LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit

LM1036
Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit
General Description
Features
The LM1036 is a DC controlled tone (bass/treble), volume
and balance circuit for stereo applications in car radio, TV and
audio systems. An additional control input allows loudness
compensation to be simply effected.
Four control inputs provide control of the bass, treble, balance
and volume functions through application of DC voltages from
a remote control system or, alternatively, from four potentiometers which may be biased from a zener regulated supply
provided on the circuit.
Each tone response is defined by a single capacitor chosen
to give the desired characteristic.
■
■
■
■
■
■
Wide supply voltage range, 9V to 16V
Large volume control range, 75 dB typical
Tone control, ±15 dB typical
Channel separation, 75 dB typical
Low distortion, 0.06% typical for an input level of 0.3 Vrms
High signal to noise, 80 dB typical for an input level of 0.3
Vrms
■ Few external components required
Block and Connection Diagram
Dual-In-Line (DIP) and Small Outline (SO) Package
514201
Order Number LM1036N, LM1036M or LM1036MX
See NS Package Number N20A or M20B
© 2008 National Semiconductor Corporation
5142
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LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit
February 25, 2008
LM1036
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Power Dissipation
Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 seconds)
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1)
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
Supply Voltage
Control Pin Voltage (Pins 4, 7, 9, 12, 14)
0°C to +70°C
−65°C to +150°C
1W
260°C
Note 1: “Absolute Maximum Ratings” indicate limits beyond which damage
to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the
device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits.
16V
VCC
Electrical Characteristics
VCC=12V, TA=25°C (unless otherwise stated)
Parameter
Supply Voltage Range
Conditions
Min
Pin 11
9
Supply Current
35
Zener Regulated Output
Voltage
Current
Pin 17
Maximum Output Voltage
Pins 8, 13; f=1 kHz
VCC=9V, Maximum Gain
Maximum Input Voltage
Typ
Max
Units
16
V
45
mA
5
V
mA
5.4
0.8
Vrms
VCC=12V
0.8
1.0
Vrms
Pins 2, 19; f=1 kHz, VCC 2V
1.3
1.6
Vrms
20
30
kΩ
Gain=−10 dB
Input Resistance
Pins 2, 19; f=1 kHz
Output Resistance
Pins 8, 13; f=1 kHz
Maximum Gain
V(Pin 12)=V(Pin 17); f=1 kHz
−2
0
Volume Control Range
f=1 kHz
70
75
Gain Tracking
Channel 1–Channel 2
f=1 kHz
0 dB through −40 dB
−40 dB through −60 dB
Balance Control Range
Pins 8, 13; f=1 kHz
Bass Control Range
f=40 Hz, Cb=0.39 μF
(Note 3)
V(Pin 14)=V(Pin 17)
V(Pin 14)=0V
Treble Control Range
f= 16 kHz, Ct,=0.01 μF
(Note 3)
V(Pin 4)=V(Pin 17)
V(Pin 4)=0V
Total Harmonic Distortion
f=1 kHz, VIN=0.3 Vrms
20
1
2
f=1 kHz, Maximum Gain
Signal/Noise Ratio
Unweighted 100 Hz–20 kHz
Maximum Gain, 0 dB=0.3 Vrms
CCIR/ARM (Note 4)
Gain=0 dB, VIN=0.3 Vrms
Output Noise Voltage at
Ω
dB
dB
3
dB
dB
1
−26
−20
dB
dB
12
−12
15
−15
18
−18
dB
dB
12
−12
15
−15
18
−18
dB
dB
0.06
0.03
0.3
%
%
Gain=0 dB
Gain=−30 dB
Channel Separation
2
60
75
75
dB
80
dB
79
dB
Gain=−20 dB, VIN=1.0 Vrms
72
CCIR/ARM (Note 4)
10
dB
16
μV
Minimum Gain
Supply Ripple Rejection
200 mVrms, 1 kHz Ripple
Control Input Currents
Pins 4, 7, 9, 12, 14 (V=0V)
−0.6
Frequency Response
−1 dB (Flat Response
20 Hz–16 kHz)
250
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2
50
dB
−2.5
μA
kHz
Note 3: The tone control range is defined by capacitors Cb and Ct. See Application Notes.
Note 4: Gaussian noise, measured over a period of 50 ms per channel, with a CCIR filter referenced to 2 kHz and an average-responding meter.
Typical Performance Characteristics
Balance Control
Characteristic
Volume Control
Characteristics
514221
514220
Tone Control Characteristic
Tone Characteristic (Gain
vs Frequency)
514222
514223
Tone Characteristic (Gain
vs Frequency)
Loudness Compensated
Volume Characteristic
514225
514224
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LM1036
Note 2: The maximum permissible input level is dependent on tone and volume settings. See Application Notes.
LM1036
Input Signal Handling vs
Supply Voltage
THD vs Gain
514227
514226
Channel Separation vs
Frequency
Loudness Control
Characteristic
514229
514228
Output Noise Voltage
vs Gain
THD vs Input Voltage
514231
514230
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TONE RESPONSE
The maximum boost and cut can be optimized for individual
applications by selection of the appropriate values of Ct (treble) and Cb (bass).
The tone responses are defined by the relationships:
SIGNAL HANDLING
The volume control function of the LM1036 is carried out in
two stages, controlled by the DC voltage on pin 12, to improve
signal handling capability and provide a reduction of output
noise level at reduced gain. The first stage is before the tone
control processing and provides an initial 15 dB of gain reduction, so ensuring that the tone sections are not overdriven
by large input levels when operating with a low volume setting.
Any combination of tone and volume settings may be used
provided the output level does not exceed 1 Vrms, VCC=12V
(0.8 Vrms, VCC=9V). At reduced gain (<−6 dB)the input stage
will overload if the input level exceeds 1.6 Vrms, VCC=12V
(1.1 Vrms, VCC=9V). As there is volume control on the input
stages, the inputs may be operated with a lower overload
margin than would otherwise be acceptable, allowing a possible improvement in signal to noise ratio.
Where ab=at=0 for maximum bass and treble boost respectively and ab=at=1 for maximum cut.
For the values of Cb and Ct of 0.39 μF and 0.01 μF as shown
in the Application Circuit, 15 dB of boost or cut is obtained at
40 Hz and 16 kHz.
ZENER VOLTAGE
A zener voltage (pin 17=5.4V) is provided which may be used
to bias the control potentiometers. Setting a DC level of one
half of the zener voltage on the control inputs, pins 4, 9, and
14, results in the balanced gain and flat response condition.
Typical spread on the zener voltage is ±100 mV and this must
be taken into account if control signals are used which are not
referenced to the zener voltage. If this is the case, then they
will need to be derived with similar accuracy.
Application Circuit
514203
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LM1036
LOUDNESS COMPENSATION
A simple loudness compensation may be effected by applying
a DC control voltage to pin 7. This operates on the tone control
stages to produce an additional boost limited by the maximum
boost defined by Cb and Ct. There is no loudness compensation when pin 7 is connected to pin 17. Pin 7 can be
connected to pin 12 to give the loudness compensated volume characteristic as illustrated without the addition of further
external components. (Tone settings are for flat response,
Cb and Ct as given in Application Circuit.) Modification to the
loudness characteristic is possible by changing the capacitors
Cb and Ct for a different basic response or, by a resistor network between pins 7 and 12 for a different threshold and
slope.
Application Notes
LM1036
Applications Information
OBTAINING MODIFIED RESPONSE CURVES
The LM1036 is a dual DC controlled bass, treble, balance and
volume integrated circuit ideal for stereo audio systems.
In the various applications where the LM1036 can be used,
there may be requirements for responses different to those of
the standard application circuit given in the data sheet. This
application section details some of the simple variations possible on the standard responses, to assist the choice of optimum characteristics for particular applications.
TONE CONTROLS
Summarizing the relationship given in the data sheet, basically for an increase in the treble control range Ct must be
increased, and for increased bass range Cb must be reduced.
Figure 1 shows the typical tone response obtained in the
standard application circuit. (Ct=0.01 μF, Cb=0.39 μF). Response curves are given for various amounts of boost and cut.
514206
FIGURE 3. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
Figure 4 shows the effect of changing Ct and Cb in the opposite direction to Ct/2, 2Cb respectively giving reduced control
ranges. The various results corresponding to the different Ct
and Cb values may be mixed if it is required to give a particular
emphasis to, for example, the bass control. The particular
case with Cb/2, Ct is illustrated in Figure 5.
Restriction of Tone Control Action at High or Low
Frequencies
It may be desired in some applications to level off the tone
responses above or below certain frequencies for example to
reduce high frequence noise.
This may be achieved for the treble response by including a
resistor in series with Ct. The treble boost and cut will be 3 dB
less than the standard circuit when R=XC.
A similar effect may be obtained for the bass response by
reducing the value of the AC bypass capacitors on pins 5
(channel 1) and 16 (channel 2). The internal resistance at
these pins is 1.3 kΩ and the bass boost/cut will be approximately 3 dB less with XC at this value. An example of such
modified response curves is shown in Figure 6. The input
coupling capacitors may also modify the low frequency response.
It will be seen from Figure 2 and Figure 3 that modifying Ct
and Cb for greater control range also has the effect of flattening the tone control extremes and this may be utilized, with or
without additional modification as outlined above, for the most
suitable tone control range and response shape.
514204
FIGURE 1. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the effect of changing the response defining capacitors Ct and Cb to 2Ct, Cb/2 and 4Ct,
Cb/4 respectively, giving increased tone control ranges. The
values of the bypass capacitors may become significant and
affect the lower frequencies in the bass response curves.
Other Advantages of DC Controls
The DC controls make the addition of other features easy to
arrange. For example, the negative-going peaks of the output
amplifiers may be detected below a certain level, and used to
bias back the bass control from a high boost condition, to
prevent overloading the speaker with low frequency components.
LOUDNESS CONTROL
The loudness control is achieved through control of the tone
sections by the voltage applied to pin 7; therefore, the tone
and loudness functions are not independent. There is normally 1 dB more bass than treble boost (40 Hz–16 kHz) with
loudness control in the standard circuit. If a greater difference
is desired, it is necessary to introduce an offset by means of
Ct or Cb or by changing the nominal control voltage ranges.
Figure 7 shows the typical loudness curves obtained in the
standard application circuit at various volume levels (Cb=0.39
μF).
514205
FIGURE 2. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
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514207
FIGURE 4. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
514208
FIGURE 5. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
514211
FIGURE 8. Loudness Compensated Volume
Characteristic
514209
FIGURE 6. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
514212
FIGURE 9. Loudness Compensated Volume
Characteristic
514210
FIGURE 7. Loudness Compensated Volume
Characteristic
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LM1036
Figure 8 and Figure 9 illustrate the loudness characteristics
obtained with Cb changed to Cb/2 and Cb/4 respectively, Ct
being kept at the nominal 0.01 μF. These values naturally
modify the bass tone response as in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
With pins 7 (loudness) and 12 (volume) directly connected,
loudness control starts at typically −8 dB volume, with most
of the control action complete by −30 dB.
Figure 10 and Figure 11 show the effect of resistively offsetting the voltage applied to pin 7 towards the control reference
voltage (pin 17). Because the control inputs are high
impedance, this is easily done and high value resistors may
be used for minimal additional loading. It is possible to reduce
the rate of onset of control to extend the active range to
−50 dB volume control and below.
The control on pin 7 may also be divided down towards
ground bringing the control action on earlier. This is illustrated
in Figure 12, With a suitable level shifting network between
pins 12 and 7, the onset of loudness control and its rate of
change may be readily modified.
LM1036
When adjusted for maximum boost in the usual application
circuit, the LM1036 cannot give additional boost from the
loudness control with reducing gain. If it is required, some
additional boost can be obtained by restricting the tone control
range and modifying Ct, Cb, to compensate. A circuit illustrating this for the case of bass boost is shown in Figure 13. The
resulting responses are given in Figure 14 showing the continuing loudness control action possible with bass boost previously applied.
USE OF THE LM1036 ABOVE AUDIO FREQUENCIES
The LM1036 has a basic response typically 1 dB down at 250
kHz (tone controls flat) and therefore by scaling Cb and Ct, it
is possible to arrange for operation over a wide frequency
range for possible use in wide band equalization applications.
As an example Figure 15 shows the responses obtained centered on 10 kHz with Cb=0.039 μF and Ct=0.001 μF.
514213
FIGURE 10. Loudness Compensated Volume
Characteristic
514214
FIGURE 11. Loudness Compensated Volume
Characteristic
514215
FIGURE 12. Loudness Compensated Volume
Characteristic
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LM1036
514216
FIGURE 13. Modified Application Circuit for Additional Bass Boost with Loudness Control
514217
FIGURE 14. Loudness Compensated Volume Characteristic
514218
FIGURE 15. Tone Characteristic (Gain vs Frequency)
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LM1036
Simplified Schematic Diagram
(One Channel)
514219
*Connections reversed
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LM1036
Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N)
Order Number LM1036N
NS Package Number N20A
Small Outline (SO) Package
Order Number LM1036M or LM1036MX
NS Package Number M20B
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LM1036 Dual DC Operated Tone/Volume/Balance Circuit
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