Policy for Translating and Reproducing Standards

Policy Statement
May 2015
International Federation of Accountants®
Policy for Translating and
Reproducing Standards
Published by the International
Federation of Accountants
This document was developed and approved by the Board of the International Federation of Accountants
(IFAC).
The mission of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is to serve the public interest by:
contributing to the development, adoption and implementation of high-quality international standards and
guidance; contributing to the development of strong professional accountancy organizations and
accounting firms, and to high-quality practices by professional accountants; promoting the value of
professional accountants worldwide; speaking out on public interest issues where the accountancy
profession’s expertise is most relevant.
Copyright © May 2015 by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). For copyright, trademark,
and permissions information, please see page 14.
CONTENT
Page
Introduction............................................................................................................................
4
Intellectual Property ..............................................................................................................
5
Copyright ...............................................................................................................................
5
Trademarks, Service Marks and Logos ................................................................................
6
Adoption ................................................................................................................................
7
License Fees, Waiver Fees and Royalty Payments .............................................................
7
Translation and Reproduction of Final Standards ................................................................
8
Publication of Translated Standards .....................................................................................
11
Effective Dates of Translated Standards and Guidance .......................................................
12
English Text Prevails .............................................................................................................
12
Policy Effective Date .............................................................................................................
12
IFAC Contact Information......................................................................................................
12
Appendix 1: List of Independent Standard Setting Boards Supported by IFAC and
Groups of Standards
POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING
STANDARDS PUBLISHED BY
THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
Introduction
1.
A primary objective of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is to publish high-quality
standards that enable accountants worldwide to provide services of consistently high quality and in
the public interest. To achieve this objective, IFAC strives to make the standards widely available,
while at the same time exercising good stewardship over this valuable intellectual property (IP). IFAC
does this by (a) enabling individuals to access standards from its website, and (b) encouraging IFAC
members and associates, regional accountancy organizations, standard setters, regulators and
others to include links from their own websites, or print materials, to the standards on the IFAC
website or to translate and reproduce the standards with IFAC’s permission in appropriate
circumstances.
2.
The official working language of IFAC and the independent standard setting boards which it supports
is English.1 IFAC recognizes, however, that it is crucial that practitioners, legislators, regulators,
educators, students and all other interested groups in non-English speaking jurisdictions should have
access to the standards in their native language. The availability of quality translations is vital to the
adoption and effective and consistent implementation of the standards.
3.
IFAC therefore encourages and facilitates the translation of the standards by its members and
associates, regional accountancy organizations, standard setters, regulators and other parties (for
purposes of this policy statement referred to as a “translating body”).
4.
This policy statement is based on cooperation between IFAC and a translating body. It provides for
the effective and efficient utilization of limited resources. It relies heavily on the goodwill of translating
bodies and the fact that quality financial reporting and auditing is of interest to all.
5.
IFAC recognizes that a single translation of the standards would reduce confusion as to the source
and availability of applicable standards and eliminate differences in terminology that may exist in
multiple translations. It is also more cost effective and efficient to maintain such a translation. IFAC
therefore strongly encourages translating bodies to collaborate with other interested parties that may
benefit from using the standards in the language of translation in order to achieve a single quality
translation of the standards in that language.
6.
This policy statement only applies when a translating body translates and reproduces any of the
final standards issued by the independent standard setting boards supported by IFAC. These
standards are listed in Appendix 1 to this policy statement. For matters not specifically covered in
this policy statement, please refer to “Policy for Reproducing, or Translating and
Reproducing, Publications of the International Federation of Accountants”.
7.
This policy statement applies to the translation of the complete content of a standard. It does not
address additions or amendments to or deletions from the content, or modifications to the intended
meaning, of the standard by a national standard setter or others at a jurisdictional level. For standards
issued by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) that have been adopted
1
The standards are prepared in English, using American style spelling and grammar.
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
at the jurisdictional level and in respect of which the national standard setter wishes to make limited
modifications while still being able to assert that the national standards are in conformity with the
IAASB standards, please refer to the policy statement “Modifications to International Standards of
the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) - A Guide for National Standard
Setters that Adopt IAASB’s International Standards but Find It Necessary To Make Limited
Modifications” (the “IAASB Modification Policy”). For standards issued by other independent standard
setting boards supported by IFAC, guidance should be sought from relevant IFAC staff.
8.
The objectives of this policy statement are:
(a)
To strongly encourage one quality translation of the standards per language;
(b)
To achieve a faithful translation of the standards, with no additions or amendments to or
deletions from the content, or modifications to the intended meaning, of the final standards. A
faithful translation respects the intent, tone and the organization of the final standards and
enables those who wish to read them in the language of translation to obtain the same
understanding of their meaning as that of a similarly qualified native English speaker. Faithful
translation also prioritizes the meaning of original text over modifications to address or suit
local circumstances. Faithful translation does not imply word for word translation but should
result in text that is readable in the language of translation;
(c)
To achieve a timely translation of the standards (i.e., the initial translation is available within a
reasonable period of time after the final standard has been issued, subsequent to due process
confirmation by the Public Interest Oversight Board); and
(d)
To ensure that translations of the standards are regularly updated (i.e., the initial translation is
updated within a reasonable period of time after a new or revised standard has been issued).
Intellectual Property
9.
IFAC owns valuable intellectual property consisting of copyrighted publications and other materials
as well as various trademarks. These two elements are further described in the sections below.
Copyright
10.
Copyright provides creators of original works with certain exclusive rights, including the right to
reproduce the works, or allow others to reproduce, translate, adapt, or otherwise create derivative
works.
11.
Copyright ownership and the rights thereof exist in the United States under its Constitution and
federal law and worldwide under the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic
Works (1886) (“Berne Convention”) and other treaties. IFAC is based in New York City and this policy
statement is structured within the context of the United States copyright law. IFAC’s contracts are
governed under the law of the United States and the State of New York.
12.
The Berne Convention established a system to internationalize copyright among its signatories and
establish strong minimum copyright standards. There are currently 168 signatory countries 2 to the
Berne Convention, including the US. Copyright is automatic upon creation of a work in countries
2
World Intellectual Property Organization - WIPO-Administered Treaties > Contracting Parties > Berne Convention:
http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ShowResults.jsp?lang=en&treaty_id=15 Accessed 13 February 2015
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
where the Berne Convention applies, with no official registration or other formalities required through
any government office.
13.
IFAC is the worldwide copyright owner of its final publications in English and all other languages, and
therefore has the exclusive right to reproduce, or authorize others to translate and reproduce its
content.
14.
IFAC does not assign its copyright to others, but may grant others the right to use its copyrighted
material under license, or IFAC may grant a limited waiver of its right to enforce its copyright for the
purpose of enabling official adoption in a jurisdiction. IFAC will ordinarily waive the right to enforce its
copyright only in those cases where the text of the English or translated standards will be incorporated
into law or regulation. Such waivers will be limited to issuance to the adopting authority and territory
and for the particular purpose of non-commercial use to facilitate adoption into law or regulation.
Requests for IFAC to grant a limited waiver of its right to enforce its copyright to facilitate adoption of
the standards in a jurisdiction will be considered on a case by case basis. In all such cases where
IFAC may grant this limited waiver of its right to enforce its copyright, a written agreement to this
effect will be executed and signed by IFAC and the adopting authority. IFAC will generally charge an
annual waiver fee for this purpose. See also section on Adoption below.
15.
In order to maintain control of its intellectual property, IFAC will require the translating body to transfer
the copyright of the translated standards to IFAC by requiring the translating body to secure
assignments from its individual contributors to the translation, and assign all rights to the translation
to IFAC. This will also enable IFAC to maintain the translation should a translating body not be able
to continue its relationship with IFAC. The nature and the extent of the transfer of rights to IFAC may
vary due to restrictions in national laws in a particular jurisdiction. IFAC, as the copyright holder of
the translated standards, may grant non-commercial or commercial publication and distribution rights
back to the translating body or to other parties it may deem appropriate. IFAC may charge a license
fee for this purpose. Under a license from IFAC, the translating body will be able to charge a fee for
the commercial use of translated standards subject to payment of a license fee or royalties to IFAC
as discussed below in paragraph 24.
Trademarks, Service Marks and Logos
16.
A trademark or service mark is a word, phrase, symbol or design, or combination thereof that
identifies and distinguishes certain goods.
17.
IFAC owns numerous registered and unregistered trademarks, service marks and logos (“Marks”) in
the United States and in other countries around the world. They include Marks used by IFAC, its
committees, as well as the independent standard-setting boards it supports. A list of these Marks is
included in the copyright notice to this policy or may generally be found on IFAC’s website.
18.
Registration of these Marks protects them and their value. IFAC’s Marks are widely recognized
throughout the world. Use of these Marks suggests association with IFAC or the independent
standard setting boards it supports, and serves to enhance perceptions of quality. Unauthorized use
of IFAC’s Marks may represent a risk of undesired association or may otherwise be detrimental to
the brands of IFAC and the independent standard setting boards. For this and other reasons, use of
IFAC’s Marks can only be made under terms of an appropriate agreement with IFAC.
19.
Please contact IFAC staff before making any use of the Marks of IFAC or the independent standard
setting boards which it supports.
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
Adoption
20.
One of IFAC’s strategic objectives is to promote and facilitate the consistent adoption and high-quality
implementation of the international standards.
21.
There are various types of adoption methods such as convergence, adaptation, adoption by
reproducing the standards in the national legal framework such as the legislation itself or an Official
Gazette of the jurisdictional government, or adoption by reference.
22.
When considering adoption of the international standards, the relevant adopting authority in the
jurisdiction should contact IFAC’s Director of Intellectual Capital to discuss the situation, the
implication of the adoption approach for use of copyrighted material, and relevant requirements for
use of IFAC’s intellectual property. This should be done prior to making any definite decisions or
plans.
23.
In all cases, where all or part of the content of the international standards, or translations thereof, is
used, including cases of convergence where local standards may be ‘based on’ the international
standards, or when IFAC’s Marks are used, formal permission from IFAC and an appropriate
agreement are required for such use.
License Fees, Waiver Fees and Royalty Payments
24.
IFAC may charge a license fee, waiver fee or royalties for use of its intellectual property at levels and
in circumstances as determined by the IFAC Board. A minimum license or waiver fee will be
established. Royalties will be applied at market rates and calculated as a percentage of gross
revenues. Such fees and royalty payments contribute to funding the continued activities and mission
of IFAC and the independent standard setting boards which it supports.
25.
In cases where the translation and reproduction of a standard is for purposes of official adoption,
IFAC will generally charge an annual license fee or waiver fee, depending on what particular rights
are being granted or waived. The amount of the license fee or waiver fee should not be a barrier to
adoption. It is determined based on several criteria, such as the content being used, whether
translated material is involved, the rights being granted by IFAC, and the ability to pay, measured
based on the size of the relevant economy where the material will be used.
26.
In cases where the translation and reproduction of a standard in electronic or print format is for
anything other than non-commercial purposes3, a license fee or royalty payment will generally apply.
27.
For IFAC member bodies in good standing and members of the Forum of Firms, discounted rates will
apply. This is to recognize the value derived from such membership and that these organizations are
making annual financial contributions to IFAC. It also recognizes the principle for better symmetry
between those benefiting from such high quality and widely accepted standards and those
contributing to their development.
3
For the purposes of this policy, “non-commercial purposes” means that the publication is provided either free of charge or at a
price intended to recover only the cost of reproduction, or translation and reproduction and where the intention of the publication
is clearly to further the organization’s professional and public interest mandate and is not for financial gain.
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
Translation and Reproduction of Final Standards
Criteria to Become a Translating Body
28.
Interested parties wishing to translate and reproduce standards copyrighted by IFAC, whether for
non-commercial or commercial purposes, shall submit a Permission Request in English to IFAC in
advance, using IFAC’s online permission request and inquiry system (OPRI):
http://www.ifac.org/about-ifac/translations-permissions. The information in the Permission Request
assists IFAC in measuring achievement of the objective noted in paragraph 1. IFAC reserves the right
to consider alternative translation arrangements in circumstances where a translating body does not
come forward and there is, in the opinion of IFAC, a compelling need for the translation.
29.
To achieve the objectives set out in paragraph 8 above, IFAC will evaluate the Translation Proposal
using the following criteria:
4
(a)
The translating body demonstrates that it will involve, or will attempt to involve, in the translation
process other members, associates and interested parties that may benefit from using the
standards in the language of translation.
(b)
The translating body affirms that the translation will be a faithful representation of the English
standards (see paragraph 8(b) above).
(c)
The translating body plans to complete the initial translation of the standards within a mutually
agreed (between IFAC and the translating body) period of time. Agreements to maintain
ongoing translation of new or revised standards for a mutually agreed period of time will be
considered on a case by case basis.
(d)
The translating body demonstrates that it has sufficient human and financial resources to
conduct the initial translation of the standards within the mutually agreed period of time, and to
maintain it for the mutually agreed period of time. Resources may be contributed by other
members, associates, or interested parties that may benefit from using the standards in the
language of translation.
(e)
The translating body explicitly accepts that the copyright of the translated standards has to be
transferred to IFAC and the translating body agrees to execute, and require all of its translating
contributors to execute, copyright assignments transferring the rights to IFAC in forms to be
provided by IFAC. IFAC will generally permit the translating body to distribute the publication
(in print or electronic format) to others through non-commercial or commercial arrangements.
(f)
The translating body demonstrates that it will involve, or otherwise consult, the key
stakeholders, such as the accountancy profession, national auditing standard setters, public
authorities and audit oversight bodies in the primary jurisdiction(s) 4 where the translated
standards will be used. IFAC acknowledges that the involvement of key stakeholders will vary
from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
(g)
The translating body explicitly accepts that it has final responsibility for the quality of the
translated standards and their acceptability in the primary jurisdiction(s) where the translated
standards will be used.
Jurisdiction(s) of use to be mutually agreed between IFAC and the translating body.
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
(h)
The translating body undertakes to comply with the translation process set out in paragraph 33
below or will provide adequate explanations for significant deviations from the process in its
Translation Proposal.
Translation Agreement
30.
If IFAC considers it appropriate to grant the requested permission to translate standards, IFAC will
prepare an agreement based on the information in the Permission Request and Translation Proposal.
The agreement will be in English and shall be signed by IFAC and the translating body.
Existing Translation Arrangements
31.
IFAC will give due consideration to existing translation arrangements that, in the opinion of IFAC,
meet or can be amended to meet the criteria in paragraph 29 over a mutually agreed upon period of
time. Existing contractual arrangements between IFAC and translating bodies may require more
immediate amendment to meet the legal requirements for transfer of copyright to IFAC.
Translation Process
32.
If IFAC grants permission to translate standards, the translating body should follow the translation
process in paragraph 33. IFAC recognizes that circumstances in each jurisdiction may require
modification to the translation process to achieve an effective and efficient quality translation of the
standards. IFAC may therefore consider modifications to the translation process at the request of the
translating body.
33.
The translation process is as follows:
(a)
The translation process should involve a principal translator (typically an employee of the
translating body responsible for coordinating the translation and review work), a review
committee (comprising members who typically volunteer their time), one or more translators
(typically paid by the translating body) and IFAC staff. The principal translator, review
committee members and translators are appointed by the translating body.
(i)
The translation of the standards should be led by the principal translator, who would also
be the chair of the review committee. He/she should be a fluent speaker of the language
of translation and have an excellent knowledge of English. He/she should have a proven
knowledge of and expertise in the standards being translated. He/she should be
responsible for the translation of the standards, including the exchange of files and
comments between the review committee members and the translators and coordinating
the involvement of other members, associates and other interested parties. IFAC staff
will work primarily with the principal translator.
(ii)
The review committee members should be proficient in English and the language of
translation. They should be experienced in the use of the standards being translated.
They should have collective responsibility for reviewing the translation of the standards.
The composition and size of the review committee will be determined by the translating
body and will reflect local circumstances. The review committee may be the appropriate
stage to involve, or otherwise consult, the key stakeholders, such as the accountancy
profession, national audit standard setter and auditor oversight bodies in the primary
jurisdiction(s) where the translation will be used. Where the standards are to be adopted
into national law, it is strongly recommended that relevant public authorities and audit
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
oversight bodies be actively involved in the process. The review committee may also be
the appropriate mechanism for the inclusion of other bodies / parties/ jurisdictions that
may benefit from using the standards in the language of translation.
(b)
(iii)
The translators should be either professional translators or accountants, with experience
in translating economic and financial texts. They should be responsible for translating
the standards in accordance with the principal translator’s requirements and this policy
statement.
(iv)
IFAC staff will oversee and monitor the translation of the standards, playing an active
role in ensuring that the translation process is followed. The role of IFAC staff will include:
a.
Reviewing the translation process of the translating body, including identification
of the principal translator, other translators and the review committee.
b.
Reviewing the translation timetable including related resource commitments.
c.
Providing technical assistance, with respect to meaning and intent of the English
text.
d.
Monitoring progress against the translation timetable. This may include meetings
with the principal translator and attending or reviewing minutes of meetings of the
review committee.
e.
Ensuring that key steps in the translation process are complete.
f.
Performing a quality review of the translation as appropriate, as per paragraph
33(b)(v).
The process of translating the standards should produce a faithful translation. It should be
implemented in the following phases: translation of key terms; translation of standards; and
review and approval of translated standards. These phases, however, are not distinct as
translation is typically an iterative process.
(i)
The review committee should agree on the translation of the list of key terms developed
by the relevant independent standard setting board. Key terms include individual terms
and repetitive phrases that are to be used consistently during translation. The review
committee may establish additional key terms as necessary.
(ii)
The translators should use the agreed list of key terms in translating the full text of the
standards. The translators will be strongly encouraged to use translation memory
software compatible with that used by IFAC to enhance the consistent translation and
maintenance of key terms and to assist in reducing translation costs.
(iii)
The translated standards should be reviewed by the members of the review committee.
Their review should focus on technical accuracy, consistent use of key terms, and clarity
of the text. Their comments should be sent to the principal translator, who either forwards
them to the translators, or decides that further discussion amongst the members is
necessary.
(iv)
The translating body will inform IFAC about English words or phrases that present
significant difficulties during translation so that such matters can be referred to the
relevant independent standard setting board for further consideration.
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
(v)
The translated standards should not be published by the translating body until all
corrections have been approved by the principal translator and he/she is satisfied with
the quality of the translated standards, and IFAC has given its approval for publication.
IFAC staff, at its discretion, may elect to perform a high level quality control review of the
translation of the standards. In this case, the translation should be published by the
translating body after the IFAC review. It is recommended that the translating body invite
users of the translated standards to inform it of any matters relating to the quality of the
translation.
34.
IFAC will restrict the use of its trademarks such as logo and related graphics to publications of
translated standards produced by a translating body that has met the criteria in paragraph 29 above
and has complied with the translation process outlined in paragraph 33 above. Such use shall be in
accordance with terms set out in a written agreement or otherwise approved by IFAC.
35.
The translating body will be required to provide IFAC with an electronic version of the translated
standards, the list of key terms, and the translation memory generated by the translation software
(when translation software is used by the translating body) as well as any updates made to such
material.
IFAC as Translating Body
36.
In certain circumstances, IFAC may consider acting as a translating body upon the request of an
organization or group of organizations that are also prepared to provide the necessary funding.
Publication of Translated Standards
37.
In publishing the translated standards, translating bodies should follow the policies and procedures
of IFAC, including those relating to copyright.
38.
In addition, the following text should be printed on each translated standard:
This [insert title of standard] of the [insert name of independent standard setting board or IFAC
committee that prepared the standard] published by the International Federation of Accountants
(IFAC) in [insert month and year] in the English language, has been translated into [insert language]
by [insert name of translating body] in [insert month and year], and is reproduced with the permission
of IFAC. The process for translating the [insert collective name of group of standards] was considered
by IFAC and the translation was conducted in accordance with the IFAC Policy Statement - Policy for
Translating and Reproducing Standards Published by the International Federation of Accountants.
The approved text of all [insert collective name of group of standards and guidance] is that published
by IFAC in the English language.
English language text of [insert title of standard] © [year] by the International Federation of
Accountants (IFAC). All rights reserved.
[Language of translation] language text of [insert title of standard] © [year of translation] by the
International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). All rights reserved.
Original title: [Insert original English language name of group of standards and guidance] ISBN:
[Insert ISBN number, if any, in format xxx-x-xxxxxx-xx-x]
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
Effective Dates of Translated Standards and Guidance
39.
The translated standards and guidance cannot have an effective date later that the effective date of
the English pronouncement.
English Text Prevails
40.
In the event of any dispute as to the meaning of a translated word or phrase in the translated
standards, the original English language text and interpretation thereof will prevail.
Policy Effective Date
41.
IFAC commenced formal consideration of translation proposals under this policy effective January 1,
2013. This policy statement was subsequently updated in May 2015.
IFAC Contact Information
42.
For further information, please contact:
Kelly Ånerud
Director, Intellectual Capital
The International Federation of Accountants
529 Fifth Avenue, 6th Floor
New York, NY 10017
USA
Telephone: +1 212 286 9344
Fax: +1 212 286 9570
Email: permissions@ifac.org
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POLICY FOR TRANSLATING AND REPRODUCING STANDARDS
PUBLISHED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF ACCOUNTANTS
Appendix 1
List of Independent Standard Setting Boards Supported by IFAC and Groups of
Standards
Standard Setting Board
Group of Standards
All the standards of the independent standard setting board listed below fall within that board’s “group
of standards” and should be translated should the translating body select that group of standards.
International Accounting
Education Standards Board
(IAESB)
International Education Standards for Professional Accountants
International Ethics Standards
Board for Accountants (IESBA)
Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants
International Auditing and
Assurance Standards Board
(IAASB)
Group A:

International Standards on Quality Control

International Standards on Auditing
Group B:

International Standards on Quality Control

International Standards on Assurance Engagements
Group C:

International Standards on Quality Control

International Standards on Review Engagements
Group D:
International Public Sector
Accounting Standards Board
(IPSASB)

International Standards on Quality Control

International Standards on Related Services
International Public Sector Accounting Standards
13
COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, AND PERMISSIONS INFORMATION
Exposure Drafts, Consultation Papers, and other IFAC ® publications are published by, and copyright of,
IFAC.
IFAC does not accept responsibility for loss caused to any person who acts or refrains from acting in reliance
on the material in this publication, whether such loss is caused by negligence or otherwise.
The IFAC logo, ‘International Federation of Accountants®’, and ‘IFAC’ are registered trademarks and service
marks of IFAC.
Copyright © May 2015 by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). All rights reserved. Written
permission from IFAC is required to reproduce, store or transmit, or to make other similar uses of, this
document. Contact permissions@ifac.org.
ISBN: 978-1-60815-238-4
Published by:
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