
changing before the cameras next use, the housing is best kept in a water-filled Nally
bin to avoid corrosion. When the camera is not in the housing, the housing should be
stored opened with lens cover in place in a cracked waterproof carry case. When not in
use the housing handles should be removed from the housing. The orange non-silicon
O-ring between housing halves should also be removed during storage.
Quick setup procedures
This section in designed for people who are experienced in the set up of their housing
and cameras. The summary may be used as a reminder for those who have not
conducted video surveys for a while and do not feel confident in the set up of their
equipment. In addition, this summary may be printed out separately, stored with the
camera and housing and used as a checklist to ensure no steps in the preparation of the
equipment are forgotten. The same applies to the camera troubleshooting guide.
Camera set-up
The camera should be set-up and placed in housing in a clean, salt free and air
conditioned environment and placed in waterproof case for transport to site. When the
housing is not in use the lens cover should be in place.
1. Place camera on clean flat surface and clean lens and eyepiece
2. Attach a fully charged battery onto the rear of camera
3. Switch camera into Camera mode using the Camera/Off/VCR switch
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
17
4. Insert a videocassette and close the cassette hatch by pushing the PUSH button.
Note: If inserting a cassette already containing some footage, ensure the tape is
at the correct place to ensure footage is not taped over, and/or, it is important
to ensure there are no empty frames after the previously recorded footage as the
camera will restart the time code on the tape.
5. Place Focus button at front of camera in Auto position
6. Place Auto Lock selector to the centre unlocked position and select the desired
shutter speed. This is achieved by pushing the shutter button on the back of the
camera and then using the Sel/Push/Exec button scroll through the menu until
the right shutter speed is on the display panel. The shutter speed is normally set
to 120.
Note: If high light conditions are expected then select a shutter speed of a
maximum of 150. Moreover, if light conditions are expected to be low then
select a shutter speed of not less than 100.
7. After selecting the desired shutter speed place the Auto Lock selector back into
the hold position.
8. Turn the camera off.
Housing set-up
When opening the housing open the top latch first and then the two side latches
simultaneously. When closing the housing use the latches in reverse order and close the
two side latches simultaneously and then close the top latch.
1. Open the housing.
2. Withdraw all controls from the outside of the housing so that the camera may
easily slide into the housing.
3. Gently slide camera into front half of housing, until the lip of the base plate
stops on the edge of the housing and secure using a small screw and a five-cent
piece (tighten firmly but do not over tighten).
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
4. Check orange O-ring is clean and not damaged. Mate housing halves and close
latches (side latches simultaneously then top latch).
5. Push the control levers in and check On/Off, Rec/STBY, Zoom and Still Photo
controls work. If these do no work, withdraw controls, reposition and push back
in and try again. If controls still do not work, open housing, align controls and
try again.
6. Place the housing into a waterproof case.
Before entering water and descending
1. Remove the lens cover.
2. Check the red filter is in place.
3. Check that the controls work (i.e. On/Off, Rec/STBY, Zoom).
4. Place camera in wide-angle mode (using the zoom control).
5. Check the shutter speed is still set at required level (normally set at 120).
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
19
Camera troubleshooting guide
Table 1. Troubleshooting guide for common video camera problems
Problem
Possible cause
Solution
Camera power turned
Operating in Camera mode on
Set Power switch to Off and then
operating
Camera not focussing
camera not in Camera mode
Camera on Manual focus setting
Change focus to Auto using lever
off or Start/Stop not
Standby for more than 5 min or
Not enough light available
Poor water clarity
Condensation on lens
Dust etc. on housing and/or camera
lens or colour filter
Picture partially obscured
“Cleaning Cassette”
message flashing in
viewfinder
Camera mode
on front left of housing
Remove camera from housing
and adjust shutter speed
Aim camera at a contrasting
image, e.g. coral
Wait for condensation to
disappear
Remove camera from housing
and clean housing and camera
lens and colour filter
Colour filter not positioned correctly
Ensure colour filter is positioned
housing mount or is not attached
Open housing and attach camera
Camera base has come loose from
Heads of video camera require
cleaning
correctly
to base firmly
Wait for message to disappear
and finish filming if possible. Clean heads of video camera
“No tape” symbol
No cassette tape inserted
before next use
Ensure cassette is inserted
A symbol flashing in the
Battery pack is low, or the videotape
the Push button firmly
Refer to camera Instruction
flashing in viewfinder
viewfinder
Cassette door not closed properly
is finished or close to finished, etc.
Close cassette door by pushing
Manual for comprehensive list of
symbols
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
Field sampling procedure
The following section outlines the procedure for undertaking sessile benthic surveys of
a permanent monitoring site. This procedure assumes that fish surveys and SCUBA
searches are being conducted concurrently as outlined in the Standard Operational
Procedure No. 3 (Halford and Thompson 1994) and Standard Operational Procedure No. 1
(Bass and Miller 1996) and outlined below. If fish surveys and SCUBA searches are not
conducted concurrently then the procedure can be followed without the fish observer.
1. The site is located from the surface using a hand held GPS and/or past knowledge
of the surrounding reef topography. On reaching the general area a snorkel diver
locates the beginning of the first transect, marked with a star-picket and subsurface marker buoy. The site is then marked temporarily with a surface buoy
attached to a 30m rope and drop weight. The boat is then anchored slightly
away from the site so that the anchor does not damage the first transect and, if
conducting fish censuses, divers entering the water do not swim across transects
and disturb fish before the census begins.
2. Four divers enter the water and the diver’s attendant remains in the boat. The
first diver (fish observer) is equipped with a slate, pencil, data sheets and one
fibreglass tape. The second diver (tape layer) carries five, 50 m tapes. The third
diver (benthic observer/video person) is equipped with the video camera, slate
with pencil and data sheet (Appendix I). The forth diver (SCUBA searcher) is
equipped with a slate, pencil and data sheet.
3. Beginning at the first star-picket of transect one, the fish observer conducts the 50 m
by 5 m fish surveys by swimming along the centre line of the transects using the
star-pickets and reinforcing rods as guides. The observer counts all nonPomacentrid fish within the area 2.5 m’s either side of the centre line.
4. The tape layer follows approximately 15 m’s behind the fish observer, laying a
tape measure along the centre line of the transect. The tape is attached to the starpicket at the beginning of the transect, then wrapped once around each reinforcing
rod and attached to, or as close as possible to, the last star-picket.
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
21
5. The SCUBA searcher then follows approximately 15 m’s behind the tape layer
recording the presence of Crown-of Thorns Starfish, Drupella etc. as outlined in
Standard Operational Procedure Number 1 (Bass and Miller 1996). The benthic
observer then follows behind the SCUBA searcher, filming each transect.
6. Each pair of divers operate as a buddy pair, therefore buddy pairs may become
separated, but divers of a buddy pair remain within constant visual contact. This
distance will depend on water clarity and may have to be adjusted throughout a
dive depending on diving conditions.
7. Upon completion of the five, 50 m by 5 m transects by the fish observer and the
tape layer, the fish observer returns along the same transects (which are now
marked with a tape along the centre line) undertaking a census of the Pomacentrid
fish. The tape layer follows at least 15 m’s behind the fish observer leaving the
tapes to be collected by the SCUBA searcher.
8. Upon completion of the 5th transect the SCUBA searcher and benthic observer
return along the transects, with the SCUBA searcher collecting the tapes as they
return. During this time the benthic observer films any benthic specimens of note
from along the transects that may be difficult to identify when viewing the tape. This information is recorded on the data sheet.
9. Following completion of the work, each buddy pair leaves the water together
having regrouped at the beginning of transect one.
Note: Due to current Australian scientific diving standards this sampling routine
may need to be adapted depending on the location of the dive site to the nearest
hyperbaric chamber. This may involve shortening dive times by swapping divers
after transect five.
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
Recording video data for each transect
1. The data sheet
a. Fill out the details identifying the transect including: the reef name, date, site
number, transect number, and recorder’s name, on the left-hand side of the video
data sheet (Appendix I).
b. On the right hand side of the data sheet record the time code shown in the viewfinder
(e.g. T1 00:01:00).
c. Press record on the video camera and record the video data sheet details
for several seconds, so the transect can be identified for analysis from the
videotape.
2. The panoramic shot
a. The panoramic shot can be recorded without switching the camera off after
filming the video data sheet. This shot needs to include the star-picket and tape
measure, so the person videoing may need to wait for the person laying the tape
to move a distance from the star-picket before commencing filming.
b. Video a panoramic shot along the transect (showing the tape and star-picket) and
then the reef surrounding the start of the transect. The emphasis should be on
recording the general structure of the reef, following the reef substrate at all times.
c. Turn in a clockwise direction, to record the reef slope, ending at the initial
view. This should take approximately 30 seconds. Move slowly, holding the
video camera as steady as possible for the best result.
Note: Avoid recording open water or a small area of the reef (<5 m radius)
beneath you, as this may not represent the reef area. Also avoid sudden
changes in the distances from video camera to subject that will cause the image
to be blurred, due to the time lag for the automatic focus to adjust.
Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
23
3. The transect
a. While holding the camera approximately 50 cm from the substrate switch the
camera to manual focus using the control lever on the front left hand side of the
housing. Making sure the focal length displayed in the bottom left hand corner
of the viewfinder is between 0.5 m and 1 m.
b. Record the time code showing in the viewfinder on the data sheet next to the
transect number after the panoramic shot is complete (e.g. T1 00:01:00). If
footage is accidentally filmed between the panoramic shot and filming of the
transect, the time code may need to be re-recorded on the datasheet.
c. Press record, and video the base of the star-picket for several seconds, then
move approximately 50 cm to the right of the star-picket and continue along
the transect staying 50 cm to the right of the measuring tape. An area not
including the tape measure is videoed as the reflective nature of the measuring
tape can adversely affect the exposure of the video camera. The camera lens
should be kept parallel to the reef substrate at a distance of approximately 20 cm.
d. Follow the tape along the transect. At the end of the transect move towards
the final star-picket and record it for several seconds to indicate the end of the
transect. Stop recording and leave the camera on Standby.
e. Record the time code showing in the viewfinder at the end of the transect on
the data sheet (e.g. T1 00:01:00 - 00:05:00:24). This information allows easy
calculation of the time interval required for tape analysis in the laboratory and
also allows you to adjust your filming speed if necessary.
f. If any extra footage is taken between transects or at the end of a site, this
should also be recorded on the data sheet. Any mistakes made during filming
should also be noted on the video data sheet.
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Using underwater video to survey reef benthos
4. Speed of recording
It should take approximately 4 to 5 minutes to video a 50 m transect. The time
will vary depending on the topographic complexity of the reef and the water
conditions, such as surge or current. It is important to maintain a constant speed
while recording any one transect. Speed at any point along a transect can be
determined by checking the video counter and should be checked occasionally
during each transect. Constant and correct filming speed in different conditions
is however, something that is achieved through practice.
5. Timing
On the Great Barrier Reef it is recommended that video recording takes place
between the hours of 08:00 and 15:30 for best lighting conditions. These times
can be extended during summer months.
6. Problems
The measuring tape that marks the centre of the transect does not always follow
the contours of the reef, especially when there is a crevice or gap in the structure
of the reef. If the tape does not follow the substrate, a decision must be made
which determines the path to take with the camera. The film path chosen should
be the one that requires least deviation from the tape path (not more than 3 m)
while maintaining a constant distance of approximately 20 cm from the
substrate. With broad or deep crevices it is not always possible to stay within 3 m
of the tape and still have the camera approximately 20 cm from the substrate. In
this situation remain at the same depth contour and cross the crevice at the
narrowest point within 3 m of the tape.
Data management
Before video transects are analysed, all DVD discs should be backed up to ensure data
is not lost due to a disc being damaged. One copy of the DVD disc containing the video
frames and still images is sent National Archives for archiving, the other copy is kept in
the video analysis room at AIMS. In addition, the original AIMS LTMP videocassettes
are stored in a fire proof safe at AIMS.
LABORATORY SAMPLING
Prior to video analysis
Input of data from video data sheet
To allow video transects to be analysed using the AVTAS software, the time codes for
the start of the panorama and the start and finish time codes of each transect (“video
frames”) recorded on each video data sheet must be accurately entered into a Microsoft
Access© database. This database is available at \\pearl\monshare\database\programs\
reefmon3.mdb. Data should be entered by the recorder of the data to ensure data
are not entered incorrectly due to difficulties in reading unfamiliar handwriting and
should be entered as soon as possible after the data is collected. At the same time,
the time interval between frames to be analysed should be checked to be ensure start
and finish frames have been entered correctly. This interval should be between 5 and
10. If this is not the case the data should be checked to ensure time codes have been
entered correctly. Any situations where non-standard filming occurred, e.g. repeated or
incomplete transects, transects out of order or with false starts should also be recorded
in the database in the COMMENTS field. Any additional footage taken should also be
recorded in the database in the COMMENTS field.
Uploading video frames data
When all the video frames data for a trip is entered, the database should be renamed
<CRUISE_CODE>frames.mdb and transferred to \\pearl\monshare\database\data for
uploading to the Oracle database. The database administrator completes uploading
using the program \\pearl\monshare\database\programs\upload2000.mdb.
The database administrator will then create the script files for extracting the video
from DV tapes using the program \\monshare\database\programs\DVExtract.exe. This
program creates two files for each tape in the directory c:\temp. All of these files need
to be copied to the Apple Macintosh computer. The apple script files (*.sc) should be
copied to the folder “Back up scripts” on the desktop. The Final Cut Pro batch capture
files (*.cap) should be copied to the directory 20GB/Backup/fcp.
25
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Laboratory sampling
Transferring still and video frames to DVD discs
The process of getting stills and video frames from videotape onto a DVD disc involves
importing the images into the Apple Power Mac G4 computer and exporting them
(writing) to a DVD disc.
Note: All operations occur on the “20GB” hard drive on the Apple computer.
1. Importing video tape images to the Apple computer
Each videotape has a corresponding program file (“Script”). The script file runs
the procedure for copying images to the 20GB hard drive. The script also runs the
procedures for the conversion of images to mpeg files (“mpegout”) and still files
(“frames”). These script files have already been written for each videotape and
placed in the 20GB hard drive. To open the specific script, first start the “Script
Editor”. To start the Script Editor select:
a. The “Apple” icon on the menu bar on the top left hand corner of the screen.
b. From the drop down menu select “Recent Applications”.
c. Then on the Recent Applications menu select Script Editor
The Script Editor window will appear as a small subdivided window. To select
the correct script, choose:
a. The “File” menu located on the top of the screen.
b. From the drop down menu select “Open Script” (this gives a directory of
scripts under the folder “Backup”).
c. Now select the desired file, which will correspond to name of the reef (e.g.
Davies1 refers to the first two sites for Davies reef).
d. After selecting the correct script its text will appear in the lower half of the
Script Editors subdivided window. The script is now ready to run.
e. Press “Run”.
f. Follow the prompts (e.g. “insert tape number XXXX into the tape player”).
Note: Before starting the next step with OK, check the tape number and make sure
the tape is neither at the very start nor at the very end (i.e. fast forward or rewind
the tape into the middle a little).
Laboratory sampling
27
1. Press “OK”.
Note: If an error occurs during the process, refer to the DVD troubleshooting
section.
The process of copying the images into the 20GB hard drive will continue for
some time (upwards of 1 hour). At the end there will be a prompt to copy the
second tape of images from the series in to the 20GB hard drive. For the normal
LTMP surveys, the images from the first videotape would be written to a DVD
disc at this stage before repeating the process for the second videotape. This is
because the LTMP surveys require two DVD’s for each reef (15 transects in total),
corresponding to the two videotapes for each reef. However, for surveys with
fewer transects, images from both videotapes can likely be written onto a single
DVD for each reef.
2. Writing images and video frames to a DVD disc using the Apple computer
a. Click on the Apple logo (located on the top left hand corner of screen). On
the drop down menu select Recent Applications. In this menu choose “Roxio
Toast Titanium”.
b. In the Roxio Toast Titanium program window click on the “New DVD” button. Then type in a name (e.g. ReefNameVisitNo).
c. Click on the “Add” button. Then browse to the “20GB/Backup/” directory. Choose the sub-directory “Frames” within this tree (This appends the frames to
the DVD).
d. Repeat the above procedure (Steps a. to c.) to add the video frames to the
DVD disc. Browse to the directory “20GB/Backup/mpegout”. If this is DVD
number 1, choose to add sites 1 and 2 to the DVD disc (e.g. choose “Reefname
VisitSiteTransect.mpg” where site = 1 and 2). If this is DVD number 2, choose
to add site 3 to the DVD disc (e.g. choose “ReefnameVisitSiteTransect.mpg”
where site = 3).
Note: To select multiple files use the shift button.
e. Having chosen files to add to the DVD disc, the program takes you back to
main screen.
f. Select the “Record” button. The DVD drive will then open. Insert a blank
DVD disc and close the DVD drive. Wait for approximately 30 sec to respond
to prompt to continue, and then choose the OK button.
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Laboratory sampling
Dvd transfer troubleshooting
Each script used in transferring still images and video frames from the videocassettes to
DVD disc performs three tasks:
a. Capture video from the tape (Using Final Cut Pro).
b. Export stills (Using Final Cut Pro).
c. Export video (Using Digital Media Press).
The most likely step to cause an error during the transfer process is during
exporting of the still images (Task b.). Capturing the video from the tape (Task a.)
is a very time consuming process, so re-running of this task should be avoided if
possible. If an error occurs during the exporting of the still images (Task b.):
a. Reboot the computer.
b. Delete everything from the directories (e.g. Frametmp1, Frametmp2,
Frametmp3 etc.).
c. Open the Script Editor.
d. Open the relevant Script. Two sections of code will need to be deleted from
this script, and can be located by looking for the following:
START OF CODE TO BE DELETED
END OF CODE TO BE DELETED
e. Run the script again.
Laboratory sampling
29
Set-up of laboratory equipment
Analysis is performed using a desktop computer (PC). The computer should have the
AVTAS software installed, access to the network (to allow uploading and downloading
to the database), a DVD drive and preferably a hardware DVD decoder (a software
decode can be used but it does not provide the best display of the video). It is also
possible to connect an external TV monitor is to the computer to aid in analysis of the
video transect.
Connecting an external TV monitor
To connect the TV monitor to the computer, a S-video cable is connected to the Svideo slot on the TV monitor and to the video out slot on the back of the computer. Depending on the set up used (i.e. with or without external TV monitor) the display
options need to be changed accordingly in both AVTAS and the DVD decoder.
Adjusting the AVTAS display settings
1. Select the drop down “Database” menu in the AVTAS “Sample Table” window
(Figure 1).
2. Select “Edit Defaults”.
3. In the dialogue box, scroll across until the “TV Display” column is visible.
4. Adjust this according to the set up (i.e. Y when a external TV monitor is used or N
if no external monitor is used).
5. Once all changes have been completed press the “Save and Close” button on the
dialogue box.
Adjusting the DVD decoder display settings
1. Select the windows “Start” menu.
2. Select the “Programs” menu.
3. Select the computers DVD decoder menu. The make of DVD decoder may differ
between computers (e.g. VideoLogic or RealMAGIC).
4. On the DVD decoders drop down menu select to access the decoder
“configuration” settings.
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Laboratory sampling
5. Click on the “Advanced” button and then select the “Video Output” button.
6. In the video output window, select the “TV” button.
7. Click OK in the video output window once all settings have been chosen, then
click OK in the configuration window.
Downloading video frames data
The computer with the AVTAS software contains a directory called AVTAS5. This
directory contains a database called Avtas.mdb. All reef monitoring transects are
stored in Avtas.mdb. Start the AVTAS program. To check what database AVTAS is
connected to look on the title bar of the AVTAS program window. If required connect
to the relevant database by pressing the “Change Database” button. Download the
video frames from the Oracle database by choosing the “AIMS” menu and selecting
“Download Frames”, then enter the correct cruise code.
Analysis of the video transect
The video transects are systematically sampled by identifying the benthos occurring at
fixed points along the transect to the highest taxonomic level possible. Five fixed points
are sampled at a fixed time interval, calculated so that along each transect the benthos
lying under 200 data points are identified. The AVTAS software is used to analyse the
video transects and during analysis the data are saved automatically into a Microsoft
Access© database. In order to eliminate confounding in data analyses due to observer
biases, transects from each reef are analysed by three observers. Each observer analyses
the same numbered transects at each reef.
To analyse a video transect
1. The sample table
a. Enter the AVTAS program. The sample table screen will appear (Figure 1).
b. Click on the “AIMS” menu and select “Upload”. In the Upload dialogue
window select the “Update Upload Flag”.
c. Place the desired reefs DVD into the computers DVD drive.
d. To select a transect to analyse, click on the “Table View” tab in the AVTAS
Sample Table window. Scroll through the list, selecting the desired transect. Alternatively, select the “Filter” tab in the AVTAS Sample Table window. This
Laboratory sampling
31
allows for specific transect to be filtered via Visit, Sector, Cruise Code, To
Analyse or Reef Number. Once you have selected the desired transect, select
the “Form View” tab. Then enter your initials in the “Analysed By” field and
tab across to automatically fill in the date in the “Analysis Date” field.
Note: It is important to check that you have the correct DVD disc in the
computer’s DVD drive in order to analyse the chosen transect. This can be
checked in the “Filename” field in the From View tab. It is also important to
check that the “Video Source” field indicates File/Photo otherwise data on the
DVD disc will not be accessed by AVTAS.
2. The data table
a. For each frame the benthos occurring under each point needs to be identified
in the same order each time, starting at the top left hand point. The next point
identified is the top right, then the centre, the bottom left and finally the bottom
right point. Identify the benthos occurring under each of the five points on
the monitor and enter a specific numeric code into AVTAS for the benthos
occurring under each point. This is done by entering the numeric code directly
or via the drop down list on the right hand side of the Data table (Figure 2).
b. For each frame, substrate type is only recorded for the first point (top left hand
point). This is recorded in a separate substrate category in AVTAS, and acts
as a sub-sample of the points to give a detailed morphological picture of each
transect.
c. A description of the benthos that each video code represents is stored in the
reference table (Appendix III).
d. Continue this procedure until the final frame is reached and the video transect
analysis is complete.
e. Remove the DVD disc, put it in its case and store in the data cabinet.
3. Uploading analysed data
When you have finished analysing, upload your data to the Oracle database by
selecting the “AIMS” menu and choosing “Upload”. In the Upload dialogue
window select the “Upload All Analysed” button.
4. The species/benthos code reference table
There are several thousand species of hard corals, soft corals, sponges and algae
on reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. However, most cannot be identified to
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Laboratory sampling
species with certainty from a paused video image. Therefore, benthos are
identified to the highest taxonomic level possible and are assigned a unique code
describing both its life form and species combination. The substrate type (e.g.
sand, rock) on which the benthos is on is also recorded. Each species code and
life form combination has a numeric video code, which is used to simplify data
entry. A list of the species codes and video codes used are listed in the reference
table (Appendix III). The reference table is structured in a hierarchy so that once
the data are entered they can be retrieved from the database at six classification
levels; benthic group, benthic life form, family, genus, species and substrate type.
Figure 1. Sample table screen
Laboratory sampling
33
Figure 2. Data table screen
Benthic and species codes used in video analysis
The benthic group is the most often used level in data analysis. It is divided into a
further nine groups, which can be subdivided into benthic life forms. The benthic group
and life forms are based on the ASEAN codes for the Line Intercept Transect technique
(English et al. 1994) with a few changes. The nine benthic groups and life forms within
these groups are shown (Table 2) and described below. The identification of benthos is
facilitated by the use of a dichotomous key of life forms found below and A Coral Reef
Handbook (Mather and Bennett 1993), Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific (Veron
1993) and C-Nav (found at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reef-monitoring/
reef-monitoring-index.html).
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Laboratory sampling
Table 2. Structure of benthic group codes and their component benthic life forms.
BENTHIC GROUP
Abiotic
(AB)
DC
RCK
R
S
Hard
coral
(HC)
ACX
ACB
ACD
ACE
ACS
ACT
CB
CE
CF
CM
CS
CMR
CL
Soft
coral
(SC)
SC
Coralline
algae (CA)
CA
Macro
algae
(MA)
HA
MA
AO
Turf
algae
(TA)
TA
Sponge
(SP)
Other
(OT)
Indeterminate
(IN)
SP
OT
UNID
IN
W
1. Abiotic (AB)
This benthos group is used when there is no biotic life form present on the
substratum. These benthic codes are not generally used very often as most reef
surfaces are covered in a benthic form of some sort. The substrate that the benthos
is on or attached to is recorded in the database in a separate substrate category. This
category provides a more detailed morphological picture of each transect.
Dead coral (DC)
Recently dead coral that has a white or off-white colour
and not yet colonised by turfing algae.
Reefal substrate (RCK) Substrate not colonised by visible benthic organisms. Rarely seen except where the reef has recently undergone
exfoliation e.g. due to a cyclone, or where terrestrial rocks
have not been colonised.
Rubble (R)
Fragments of dead hard coral >0.5 cm but <15 cm in
diameter which are not consolidated into a hard or stable
substrate.
Sand (S)
Ranging from fine silt to calcareous sediment to Halimeda
spp. fragments, <0.5 cm in diameter.
Laboratory sampling
35
2. Scleractinian Coral (Hard Coral, HC)
Benthic codes
All hard corals are assigned a benthic life form category. These are defined below
(adapted from (Wallace 1999;Veron 1993)).
Acropora corals
Growing parts of the colony characterised by an obvious
axial apical corallite surrounded by radial corallites
Bottlebrush (ACX)
Colonies have small branchlets with both primary and
secondary branching arising from main arborescent
branches e.g. A. echinata.
Branching (ACB) Colonies have both primary and secondary open
branching, where branches are generally narrower than
they are long e.g. A. grandis.
Digitate (ACD) Short, protruding, vertically orientated digit like
branches arising from an encrusting base e.g. A. humilis,
or a coral recruit of this genus.
Tabulate (ACT) Horizontal plates with a small area of basal
attachment, where the colony is at least twice as wide as
they are high e.g. A. hyacinthus.
Encrusting (ACE) Colonies adhere and encrust the substrate and have
very little vertical growth e.g. A. palifera.
Submassive (ACS) Colony surface forms columns and/or ridges and may
have encrusting edges e.g. A. cuneata.
Non-Acropora corals
Growing parts of the colony not characterised by an
obvious axial apical corallite surrounded by radial
corallites
Branching (CB) Arborescent corals with open primary and
secondary branching where branches are generally
narrower than they are wide e.g. Seriatopora hystrix.
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Laboratory sampling
Encrusting (CE) Colonies that adhere and encrust the substrate e.g.
Pavona varians.
Foliaceous (CF) Colony leaf-like in appearance or composed of
flattened sheets which may be fused or convoluted to form
whorls e.g. Echinopora lamellosa.
Massive (CM) Colony is of generally solid construction and the
same shape in all directions (hemispherical in shape) e.g.
Platygyra daedalea, Porites spp.
Submassive (CS) Colony has knobs, protrusions or columnar structures
or rounded and more than 50% of the colony raised
indiscreetly from the underlying substratum e.g.
Scapophyllia cylindrica, Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora
damicornis.
Mushroom (CMR) Unattached easily moved solitary Fungiid coral.
Solitary (CL) Attached or unattached solitary non-Fungiid coral e.g.
Cynarina lacrymalis.
Species codes
Hard corals are identified to the highest taxonomic level possible and are assigned
a unique species code. Some species are readily identified on the video, such as
Diploastrea heliopora and Coeloseris mayeri, and are therefore assigned a seven
letter species codes, e.g. DIPHELI and COEMAYE respectively. The first three
letters in the species code are derived from the genera and the last four letters from
the species name, a system developed for the ASEAN-Australia Living Coastal
Resources project (English et al. 1994). Other corals may only be identifiable to
genera and are therefore assigned a generic species code. e.g. ACRSPP (Acropora
species). Other corals may only be identifiable to family level and a code describing
this family is therefore used e.g. Faviids (FVDSPP). It is often difficult to
differentiate these families into genera from the videotape. If a hard coral cannot
be identified to a family it is assigned the species code CORSPP (coral species)
and consequently this is not included when retrieving data at the family, genera or
species level.
Laboratory sampling
37
3. Soft Coral (SC)
Benthic codes
All soft corals are assigned the soft coral (SC) benthic code, this group includes
gorgonians unlike the ASEAN life forms (English et al. 1994). Species codes
The soft corals (SC) are identified to family and genera where possible. Each
family, genera and species group have a unique code. Where a soft coral cannot be
identified to family or genus level it is assigned the generic soft coral species code
(SOFSPP) species code.
4. Algae
Algae are divided into three benthic groups, Coralline algae, Macroalgae and Turfing
algae. Both the Coralline algae and Turfing algae groups contain only one code
each (CA and TA respectively), while the Macroalgae group contains three codes. Algae are not identified to genera or species level, but are place in the above benthic
groups, which correspond to functional groups.
Coralline Algae (CA)
This category includes all substrate and rubble covered with coralline algae (CA).
Macroalgae (MA)
Macroalgae are identified as having distinguishable structures such as fronds, stalks
and holdfasts. The macroalgae are identified to genera if possible. At the benthic
life form level there are three categories:
Halimeda spp. (HA)
Macroalgae of the genus Halimeda.
Macroalgae (MA)
Includes all macroalgae with structure features >5 cm in
size, e.g. Sargassum, Caulerpa and Chlorodesmis.
Algal Other (AO)
Algae with some structural features which are <5 cm in
size. This group also includes red encrusting algae and
algae that cannot be identified in more detail, but are not
turfing algae.
Turf Algae (TA)
Turf algae encrust the substrate and have no distinguishable structural features (TA).
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Laboratory sampling
5. Sponge (SP)
Includes all sponges (SP). They are not identified to a higher taxonomic level.
6. Other (OT)
Benthic codes
All identifiable organisms not placed in any of the above categories are given
the benthic code Other (OT). Any unknown benthic organisms are given the
unidentified benthic code (UNID).
Species codes
All organisms given the other benthic code are either given a more detailed species
code, e.g. Anemones are given the species code OTHANEM and Zoanthids,
OTHZOA. If the organism identified does not have its own species code it is given
the generic species code (OTH).
7. Indeterminate (IN)
This benthic group is divided into two codes that are used when nothing can be
confidently identified under a point.
Water (W)
Where the substrate is more than 1m from the camera and
therefore the benthos cannot be identified.
Indeterminate (IN)This code is used in a number of circumstances.
a. Basal substrate is undefined (indeterminate)
b. Poor image quality - data point obscure.
c. If the benthos is obscured by a diver’s hand or
measuring tape
8. Bleaching
This category is divided into three codes and is used to record the bleaching status of
the benthos identified under a point.
Laboratory sampling
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No Bleaching (NB)
This is the default code for this category, and indicates the
colony identified has no signs of bleaching. Partial Bleaching (PB)
Organisms are fluorescent in colour or not completely
white. Soft tissue is still present in bleached colonies but
may not be obvious on video images.
Bleaching (B)
Organisms are completely white or almost completely
white. Soft tissue is still present in bleached colonies but
may not be obvious on video images.
Dichotomous key for the identification of benthic life forms used in the video
transect method
1. a.
b.
There is no object directly below and within 1m of a point …. W
There is an object directly below and within 1m of a point …. go to 2
2. a.
b.
The image is clear and the benthos can be identified …. go to 3
The image is not clear and can therefore not be identified …. IN
3. a.
b.
It is not known what the benthos is lying under a point …. UNID
The benthos lying under a point can be identified …. go to 4
4. a.
b.
The life form under the point a alive or is a living organism …. go to 5
The life form under the point is not alive or a living organism …. go to 28
5. a.
b.
The life form is a coral (includes both soft and hard colonial and
non-colonial life forms, consisting of polyps each with radial symmetry and a mouth surrounded by tentacles) …. go to 6
The life form is not a coral …. go to 21
6. a.
b.
7. a.
The coral has a calcium carbonate (limestone) skeleton (i.e. is it a hard coral) …. go to 7
The coral has a soft body or an architecture not of calcium carbonate
…. SC
Growing parts of the coral colony are characterised by obvious
axial apical polyps …. go to 8
40
Laboratory sampling
b. There is no obvious axial polyp on the growing edge of the coral colony …. go
to 15
8. a.
b.
The point of colony attachment is visible …. go to 9
The point of colony attachment is not visible …. go to 13
9. a. b.
The point of attachment is narrower than the main body of the
colony …. go to 13
The colony has an encrusting base …. go to 10
10. a.
b.
The colony is an Isoporid with one or multiple axial polyps per
branch …. go to 11
The colony is not an Isoporid and always has one axial polyp per branch …. go to 12
11. a.
b.
The colony encrusts the substrate and < 50% of the colony
is raised above the general profile of the substratum …. ACE
The colony encrusts the substrate but > 50% of the colony consists of mounds, ridges or columns or the colony consists of robust rudimentary branches with short branchlets growing off the main branch …. ACS
12. a.
b.
The colony has short digit like vertically oriented branches growing
from an encrusting base …. ACD
The colony does not consist of digit like vertically oriented branches growing from an encrusting base …. go to 13
13. a.
b.
The colony is plate like and at least twice as wide as it is
high. Branches are densely packed or anastomosed …. ACT
The colony is not plate like and twice as wide as it is high with densely packed or anastomosed branches …. go to 14
14. a.
b.
The colony is characterised by open secondary branching, where
branches are generally narrower than they are long …. ACB
The colony consist of main branches from which small branchlets are given off and is “bushy” or “bottlebrush” in appearance …. ACX
Laboratory sampling
41
15. a.
b.
The colony consists of one polyp attached to the substratum or an
unattached polyp with a pointed base …. CL
The colony does not consist of a single polyp attached to the substratum or an unattached polyp with a pointed base …. go to 16
16. a.
b.
The colony is discretely raised from the substratum with the point
of attachment narrower than the main body of the colony …. go to 17
The colony is not discretely raised from the substratum with the point of attachment generally as wide or wider than the bulk of the colony …. go to 19
17. a.
b.
The colony is characterised by open secondary branching with
branches generally being narrower than they are long …. CB
The colony is characterised by either ill defined or no secondary branching or the colony consists of leaf like or flattened sheets …. go to 18
18. a.
b.
The colony is leaf-like in appearance or composed of flattened
sheets that may be fused or convoluted to form whorls …. CF
The colony consists of robust rudimentary branches with short branchlets growing off the main branch …. CS
19. a.
b.
The coral is not attached to the substratum and is easily
moved …. CMR
The coral is attached to the substratum …. go to 20
20. a.
b.
The colony is generally prostrate, in intimate contact with the
substrate and less than 50% of the colony raised above the general profile of the substratum …. CE
The colony has more than 50% of its structure raised above the substratum …. go to 21
21. a.
b.
Colony is of generally solid construction and the same shape in all
directions (hemispherical in shape) …. CM
Colony has knobs, protrusions or columnar structures or rounded and more than 50% of the colony is raised above the general profile of the underlying substratum …. CS
42
Laboratory sampling
22. a.
b.
The life form an algae …. go to 24
The life form is not an algae …. go to 23
23. a.
b.
The life form is a simple attached organism with no polyps and a
soft flexible or sponge like skeleton consisting of small spicules with small openings (ostia) …. SP
The life form is not the above …. OT
24. a.
b.
The algae consist of fine hair like filaments with no defined
structure encrusting the substratum …. TA
Algae does not consist of fine hair like filaments but is either encrusting or has some defined structure …. go to 25
25. a.
b.
The algae is green in colour calcified with the thallus being
composed of disclike segments …. HA
The algae may or may not be calcified but is not composed of disclike segments …. go to 26
26. a.
b.
The algae is strongly calcified with no clear structure to the thallus,
usually pink to grey in colour, typically encrusting, sometimes forming small ridges and small branching structures …. CA.
The algae are not strongly calcified, pink or grey in colour and typically forming small ridges and small branching structures …. go to 27
27. a.
b.
The algae is erect, has clearly defined macroscopic structures > 5 m in size (eg. frond, stalk and holdfast) …. MA
The algae has no clearly defined macroscopic structures or has defined macroscopic structures < 5 m in size …. AO
28. a.
b.
The substratum is unconsolidated or consisting of fragments < 15 cm in diameter …. go to 29
The substratum is consolidated or consisting of fragments > 15 cm in diameter …. go to 30
29. a.
b.
The substratum consists of coral or rock fragments < 15 cm in size …. R
The substratum consists of coral or rock fragments < 0.5 cm …. S
Laboratory sampling
43
30. a.
b.
The substratum consists of bare rock, with no cover of turf algae,
coralline algae, or other macroscopic fouling organisms …. RCK
The substratum is composed of white coral skeleton with little visible algal growth …. go to 31
31. a.
b.
The substratum is composed of a white coral skeleton or is part of
a colony with a sharp edge or boundary between the white area and the surrounding living area of the colony …. DC
The substratum is composed of a white coral skeleton. The colony is bleached but still alive as evidenced by a graduation of colour or pigmentation around the border of the white area …. B and goes to 6
TRAINING OTHERS IN THE USE OF UNDERWATER VIDEO
Training personnel in the use of underwater video to survey reef benthos can be achieved by
supervising trainees as they follow the instructions in this manual. Competency with
underwater video techniques requires familiarity with the video camera and housing,
and proficiency in SCUBA diving (especially buoyancy control). Skill and consistency
in filming at a constant height and speed along the transect is achieved through
familiarity with using the equipment underwater, confidence and experience.
Extensive training is required for consistent analysis of video footage. Analysis
requires an understanding of AVTAS software and proficiency in the identification of
sessile reef benthos. Discussing and scrutinising video images of benthic organisms
in the laboratory with the trainee will facilitate accuracy. The use of training resources
such as C-Nav (found at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/reef-monitoring/reefmonitoring-index.html) will also help to ensure accurate identifications of benthic
organisms. Training should cover the following components:
1. Preparation of the video equipment
a. Care and maintenance of camera equipment before, during and after field work.
b. Operation of video camera and housing.
2. Sampling reef benthos using underwater video technique
a. Learning the correct sampling protocol.
b. Practice to attain constant swim speed and camera position.
c. Practice to choose best filming path along the transect.
3. Data entry
a. Cataloguing of tapes
b. Entry of time codes from data sheet to Microsoft Access© database
c. Use of the AVTAS database.
d. Use of training software to standardise identification of benthos
e. Practice in the identification of common benthic organisms of particular
habitats before transect analysis
Most of these objectives can be met by supervision of trainees in the field and the
laboratory.
45
QUALITY CONTROL
To maintain data accuracy and confidence in both video interpretation and observer
precision it is necessary to undertake quality control practices within the AIMS LTMP. Quality control is undertaken by a new observer before analysis of video transects and
by all benthic observers on an annual basis.
Initial training
To ensure data integrity is maintained when a new observer begins analysis, a new
observer is required to complete three observer comparison transects and obtain 90%
agreement at family level with existing observers before they begin analysing transects. Fifteen transects are haphazardly selected from the videotapes recorded during one year
of the monitoring program to be used in an observer comparison study. From these
transects, three transects representing reefs within each cross shelf position are chosen. Transects are chosen from the three shelf positions to ensure an observer is competent at
identifying the benthos present on reefs at each shelf position.
The start and end frames and the time interval between frames analysed by the original
observer, are retrieved from the Microsoft Access© database. These transects are then
analysed as described above. As the video footage used is frame accurate, observers are
able to analyse the same points on videotapes as identified by previous observers.
Once the new observer has completed the three chosen transects, the AVTAS system
is used to calculate the number and the percentage of points wrongly analysed at each
classification level, i.e. benthic group, benthic life form, family, genus, species and
substrate. At the level of family, if 90% or greater agreement between the original
and new observer is obtained (excluding point errors where the discrepancy is due to
the point falling on the border of two organisms) then analysis by the new observer
may begin. If less than 90% agreement is achieved at this level then the new and
an experienced observer examine each point and the discrepancies discussed. An
assessment is then made as to whether the new observer is required to undertake more
training before analysis of video transects may begin.
47
48
Quality control
Annual training
To ensure data integrity each observer completes three observer comparison transects
annually. This is conducted in the same manner as the initial observer comparison for
a new observer. In addition, observers complete identifications of various still images
of reef benthos. The images are a selection of common and unique benthos regularly
encountered during the AIMS LTMP surveys within the Great Barrier Reef.
REFERENCES
Bass, D. K. and Miller, I. R. (1996) Crown-of-thorns starfish and coral surveys using
the manta tow and scuba search techniques, Long-term Monitoring of the Great
Barrier Reef Standard Operational Procedure, No. 1, Australian Institute of
Marine Science, Townsville, 38pp.
Carleton, J.H. and Done, T.J. (1995) Quantitative video sampling of coral reef benthos:
Large-scale application, Coral reefs, 14, 35-46.
English, S., Wilkinson, C., and Baker, V. J. (1994) Survey manual for tropical marine
resources, ASEAN-Australian Marine Science Project: Living Coastal Resources,
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp. 5-117.
Halford, A. R. and Thompson, A. (1994) Visual census surveys of reef fish, Long-term
Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef Standard Operational Procedure, No. 3,
Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 24pp.
Loya, Y. (1978) Plotless and transect methods, Coral reefs: research methods (Stoddart,
D. R. and Johannes, R. E.), UNESCO, Paris (France), pp. 197-217.
Marsh, L.M., Bradbury, R.H. and Reichelt, R.E. (1984) Determination of the physical
parameters of coral distributions using line transect data, Coral reefs, 2, 175-180.
Mather, P. and Bennett, I. (1993) A coral reef handbook: A guide to the geology, flora
and fauna of the Great Barrier Reef, Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty. Ltd., Chipping
Norton, 264 pp.
Sweatman, H., Cheal, A., Coleman, G., Delean, S., Fitzpaterick, B., Miller, I., Ninio,
R., Osborne, K., Page, C. and Thompson, A. (2001) Long-term Monitoring of the
Great Barrier Reef Status Report, No. 5, Australian Institute of Marine Science,
Townsville, 106 pp.
Veron, J.E.N. (1993) Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific, University of Hawaii
Press, Honolulu, 644 pp.
Wallace, C. (1999) Staghorn corals of the world, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, 421 pp.
49
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The video technique detailed above was initially devised at AIMS by Dr Terry Done. This survey method has been established as a standard monitoring method by the AIMS
Long-term Monitoring Program and has been modified using the experience gained
from the application of the technique. We would like to thank Cathie Page, Rachelle
Ninio, Debbie Bass, Caroline Christie, Stephen Neale and Will Oxley for their input into
both the development of this technique and the previous versions of this document.
51
APPENDIX I
The video data sheet
AIMS Long-term Monitoring Program - Video Data Sheet
Cruise Code
Transect
Date:
Reef:
Site:
1 2
3
Transect:
1 2 3 4 5
Filmed by:
Comments:
53
Counter
APPENDIX II
Benthic life form categories of hard corals
Bottlebrush Acropora (ACX)
Branching Acropora (ACB)
Digitate Acropora (ACD)
Submassive Acropora (ACS)
55
56
Appndix II
Encrusting Acropora (ACE)
Tabulate Acropora (ACT)
Tabulate Acropora (ACT)
Branching non-Acropora (CB)
Appendix II
Encrusting non-Acropora (CE)
Foliaceous non-Acropora (CF)
Massive non-Acropora (CM)
Submassive non-Acropora (CS)
57
58
Appndix II
Mushroom Coral (CMR)
Solitary Coral (CL)
APPENDIX III
Species/benthos codes reference table
Species
Code
Video Benthos Benthos Description
Code Code
Group Group
Code Description
149
DC
Dead coral (recent)
AB
Abiotic
2
1
76
245
R
S
UNK
CM
AB
AB
IN
HC
Abiotic
Abiotic
Indeterminate
Hard coral
ACHHORR Acrhelia horrescens
214
CB
Rubble
Sand
Unknown
Massive non-Acropora
Branching non-
HC
Hard coral
ACRREC
ACRSPP
ACRSPP
ACRSPP
ACRSPP
ALGCORA
ALGFILA
ALGHALI
ALGMAFL
ALGSPP
ASTSPP
CARFAM
279
249
169
140
101
14
7
111
412
442
54
430
ACD
ACX
ACD
ACB
ACT
CA
TA
HA
MA
AO
CM
CM
HC
HC
HC
HC
HC
A
A
A
A
A
HC
HC
Hard coral
Hard coral
Hard coral
Hard coral
Hard coral
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
Hard coral
Hard coral
CAUFURC Caulastrea furcata
159
CS
HC
Hard coral
COEMAYE Coeloseris mayeri
44
CM
HC
Hard coral
CORREC
Coral spp. recruit
285
CE
HC
Hard coral
CORSPP
Non-Acropora coral
43
CB
HC
Hard coral
CORSPP
Non-Acropora coral
190
CF
HC
Hard coral
CORSPP
Non-Acropora coral
152
CS
HC
Hard coral
CORSPP
Non-Acropora coral
80
CM
HC
Hard coral
CORSPP
Non-Acropora coral
36
CE
HC
Hard coral
DIPHELI
ECHSPP
Diploastrea heliopora
Echinopora spp.
26
320
CM
CF
HC
HC
Hard coral
Hard coral
ECHSPP
Echinopora spp.
315
CB
HC
Hard coral
ECHSPP
Echinopora spp.
157
CE
HC
Hard coral
ECLSPP
Echinophyllia spp.
137
CE
HC
Hard coral
FAVSPP
Favia spp.
78
CM
HC
Hard coral
ABIDC
Species
Description
Dead standing coral
(white)
ABIRUBB Rubble
ABISAND Sand
ABWATER Water
ACASPP
Acanthastrea spp.
Acropora spp. recruit
Acropora spp.
Acropora spp.
Acropora spp.
Acropora spp.
Coralline algae
Filamentous algae
Halimeda spp.
Fleshy Macro Algae
Algae Other
Astreopora spp.
Fam Caryophyllidae
Acropora
Digitate Acropora
Bottlebrush Acropora
Digitate Acropora
Branching Acropora
Tabulate Acropora
Coralline algae
Turf algae
Halimeda
Macroalgae
Algae Other
Massive non-Acropora
Massive non-Acropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Massive non-Acropora
Encrusting nonAcropora
Branching nonAcropora
Foliose non-Acropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Massive non-Acropora
Encrusting nonAcropora
Massive non-Acropora
Foliose non-Acropora
Branching nonAcropora
Encrusting nonAcropora
Encrusting non-
59
Acropora
Massive non-Acropora
60
Appndix III
FUNFAM
Species
Code
FUNGIIDAE Family
Species
Description
440 CMR
Mushroom coral
Video Benthos Benthos Description
Code Code
Encrusting nonFVDSPP
Favid spp.
174 CE
Acropora
FVDSPP
Favid spp.
166 CM
Massive non-Acropora
Encrusting nonFVSSPP
Favites spp.
203 CE
Acropora
FVSSPP
Favites spp.
9
CM
Massive non-Acropora
GALSPP
Galaxea spp.
431 CM
Massive non-Acropora
Encrusting nonGALSPP
Galaxea spp.
414 CE
Acropora
GARPLAN Gardineroseris planulata 16
CM
Massive non-Acropora
GONSPP
Goniopora spp.
192 CM
Massive non-Acropora
GOSSPP
Goniastrea spp.
47
CM
Massive non-Acropora
HEPCOER Heliopora coerulea
231 SM
Massive Soft Coral
Branching nonHYDSPP
Hydnophora spp.
416 CB
Acropora
HYDSPP
Hydnophora spp.
151 CM
Massive non-Acropora
Submassive nonHYDSPP
Hydnophora spp.
86
CS
Acropora
ISOSPP
Isopora Spp.
433 ACS
Submassive Acropora
ISOSPP
Isopora Spp.
417 ACE
Encrusting Acropora
LESSPP
Leptoseris spp.
419 CF
Foliose non-Acropora
Species
Species
Video Benthos Benthos Description
Code
Description
Code Code
Encrusting nonLESSPP
Leptoseris spp.
418 CE
Acropora
LOBSPP
Lobophyllia spp.
22
CM
Massive non-Acropora
MERSPP
Merulina spp.
434 CF
Foliose non-Acropora
Submassive nonMERSPP
Merulina spp.
420 CS
Acropora
MILSPP
Millepora spp,
24
CME
Millepora
Encrusting nonMONSPP Montipora spp.
156 CE
Acropora
Submassive nonMONSPP Montipora spp.
218 CS
Acropora
MONSPP Montipora spp.
187 CF
Foliose non-Acropora
MORSPP Montastrea spp.
162 CM
Massive non-Acropora
Encrusting nonMYCELEP Mycedium elephantotus 81
CE
Acropora
OTH
Other organisms
212 OT
Other organisms
OTHANEM Anemone
94
OT
Other organisms
OTHASCI Ascidian
5
OT
Other organisms
OTHHYDR Hydroid
68
OT
Other organisms
OTHTSPP Tridacna spp.
116 OT
Other organisms
OTHZOAN Zoanthid
6
ZO
Zoanthid
OULSPP
Oulophyllia spp.
421 CM
Massive non-Acropora
PACSPP
Pachyseris spp.
422 CF
Foliose non-Acropora
Species
Species
Video Benthos Benthos Description
Code
Description
Code Code
HC
Hard coral
Group Group
Code Description
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
HC
Hard coral
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
HC
HC
SC
Hard coral
Hard coral
Hard coral
Soft coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
HC
HC
Group
Code
Hard coral
Hard coral
Hard coral
Group
Description
HC
Hard coral
HC
HC
Hard coral
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
OT
Other
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
HC
Hard coral
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
HC
HC
Group
Code
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Other
Hard coral
Hard coral
Group
Description
Appendix III
PAVSPP
Pavona spp.
424
CS
PAVSPP
Pavona spp.
425
CE
PAVSPP
PECSPP
PLASPP
Pavona spp.
Pectinia spp.
Platygyra spp.
423
426
49
CF
CF
CM
POCDAMI Pocillopora damicornis
57
CS
POCSPP
427
CS
PODCRUS Podabacia crustacea
144
CE
PORSPP
Porites spp.
153
CS
PORSPP
Porites spp.
398
CB
PORSPP
Porites spp.
96
CE
PORSPP
Porites spp.
41
CM
SCACYLI
Scapophyllia cylindrica
27
CS
SCOVITI
Scolymia vitiensis
72
CL
SERSPP
Seriatopora spp.
429
CB
SOFAST
SOFGORG
SOFLOBO
SOFNED
SOFSARC
SOFSINU
SOFSPP
SOFSPP
SOFXED
SPOSPP
Asterospicularia spp.
Gorgonia
Lobophytum spp.
Family Nephtheidae
Sarcophyton spp.
Sinularia spp.
Soft coral spp.
Soft coral spp.
Family Xeniidae
Sponge spp.
297
33
42
444
83
130
64
413
443
73
SL
SA
SE
SC
SCC
SAE
SC
SE
SC
SP
STYPIST
Stylophora pistillata
30
CS
SYMSPP
Symphyllia spp.
53
CM
TUBSPP
Tubastraea spp.
210
CS
TUPMUSI
TURSPP
UNID
Tubipora musica
Turbinaria spp.
Can’t tell
65
67
18
SM
CF
OT
Pocillopora spp.
Submassive nonAcropora
Encrusting nonAcropora
Foliose non-Acropora
Foliose non-Acropora
Massive non-Acropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Encrusting nonAcropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Branching nonAcropora
Encrusting nonAcropora
Massive non-Acropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Solitary coral
Branching nonAcropora
Lobate Soft Coral
Arborescent Soft Coral
Encrusting Soft Coral
Soft coral
Capitate Soft Coral
Arb & Enc Soft Coral
Soft coral
Encrusting Soft Coral
Soft coral
Sponge
Submassive nonAcropora
Massive non-Acropora
Submassive nonAcropora
Massive Soft Coral
Foliose non-Acropora
Other organisms
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
HC
HC
Hard coral
Hard coral
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
SC
SC
SC
SC
SC
SC
SC
SC
SC
SP
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Soft coral
Sponge
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
HC
Hard coral
SC
HC
OT
Soft coral
Hard coral
Other
61
AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF MARINE SCIENCE
Cape Ferguson, Queensland, Australia.
PMB No. 3, Townsville Mail Centre, Q. 4810
Telephone: (07) 4753 4444
Facsimile: (07) 4772 5852
Internet:
www.aims.gov.au
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