Vol. 32, No. 4, October, 1059, pp. 367-369
Printed in U.S.A.
Mercy Hospital
and Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of
Denver, Colorado
The staff of our laboratory, like that of
most laboratories, is interested in teaching
student technologists, interns, and resident
physicians. We are frequently requested to
aid in presenting teaching seminars. Adequate color transparencies are essential in
this work.
We often find that our transparency file
does not contain specific examples of material that we may wish to use repeatedly in
to duplicate these transparencies, provided
(1) proper credit is given, (2) the copies are
to be used ethically, and (3) no damage to
the original occurs during the copying
We are also interested in producing tape
recordings of lectures, to be accompanied
by appropriate projection slides. Most lecturers will permit the recording of their talk
and reproduction of the illustrations, when
F I G . 1. Photographs of the copy devices for 35-mm. film (left) and lantern-slide size
The front has been removed from the box in order to demonstrate the construction.
our teaching program. The examples we
lack may be available from another laboratory or from a medical school. There is
seldom any difficulty in securing permission
Received, May S, 1959; accepted for publication
J u n e 10.
Dr. Mildobrand is Pathologist, Mercy Hospital,
and Assistant Professor of Pathology, University
of Colorado School of Medicine.
similar conditions to those already noted
are met. In addition, however, most lecturers insist that the slide copies be made
quickly so that they do not have to leave
the slides behind to be copied.
With these requirements in mind, a simple, portable, inexpensive copying apparatus
has been developed to produce 35-mm.
transparencies from other 35-mm. transparencies or from lantern-slide size trans-
Vol. 32
parencies. We chose the 35-mm. size for (at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology)
reasons of economy and ease of storage and and because of the many color medias of the
projection. The degree of projection enlarge- original, that we would lose corrective conment is, of course, limited, and is not com- trol of exposure and color. For this reason,
pletely suitable for large audiences, but for we retained as our light source tungsten
most uses we have found 35-mm. slides to illumination."
be adequate.
Box. The box is constructed of plywood.
For the sake of simplicity, such factors as The inside measurements are 16 in. in height
elaborate controls, variations in color tem- by 15 in. in width by 8 in. in depth. The inperature, and most niters have been ignored. terior is painted dull black. A piece of opal
The colors produced are so closely similar glass available from most window-glass
to the original that it requires a trained eye companies, Y± in. thick, is framed and
forms the hinged access door at the top
to distinguish them.
If one wishes to experiment with more de- of the box. As noted before, the "strobe" is
tailed methods, using more complex equip- 10 in. from the glass. Masks are cut from
ment, reference can be made to the work of aluminum lunchroom trays, with cut outs
Halsman 5 and Brostrup. 1 Reference may for 35 mm. and for lantern-slide size, cenalso be made to the work of Brownell2 and tered over the underlying "strobe." The
Gibson,4 and to the book by Evans and his aluminum of the trays (gage No. 19) is
associates.3 The Leica Manual and Data the correct thickness so that it will not bend
Book by Morgan and Lester7 gives an ex- easily, and will allow both glass-mounted
cellent discussion of the various copying de- and unmounted transparencies to be copied
successfully. The 35-mm. mask is provided
vices for this camera.
with guides so that the camera is centered
automatically. The lantern-slide size mask
Camera-. We use the Leica camera has 4 small holes that also act as centering
equipped with "strobe" synchronization. guides for the legs of this device.
I t is a standard model I I I F, with a SumMethod. The "strobe" is plugged in to the
mitar f. 2 lens. The 1:1 copy device is the 115 v. AC line and connected to the camera,
"Belun-Hessum" (Leica). The copy device which is loaded with Kodachrome "daylight
for lantern slides is the "Behoo" (Leica) ad- type" film. The proper copy device is atjusted to the 1:3 setting.
tached. The lens, set at "infinity," is adjusted
Cameras of other makes may be used if to f. 9 for transparencies of average density,
proper copying attachments are available to f. 4.5 for dark ones, or to f. 16 for light
ones. The time is set at Yih sec. The f. setcommercially or can be constructed.
Light. We use the Heiland "Strobonar," a tings and exposure time are the same for
transistorized "strobe" unit that will operate both sizes of transparencies, either unfrom batteries or from 115 v. AC, model mounted or glass mounted.
64B. Other "strobes," of course, may be
If other films are used, appropriate
used if appropriate changes are made after changes in lens setting must be made, and
experimentation. The usual difficulty en- some films require the use of a light-correctcountered is unevenness of light distribu- ing filter. For example, type " F " Kodation at close range. In using another "strobe" chrome may be used, but a type " F " filter
(Heiland Strobonar model V), we observed must be placed over the lens. The f.
that 1 or 2 sheets of onion-skin paper be- settings for type " F " film with the filter are
tween the light and the opal glass provided the same as for the Kodachrome "daylight
adequate diffusion. The No. 64B has a type" without a filter.
diffusion lens built in. AVe use a distance of
The slide to be copied must be clean and
10 in. between the light and the opal glass. free of dust. The use of a camel's hair brush
Halsman 6 has used a light source similar to to. remove dirt is recommended as a routine.
the one presented here and found it "prac- The slide is placed in the cut-out. In the
tical." He states: "However, we felt that case of the 1:1 copy device, the camera asfor the varied requirements of our mission sembly is placed on top of it. In using the
Oct. 1959
1:3 device, the slides to be copied can be
slipped in without moving the camera assembly. The "strobe" is allowed to warm up
for a minimum of 15 sec. The picture is
taken, using a cable release. The next copy
can be made similarly, 15 sec. later. Other
"strobes" may require either a shorter or a
longer regeneration time, and this must be
ascertained experimentally. The original
transparency is unharmed in this process.
The construction, operation, and usefulness of a simple, portable device for copying
transparencies are described. Very acceptable copies of 35-mm. slides and of lanternslide size transparencies can be made easily,
rapidly, and cheaply by an inexperienced
person. It is fully portable, operating from
batteries or from ordinary 115 v. AC power.
Es describite le construction, le uso, e le
utilitate de un simple e portabile apparato a
copiar ,transparentias in color. Multo satisfacente copias de vistas de projection de 35
mm o altere dimensiones pote esser prodiicite
facile-, rapide-, e incostosemente per un persona sin multe experientia. Le apparato es
plenmente portabile e pote esser activate
per batterias o un potentia de 115 volt de currente alternative.
1. BnosTRUr, J . 0 . : A 35 mm. color slide duplication bench. P h o t o . Sc. & Technique, Series
II, 3: No. 4, 126-133, 1956.
2. BROWNELL, C. G.: Making copies of radiographs. M. Radiog. and Photog., 27: 114-121,
3. E V A N S , R. M.,
H A N S O N , W. T.,
W. L.: Principles of Color Photography.
New Y'ork: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1953.
4. G I B S O N , H . L.: Copying radiographs with
miniature kodachrome film. M. Radiog. and
Photog., 27: 125-129, 1951.
5. HALSMAN, ,J.: Color duplication of transparencies. J. Biol. Photo. A., 19: 16-27, 1951.
6. HALSMAN, J . : Chief, Photographic Division,
A. F . L P , Washington 25, D.C., Personal
7. M O R G A N , W.
AND. L E S T E R , . H.
Manual and Data Book, Ed. 13. New Y o r k :
Morgan & Morgan, 1956.
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