International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 420 A Comparison of Security in Wireless Network Standards with a Focus on Bluetooth, WiFi and WiMAX Günther Lackner (Corresponding author: Günther Lackner) Institute for Applied Information Processing and Communications, IAIK, University of Technology Graz (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) (Received Dec. 17, 2010; revised and accepted Mar. 26, 2011) Abstract secured perimeter As wireless networks are finally coming of age, people Internet Desktop PC Switch File Server Intrusion Detection Firewall and organizations start to implement critical applications System and infrastructures based on them. As most wireless network standards have been designed with security as an afPrinter terthought, severe security shortcomings were the results and several improvements and amendments were necessary to fix the worst. Founded on a series of insecure implementations and design faults, recent standards and Desktop PC Desktop PC amendments show some improvements. To cover personal Guarded entry area, local area and wide area wireless networks, the folwired network lowing standards have been chosen as examples: IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 WiFi and IEEE 802.16 WiMAX. This article provides a detailed overview, analysis and discussion of state-of-the-art security mechanisms Figure 1: Wired-only environment with perimeter protecin wireless networks and briefly presents their develop- tion ment and history allowing the reader to quickly gain detailed insight into the topic. Keywords: Bluetooth, WiFi, WiMAX, wireless network security perimeter protection. Figure 2 illustrates how wireless network coverage could extend to a public domain outside of a controlled building (protected area). 1 Introduction The number of deployed wireless networks increases every day. Due to the low cost and convenience of deploying wireless networks, they replace hardwired networks in many fields of application. The shift from hardwired to wireless networks invalidates many established security concepts. Hardwired networks are usually integrated within structural measures, and can be protected by building security or perimeter protection. With a state-of-the-art intrusion prevention system (IPS) to protect the connection to the Internet, hardwired networks can thus be considered closed and secure, as illustrated in Figure 1. The nature of radio propagation makes it possible to attack wireless networks from outside the established As building security and perimeter protection are not sufficient to avoid attacks against the wireless network, the general approach is to secure these infrastructures by cryptographic measures. Almost all state-of-the-art wireless computer network technologies provide strong cryptographic mechanisms to provide confidentiality and integrity. This article describes and discusses security mechanisms in personal-area, local-area and wide-area networks, each represented by a popular implementation namely IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), IEEE 802.11 (WiFi) and IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX). The focus lies on confidentiality, integrity and accountability. International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 2.1.1 421 WEP Encryption/Decryption Process secured perimeter Before taking a closer look at the encryption/decryption process, some terms need to be declared: Access Point Printer File Server Access Point Switch Desktop PC Access Point Guarded entry wired network wireless network Figure 2: Environment with wireless components 2 2.1 Security in IEEE 802.11 (WiFi) Wired Equivalent Privacy Algorithm (WEP) • Pseudo random-number generator (PRNG) Cryptography always needs some kind of random number source. In WEP, this task is done by the RC4 stream cipher.Seeded by some initialization value it creates a stream of pseudo random-numbers. But like all stream ciphers it will create the same keystream again if given the same seed. • The initialization vector (IV) The IV is used to provide some diversion to the RC4 PRNG. It is 24-bits long and concatenated to the 40-bit secret key. In order to keep the PRNG from producing the same numbers for every packet, this IV needs to be changed as often as possible. There exist only 224 = 16.777E3 different IVs. • The integrity check value (ICV) In order to provide data integrity, WEP uses the CRC32 algorithm. Before a packet gets encrypted, a cyclic redundancy check value with 32-bit length is computed and concatenated to the message. CRC32 is a linear function and does not provide any cryptographic security. Right from the release of the first IEEE wireless LAN standard 802.11, a security mechanism called wired equivFigure 3 illustrates the message encryption process in alent privacy was integrated. The primary goal of this WEP. The WEP-PRNG gets seeded by the secret key and mechanism was to protect the confidentiality of user data some IVs and as the result it provides the so called key from eavesdropping. This should be gained by enforcing sequence. This key sequence is XORed with a concatenathree properties : tion of the plain text data and its CRC32 (ICV) value. Confidentiality: Prevent casual eavesdropping by a Finally, the encrypted message is concatenated with the non-authorized clients. plaintext IV and transmitted . The receiving client only needs to reverse the process Access control: Only authorized clients should be alto retrieve the plaintext massage, compute a CRC32 value lowed to join the network. of its on (ICV’) and verify the integrity of the message by Data integrity: It should be recognized if data was al- comparing the ICV and ICV’. The process is illustrated in Figure 4. tered during the transmission. All these properties are gained by using a secret key. The security of the WEP protocol only relies on the difficulty of discovering the secret key. If this difficulty only relies on the length of the key, and the only possibility of getting the key is an exhaustive search, the protocol is cryptographically secure. WEP was initially designed for 40-bit keys with a resulting keyspace of 240 = 1.099E9. Using modern hardware it is no infeasible problem to discover the key with a brute-force approach in a reasonable time. As a consequence, the key length has been raised to 128-bit and an overall keyspace of 2128 = 3.402E38. This extension renders an exhaustive key-search attack impossible, even with the most powerful hardware available . Nevertheless, WEP owns some very critical design flaws that leave the standard practically futile. Although some feeble attempts to improve WEP were made like , the main vulnerabilities remained unchanged. 2.1.2 WEP Security Analysis Several different attacks have been published during the last years. Most of them are based on the insecurity of the used RC4 stream-cipher. Although, RC4 was believed to be secure when it was integrated to WEP, it turned out to have some design flaws. While first attacks needed a high amount of collected data, more recent approaches like the attack of Andreas Klein  only need a relatively small number of transmitted packets. Klein’s approach targeted flaws of the RC4 cipher. Erik Tews et al.  designed a process using Klein’s approach and massive packet injection to generate enough traffic for breaking 128-bit WEP1 in less than 60 seconds. Furthermore they do not need powerful special-purpose hardware, any contemporary personal-computer suffices. But not only 1 Due to the 24-bit plaintext IV concatenated to the key, the effective key-length is only 104-bit. International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 422 IV IV || Secret Key Seed WEP PRNG Key Sequence ! Plain Text Cipher Text || CRC ICV Message Figure 3: WEP encryption block diagram Secret Key || Seed WEP PRNG Plain Text Key Sequence Plain Text IV ! CRC ICV' ICV == ICV' ICV Cipher Text Message Figure 4: WEP decryption block diagram RC4 may be exploited to break WEP. Also the very small number of IVs and their plaintext transmission offer a weak point. Another major vulnerability arises from the usage of the linear integrity check function CRC32. A detailed analysis of the components used in WEP is described in . As a short conclusion it can be stated that WEP is highly insecure and should not be used if any other mechanism is available. 2.2 ity protocols known as Counter-Mode-CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) and Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) and the RSNA establishment procedure that includes the use of the IEEE 802.1X authentication and key management protocol . TKIP is meant to bring more security to legacy hardware by using available RC4 implementations, while CCMP demands AES compatible hardware. The WiFi-Alliance2 certified TKIP compatible hardware under the name Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). IEEE 802.11i (WPA, WPA2) Since the publication of the WEP vulnerabilities and the upcoming of very effective attack implementations, the IEEE has begun the work on a replacement standard. On June 24th 2004, IEEE 802.11i ratified in order to provide enhanced security for wireless networks. A formal verification of this standard may be found in . The standard specifies two classes of security algorithms: 2.2.1 Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) WPA may be seen as a short-time fix to secure legacy hardware based WLANs. TKIP is based on RC4 and includes the keyed hash-function Michael  (cf. Section 2.2.1). TKIP can be described as a “wrap” around the existing WEP encryption/decryption to shield it’s worst vulnerabilities. Due to the inherited insecurities • Robust Security Network Association (RSNA). and flaws, it does not provide sufficient security in the • Pre Robust Security Network Association (Pre- long-term . RSNA). 2 Nonprofit international association certifying interoperability of Pre-RSNA consists of WEP and 802.11 entity authenti- wireless local area network products based on IEEE 802.11 specification while RSNA implements two new data confidential- cation. http://www.wi-fi.org/ International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 423 Figure 5 illustrates the TKIP encryption process while Michael key. The key is converted into two 32-bit words Table 1 explains the used notations. and the output message is partitioned in blocks of 32-bit length and padded that the message length is a multiple of four. Table 1: TKIP notations Like any keyed hash-function Michael should fulfill the basic requirements : Symbol Description TA Transmitter address 1) The message digest code (MDC) h(m) can be calcuTTAK TKIP mixed transmitter address lated very quickly. and key TK Temporal key 2) h must be a one-way function. TSC Sequence Number Given a y it must be computationally infeasible to IV Initialisation vector find an m0 with h(m0 ) = y. We are not trying to find DA Destination address the message. y is a MDC of some message. SA Source address 3) It must be computationally infeasible to find mesMSDU MAC service data unit sages m1 and m2 with h(m1 ) = h(m2 ). The function MPDU MAC protocol data unit is then called strongly collision-resistant. The block WEP encryption corresponds with the WEP data encryption scheme presented in Figure 3. The TKIP extensions gain the security improvements only by modifying the input for the WEP encryption process. The most important change to classic WEP is that a new temporal key for each packet is used. This key is created by mixing together a base key, the MAC address of the transmitting station and a 48-bit serial number. The base key is newly created any time a station associates with the network and the mixing operation can be done with little computing power but provides a significant rise in cryptographic security. By adding the serial number into the key, it is assured that it will be different for each packet. An the 48-bit space for the serial number prevents WEPcollision attacks and replay attacks as well. Together with IEEE 802.1X, the secret keys are securely distributed between the participating STAs. The second major vulnerability in WEP was the use of the linear CRC32 integrity check function. By implementing the Michael keyed hash-function, this problem was diminished but not solved as Michael also possesses some design flaws  (cf. Section 2.2.1). Figure 6 shows the TKIP decryption process that can be seen as a “wrap” around the WEP decryption scheme. It works exactly the other way round as the TKIP encryption process. Details of Michael Message Integrity Code (MIC) In 2004 the IEEE ratified the draft of the IEEE 802.11i standard. It is an amendment to 802.11 and should replace WEP in the long run. Besides a complete new design (Counter-Mode-CBC-MAC Protocol, CCMP), MIC also provides a compatibility mode for legacy hardware (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, TKIP). TKIP implements a keyed hash-function called Michael that is meant to provide message integrity . Michael is a message integrity code and was designed by Niels Ferguson in 2002 . It is a keyed hash-function that takes a message of arbitrary length and a 64-bit Even the author of Michael knew about this flaw right from the release. Its is even mentioned in  on Page 6: A known-plaintext attack will reveal the key stream for that IV, and if the second packet encrypted with the same IV is shorter than the first one, the MIC value is revealed, which can then be used to derive the authentication key. Avishai Wool was able to create a simple function that is capable of inverting Michael, and he proposed a relatedmessage attack . In , Huang et al. proved that Michael is also not collision-resistant. In fact it is not very hard to find a collision and furthermore launch a packet-forgery attack. Although these attacks are not practical yet, they reveal weaknesses in Michael that render it as not secure on the long run. TKIP Security Analysis Due to the inherited WEP vulnerabilities and the fact that some parts of TKIP (like Michael) posseses known security relevant flaws, WPA can not be assumed to be secure in the long run. However, it has always be seen as a short-time fix for WEP and it does its job pretty well. But as mentioned before, it is just a fixture and not a perfect solution. So, whenever possible, the use of WPA2 has to be preferred. 2.2.2 Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) The Wi-Fi Alliance certified systems in compliance to IEEE 802.11i’s Robust Security Network Association (RSNA) algorithm Counter-Mode-CBC-MAC (CCMP) under the name Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2). WPA2 may be seen as the first wireless network protocol that provides real cryptographic security. The only shortcoming is the need of new hardware because the WEP standard cipher RC4 has been replaced by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) . The use of AES brings some very significant advances. With one single 128-bit AES key one is able to encrypt all International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 TA Phase 1 key mining TK TTAK 424 WEP seed(s) Phase 2 key mining TSC IV RC 4 key WEP encryption DA+SA+ Priority + Plaintext MSDU Michael MIC Key Plaintext MSDU + MIC Fragments Ciphertext MPDU(s) Plaintext MPDU(s) Figure 5: TKIP encryption block diagram MIC Key TA TK TKIP TSC Phase 1 key mixing Unmix TSC TTAK Phase 2 key mixing WEP seed Michael DA+SA+Priority + Plaintext MSDU TSC WEP decryption Insequence MPDU MIC' MIC Reassamble MIC' == MIC Plaintext MPDU MSDU with failed TKIP MIC Ciphertext MPDU Countermeasures Out-ofsequence MPDU Figure 6: TKIP encryption block diagram packets, eliminating the key scheduling problems of WEP and TKIP. CCMP also provides an AES based Message Integrity Code (MIC) over the frame body and nearly the complete MAC header. Message confidentiality and integrity are both gained by the use of the same 128-bit AES key. Like in TKIP, CCMP also implements a 48bit serial number (PN) to prevent replay attacks and PN collisions. Figure 8 illustrates the CCMP encryption process while Table 2 explains the used notations. The following steps explain the CCMP encryption of the payload of a plaintext MPDU and the encapsulation of the ciphertext in a MAC frame: 1) In order to obtain a new PN for each MPDU respectively for the temporal key creation, it is incremented after each packet. 2) The additional authentication data (AAD) is created from the MAC header and provided to the CCM encryption module. Table 2: CCMP notations Symbol PN A2 AAD TK KeyId MPDU Description Packet number MPDU address 2 Additional authentication data Temporal key Key identifier MAC protocol data unit 3) The CCM Nonce is formed of the incremented PN, the A2 and the Priority field. 4) The key identifier (keyId) and the PN are placed in the CCMP header. 5) The TK, AAD, Nonce and MPDU data is taken by the CCM encryption to form the ciphertext and MIC. This step is also known as CCM originator process- International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 ing. 6) The final step is to combine the results of the former steps to form the packet including the MPDU header, the CCMP header, the encrypted data and the MIC. Figure 7 shows the format of the WPA2 packet after CCMP encryption. The CCMP decryption process shown in Figure 8 works exactly the other way round as the decryption process. AES in CBC mode provides mathematically proven security. Without the knowledge of the key, an adversary is not able to break data confidentiality or integrity. Even with a known-plainttext-attack, it is not possible to obtain any information about the key . But like any relevant cryptographic mechanism, CCMP relies on the privacy of the key. It is well known that pre-shared key schemes are very vulnerable. Therefore, IEEE 802.11i defines the RSNA establishment procedure to ensure strong mutual authentication by using the 802.1X protocol. This mechanism is not only restricted to CCMP but may also be integrated in TKIP. CCMP Security Analysis The usage of the AES introduced mathematically proven cryptographic security to wireless networks. Without the knowledge of the key, an adversary is not able to break CCMP data confidentiality or data integrity. Supported by the (proper) use of IEEE 802.1X the temporal keys may be exchanged securely between the communicating stations and it is not possible for an attacker to obtain a key. CCMP in connection with IEEE 802.1X is the best available security solution for wireless networks. The fact that CCMP does not protect MAC control- and management-frames leaves some inherited WEP vulnerabilities unaddressed. 3 Security in (Bluetooth) IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth is an open standard for short-range radio frequency communication. It has been designed to easily establish wireless personal area networks (WPAN), often referred to as ad-hoc or peer-to-peer networks. Initially integrated into personal computers and mobile phones, Bluetooth can nowadays be found in a wide variety of devices as headphones, portable music-players or even in cars . There have been several versions of Bluetooth, with the most recent released definition being Bluetooth 4.0. The released versions differ greatly in bandwidth and the provided security. Being most of the available devices still implemented according to Bluetooth 2.1 and earlier, this section will focus on their analysis . Like WiFi, Bluetooth operates in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. Therefore it is primarily vul- 425 nerable to all physical layer Denial of Service (DoS) attacks like channel jamming. As BT implements channelhopping at a very high rate, changing frequencies about 3200 times per second, it shows some resistance against these DoS attacks. The BT standard specifies the following three security services : • Authentication: This service authenticates the communicating devices. User authentication is no natively provided by Bluetooth. • Confidentiality: Ensuring that only authorized devices can access transmitted data and therefore prevent all kinds of eavesdropping. • Authorization: As bluetooth allows to control connected resources (printers, headphones, etc.), this service assures a devices authorization before allowing it to do so. Other security services as non-repudiation are not provided by BT . 3.1 Bluetooth Security Modes Cumulatively, the BT versions up to 2.1 define four modes of security. Each of these version support some of these modes but none of them supports all four. 3.1.1 Security Mode 1 This mode is non-secure. Authentication and encryption are bypassed leaving this mode without any security measures at all. Mode 1 is only supported in BT 2.0 + EDR and earlier versions . 3.1.2 Security Mode 2 (Service-level Enforced) Mode 2 is designed as a service-level enforced securitymode. It is possible to grant access to some services without providing access to others. It introduces the notion of authorization, the process of deciding if a specific device is allowed to have access to a specific service. A centralized security manager (as defined in the BT architecture) controls access to specific services and devices. The security measures take place after the physical link has been established. Security Mode 2 is supported by all Bluetooth devices . 3.1.3 Security Mode 3 (Link-level Enforced) This mode mandates authentication and encryption for all connections to and from the device. All security measures take place before the physical link is fully established. Security Mode 3 is only supported in Bluetooth 2.0 + EDR and earlier devices . International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 CCMP Header 8 bytes MAC Header PN 0 PN 1 Rsvd Rsvd Ext IV Data (PDU) >= 1 byte Key ID PN 2 PN 3 PN 4 426 MIC 8 bytes FCS 4 bytes PN 5 Figure 7: WPA2 packet format MAC Header Construct AAD Ciphertext || MIC A2, Priority PN Construct Nonce CCM decryption Plaintext data Ciphertext Data Key Replay check PN' Plaintext Figure 8: CCMP encryption block diagram 3.1.4 Security Mode 4 (Service-level Enforced) Similar to security Mode 2, this mode is enforced on the service level, after the physical link has been established.The pairing mechanism uses Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH) techniques. Services supported by Mode 4 must be classified as one of the following: • Authenticated Link Key required. • Unauthenticated Link Key required. • No security required. Security Mode 4 is mandatory for communication between devices in compliance to Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR or newer versions . 3.2 Bluetooth Key Management The various defined Bluetooth security mechanisms require several different keys. According to the used security mode, some of them are used to establish the connection and derive a Link Key between two devices. This Link Key can be semi-permanent or temporary. A semipermanent key might be stored in the nonvolatile memory of a device and therefore used for multiple sessions, while the lifetime of a temporary key is limited to the current session . • KAB - Combination Key The Combination Key is derived from information in both connecting devices A and B. It therefore depends on two devices. KAB is derived for each new combination of two devices. • KA - Unit Key Contrary to KAB , KA is only derived from the information of a single device. It is generated at the installation of the device and usually very rarely changed. • Kmaster - Master Key In a point-to-multipoint (Broadcast or Multicast) scenario, a common encryption key (Kmaster ) may be used to replace the current Link Keys. • Kinit - Initialization Key The Initialization Key should be used to as the Link Key during the initialization process, when no combination or unit keys have been exchanged yet. It protects the transfer of initial parameters. In security modes 2 and 3, this key is derived from tre triple of random number, a PIN code and the devices hardware address. • Klink - Link Key The Link Key is usually a 128-bit random number which is shared between two ore more parties as the base for all cryptographic transactions. It is used in the authentication routine and to derive the Encryption Key Kc . • Kc - Encryption Key The Encryption Key is used for encrypting all transmissions during a session. It is usually derived from the Link Key Klink . International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 Device A Device B PIN PIN Link-key generation E2 Link-key generation E2 Link key Link key E1 Encryption key Encryption-key generation E3 Encryption E0 Encryption key Figure 9: Overview of the Bluetooth key generation routines for security Modes 2 and 3  3.2.1 • E3 - the Encryption Key generation function These building blocks are mainly based on the block cipher SAFER+ and Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR). Figure 9 provides an overview of the Bluetooth key generation process and the used cryptographic building blocks for security Modes 2 and 3. 3.2.2 Secure Simple Pairing (SSP) in Security Mode 4 SSP was introduced in Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR for the use with security Mode 4. It simplifies the pairing process by providing four flexible association models : Authentication Encryption-key generation E3 427 Link Key Generation in Security Modes 2 and 3 • Numeric Comparison During pairing the user is shown a six digit number allowing her to enter a “yes” or “no” response if the numbers do match on both devices. • Passkey Entry One of the devices shows a six digit number which the user has to enter on the second device in order to allow pairing. • Just works Is designed for the use of devices without displays or an input possibility. Keys are exchanged in plaintext leaving a vulnerability for man-in-the-middle attacks. • Out of Band (OOB) OOB is an extension that allows devices with additional wireless techniques like near field communication (NFC), to use them for device discovery and cryptographic value exchange. Devices can therefore be paired by simply “tapping” one device against the other. Figure 10 provides an overview of the Bluetooth Secure As the Link Key must be distributed among the com- Simple Pairing process for security Mode 4. municating devices in order to allow the authentication procedure, it has to be created during the initialization 3.3 Authentication in Bluetooth phase. This procedure is also called pairing and consist of the following five steps: Authentication in Bluetooth is based on a challengeresponse scheme as shown in Figure 11. The authenti1) Generation of an Initialization Key; cation procedure takes the following steps : 2) Generation of a Link Key; 3) Link Key exchange; 1) The verifier transmits a 128-bit random challenge (AU RAND) to the claimant. • E1 - the authentication function 2) The claimant applies the E1 authentication function using his unique 48-bit Bluetooth device address (BD ADDRA ), the Link Key and AU RAND as inputs. The verifier performs the same procedure. The 32 most significant bits of the E1 output (SRES) are used for the authentication output while the remaining 96 bits (Authenticated Ciphering Offset - ACO) will be used later to create the Bluetooth encryption key. • E2 - the Link Key generation function 3) The claimant returns the SRES to the verifier. 4) Authentication; 5) Generation of encryption keys (optional). Bluetooth standards define a number of generic cryptographic building blocks called E0 , E1 , E2 and E3 . • E0 - a stream cipher function International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 Device A (claimant) 428 Device B (veriÞer) RNG BD_ADDRA Device Address Link key AU_RAND E1 Link key E1 SRES ACO ACO =? No Authentication failed Yes Authentication successful Figure 11: Bluetooth authentication  4) The verifier compares the received SRES with its own 3.5 Bluetooth Trust and Service Levels outcome of the E1 algorithm. Additionally to the four security modes, Bluetooth allows 5) If the two SRES values are equal, the authentication two trust levels and three service security levels. Trust process is successful in one direction. To achieve mu- levels are trusted and untrusted. Trusted devices have full tual authentication, this process needs to be repeated access to all services provided by the connected devices with switched roles. while untrusted devices only receive restricted access . Service Security Levels allow to configure and alter the 3.4 Bluetooth Encryption Concept requirements for authorization, authentication and enAs already mentioned before, encryption is not manda- cryption independently. Bluetooth Service Security Levels : tory for all bluetooth connections and devices. Bluetooth defines three encryption modes : 1) Encryption Mode 1 No encryption is performed at all. 2) Encryption Mode 2 Broadcast traffic is not encrypted. Only individually traffic is encrypted using keys based on individual link keys. 3) Encryption Mode 3 All traffic is encrypted using an encryption key based on the master Link Key. • Service Level 1 Authorization and authentication are required. Trusted devices are allowed to automatically connect to all services. Untrusted devices need manual authorization for all services. • Service Level 2 This level requires authentication only. Access to services is granted only after the authentication procedure. Figure 12 illustrates the Bluetooth encryption procedure as implemented in BT versions 2.0 + EDR and ear• Service Level 3 lier. Newer versions differ in the key derivation (cf. SecAccess is granted automatically and to all devices tion 3.2). with no authentication required. The key stream Kcipher is generated by the stream cipher function E0 , which is based on the block cipher Trust and service levels allow the definition of policies SAFER+. This key stream is XOR’ed with the data and transmitted to the receiver. According to the symmetric to set trust relationships and may also be used to initicryptography paradigm, decryption is achieved by apply- ate user-based authentication. Bluetooth core protocols usually only provide device authentication. ing the same cipher key as used for encryption. International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 Device A (master) clockA Device B EN_RANDA BD_ADDRA BD_ADDRA clockA E0 Kcipher Kcipher + dataB-A + E0 Kc Kc dataA-B 429 + data + Figure 12: Functional description of the bluetooth encryption procedure  3.6 Analysis of Security Measures in Bluetooth terprise setting as no PIN management capabilities are defined. • Keystream reoccurrence Security matters differ very strongly between the single The keystream (as created in Figure 12) repeats after versions of Bluetooth. Bluetooth security always depends 23.3 hours due to a clock overrun allowing various on the weakest BT device in the communication chain. As cryptographic attacks on the ciphertext. legacy-standard devices are still widespread this section will take their vulnerabilities in account as well as of stateof-the-art implementations. Later on, this section lists Regarding All Versions and shortly describes common Bluetooth related attacks. • No User Authentication By default, no user authentication is defined by BT 3.6.1 Bluetooth Version Related Vulnerabilities standards. Application-level security and authentication needs to be added. Versions before Bluetooth 1.2 • Unit Key and Link Key Vulnerability The Unit Key is reusable and becomes public after once used. This could be circumvented by using temporary broadcast keys, derived from the Unit Key which is kept secret. The same problem occurs if a corrupt or malicious device that has communicated with either device of a new communication pair, wants to eavesdrop on this communication. The Link Key stays the same for the same device. Various kinds of replay attacks are possible. Versions before Bluetooth 2.1 This section presents vulnerabilities in Bluetooth standards prior to version 2.1 + EDR. As newer versions, namely 3.0 and 4.0, are still in the process of being standardized, no vulnerabilities have been published yet. • E0 stream cipher function is weak (SAFER+) The used stream cipher function SAFER+ has been subject to vulnerabilities and needs to be replaced by a more robust solution to prevent cryptographic attacks. • One Way Device Authentication One-way challenge-response authentication can easily be exploited my man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. Mutual authentication should be enforced. • No End-to-End Encryption No end-to-end encryption is provided in multi-hop scenarios. Transmissions are only encrypted between to nodes. Higher level solutions need to be deployed. • Limited Security Services Services as nonrepudiation are not defined by BT standards. They can only be implemented in an overlay fashion. • Short PIN codes are allowed Short PIN codes can easily be guessed and all derived Link end Encryption keys compromised. 3.6.2 Bluetooth Related Attacks • No PIN management BT attacks are best classified using the following definiIt is hardly possible to use adequate PINs in an en- tions : International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 Device A Device B can create malformed data packets causing bufferoverflows or system failures at the target devices. Public Key • Sniffing Attackers can capture all BT traffic due to its open space propagation nature in order to launch offline cryptographic attacks to recover the plaintext. Public key Public Key exchange • Denial of Service (DoS) DoS attacks can target the media (i.e. channel jamming) or the devices (i.e. the energy consumption in mobile devices). Authentication Phase 1 Model Dependend Authentication function f3 Link key Authentication Phase 2 430 • Malware Malware is a form of malicious software that carries out various attacks as data mining or password theft on the targeted devices. This malware can be selfreplicating in form of worms. Authentication function f3 Link key Figure 10: Overview of the bluetooth secure simple pairing routines for security Mode 4 • Surveillance Collecting information about a BT device like the provided services, device address, location and so on. No direct adverse effects to the target caused. Location tracking of users is a great potential threat. • Unauthorized direct data access (UDDA) UDDA attacks can gather all kinds of private data, and further on use all resources of the attacked device. They can i.e. place phone calls or send text messages if the attacked device provides these services. • Man in the middle (MITM) An attacker could place himself between two communicating devices, relaying all their communication to each other. If the attacker is i.e. placed between a computer and a printer it can obtain all traffic sent to the printer. This attack mainly concerns the Just Works authentication method. Concluding it has to be said, that the deployment of Bluetooth poses a serious security risk especially for enterprise settings. Even though BT can be regarded secure if all devices are configured properly, the probability of the occurrence of vulnerabilities is too high to allow its implementation in security-critical systems. There exist some guidelines for securing Bluetooth as  or . Further information of the security of Bluetooth can be obtained from the following references [26, 27, 29, 30]. • Range extension The range of BT devices is limited by their device class between 1 and 100 meter. Extending the transmission range of BT devices is in general against Security in IEEE 802.16 authority regulations. Attackers can use strong di- 4 rectional antennas to conduct BT all kinds related (WiMAX) attacks from a great distance, even up to some kiloWhereas WiFi and Bluetooth have been around for many meters. years now, WiMAX is a young and emerging standard. • Obfuscation For a better understanding of its principles, the following Attackers can forge their Bluetooth identities by section will provide a short introduction. spoofing the 48-bit device address, the device name and the device class. This can be used to obfuscate 4.1 WiMAX at a Glance attacks. WiMAX stands for worldwide interoperability for mi• Fuzzer crowave access and is a certification mark for the IEEE Bluetooth stack implementations are sometimes not 802.16 standard family. It was designed for point-tovery robust against nonstandard inputs. An attacker multipoint broadband wireless access. Its original main International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 431 • Connectivity to wired infrastructure Heterogeneous networks may be interconnected by mesh routers. 802.3 / wired Internet 802.16 / wireless The IEEE 802.16 standard uses the frequency range from 10 GHz up to 66GHz which states another significant difference to WiFi, which is using the 2.4 GHz band. WiMAX is able to cover up to 50 km of connectivity services between nodes without a direct line of sight, alMesh Router though the practically used distance is about 5 to 10 km. The data rate provided is up to 70 Mb/s which is enough to serve about 60 T-1-type links simultaneously . Probably the most significant differences between WiMAX and WiFi standards may be found at the MAC layer. WiMAX offers a remarkable improvement as it defines a MAC layer that supports multiple physical-layer AP AP specifications. This renders WiMAX as a great framework for wireless broadband communications. The MAC layer is a so called scheduling MAC layer WiFi network WiMAX network where devices need to compete for the initial entrance to the network. Once joined the network, the base station dedicates a time slot to the device which can be variable but must not be used by any other user. This method ofEthernet fers better bandwidth efficiency and allows the base station to offer QoS by balancing the assignments of conFigure 13: Possible WiMAX network setup nected devices . Some of the IEEE 802.16 MAC layer properties to support mesh networking are: purpose was not to connect end-users with an accesspoint, but to interconnect access-points with each other. • It is designed to support multi-hop communication. It could be seen as a kind of wireless backbone network and states an alternative to cable and DSL to provide • It is designed for multipoint-to-multipoint communibroadband access to groups of end-users . cation. In the last years, as a response to customer and indus• Self-organizing features are provided. try needs, WiMAX was extended to support connections Gateway Router between mobile end-nodes and base-stations. WiMAX devices are usually organized in a mesh network (cf. Figure 13). A mesh network consist of two different kinds of nodes, which perform the necessary routing tasks: mesh routers and mesh users. The fact that mesh users and mesh routers are able to perform the same operations and therefore may switch roles, renders mesh networks very powerful and flexible. Mesh networks are usually not limited to IEEE 802.16. They are designed to integrate other standards as IEEE 802.11 or IEEE 802.15.1 and form so called metropolitan and enterprise networks. The most significant benefits of mesh networks are: WiMAX was initially released as IEEE 802.16-2001 in April 2002 . After some amendments, IEEE 802.162004, also known as IEEE 802.16d , was released and fixed many errors and initial security vulnerabilities. In 2005, IEEE 802.16e-2005  was released, enabling mobility support in WiMAX networks and fixing further security issues. IEEE 802.16j  is the latest major release in this standard family. It mainly extends mobile support and does mot introduce new security functionality. 4.2 Overview of IEEE 802.16 Security Lessons learned from weaknesses in WiFi security have been incorporated in WiMAX right from the beginning • Scalability of its design. WiMAX provides right out-of-the-box the The whole infrastructure is designed to be scalable following security services : as the need for resources might increase over time. • Privacy - Protect from eavesdropping; • Ad hoc networking support • Data integrity - Protect data from being tampered Devices are able to join and leave the network all the in transit; time. Routing can be self organizing. • Mobility support of end nodes End node roaming is supported. • Authentication - At the user and the device level; • Authorization - At the service level. International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 432 As Figure 14 illustrates, IEEE 802.16 allows the inKey interchange and key management in general had corporation of security functions at various network lay- several vulnerabilities in the original IEEE 802.16 staners : dard. As IEEE 802.16e-2005 corrected most of these problems, this section will focus on this state-of-the-art standard. 7 Application Layer End-to-End security IEEE 802.16e-2005 defines two Privacy Key Management (PKM) protocols, PKMv1 and an enhanced version 4 Transport Layer TLS PKMv2. They basically allow three types of authentication (cf. Figure 15): 3 Network Layer IPsec, RADIUS 2 Data Link Layer AES, PKI, X.509 1 Physical Layer WiMAX PHY • RSA based authentication - based on X.509 certificates and RSA encryption; • Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP); • RSA based authentication followed by EAP authentication. All security information between communicating parFigure 14: WiMAX supported security functions at varities are part of so called Security Associations (SA). SAs ous network layers are a set of parameters used for authentication, authorizaRight from the beginning of the WiMAX design pro- tion and encryption. The shared information depends on cess, a special layer, as part of the MAC layer has been the chosen cryptographic suite and usually includes the introduced. The so called security sublayer should pro- encryption keys and initialization vectors (IV) needed for vide all necessary security functionality, securing all com- the encryption process. Three different types of SAs are defined by IEEE 802.16e-2005 : munication on the higher layers (cf. Figure 15). RSA-based authentication Authorization SA control • Primary SA Each SS establishes a primary SA during its initialization process. EAP encapsulation / decapsulation • Statics SA They are provisioned within each BS. Key management (PKM) • Dynamic SA They are established and eliminated, on the fly, in response to the initiation and termination of the specific service flows. Control message processing TrafÞc data encryption / authentication processing Message authentication processing Physical Layer Figure 15: WiMAX security sublayer As this chapter is about security in wireless networks, it will focus on security measures which are part of the IEEE 802.16 security sublayer. 4.2.1 Authentication WiMAX and Authorization in Authentication and Authorization in WiMAX is completely implemented at the security sublayer. It is achieved using a public key interchange protocol that ensures authentication and establishment of the cryptographic keys. A key pair, consisting of a private and a public key is needed for each party in the public key interchange scheme. Each SS establishes an exclusive Primary SA with its BS and dynamic SAs for each new service flow. The lifetime of SAs is limited by the standard. Each new SA has to be newly authorized before its establishment. The PKM establishes a shared key called Authorization Key (AK) between the subscriber (SS) and the base station (BS). After this shared AK is established between the parties, a Key Encryption Key (KEK) is derived from it. This KEK is then used to encrypt subsequent PKM exchanges of Traffic Encryption Keys (TEK). All payload encryption is based on TEKs. Table 3 provides an excerpt of the cryptographic keys used in WiMAX. Figure 16 illustrates the authentication and authorization protocol as originally integrated in IEEE 802.162001. The SS uses the first message to push its manufacturer X.509 certificate to the BS allowing it to validate its identity via a Certification Authority (CA). The second message is send right after the first and includes the SS’s X.509 certificate its security capabilities and the ID International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 433 Table 3: Overview of cryptographic keys used in WiMAX (excerpt) Key Name AK Authorization Key KEK Key Encryption Key TEK Traffic Encryption Key PK Public Key Subscriber Station SS Description Shared private key (between SS and BS) Key used for encrypting TEKs in the key exchange Used for encrypting all end to end traffic public key of the BS and the SS respectively Base Station BS Derived from not clearly defined by the standard derived from the AK derived from the AK stored in the X.509 certificate of the BS and SS respectively Subscriber Station SS Authentication Information SS Manufacturer CertiÞcate Authorization Information SS Cert. | Capabilities | SAID 1. Check SS Cert. 2. Generate AK 3. Encrypt AK wit SS PK Authorization Information SS Random | SS Cert. | Capabilities | Basic CID Key Request AK Seq. No | SAID | HMAC-Digest Key Reply AK Seq. No | SAID | TEK0 | TEK1 | HMAC-Digest 1. Check SS Cert. 2. Generate AK 3. Encrypt AK wit SS PK Authorization Reply SS Random | BS Random | SS Cert. | Encrypted AK | AK life-time | AK Seq. No | BS Cert | BS Signature Authorization Reply RSA encrypt (SS public key, AK) | life time | Seq. No | SAIDList 1. Decrypt AK with private key Base Station BS Authentication Information SS CertiÞcate 1. Check BS Cert. and Signature 2. Decrypt AK with private key Key Request AK Seq. No | SAID | HMAC-Digest 1. Check SS AK 2. Generate KEK and encrypt TEKs 1. Check BS by HMAC-Digest 2. Decrypt TEKs with private key Key Reply AK Seq. No | SAID | TEK0 | TEK1 | HMAC-Digest 1. Check SS AK 2. Generate KEK and encrypt TEKs 1. Check BS by HMAC-Digest 2. Decrypt TEKs with private key End to End Encryption using TEK End to End Encryption using TEK Figure 16: WiMAX privacy key management protocol Figure 17: WiMAX privacy key management protocol (PKM) v2  (PKM) v1 of the Primary Security Association (SAID). By using the SS certificates public key (PK), the BS is able to construct the Authorization Reply including the Authorization Key (AK). The following messages are to establish the keys needed for encryption . PKMv1 lacks mutual authentication as only the SS provides a certificate. Problems arising due to this fact are discussed in the security analysis of WiMAX later in this chapter. IEEE 802.16e-2005 introduced an improved version of the Privacy Key Management Protocol called PKMv2, targeted to provide mutual authentication based on X.509 certificates and to correct the vulnerabilities of PKMv1. As illustrated in Figure 17, the Authorization Reply is extended by the BS’s certificate an digital signature and random seeds from the SS and BS respectively. These additional parameters aim to harden the protocol against replay and man-in-the-middle-attacks . PKMv2 also allows the usage of Cipher based Message Authentication Codes (CMAC) instead oh Hashed Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) . Additionally to RSA based authentication, WiMAX allows the use of the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). The EAP method can use a particular kind of credential, such as an X.509 certificate in the case of EAPTLS or a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM card) in the case of EAP-SIM . The definition of the EAP protocol is outside of the WiMAX standard and can be obtained from RFC 4017 . 4.2.2 Encryption in WiMAX The initial standard defined encryption based on the Data Encryption Standard (DES) with a default key length of 56 bit. Figure 18 illustrates the encryption process of IEEE 802.16-2001. DES is operated in Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode using the TEK as encryption key, an initialization vector derived from the SA’s IV and the value of a field in the PHY header. Both of these last named values are predictable. IEEE 802.16e-2005 introduced the usage of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Counter mode with International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 Generic MAC Header Plaintext Payload CRC IV DES in CBC Mode Key TEK from SA • Several security related parts of the standard as key generation, lacked explicit definitions and could therefore be implemented imperfect by hardware vendors. PHY sync Þeld from frame header Generic MAC Header CRC recalculated Cyphertext Figure 18: IEEE 802.16-2001 encryption process  CBC-Message Authentication Code (CCM) mode for authentication and AES in Counter mode (CTR) for encryption purposes (cf. Figure 19). Generic MAC Header Plaintext Payload CCM blocks 1...n || Counter block 0 AES in CBC Mode AES in CTR Mode TEK from SA • The focus on the encryption of the packet payload left the authorization protocol neglected and thus vulnerable. • The standard allowed one-way authentication leaving many loop-holes for replay attacks. IV from SA + 434 CRC Last 128 bits • Tripple DES (3DES) with a key length of 56 bit was used in CBC mode. While DES itself is not unbreakable anymore, very short keys as used in IEEE 802.16-2001 are a serious vulnerability. Further on, the encryption process (cf. Figure 18) exhibits a severe error by using predictable initialization vectors (IV). CBC mode would require a random IV to secure the scheme . • Vulnerabilities introduced by the weak encryption scheme and lacking mutual authentication allow several attacks on the privacy and integrity of the communications. It furthermore leaves the topology of the network exposed to mesh-network attacks. The interested reader is referred to [10, 19, 24, 34, 36]. IEEE 802.16e-2005 corrects these errors described above by incorporating the following mechanisms: + • Encryption of management frames; Generic Packet MAC Header number (PN) Ciphertext Payload CMAC recalculated CRC • Improving the authentication protocol by introducing PKMv2; Figure 19: IEEE 802.16e-2005 encryption process based on AES  • Implementing mutual, PKI based authentication; AES-CCM and AES-CTR are slightly slower in their operation than 3DES but the security increase is significant. • Replacing DES-CBC with AES-CBC; • Rendering definitions on key generation more precise; • Introducing AES-CCM for message authentication. As mentioned before, IEEE 802.16e-2005 is still a young standard and currently a lot of security related research is conducted around it. As history has shown As mentioned before, WiMAX was originally developed to with related wireless networks, this research will uncover address the last mile problem. The IEEE 802.16 Working further vulnerabilities and design flaws. Group tried to avoid design mistakes like done by defining WiFi standards by incorporating a pre-existing standard, Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOC- 5 Conclusion SIS). DOCSIS was designed to solve the last mile problem for wired connections. This fact allows the assumption, This article provides a detailed overview of security mechthat it might not work in wireless networks without prob- anisms implemented in Bluetooth, WiFi and WiMAX. lems. The result was, that IEEE 802.16-2001 failed to It discusses authentication, key-agreement and cryptoproperly protect the wireless links . graphic concepts and their security features and flaws. The major security flaws of the initial standard are the Concluding this survey, we can state, that recent develfollowing : opments in wireless network security are pointing in the right direction. Standards become more and more robust • Only data transport is encrypted, leaving manage- and secure allowing the implementation of critical appliment frames vulnerable for attacks. cations based wireless technologies. The standard bodies 4.3 Analysis of IEEE 802.16 Security International Journal of Network Security, Vol.15, No.6, PP.420-436, Nov. 2013 435 seem to have recognized the need for high quality secu802.11,” in International Conference on Mobile Comrity design in the early stages of standard development, puting and Networking, pp. 180, 2001. avoiding to repeat mistakes of the past. Future releases  J. Dunning, “Taming the blue beast: A survey of bluetooth based threats,” IEEE Security & Privacy will show if these measurements are effective. 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