DURHAM UNIVERSITY
FOOD SAFETY MANUAL
INDEX
Subject
Pages
Physical Standards
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10 Section 11 -
Design and Construction
Services
Interior Surfaces
Equipment
Facilities
Lighting
Ventilation
Refuse Storage and Disposal
Staff Facilities
Customer Areas
Equipment Maintenance
3-8
3
3-4
4-5
5-6
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
Purchase
Delivery
Storage
Preparation
Personal Hygiene
Temperature Control
Cleaning and Disinfection
Stock Rotation
Pest Control
Refuse Storage and Disposal
Structure and Equipment
Health and Safety
9 - 23
9
9 - 10
10 - 11
11
12 – 14
14 - 17
17 - 19
20 - 21
21
21 - 22
22
22 - 23
Operational Standards
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Section 4
Section 5
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10 Section 11 Section 12 Monitoring Standards
24
Bibliography
25
Appendices
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
-
26 - 61
26 - 27
28 - 39
40
41
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
Appendix 9
-
Food Safety Policy
HACCP
Food Supplier Assessments
Procurement Buyers‟ Guide
for approved Food Suppliers
Food Hygiene Training
Food-borne Illness
Food Complaints
Enforcement Officers
Bars, Cellars and Toastie Areas
1
42 - 43
44
45
46 - 48
49 - 51
Appendix 10
Appendix 11
Appendix 12
Appendix 13
Appendix 14
Appendix 15
Appendix 16
Appendix 17
-
Mobile Food Vendors
Transporting Food
Takeaway Food
Buffet Food
Barbecues
Genetically Modified Food
Food Allergies
Food Safety Monitoring Forms
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9
17.10
17.11
17.12
17.13
-
Food Delivery Record
Food Supplier Questionnaire
Refrigeration Equipment Temperature Record
Food Cooking Temperature Record
Food Cooling Temperature Record
Food Display Temperature Record
Internal Food Safety Inspection Record
Suspected Food-borne Illness Record
Food Handler Health Questionnaire
Food Complaint Investigation Record
Thermometer Checking Record
Staff Training Record
Food Vendor Approval Form
2
52
53
54
55 - 56
57
58
59
60
PHYSICAL STANDARDS
The design, structure and layout of premises, and the provision of necessary services,
equipment, facilities, etc, must satisfy the requirements of legislation and the industry
guidance. The following specifications should assist in compliance with these standards
and should be interpreted in relation to the needs of each premises, including size, scale
and type of operations.
1.
Design and Construction
1.1
The structure must be sound, with no significant defects.
1.2
There must be sufficient space for all the different activities, such as storage,
preparation, cooking, service/display, staff changing, etc.
1.3
There must be sufficient space to allow good food hygiene practices, such as
protection against cross-contamination in food storage and preparation areas.
1.3
All surfaces must be suitable for the type and degree of intended use.
1.4
Surfaces and equipment in food rooms must be of materials which are smooth,
impervious, non-toxic, non-tainting, easily cleaned, durable and
non-reactive to food ingredients.
1.5
Layout, design and construction must permit access for effective cleaning. This
includes the following :
provision of wall/floor coving
sloping window sills
1.6
The use of wood should be avoided, but is acceptable as part of structure,
framing for shelves, etc., provided it is in sound condition, free of surface
imperfections and sealed with varnish or paint so as to be fully washable. Use as
tabletops and chopping boards is not suitable; wood handled knives, spoons and
paddles should be replaced when excessively worn or split. Such utensils should
be phased out.
2.
Services
2.1
Adequate supplies of electricity, gas and water must be provided and there must
be mains drainage, laid with sufficient fall, with the provision of water traps at all
connections and grease traps where necessary.
2.2
A potable, mains supply of piped hot and cold water should be available at each
appliance, for the following uses :
washing food
inclusion as an ingredient (including ice making)
3
cleaning surfaces and equipment
hand washing
2.3
A sufficient number of electrical socket outlets are needed to avoid the use of
long cable runs and extension leads.
2.4
Gas-fuelled equipment should be connected to the supply via flexible hoses and
a quick-release attachment.
2.5
Cut off devices must be conveniently accessible for gas, electricity and water
supplies.
2.6
Electrical switches and fittings must not be exposed to water, or positioned within
2 metres of a wet area, unless of the waterproof type.
2.7
All surfaces, equipment, facilities and services should be serviced and
maintained as necessary.
3.
Interior Surfaces
3.1
General
Must be sound, resistant to the formation of mould and have finishes not prone to
flaking or the shedding of debris/
3.2
Floors
Must be durable, resistant to hot liquids, impact damage, abrasion and
slip-resistant.
Examples are :
vinyl safety flooring
vinyl tiles
quarry tiles with waterproof grouting
terrazzo
resin
3.3
There should be an adequate fall towards floor drainage points, where provided.
3.4
Walls
Heat and steam resistant properties are important, as is general durability,
particularly to 2 metres height.
Examples are :
sheet cladding of stainless steel or polypropylene
ceramic tiles with waterproof grouting
washable painted plaster
4
3.5
Ceilings
Heat, steam and fire resistant qualities are important.
Examples are :
washable painted plaster
suspended ceiling panels
3.6
Work Surfaces
All surfaces coming into direct contact with food, food utensils, crockery, etc.
must be made from suitable materials and be in sound condition. The following
materials are normally acceptable
Examples are :
plastic laminates
stainless steel
food grade plastics
ceramics and toughened glass.
4.
Equipment
4.1
General
There must sufficient in a good state of repair.
4.2
Equipment should be mobile or positioned to permit access for effective cleaning.
4.3
Refrigeration Equipment
There should be sufficient capacity for the amount and style of catering being
practised; including blast chillers and rapid-thaw cabinets where necessary.
4.4
Equipment should be located away from heat producing appliances, in wellventilated areas.
4.5
Operational temperatures must allow food to be stored at the following :
fridges 0 to 5 degrees C
freezers -18 degrees C or lower
4.6
Food Holding and Service Equipment
Bains-marie, hot cupboards, displays, etc. must be capable of holding food at a
minimum of 63 degrees C.
4.7
Cold food display wells, chilled vending machines, etc. must be capable of
holding food at a maximum of 5 degrees C.
4.8
Food display equipment should be suitably screened on the customer side.
5
4.9
Other Storage
Dry goods and vegetable storage should be in a good state of repair and
adequately ventilated to provide cool, dry conditions with an air temperature
range of 10 to 25 degrees C.
4.10
Sufficient storage racking or shelves must be available, to allow all food and
equipment to be kept 150mm clear of the floor. Free standing stainless steel or
plastic racking is preferable, but if not the materials used need to be durable and
capable of being effectively cleaned.
5.
Facilities
5.1
Sinks are needed for the washing of food and equipment. These must be of a
sufficient number and capacity. Hot water tap temperature should be
50 - 60 degrees C.
5.2
Dishwashers are essential for all but the smallest catering operations and should
be in good working order and of adequate capacity. The rinse cycle water should
exceed 80 degrees C.
5.3
An adequate number of wash hand basins is needed for staff use. These should
be located so that staff can have convenient access to them. Liquid soap and
paper towel dispensers should be provided at each basin. Warm air dryers are
not acceptable on their own in catering areas.
6.
Lighting
6.1
This must be adequate and glare-free in all areas.
6.2
Light fittings must be suitably covered or provided with diffusers.
6.3
Recommended lighting standards are :
500 lux for food preparation, cooking and service areas
200 lux for all other areas.
7.
Ventilation
7.1
Kitchens and dishwasher rooms must have mechanical ventilation, with cooking
equipment enclosed by a ventilation hood fitted with outlet grease filters. The
latter must be capable of being removed for cleaning or replacement, and there
must be access to the ducting, etc. for cleaning and maintenance.
7.2
Ventilation must be capable of removing excess heat, steam and odours from
cooking processes, refrigeration equipment, dishwashing, etc.; also odours and
stale, smoky or damp air from staff facilities, customer areas and stores. Good
ventilation reduces air temperature and relative humidity and the target is to
maintain an indoor temperature below 30 degrees C.
6
Ventilation expressed in terms of minimum air changes per hour (ach) is
recommended as follows :
30 ach for kitchens
6 ach for toilets, restaurants and rest rooms
3 ach for cellars and stores
7.3
All ventilation openings should be positioned to prevent any flow of air from
contaminated to clean areas (e.g. from toilets or refuse storage areas to food
rooms).
7.4
All ventilation openings, e.g. windows, doorways, airbricks, ducted inlets etc.
should be fitted with insect-proof screening.
8.
Refuse Storage and Disposal
8.1
Internally, metal-framed plastic sack holders are preferred, fitted with a footoperated cover. Bins with lids, lined with plastic refuse sacks, are an acceptable
alternative.
8.2
Externally, bulk storage should be in the form of wheeled, covered skips.
Compactors are acceptable for most waste types, but need to be properly
maintained.
8.3
Sufficient capacity must be available for refuse storage, with a maximum
collection frequency by a licensed refuse contractor of once a week.
8.4
Storage areas or compounds should be hard surfaced and in sound condition,
preferably laid to a suitable fall and drained.
9.
Staff Facilities
9.1
Staff must have facilities separate from food rooms where they can change and
store their street clothes and personal effects.
9.2
Toilet facilities should be separately provided for staff, but shared use with
customers is acceptable for small operations.
9.3
All facilities should be in a good state of repair and cleaned daily.
9.4
Provision of lockers is recommended for staff clothing and other belongings,
located in a changing room.
Toilets should have a wash hand basin, with liquid soap and paper towels, and a
sign stating “Now Wash Your Hands” needs to be on display. Warm air hand
dryers are acceptable as an alternative to paper towels.
9.5
9.6
Areas containing a WC or urinal facility must only communicate with a food room
or work room via an intervening ventilated space.
7
10.
Customer Areas
10.1
All floor, wall and ceiling surfaces must be in sound condition.
10.2
There should be sufficient artificial lighting, in good working order.
10.3
Adequate ventilation is required (see above).
10.4
Toilet facilities must be adequate in quantity, clean and in good repair.
10.5
Areas containing a WC or urinal facility must only communicate with a food room
or work room via an intervening ventilated space.
11.
11.1
Equipment Maintenance
All gas and electrically-powered equipment must be serviced, repaired, etc. when
necessary and at least once per annum.
for gas equipment, this will be done by a competent (i.e. CORGI-registered
person) and include an annual safety check where necessary.
for electrical equipment, inspection and testing will be in accordance with
the University Health and Safety Manual Section E1 – Electrical Testing.
8
OPERATIONAL STANDARDS
The legally-enforceable standards for food premises and hygienic food handling are a
minimum level of acceptability and there is little margin for error, as even a small, shortterm decline in operational standards will result in a food business dropping below this
line. The result will increase the risks of a food safety incident (e.g. food poisoning,
complaint of foreign body, unfit food, etc.) and also of enforcement action through a
routine inspection or in response to a customer complaint.
These standards, together with the Appendices, have been prepared to cover all
aspects of food hygiene and safety, assisting in the maintenance of high standards of
food safety.
1.
Purchase
1.1
Only those food suppliers listed in Appendix 4 – Register of Approved Food
Suppliers, may be used.
See : http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/healthandsafety/manual/FSMApp04.pdf
1.2
Any food outlet wishing to use a non-registered supplier must first notify the
Health and Safety Service in order for an assessment to be carried out (see
Appendices 3 and 17.1).
The University Procurement Office must also be informed.
2.
Delivery
2.1
There must be adequate storage capacity and facilities for the quantities being
ordered.
2.2
On delivery, before acceptance, the vehicle must be checked to determine its
suitability for carrying food - Is it refrigerated? (if necessary) Is it clean? Is the
driver properly attired and clean?
2.3
Food must be examined and the following checks made before being placed into
storage : (see Appendix 17.2)
condition of packaging and containers (look for blown, rusted, leaking cans;
visibly damaged and dirty packaging; evidence of pests, etc).
condition of food (sprouting, soft, mouldy produce; other visible defects).
labelling (must be complete for pre-packaged foods. Information to include
product description, storage conditions and “use by/best before” dates).
storage (is food properly loaded on to the vehicle, raw and cooked foods kept
separate, suitable containers and packaging in use?)
temperatures (Can be taken using a probe thermometer between food packs,
or by taking the air temperature reading from the vehicle display) :
9
Food type Acceptable temperature range (degrees Celsius)
Chilled
0 to 8
Frozen
-12 or below
signs of thawing (soft, wet food; frozen liquid in packaging; products in a solid
mass)
quantities - are these correct?
2.4
A Food Delivery Record should be completed for each delivery (see Appendix
17.2) This may not always be possible, but a representative sample of deliveries
must be assessed in this way and include all refrigerated products.
2.5
If the food is delivered in an unsatisfactory condition, it must be rejected.
Criteria include :
chilled foods above 8C.
frozen foods above - 12C.
cans visibly blown, affected by rust, badly dented, with damaged seams,
leaking.
unlabelled, pre-packed foods.
expired date codes.
inadequate date code period remaining (depends on food type).
badly soiled packaging/container material.
badly damaged packaging.
food unfit or of poor, unsaleable quality.
2.6
It is essential that someone is always available to receive food on delivery. Food
deliveries left unattended in a yard or similar outside location is unacceptable.
2.7
Food deliveries must be properly stored as quickly as possible under appropriate
conditions.
Priorities are :
chilled food > ice cream > other frozen foods > produce > dry goods.
2.8
As a general rule, new stock should be stored behind old to encourage use of the
oldest stock first (i.e. first in - first out), but it is essential to take note of date
coding as food is not always delivered in correct chronological order.
3.
Storage
3.1
Sufficient shelving or racking should be available to avoid the use of floor pallets
or platforms, which tend to create difficulties with cleaning. Space beneath the
lowest shelf needs to be enough for effective cleaning and pest inspection.
Recommended floor clearance is 150mm.
10
3.2
Outer packaging should, wherever possible, be removed from food deliveries
before the food is stored away – this is essential where the packaging is soiled.
3.3
Food must always be stored above floor level and away from contact with walls in
store rooms, cupboards and walk-in refrigerators, unless kept in a suitable
container – such as a Grundy Bin.
3.4
Raw and cooked/ready-to-eat foods must be stored separately, ideally in
separate fridges. If fully separate facilities are not available, the raw foods must
be kept below or otherwise apart from other foods.
3.5
Once opened, food must be subsequently stored fully wrapped or covered with
food-grade material. Suitable materials can be washable or disposable, but need
to be of an impervious nature in addition to being “food-grade”, so aluminium foil,
plastic film, blue food bags, Pyrex, stainless steel, hard plastic, glazed
earthenware are all suitable; whereas cloths, muslin, kitchen paper, refuse sacks,
are not. In addition, cling film is not for use in conventional ovens or in direct
contact with food being cooked, reheated or thawed in a microwave oven.
3.6
Food must not be stored or heated in opened cans. Food should be immediately
used or the contents decanted into a suitable, food-grade container. Metal
spoons and other serving utensils must not be left in food.
3.7
Unnecessary glass should be kept out of food rooms, unless protected as in the
case of light fittings. Glass tube thermometers and drinking glasses used as ice
scoops are the commonest examples.
3.8
Non food items should be kept out of food storage and preparation areas particularly those which may contaminate through leakage or airborne taint - such
as cleaning chemicals.
4.
Preparation
4.1
Where space permits, areas should be designated for particular types of food
preparation - e.g. pastry, veg/salad, sandwiches, raw meat, fish, etc.
4.2
Separate equipment (tables, knives, chopping boards) is desirable for use with
raw and cooked/ready to eat foods. Sufficient equipment must be available for
the busiest periods and if there is a colour coding system for boards this must be
understood and followed by staff.
Where full separation by space and/or equipment is not possible, this can be
achieved effectively by thorough cleaning and disinfection between each type of
use.
4.3
4.4
Raw shell eggs must not be used as ingredients in uncooked or lightly-cooked
dishes. Where not to be thoroughly cooked, dishes should be made with
pasteurised liquid egg.
11
5.
Personal Hygiene
5.1
Staff Facilities
Staff toilet, washing and changing facilities must be available at the place of work.
These should be kept clean, tidy and properly supplied at all times.
5.2
Staff should not have to change in an area containing a WC or other sanitary
convenience.
5.3
Adequate locker or other personal storage facilities should be available.
5.4
A sign requiring staff to wash their hands should be displayed in the toilet.
5.5
Personal Appearance
Food handlers must present for work in a clean state – hair, clothing and body. A
high standard of personal cleanliness is required, with particular concern for the
hands and hair.
5.6
Fingernails must be short and clean.
5.7
Nail varnish and false nails must not be worn.
5.8
Jewellery should be kept to a minimum. The only types permitted are sleepertype earrings and plain finger rings.
5.9
Long hair must be tied back or enclosed within a hat or hair net.
5.10
Protective Clothing
Protective clothing must be worn by all food handlers and fulfil the following :
food unfit or of poor, unsaleable quality
clean and in good repair
washable, lightweight, of light-coloured material
cover all outer clothing and the hair.
5.11
Staff who handle high-risk food must not travel to and from work wearing their
protective clothing. This should be kept at work so that all clothes changing is on
site.
5.12
Plastic, disposable gloves are acceptable for certain high-risk food handling
activities, but must not be regarded as a “second skin”. The following disciplines
should be observed :
hands must be washed and dried before gloves are put on
gloves must only be used for one particular task
on completion of the task, the gloves should be discarded and the hands
washed again
a maximum of one hour‟s use before hands are washed/gloves are changed
12
use should be limited to handling of high-risk foods such as cooked meats and
sandwiches.
5.13
5.14
Strong, closed toe, “sensible” shoes with slip-resistant soles should be worn to
protect against slipping, hot spillages, etc. Where required by the premises
management, specialist safety or slip-resistant footwear must be provided and
worn.
Hand Washing
Hands are to be washed in wash hand basins provided only for this purpose and
no other. Each requires a supply of hot and cold running water, liquid soap and
disposable towels.
5.15
Wash hand basins must be kept in a clean condition, provided with a plug, and its
location or other equipment must not obstruct access
5.16
Hands should be washed frequently, but in particular on the following occasions :
before starting work AND after any break
after visiting the WC
after handling raw food (meat, fish, pastry, eggs, vegetables)
after handling dirty equipment (including money)
after handling delivery packaging
after handling refuse
after cleaning surfaces or equipment
5.17
Personal Habits
The direct handling of high-risk food should be avoided whenever possible.
Implements such as tongs and spoons should be readily available.
5.18
Other bad habits to be avoided include the following :
use of tobacco
tasting food by dipping fingers or reusing an unwashed spoon
scratching
coughing/sneezing over food
taking breaks in food rooms
washing hands in a food or equipment sink sitting on food preparation
surfaces
touching hair.
5.19
Personal belongings, outdoor clothing, etc. must be kept out of food rooms and
stored in the staff facilities.
5.20
Injury and Illness
Food handlers must immediately notify their supervisor of any of the following :
13
diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea, stomach pains (i.e. symptoms of food-borne
illness)
colds, coughs and other respiratory or chest infections
skin infections or conditions, e.g. septic wounds, dermatitis, eczema, rash
infections of the eye, ear, mouth, nose and throat
symptoms of food-borne illness in the food handler‟s household
return from any trip overseas
5.21
Where a supervisor – in discussion with staff of the Health and Safety Service –
suspects a food-borne illness, the procedures in Appendix 6 must be followed
(see also Appendix 17.8).
5.22
On return from any sickness absence or trip overseas, food handlers must
complete a Food Handler Review Health Questionnaire (see Appendix 17.9) in
co-operation with their supervisor.
Where appropriate for 5.20 and 5.21, action to be taken is detailed in Appendix 6
- Procedure for Suspected Food-Borne Illness. For conditions and answers not
covered by Appendix 6, the Health and Safety Service should be contacted for
advice.
5.23
A fully stocked first aid kit should be available within the kitchen area, which must
include a supply of blue waterproof dressings.
5.24
All cuts, abrasions and burns must be covered with a waterproof dressing.
6.
Temperature Control
6.1
Storage
Food storage areas and equipment must be kept within the following
specifications :
ambient stores (e.g. dry goods, produce, bread) to be within 10 to 25C C
fridges to operate within the 0 to 5 degrees C range
freezers to operate at or below –18 degrees C.
6.2
6.3
All refrigeration equipment should have a temperature display on the casing, or
have an internal thermometer. These will suffice for the majority of recorded
checks, but must be verified at least once daily by use of an electronic probe
thermometer.
Temperatures of all refrigeration storage equipment should be recorded in writing
(see Appendix 17.3) at the following frequencies :
fridges three times per day
freezers once per day.
14
6.4
Each kitchen must have an electronic probe thermometer, spare battery and a
supply of disinfectant wipes.
6.5
All “high risk” foods (e.g. cooked foods, soft cheeses, prepared salads) and those
not stable at ambient temperature (e.g. raw meat, uncooked dough and fresh
pasta products) must be stored under refrigeration, plus the following categories :
raw eggs
other foods with label instructions requiring refrigeration
6.6
Doors of refrigeration equipment should be opened only when necessary, and
closed immediately after use (not propped open for convenience).
6.7
Fridges must not be overloaded. Adequate air circulation is necessary.
6.8
Any food found to be fully or partially thawed must not be re-frozen.
6.9
Preparation
Frozen food usually requires to be thawed before incorporation as ingredients or
cooking. This process should ideally be carried out under refrigeration or in a
rapid thaw cabinet and not at ambient room temperature.
Alternatives are possible under the following circumstances :
use of a microwave oven defrost facility - for food which is to be fully cooked
or reheated immediately, as part of the same process
cold, running water - for small items to be cooked or eaten immediately e.g.
prawns
cool, ambient temperatures not exceeding 25 degrees - for large pieces of
meat or poultry (here refrigerated thawing times can be measured in days –
not hours).
Note that high-risk food should never be permitted to thaw outside refrigeration.
6.10
6.11
Food should not be left at ambient temperature during preparation, transfer,
equipment defrost/breakdown and waiting periods for longer than necessary. As a
guide, only a sufficient quantity of temperature-sensitive food for use with a 30
minute period should be outside temperature control.
Cooking and Reheating
Food must be thoroughly cooked throughout to a time and temperature
combination effective in destroying pathogens. Both cooking and reheating must
be accomplished as quickly as possible. A minimum 75 degrees C internal
temperature for a period of 2 minutes is recommended.
15
6.12
An electronic probe thermometer should be used to determine procedures and to
check their effectiveness at the end of the cooking time.
6.13
Only recognised cooking equipment is suitable - holding equipment such as
Bains-marie and hot cupboards are not to be used for cooking or reheating.
6.14
Quantities to be cooked must not be so large as to make it difficult to achieve the
above time/temperature combinations.
As a guide, the following are essential practices, assisting with thorough
cooking/reheating and preventing the formation of cold spots within the food
mass:
meat pieces should not exceed 4kg weight
large volumes of liquids should be stirred while being heated
liquids (especially soups, stocks and gravy) should be brought to the boil
food being heated in a microwave oven should be turned and liquids stirred at
least once, midway through the process
cooking or reheating should be carried out in one process, never in two or
more stages
6.15
6.16
Cooking/reheating temperatures of a selection of foods should be recorded daily
(see Appendix 17.4).
Cooling, Holding, Display
Ideally, food will be cooked to order and served hot immediately.
6.17 After cooking, food must be cooled as rapidly as possible before being
refrigerated. This period should ideally not exceed 90 minutes which may be
achieved by any of the following :
use of a blast chiller
breaking down food into smaller quantities after cooking
placing pans into sinks of cold, iced water
pouring food into shallow trays
covering food and placing in a cool, well-ventilated area is adequate
Note - food must never be permitted to cool slowly in a switched off oven.
6.18
Food must not be put into a fridge until it has cooled to near ambient temperature.
An exception to this is that small quantities of hot food can be put into a large
walk-in refrigerator.
6.19
Cooling times of a selection of foods should be recorded daily
(see Appendix 17.5).
16
6.20
Reheating can be carried out once only, of previously cooked and cooled food.
Care is necessary when making dishes from pre-cooked ingredients, in order not
to exceed this guidance.
6.21
Food which has been reheated should be discarded at the end of a service
session.
6.22
When being held prior to service either on display, in a vending machine or as
“back up,” food must be maintained at the following temperatures :
hot food at 63 degrees C or above
cold food at 0 to 5 degrees C
6.23
Food on display must be maintained at the above temperatures, but if display
equipment is not effective, or the food is presented as a served or self-service
buffet, the following exemptions are permitted :
hot food can be held below 63 degrees C for up to 2 hours
cold food can be held above 5 degrees C for up to 4 hours.
After the above periods, food must be brought back within temperature control
and only served from these temperatures, or discarded.
Note – food is only permitted one display period out of temperature control, no
matter how short.
6.24
All hot and cold holding and service equipment must be pre-heated or pre-chilled
for at least one hour before use.
6.25
Containers must not be “topped up” between service periods, but quantities on
display should be kept to a practical minimum. Used containers should be
replaced with fresh, refilled containers.
6.26
Electronic probe thermometers should be in use to monitor food temperatures.
6.27
Probe thermometers should be checked monthly by immersion in iced and then
boiling water (see Appendix 17.11)
6.27
Temperatures of a selection of displayed foods should be recorded daily (see
Appendix 17.6).
7.
Cleaning and Disinfection
7.1
Cleaning Chemicals
A range of products suitable for use in a food handling environment is needed.
They should leave no toxic or tainting residue and the methods of use should
17
ensure that food and equipment are not contaminated. Generally, commercial,
food-grade chemicals should be in use and household chemicals avoided, as
these are often of limited effectiveness and may be scented.
The following types of cleaning product are recommended for use :
oven cleaner
surface degreaser (floors, walls, tiling, cookers, etc.)
surface sanitiser (work surfaces, fridges and freezers, processing equipment,
etc.)
hand wash up detergent
machine wash up detergent and rinse aid
7.2
Chemical storage should be separate from food where possible, and only
sufficient for immediate use should be kept in the food areas. If stored in the
same room, chemicals should all be at low level and food stored above.
7.3
Chemicals must be stored in their original, labelled containers. Decanting must
be avoided, but if chemical is diluted into a spray bottle, this is acceptable
provided the bottle is labelled.
7.4
Chemical storage must take account of the potential hazards involved - for
example, acid-based products must be kept away from chlorine-based
disinfectants.
7.5
Cleaning Equipment
Equipment should be suited to the purpose for which it is intended and be in good
repair.
7.6
Use of mops, cloths, brushes, etc. must avoid contamination of clean areas and
equipment, by ensuring no overlap between low risk and high risk areas.
Separate equipment is therefore needed for food and non-food areas
7.7
Cleaning cloths should preferably be of the disposable type, but washable cloths
are satisfactory if laundered daily.
7.8
Equipment should be kept in a suitable store room or cupboard, separate from
food and sanitary facilities.
7.9
Cleaning Schedules
A written cleaning schedule must be in evidence and staff trained in its use. This
should cover session, daily, weekly, monthly and long-term cleaning practices.
The following information is necessary :
areas and equipment to be cleaned (every item must be included)
frequencies of cleaning
materials, methods and equipment to be used
18
persons responsible
safety procedures (e.g. personal protective equipment, general instructions).
Note - detailed schedules incorporating most or all of the above information can
usually be obtained from chemical suppliers, together with training on chemical
use, safety, etc.
7.10
7.11
Cleaning Standards
It is essential that the internal and external environment be kept clean, tidy and
free from any foreign matter or “clutter”. This should be to a relevant standard
dependent on the area, as it is unrealistic and impracticable to expect an external
refuse compound to be of the same degree of cleanliness as a fridge interior. As
a general rule, surfaces and equipment coming into contact with food or hands
requires cleaning and disinfecting; whereas other areas need a standard of visual
cleanliness. All necessary details will be contained in the cleaning schedule.
All equipment, utensils and machinery must be cleaned in accordance with the
manufacturers' instructions. These should be referred to or incorporated into the
cleaning schedule.
Note - instructions may be particularly relevant for specific items, such as vending
machines.
7.12
7.13
In addition to any requirement of the above, all spillages must be cleaned up
immediately and food rooms kept tidy (i.e. a policy of “clean as you go”).
Washing Up
This can be carried out either in the dishwasher, or by hand :
Dishwasher - wash and rinse cycles should be set at the appropriate
temperatures, which are :
wash at 50 to 60 degrees C
rinse at 80 + degrees C
hand - the two sink method is necessary. One is the wash sink, the other is
for rinsing.
Temperatures are limited by the piped hot water supply, but should be at 60
degrees C.
7.14
Drying up - rinse temperatures should be high enough to allow rapid air drying of
washed items, and an adequate amount of drying rack or tray space is needed to
accomplish this. Cloths should not be used for drying or polishing, but disposable
paper towels or roll can be used.
7.15
Water temperatures of the dishwasher cycles should be regularly monitored,
using a probe thermometer or the equipment display.
19
8.
Stock Rotation
8.1
Delivery And Storage
All stock must be properly received on the premises as detailed in the Deliveries
section.
8.2
All food must be stored correctly, in accordance with the product requirements
(pre-packaged foods must state this information on the labelling).
8.3
Old stock should be used before new. Chilled stock usually has a life of 3 to 4
days on arrival, and dates need to be checked daily.
8.4
Rotation And Labelling
Goods with expired date codes should be removed from the premises, as should
all unfit and unsaleable items. Items awaiting disposal must be segregated from
sound stock and clearly labelled or signed “not for use”.
Note - the presence of food on premises with an expired “use by” date is an
offence.
8.5
All pre-packed foods require full labelling, which must include the product
description, weight/quantity, storage instructions and a “use by” or “best before”
date. This is the responsibility of the manufacturer or supplier.
8.6
Food which is prepared in house more than 24 hours in advance of use must also
be adequately labelled. Product description and production date need to be
shown.
8.7
If food is frozen in-house as a method of use and to extend the shelf life, the
wrapping or container must also include the date of freezing. This is generally
accepted, along with cooking, as a method of using food within its date code.
The existing label on pre-packed, date coded food must not be removed or
altered, but the date of freezing must be visible to avoid the food appearing out of
code!
8.9
When food is frozen, the wrapping must be as tight as possible to exclude air.
This will avoid dehydration and quality problems such as “freezer burn”.
8.10
Freezing should always be carried out in the rapid freezer compartments, if
possible. Food texture is damaged by slow freezing, which results in the
formation of large ice crystals. On thawing, there is excessive drip which results
in loss of flavour, nutrients and causes toughness in meat. The freezing of fresh
meat cuts intended for grilling or roasting should be avoided.
Food prepared and/or frozen in-house should be given the following storage life
periods :
20
chilled
frozen
- 48 hours (may be longer, depending on food type).
- one month (food frozen on delivery, such as fresh meat)
three months (batch cooked food)
Note - food should be frozen in as fresh a condition and be of the highest quality
possible.
9.
Pest Control
9.1
Proofing and Prevention
Premises should be covered by the pest control service contract organised by the
University Procurement Office. Details of the specification are in Appendix
9.2
Operable doors and windows located in food rooms and openable direct to the
outside air should be fitted with fly screening.
9.3
Electric fly killers (EFKs) need to be regularly serviced and emptied.
9.4
Staff must be aware of the signs of potential pest infestation and should be
encouraged to notify suspicious signs to the catering manager.
9.5
Treatment
Any treatment for pests must only be carried out by the University's contracted
pest control operator.
10.
Refuse Disposal
10.1
Internal
A sufficient number of covered bins or other waste receptacles should be
provided.
10.2
Bins, etc. must be taken to the external refuse store when full and at the end of
each session.
10.3
Contents of internal refuse stores must be removed outside at the end of each
day.
10.4
External
Yards and other refuse storage areas should be washed down weekly, or as
necessary.
10.5
Refuse containers must be pest-proof, covered bins or skips with sufficient
capacity to contain all the refuse produced.
10.6
Lids or covers of refuse containers must always be in place.
21
10.7
Cardboard and other bulky waste should be broken flat to reduce volume.
Compactors and baling machines are suitable for this purpose, but incineration or
open burning is not permitted.
10.8
Collection frequency should be at least once per week, by a licensed waste
collector.
10.9
Refuse must not be stored on the floor in bags, cardboard boxes or other
unsuitable containers.
10.10 All refuse collectors, including those companies removing waste oil and food for
recycling, must be licensed.
11.
Structure And Equipment
11.1
Full details are the section on Physical Standards.
12.
Health And Safety
12.1
This is a separate area in itself, and subject to the management controls detailed
in the University Health and Safety Policy, Health and Safety Manual and the
Units‟ own arrangements. All activities must be carried out with due regard for the
health and safety of all concerned – staff, visitors and customers – and equipment
needs to be in safe working order.
12.2
The following will be considered during a food safety inspections :
Machinery and equipment
 must be well maintained and in good working order
 must have working guards in place, where appropriate
 emergency cut off controls must be available within the kitchen, for
electrical and gas fuelled equipment
 dangerous machinery and equipment should have warning signs displayed
near to them
Fire fighting equipment must be readily available, consisting of a fire blanket, a
water based and a non water-based extinguishers. These should be serviced
at least every 12 months.
Floors must be in sound condition, free from obstruction, spillage and be dry.
Appropriate warning signs should indicate where floors have been recently
washed and are still wet.
Extractor hood filters and ducting must be free from grease deposits,
removable or otherwise accessible for cleaning and maintenance purposes.
22
Suitable and adequate protective clothing must be available and seen to be
used when handling cleaning products. Depending on the product in use, this
may include rubber gloves, goggles, face mask and aprons.
Suitable equipment must be available to assist staff in safe manual handling
activities (sack barrows, trolleys, etc.) and in reaching areas of high storage
(step ladders).
Staff must be made aware of the hazard of slipping in catering workplaces.
This includes the active management of the footwear policy adopted at the
site and restrictions on access to unauthorised persons.
23
MONITORING STANDARDS
The food hazard controls detailed in the Manual must be monitored at points critical to
food safety and written records retained. Where food safety standards are not being
met, appropriate action must be taken in accordance with the Physical and Operational
Standards above and, where appropriate, the Manual Appendices.
Food safety monitoring is to be carried out as detailed in the relevant Operational
Standards and Appendices, but is summarised as :
Form 17.1
Food Supplier Assessment Questionnaire
- see Appendix 3
Form 17.2
Food Delivery Record
- see Section 2
Form 17.3
Refrigeration Equipment Temperature Record - see Section 6
Form 17.4
Food Cooking Temperature Record
- see Section 6
Form 17.5
Food Cooling Temperature Record
- see Section 6
Form 17.6
Food Display Temperature Record
- see Section 6
Form 17.7
Internal Food Safety Inspection Record
- see Appendix 2
Form 17.8
Suspected Food-borne Illness Record
- see Section 5, Appendix 6
Form 17.9
Food Handler Health Questionnaire
- see Section 5
Form 17.9
Suspected Food-borne Illness Record
- see Appendix 6
Form 17.10 Food Complaint Investigation Record
- see Appendix 7
Form 17.11 Thermometer Checking Record
- see Section 6
Form 17.12 Staff Training Record
- see Appendix 5
Form 17.13 Mobile Food Vendor Approval
- see Appendix 10
24
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Food Safety Act 1990
Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2005.
SI 2005 No. 2059
Food Handlers - Fitness to Work. Guidance for Food Businesses, Enforcement Officers
and Health Professionals. 1995
Department of Health
Food Labelling Regulations 1996
SI 1996 No. 1499
Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice : Catering Guide. 1997.
Chadwick House Group Ltd.
Sprenger, R A, Hygiene for Management. A text for food safety courses.
Highfield Publications. 11th Edition. 2004. ISBN 1-904544-25-8.
25
Appendix 1
[back]
DURHAM UNIVERSITY FOOD SAFETY POLICY
Policy Statement
The Council of the Durham University (hereafter “the University”) is responsible for all University
affairs, including the production, supply and service of food to and within the University, for
consumption on or off its premises, and has agreed and approved this Food Safety Policy.
The University is committed to producing and supplying food that is safe and meets all legal
requirements, so it shall ensure that all food supplied to and by the University is produced to high
standards of safety and wholesomeness, in accordance with good hygiene practice and the principles
of HACCP.
The University will comply with the requirements of the Food Safety Act 1990; the Regulations made
under that Act; all other relevant legislation, Codes of Practice, Industry Guides and other approved
guidance. The University expects its food suppliers and contractors to do the same.
The University shall provide adequate and appropriate resources (i.e. premises, facilities, equipment,
protective clothing, staff, supervision, information, instruction and training) to assist in the
implementation of the above.
It is the duty of all University staff and students concerned with the production, supply and service of
food to work in a manner conducive to the above.
The University will ensure that this Policy is applied throughout all Units of the University where a food
business is operated and that all staff and students involved are aware of their responsibilities.
The University will ensure that this policy is reviewed regularly.
Organisation and Responsibilities
Health and Safety Committee shall monitor and oversee the operation of food safety policy through
the University Health and Safety Adviser, reporting annually to Council.
Implementation of this policy is the responsibility of the Heads of Houses and Departments (hereafter
“Heads of Units”), who are responsible for ensuring compliance with the above within their areas of
control.
Implementation
Each Unit where a food business is situated shall include a section within its Health and Safety Policy
detailing its arrangements for food safety.
The University Health and Safety Adviser shall assist the Heads of Units in their implementation of the
policy by :



Producing a Food Safety Manual, detailing all the necessary physical, operational and
monitoring standards, for the application of good hygiene practice.
Producing a documented HACCP system.
Giving advice to the University, its food units, contractors and food suppliers on matters of
food safety.
26






Inspecting and auditing all University food businesses to determine compliance with the Food
Safety Manual.
Devising, producing and arranging the delivery of suitable and relevant training in food
hygiene and related matters to food handlers, management and others involved with
University food units.
Investigating complaints concerning food produced, served or supplied by or on behalf of all
University food businesses.
Investigating cases or outbreaks of suspected and confirmed food-borne illness occurring on
University premises.
Reporting annually on food safety matters to Health and Safety Committee.
Regularly reviewing and updating the above.
The annual report from the University Safety Adviser to Health and Safety Committee shall include :






A summary of all Health and Safety Service inspections of food units.
A summary of all visits to University food units by officers of Durham City and County
Councils, together with action taken or proposed.
A summary of food handler training carried out.
A summary of all complaints concerning the safety, wholesomeness and quality of food
provided by the University, notified to the Health and Safety Service, together with action
taken or proposed.
A summary of all cases or outbreaks of suspected or confirmed food-borne illness affecting
University staff, students or visitors, notified to the Health and Safety Service, together with
action taken or proposed.
Any other matters relevant to food safety.
Reviewed : January 2006
Paul Zealand
Health and Safety Servicer
27
Appendix 2
[back]
HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT
(HACCP)
What is HACCP?
A method of ensuring food safety by examining every step in a food operation,
identifying those steps critical to food safety and implementing effective control and
monitoring procedures at these steps.
HACCP is a preventative system that gives a high level of food safety assurance and is
considered to be the best approach to producing safe food and thus preventing foodborne illness.
Need for HACCP
The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2006 require food businesses to ensure :
All operations are carried out in a hygienic way.
The “Rules of Hygiene” are complied with.
All food safety hazards are identified and effectively controlled, by :





Analysing the identified food safety hazards.
Deciding which hazards are critical to food safety (i.e. critical points).
Identifying and implementing effective hazard controls.
Monitoring procedures at the critical points.
Reviewing the above periodically and when necessary.
Pre-requisites for HACCP
These must be in place in order to support a HACCP system. The University encompasses all these
within its Good Hygiene Practice guidance, documentation and records which are detailed in the Food
Safety Manual
Principles of HACCP
1.
Conduct a Hazard Analysis
A process flow diagram is needed, detailing the steps in the operation. Hazards must be identified at each
stage, together with the significance of the risks presented and measures for control.
2.
Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)
Establish the points where controls are critical to food safety.
3.
Establish Critical Limits
At the CCPs, a measurable critical limit describes the difference between what is safe and what is not.
4.
Establish a system to monitor control of the CCPs
Monitoring actions, frequency and responsibility should be specified.
28
5.
Establish corrective action for when a CCP is not under control
Include actions to bring the process back under control and deal with products affected by the loss of
control.
6.
Establish procedures for verification to confirm HACCP is working
Develop and maintain procedures to keep HACCP system working.
7.
Establish documentation and records
Records must be kept to demonstrate the HACCP system is working under control and corrective action is
taken for any breached critical limits.
Definitions
Food Safety Hazard
Anything that has the potential to cause harm to a consumer. They can occur before or after arrival of the
food on University premises and are contamination of food by :
Biological – pathogenic micro-organisms or their toxins, allergens.
Physical items (foreign bodies) – e.g. a piece of glass or a dead insect.
Chemicals – e.g. cleaning chemicals, pesticide residues.
Prevention, elimination or reduction of a food safety hazard to an acceptable level is essential.
Hazard Identification
Identification of food hazards that may cause harm at each process step detailed in the process flow
diagram.
Process Flow Diagram
This details the University‟s catering food chain as a series of steps. The Flow Diagram is generic and will
not apply to all Units, but is designed to cover all eventualities in the food chain from purchase to
consumption.
Controls
Measures designed to eliminate a hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. Effective controls are
designed to :
Prevent contamination of food
Prevent the growth of microorganisms in food
Destroy harmful microorganisms in food
Controls can be of specific – such as heating food to a minimum temperature; or more general – as in
operating a system of programmed cleaning.
Critical Control Point (CCP)
A process step where control is essential to prevent, eliminate or reduce a food safety hazard to an
acceptable level and where a loss of control would result in unacceptable food safety risks.
A CCP is where a significant food safety hazard exists and a subsequent step in the process will not
prevent, eliminate or reduce it.
Critical Limits
A level which can be monitored and which, if exceeded, means a food safety hazard is out of control.
29
Must be monitorable and therefore Critical Limits are specific – such as refrigerated food temperatures
and cooling times.
Corrective Action
Action taken to remedy an out of control hazard.
Contamination
The introduction or occurrence in food of any microbial pathogens, chemical, foreign material, spoilage
agents, taints, unwanted or diseased matter, which may compromise its safety or wholesomeness.
Monitoring
This is the system of checks and records to ensure controls are being effectively applied – essential at the
CCPs. Included are temperature records, cleaning schedule, inspection checklists, etc.
Corrective Action
Action taken to remedy a breached Critical Limit. May involve refusal of a refrigerated delivery or disposal
of out-of-date food.
Verification
Applying methods, procedures, tests, etc. – in addition to monitoring – to determine compliance with the
HACCP system in place. Examples are :
HACCP audit
Microbiological and chemical testing
Analysis of record data
Ongoing training
Keeping HACCP plan up to date
30
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (CATERING)
PURCHASE
DELIVERY
STORAGE
INITIAL
PREPARATION
COLD
SERVE
COOKING
COOLING
AND
CHILLING
FURTHER
PREPARATION
FURTHER
PREPARATION
TAKEAWAY AND
CATERING
OFFSITE
REHEATING
HOT
HOLD
HOT
SERVE
HOT
SERVE
COLD
HOLD
HOT
HOLD
HOT
SERVE
HOT
SERVE
31
USE OF SURPLUS
FURTHER
PREPARATION
COLD
SERVE
COLD
SERVE
SUMMARY HACCP TABLE
STEP
HAZARD
CCP
CONTROL
CRITICAL LIMIT
MONITORING
CORRECTIVE ACTION
RECORD
FORM
Purchase
See
CCP1
“HACCP
DETAILS”
Delivery
Storage
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
CCP2
CCP3
“HACCP
DETAILS”
Preparation
(Initial and
Further)
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP4
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
As pre-set specifications Food Supplier Assessment
Re-set specifications
Re-assess suppliers
17.2
+ 8C
17.1
- 12C
Checks of vehicle and
products
Return food to supplier
“HACCP
DETAILS”
Adjust temperatures or
discard food
17.3
- 12C
Visual cleanliness
Pest Control service record
Temperature records
Completion of cleaning
schedule
30 minutes at ambient
Observation
Return to temperature
storage or discard food
Additional cleaning
Exclude/re-deploy staff
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
+ 8C
Visual cleanliness
8C (high-risk food thawing)
Cleaning schedule
Additional cleaning
Health Questionnaire
Cooking
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP5
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
75C for 2 minutes
Food cooking temperatures
Cooling and
Chilling
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP6
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
Refrigerate within 90
minutes
Food cooling times
32
17.9
Adjust cooking
temperature/time
17.4
Discard food
17.5
Reheating
Hot hold
Cold hold
Takeaway and
off-site catering
Hot Serve
Cold serve
Use of leftovers
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP7
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP9
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
Food cooking temperatures
Adjust cooking
temperature/time
Food display
temperatures
Adjust holding
temperature
Observation
Cleaning schedule
Food display temperatures
Observation
Cleaning schedule
Discard food
Additional cleaning
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
75C for 2 minutes
See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
8C
4 hours
CCP10 See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP11 See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP12 See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
CCP13 See
“HACCP
DETAILS”
8C
4 hours
Food temperature record
Serve immediately
Observation
CCP8
Only 1 re-heat
63C
2 hours
Serve immediately
Detailed in other Steps
33
Cleaning schedule
Adjust holding
temperature
Discard food
Additional cleaning
Adjust temperature
Discard food
Additional cleaning
Observation
Cleaning schedule
Additional cleaning
Detailed in other Steps
Detailed in other steps
HACCP DETAILS
Step 1 - Purchase
Hazards
High-risk food contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms and/or toxins.
Contamination by physical materials.
Contamination by chemicals.
Food of poor physical or microbiological quality through damage, contamination, use of inappropriate
ingredients or the processes of decomposition.
Growth of pathogens/toxin production during delivery process.
Controls
Food must be purchased only from suppliers assessed in accordance with Appendix 3 and listed in
Appendix 4.
Food is to be delivered under suitable conditions at the following temperatures :
 Chilled food between 0 and + 5 degrees C.
 Frozen food at or below - 18 degrees C.
 OR any other specified temperature detailed on the package label.
Monitoring
Questionnaire-based assessment of food suppliers (See Appendices 3 and 17.1)
Corrective Action
Re-set specifications
Re-assess suppliers
Step 2 - Delivery
Hazards
High risk food contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms and/or toxins.
Food of poor physical or microbiological quality through damage, contamination or decomposition.
Wrong specification food delivered.
Growth of pathogens/toxin production during period from receipt to storage.
Controls
All food deliveries must be accepted and checked-in by a member of staff.
All pre-packed foods must be appropriately labelled.
Food deliveries must be properly and promptly put away.
Monitoring
Food Delivery Record (see Op. Standard Section 2 and Appendix 17.2).
Corrective Action
Return non-specification, etc. food to supplier.
STEP 3 - STORAGE
Hazards
Contamination of high-risk foods by pathogens.
Contamination by physical materials.
Contamination by chemical.
Contamination by pests.
Growth of pathogens/toxin production.
Spoilage of food through decomposition.
Controls
Raw and cooked/ready-to-eat/high-risk food must be kept separate.
All food must be stored suitably packaged, covered or wrapped.
All food to be stored separately from cleaning materials.
All materials intended to be in direct contact with food must be of food-grade quality.
A pest control service contract must be in place.
34
Food storage to be at the temperatures detailed in Step 1.
Rotate stock in accordance with pack label instructions. Old stock should be used first.
Out of date code goods should be removed from the premises, as should all unfit and unsaleable items.
Items awaiting disposal must be segregated from sound stock and signed “not for use”.
High standards of cleaning and disinfection.
Monitoring
Pest Control Service Record (Provided and maintained by contractor).
Refrigeration Equipment Temperature Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.3)
Completion of cleaning schedule
Corrective Action
Discard contaminated food
Adjust temperatures or discard food
Additional cleaning
STEP 4 - PREPARATION (Initial and Further) :
Hazards
Contamination of high-risk foods by pathogens.
Contamination by physical materials.
Contamination by chemicals.
Growth of pathogens/toxin production.
Controls
Keep raw and cooked/ready-to-eat/high-risk foods separate.
Where physical separation is not possible, preparation processes should be separated
by time with cleaning and disinfection between uses.
Uncooked or lightly cooked egg dishes should be made with pasteurised liquid egg.
All food-contact surfaces and equipment to be clean and in sound condition.
Food handlers must be clean, in good health and practice good food handling
techniques.
Limit period of temperature-sensitive food at ambient to 30 minutes.
Avoid preparation of large quantities of food, unless all is needed at the same time.
Label all foods prepared more than one day in advance of need with its description and
date of preparation. Turnover of such food should be no more than 48 hours.
High standards of cleaning and disinfection.
Thaw raw frozen foods at no more than 25C.
Thaw cooked/ready-to-eat foods under refrigeration at max. 8C.
Monitoring
Observation
Food Handler Health Questionnaire (see Op. Standard 5, Appendices 6 and 17.9)
Cleaning schedule
Corrective Action
Return to temperature storage or discard food
Exclusion or re-deployment of infected staff.
Additional cleaning
STEP 5 - COOKING
Hazards
Survival of pathogens and their spores.
Controls
Cook all foods quickly to a minimum internal temperature of 75 degrees for 2 minutes
Monitoring
Food Temperature Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.4)
35
Corrective Action
Adjust cooking temperature and/or time
STEP 6 – COOLING AND CHILLING
Hazards
Growth of surviving pathogens and their spores, with toxin production.
Contamination by pathogens.
Contamination by physical materials.
Contamination by chemicals.
Controls
Cool hot foods as quickly as possible, to refrigerate within 90 minutes.
Keep food covered
Use only clean equipment.
High standards of cleaning and disinfection.
Monitoring
Food Cooling Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.5)
Cleaning schedule
Corrective Action
Discard out-of-time food
Additional cleaning
STEP 7 - REHEATING
Hazards
Survival of pathogens and their spores.
Controls
Reheat quickly to a minimum internal temperature of 75 degrees.
Carry out once only.
Monitoring
Food Temperature Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.4)
Corrective Action
Adjust cooking temperature and/or time
Discard or refrigerate until service leftover food.
STEP 8 – HOT HOLD
Hazards
Growth of pathogens and toxin production.
Contamination by pathogens and physical materials, inc. from customer side of service counters - esp.
where self-service.
Controls
Maintain food at 63 degrees C. minimum, OR consume/discard within 2 hours.
Keep food containers covered/screened when not serving.
Use clean containers and equipment.
Supervise self-service.
Monitoring
Food Temperature Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.6).
Cleaning schedule
Corrective Action
Adjust holding temperature
Discard out-of-temperature food after 2 hours.
Additional cleaning
36
STEP 9 – COLD HOLD
Hazards
Growth of pathogens and toxin production.
Contamination by physical materials, inc. from customer side of service counters - esp. where self-service.
Controls
Maintain food at 5 degrees C. maximum, OR consume/discard within 4 hours.
Keep food containers covered/screened when not serving.
Use clean containers and equipment.
Supervise self-service.
Monitoring
Food Temperature Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.6)
Cleaning schedule
Corrective Action
Discard out-of-temperature food after 4 hours.
Additional cleaning.
STEP 10 – TAKEAWAY AND OFF SITE CATERING
Hazards
Growth of pathogens and toxin production, while in possession of the customer at ambient temperatures
and for excessive time periods.
Controls
High-risk food items to be kept refrigerated after preparation, until being given out.
Meals to be given out no longer than 4 hours prior to the time of consumption.
Alternatives include the use of insulated containers with freezer packs, and use of
low-risk food items.
Monitoring
Food Temperature Record (see Op. Standard 6 and Appendix 17.3).
Corrective Action
Adjust temperatures
Discard food
STEP 11 – HOT SERVE
Hazards
Growth of pathogens and toxin production.
Contamination by pathogens and physical materials.
Controls
Serve immediately, on removal from cooking or hot hold equipment.
Cover food unless service is in progress.
High standards of cleaning and disinfection.
Monitoring
Observation.
Cleaning schedule.
Corrective Action
Additional cleaning
37
STEP 12 – COLD SERVE
Hazards
Growth of pathogens and toxin production.
Contamination by pathogens.
Contamination by physical materials.
Controls
Serve immediately, on removal from cold storage or cold hold equipment.
Cover food unless service is in progress.
High standards of cleaning and disinfection
Monitoring
Observation
Cleaning schedule
Corrective Action
Additional cleaning
STEP 13 – USE OF SURPLUS
Hazards
Contamination by pathogens
Growth of pathogens and toxin production.
Survival of pathogens.
Contamination by physical materials.
Contamination by chemicals.
Controls
Detailed in other Steps.
Monitoring
Detailed in other Steps.
Corrective Action
Detailed in other Steps.
ALL STEPS
Where no specific controls or monitoring are detailed where hazards have been identified at any step, the following
general ones apply.
General Controls
Inspections/audits arranged by the Health and Safety Service.
Monthly internal self inspection of catering department.
Adequate supervision at all times.
All staff trained to an appropriate standard.
All staff re-trained where necessary.
High standards of personal hygiene practised.
Programmed cleaning of all areas.
Use of probe thermometer for food temperatures and to verify equipment readings.
Investigation of all complaints concerning food safety/quality.
Investigation of all cases of suspected food-borne illness.
Regular equipment servicing and maintenance
General Monitoring
Cleaning schedule (in Catering Department).
Internal Food Safety Inspection record (see Appendix 17.7)
Staff Training Record (see Appendix 17.12)
Equipment Servicing and Maintenance (in Catering Department).
Reviewed : January 2006
38
Durham University
(EXAMPLE) HAZARD ANALYSIS – COOKED HAM
STEP
PURCHASE
RECEIPT
STORAGE
COOKING
COOLING
HAZARD
Contamination with
bacteria or physical
materials at supplier
premises or delivery.
Growth of
bacteria/toxin
production at
supplier
premises/during
delivery.
Growth of
bacteria/toxin
production after
delivery
Contamination
during unpacking
Growth of
bacteria/toxin
production
Spoilage
Survival of
bacteria/spores
Outgrowth of
bacteria/spores/toxin
Production
Contamination
PREPARATION
Contamination
COLD SERVE
Outgrowth of
surviving
bacteria/spores
Contamination
Outgrowth of
bacteria/spores/toxin
Production
MONITORING
CONTROL
Purchase from
approved supplier
Supplier assessment
record
Products suitably
wrapped/packed
Refrigerated delivery,
max. 5 degrees
Delivery record
Refrigerate within 15
minutes of delivery
Temperature record
Use within storage life
Check label details
General Controls
Refrigerate at max. 5
degrees
General Monitoring
Temperature record
Use within storage life
Cook to min.75
degrees centre
temperature
Cool rapidly and
refrigerate within 90
minutes
Check label details
Temperature record
Keep covered, do not
portion until cold
General Controls
General Monitoring
Prepare at ambient for
a max. of 30 minutes
General Monitoring
General Controls
General Monitoring
Cover/screen whilst on
display
General Monitoring
Hold/display at max. 5
degrees, OR
restrict time to max.
4 hours
Temperature record
Signed
Delivery record
General Monitoring
Temperature record
General Monitoring
General Monitoring
Date
39
Appendix 3
[back]
FOOD SUPPLIER ASSESSMENTS
Introduction
Assessment of food suppliers is essential for effective food safety management. The degree and extent of an
assessment depends on the risks involved, but the objective is to ensure that only hygienically-produced safe,
wholesome, good quality food is brought into an establishment. There are several parts to an assessment, of
which more than one can be applied :
Written assurances from the supplier. Providing details of the supplier's procedures, quality assurance
measures and methods of checking their own suppliers.
Note – a general statement of legal compliance is insufficient on its own.
Audit and Inspection of supplier premises. This is preferred by large organisations involved in food importing,
manufacturing, retailing and catering. These should be additional to the measures taken by the supplier and
not merely as a service for him.
Specifications for food supplied - these should be set by the customer and cover ingredients, sources of
supply, process and packaging details, physical properties (e.g. flavour, colour, length), temperature, degree of
bacterial contamination, etc.
Monitoring of supplied food - achieved through delivery inspection system, recording of complaints and liaison
with the supplier.
Microbiological testing samples of food received.
Written warranty provided by the supplier.
Reliance on “word of mouth” recommendation and local reputation.
Generally speaking, the last three are of little practical value but may be useful parts of an assessment system.
Action by the Health and Safety Service
A register of all food suppliers to the University comprises Appendix 4. With few exceptions – such as the
purchase of small quantities by JCRs and Departments from known-to-be-reputable companies such as major
supermarkets, only these registered suppliers may be used.
To be considered for the register, a food business must :



Trade from identifiable premises.
Be registered with a local authority.
Co-operate with the University supplier assessment system.
The assessment process will involve each supplier completing a Food Supplier Questionnaire (see Appendix
17.2) which may be followed by requests for further information or a site visit. If satisfactory, the supplier will be
entered on the register.
The Register will be kept up-to-date and a copy provided for the Head of Procurement to include business
details in the list of nominated University suppliers.
Action by each Unit
Prior approval must be granted before use of a new supplier, so details should be provided to the Health and
Safety Service before food is ordered.
Notify the Health and Safety Service of any problems associated with the use of any supplier.
Reviewed : January 2006
40
Link to Procurement Buyers‟ Guide for Approved Food Suppliers
[back]
41
Appendix 5
[back]
FOOD HYGIENE TRAINING
Introduction
The majority of food complaints and outbreaks of food-borne illness are attributed to faulty practices. Defective and
inadequate equipment and premises play a role, but most shortcomings in these areas can be effectively overcome
by good food hygiene practice. The making of tough laws and the development of good practices in will not prove
effective, unless food handlers are provided with sufficient information, training and supervision to enable them to
carry out their work safely.
The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2005 require food handlers to be supervised, instructed and trained to a
standard commensurate with their activities – to take into account the food handled, vulnerability of those supplied
and degree of responsibility for the work done. It is to include training in :
Principles of HACCP
Food safety management
Most catering food handlers in the University have already been trained to an acceptable standard, but a
programme is necessary to continue this and provide for other identified training needs.
The University provides a range of courses certificated by the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (CIEH),
together with several in-house courses developed by the Health and Safety Service. A summary of these courses
follows
Food Hygiene Courses
CIEH Foundation Certificate in Food Hygiene
6 hours attendance, with a short, multiple choice examination. Designed for staff in high-risk catering activities, but
can be modified to be relevant to all food workers.
CIEH Intermediate Certificate in Food Hygiene
18 hours attendance, with a 2 hour written examination. Goes beyond basic principles of hygiene and is normally
seen as a minimum requirement for supervisors/managers.
CIEH Advanced Certificate in Food Hygiene
Minimum of 36 hours attendance, plus preparation and assignment work, with a 2 hour examination. Intended for
management, this course is one requirement for those wishing to undertake the training of staff to the Basic level.
Essentials of Food Hygiene
Not training, but provision of basic written information.
Food Hygiene Awareness
2 hours attendance, with an informal test at the end. Designed for staff working in lower risk areas of a catering
operation, behind bars, assisting in areas with a limited food range (e.g. JCR toastie bars), food service counters,
waiting at table, etc.
Food Hygiene Update
2 hours attendance. Similar in content, etc. to Food Hygiene Awareness and is for the periodic re-training at
appropriate (approximately three year) intervals of all food handlers .
Food Safety Hazard Analysis
2 hours attendance. Incorporates a hazard analysis case study exercise relevant to the participants‟ workplace. For
all catering managers, supervisors and most chefs.
Guidance on supervision/instruction/training is provided in the Industry Guide, which details three degrees of
training and three types of food handler. Taking this guidance into consideration, the following University Training
Standards have been developed and introduced as the system of University food hygiene training :
42
University Training Programme
Essentials of Food Hygiene
All food handlers to be provided with this food safety information either on a printed card or as an A4 laminated
version displayed on the most appropriate notice board within each Unit. (See later).
Food Hygiene Awareness
For all staff working in lower risk areas of a catering operation, behind bars, assisting in areas with a limited food
range (e.g. JCR “toastie bars”), service counters, waiting at table, etc.
Food Hygiene Update Training
All food handlers to receive periodic re-training at approximately three year intervals.
CIEH Foundation Certificate in Food Hygiene
All food handlers involved in the preparation of high-risk food and the supervision or management of that activity.
CIEH Intermediate Certificate in Food Hygiene
All catering managers and one supervisor per Unit.
CIEH Advanced Certificate in Food Hygiene
Two or more Unit catering managers, to provide cover for the Health and Safety Service in advanced food safety
matters.
Food Safety Hazard Analysis - all catering managers, supervisors and chefs.
Note - this programme applies only to University-employed staff since those of any contract catering companies
currently working on University premises are expected to have acceptable alternative arrangements of their own.
Record Keeping
Training records must be kept in each catering unit, or be accessible from the Colleges-maintained training
database. See Appendix 17.12.
Reviewed : January 2006
43
Durham University
THE ESSENTIALS OF FOOD HYGIENE
The University is committed to high standards of food hygiene. The following 15 points are essential to the
hygienic production, supply and service of safe, wholesome food.
Keep yourself clean and wear clean clothing.
Always wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, especially:
BEFORE
- starting work, handling food.
AFTER
- every break, handling raw foods, using the toilet, handling waste, cleaning surfaces or
equipment.
Tell your supervisor, before commencing work, of any skin, nose, throat, stomach or bowel trouble or infected
wound.
Ensure cuts and sores are covered with a blue waterproof dressing.
Avoid unnecessary handling of food.
Do not smoke, eat or drink in a food room, never cough or sneeze over food.
Do not prepare food too far in advance of service.
Keep all food in storage suitably wrapped or covered.
Keep raw and cooked foods strictly separate, in storage and preparation.
Keep perishable food either refrigerated or piping hot.
When reheating food ensure it gets piping hot.
Clean as you go. Keep all equipment and surfaces clean.
Follow food safety instructions – on food packaging or from a supervisor.
Keep all waste containers covered.
If you see something wrong, tell your supervisor.
44
Appendix 6
[back]
FOOD-BORNE ILLNESS
INTRODUCTION
The procedure for action in the event of food-borne illness is contained in :
Health and Safety Manual Section G2 – Gastroenteritis
Reviewed : January 2006
45
Appendix 7
[back]
FOOD COMPLAINTS
General Information
Complaints arise when customers are served or sold food with which they are dissatisfied. There are many
reasons for this, but we are concerned with statutory food safety and consumer protection requirements. The
following are examples of complaints that may stimulate action by the enforcement authorities as offences under
the Food Safety Act 1990 :
Unfit food - decomposing, mouldy, contaminated by food poisoning organisms.
Foreign bodies - contamination with glass, wood, paper, sticking plaster, insects.
Poor quality food - stale, deteriorating.
Wrongly labelled or described - low meat content of sausages, cod sold as halibut.
Under the law, it is the person who sold the food who is responsible - subject to a defence of “due diligence.”
This latter can only be relied on if a court is satisfied that a person charged took all reasonable precautions and
exercised all due diligence to avoid committing the offence. If there is doubt on who is responsible, the enforcing
officer (Environmental Health Officer or Trading Standard Officer) will institute proceedings against the retailer or
caterer.
The first indication of a complaint being received may be when an enforcement officer calls to investigate (see
Appendix 8 - Dealing With Enforcement Officers). Often in a catering establishment, the customer will complain
direct and it is essential to take immediate action :
ACTION
The complaint should be referred to the catering manager or a supervisor.
The complaint should be immediately resolved, if possible, by the offer of a replacement, alternative
product or a refund.
If the complaint is of an isolated nature, e.g. a hair in a sandwich, further action may be unnecessary
beyond tracing the source and preventing a recurrence.
A more general complaint – such as the involvement of more than one item; discomfort or taste
affecting several people – will require the removal from sale of the affected food. This must be sealed
and labelled “Do Not Use” before storage in a freezer.
A complaint of illness should be treated as 4. above, with all remaining food being isolated (see
Appendix 6 - Procedure for Suspected Food Borne Illness).
A Food Complaint Investigation Record should be completed for all complaints – no matter how minor –
and a copy retained
(see Appendix 17.10).
All complaints should be notified to the Health and Safety Service at the time of their occurrence, or as
soon as possible afterwards.
Reviewed : January 2006
46
Appendix 8
[back]
DEALING WITH ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS
INTRODUCTION
Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) are employed by District Councils to carry out a wide range of functions to
protect, maintain and enhance the public health. Originally generalists in their work, most are now specialists to
one degree or another, often working in enforcement teams to a set of locally adopted standards in Food Safety,
Housing, Environmental Pollution and Licensing. Professionally qualified, most are graduates and often manage
technical staff who themselves can be authorised to carry out much of the work previously done by EHOs.
Trading Standards Officers (TSOs) from County Councils are concerned with consumer protection activities,
some of which are relevant to the food industry, although they are not primarily concerned with public health
issues. Their commonest involvement is with food standards, quality and labelling requirements.
It is important to foster good working relations with EHOs. It is inadvisable to only do what is needed
following a visit. This does not work for the following reasons :





visit frequencies may be erratic.
different EHOs with differing attitudes and approaches may call.
planning and budgeting is difficult.
may bring about an more formal, enforcement-oriented approach.
premises will invariably be seen at their poorest. This will colour judgement and attitude at
subsequent visits.
An EHO‟s legal powers include the right of entry to a food premises at all reasonable times, seizure of
food, examination of records, taking of samples and closure of a process or premises. TSOs have
similar authority within their role.
ACTION - VISIT
Visits by the EHO may be for routine inspection or reinspection purposes, but also to investigate a food
complaint or suspected food-borne illness. The visit will not normally be announced in advance and may first
become apparent by the officer appearing to materialise in the kitchen (perhaps via the back door). Usually,
however, he/she will present himself to the reception area and ask for the catering anager or other person in
charge.
The visit should be conducted in the following manner :
Request and verify identification, unless the officer is known.
Take the officer directly to the Catering Manager, or ask him/her to wait in reception while the manager
is notified. Keep the waiting to a minimum.
The Catering Manager/person-in-charge should determine the reason for the
visit and offer to accompany the officer (this may not always be required).
Ask what he/she wants to do, and comply with all reasonable requests.
Do not volunteer information on known defects, but be prepared to mention areas currently receiving
attention and future plans. Make positive statements.
Answer questions openly and honestly, but do nor be too effusive. EHOs are
not advisers or Unversity employees - foremost they are the Health Police!
If a formal caution is given under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act, say nothing – this is your right.
Refer to the Health and Safety Service.
At the end of the visit, discuss the officer's findings and recommendations, thanking the officer for his/her
help but avoid making commitments.
47
Notify the Health and Safety Service of the visit by telephone.
ACTION - EHO
There may be no official follow up to a visit, if made for a minor or unsubstantiated complaint; as part of an
infectious disease investigation or a routine, informal check.
However, inspections can be followed by :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Verbal report or warning.
Letter acknowledging the visit, requiring work and making recommendations.
Improvement Notice.
Emergency Prohibition Notice.
Prosecution
1, 2, and 3. are the commonest.
4. and 5. are the extreme.
ACTION – UNIT
Notify details of the visit to the Health and Safety Service by
telephone/email.
Copy correspondence/Notices to the Health and Safety Service.
Following anything in writing from the EHO, a written reply detailing the
proposals to comply with requirements to be sent within a week
Reviewed : January 2006
48
Appendix 9
[back]
BARS, CELLARS AND SNACK AREAS
INTRODUCTION
This document supplements the main part of the Food Safety Manual, with particular reference to the JCR-run
facilities within colleges. It is designed to assist in the safe, hygienic operation of college and DSU bars, student
shops and limited catering facilities of the “toastie-bar” type.
The catering standards set down in the Food Safety Manual are appropriate for kitchens, but less so for college
snack bars offering a limited service for relatively short periods. It is not expected that catering will exceed the
production to order of toasted sandwiches and the sale of confectionery, soft drinks, etc. In addition, raw foods
will not be handled.
It is also worth considering a partnership with college catering managers, where sandwich fillings or even the
whole sandwiches are made up by kitchen staff - thus reducing the degree of preparation in the snack areas.
It is with the above in mind that the following guidance has been produced. The basic legal requirements are the
“bottom line,” with higher safeguards added where seen necessary to provide additional protection for
customers, operators and the University.
Full details are available in the Manual, which is accessible to all University catering managers. Advice is always
available from the Health and Safety Service, which should be consulted whenever necessary.
PHYSICAL STANDARDS
1.
1.1
BARS AND TOASTIE AREAS
Serveries must have sufficient space to allow free movement of staff, storage for stock and the
necessary fittings and equipment.
1.2
Floor surfaces must be level, smooth, impervious, slip-resistant, free from obstructions and capable of
being effectively cleaned.
1.3
Wall and ceiling surfaces must be capable of being effectively cleaned.
1.4
Counter tops, storage shelving, other working surfaces and all equipment must be properly constructed
and finished with a smooth, impervious surface.
1.5
Bar shelves should be lined with plastic grid matting, to allow inverted storage of clean glasses. These
should be stored singly - not stacked.
1.6
1.7
Covered refuse bins must be provided for waste material, in addition to bar bottle skips.
Adequate food, equipment and glass washing facilities are necessary.
Bars
Either/or :
A cabinet glass or dishwasher, plus single sink.
A rotating-brush type glass washer, plus single sink.
A double sink and drainer unit. For washing up by hand, one sink is for washing and the other for
rinsing.
Hot and cold running water and proper drainage to all are essential.
In practice, it is found that high standards of glass washing are often difficult to achieve during busy
periods. For this reason, a cabinet-type glass washer is preferred and should be provided in all
new/renovated bars. Progression towards this standard in all bars is recommended.
49
Snack areas
A sink and drainer, provided with hot and cold water, is the minimum. This assumes that only a few
items will be washed up per session, as plates will not be provided for customers. A double sink and
drainer is, however, always preferable for washing up and is essential when crockery is provided for
customers
1.8
2.
2.1
A wash hand basin must be readily accessible at each bar and snack area, used only for the washing of
hands. This should have hot and cold running water, liquid soap and disposable towels in suitable
dispensers.
CELLARS
An impervious floor surface is required. This should be ideally laid with a fall to a trapped gully, or a
sump with an electrically-operated pump system. Waste water should discharge, via a trap, to mains
drainage.
2.2
Wall and ceiling surfaces must be sound and capable of being easily cleaned.
2.4
Precautions must be taken to prevent rising or penetrating dampness affecting walls and floors. Mouldinhibiting surface finishes are recommended.
2.5
A sink with cold water supply and proper drainage should be provided.
3.
3.1
BOTTLE STORES
Must be of sound construction, with cleanable internal surfaces.
4.
4.1
GENERAL
All equipment must be suitable for its purpose, regularly serviced and maintained.
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.
5.1
Adequate artificial lighting must be provided in all areas, to a standard of 500 lux in preparation and
service areas of bars, shops and snack areas. 200 lux is adequate in stores, cellars and other areas.
Fluorescent light tubes in areas where open food is handled should be fitted with shatterproof diffusers
or other suitable covers.
Adequate ventilation to the external air must be provided.
TOILET FACILITIES
The provision of separate toilets is not necessary, provided that customer facilities are readily
accessible, clean and well-maintained. Wash hand basins must be equipped as detailed in 1.8 above.
OPERATIONAL STANDARDS
6.
6.1
FOOD STORAGE
Deliveries must be properly received and then stored, not kept outdoors or left waiting there for
collection.
6.3.1
Only food-grade materials should be in contact with food. This rules out opened food cans, black plastic
bin liners, etc.
6.4
No food or utensils should be stored directly on the floor, except for crates of bottled drinks, canned
items, kegs and casks.
6.5
Temperature sensitive food must be kept under refrigeration, or frozen. Fridges should operate at 0 to 5
degrees C, freezers at –18 degrees C or below. Other foods should be kept below 25 degrees C.
Fridges and freezers should be provided with an internal thermometer, where there is no temperature
display on the casing.
6.6
6.7
Fridges should not be overloaded, which impedes cold air circulation. Equipment should be defrosted
regularly to prevent build-up of ice.
6.8
Fridge and freezer operating temperatures must be taken once daily.
50
7.
7.1
FOOD PREPARATION, SERVING AND STOCK HANDLING
Stock rotation must be practised, as almost all food and drinks bear “best before” dates. Out of date
code items should not be sold.
7.2
Food prepared in advance, transferred from opened cans to other containers, etc. should be marked or
labelled with the date. Such food should be used within 24 hours.
7.3
Snack area food should not be left at ambient temperature during preparation, etc. for longer than
necessary. As a guide, only a sufficient quantity of temperature-sensitive food for use within a 30 minute
period should be outside refrigeration. Any leftovers from this stock should be discarded at the end of a
trading session.
7.4
Snacks should be served with a clean paper serviette or disposable plate. A covered bin should be
provided in the eating area to take this refuse.
Thawing of any frozen high-risk food (e.g. packs of cooked meat) should be
done in the fridge. This standard does not apply to bread or hard cheese.
7.5
7.6
A clean glass must be used for each drink served. This is despite the insistence of some customers who
may wish to retain the same glass, but necessary to prevent potential spread of infection from used
glasses via dispense taps to clean glasses.
7.7
Chipped or cracked glasses must not be used.
8.
8.1
PERSONAL HYGIENE
All staff must maintain high standards of personal hygiene. Hair, hands, and clothing must be in a clean
state.
8.2
Staff preparing toasties must wear some form of protective clothing. An clean apron or similar is
suitable.
8.3
Cuts and abrasions should be covered with a waterproof dressing.
8.4
Staff must not smoke in any food room.
8.5
Toastie area food handlers should not wear jewellery, with the exception of
plain finger rings and sleeper earrings.
8.6
Hands should be thoroughly washed before starting work, and again at regular intervals.
8.7
A first-aid kit should be readily available. Contents must include waterproof plasters -preferably blue
coloured.
8.8
Any person suffering from vomiting, diarrhoea, a septic condition, skin or respiratory infection should not
report for work. Further advice on this should be sought from the Health and Safety Service
8.9
Bad habits to be avoided include excess handling of food, touching the rims of the glasses, nail biting,
coughing/sneezing, etc.
9.
9.1
BEER RECYCLING
This must not be practised under any circumstance, due to the risk of
contamination. This includes the use of spillage from trays and overspill from casks or kegs
10. CLEANING
10.1
All areas must be kept clean and free from debris. The standard depends on the location, i.e. a floor
needs to be visually clean; but glasses, optics, beer lines, wash hand basins, food chopping boards, etc.
should be cleaned and disinfected using the appropriate products.
10.2
A simple cleaning schedule should be displayed at snack areas and bars. This will indicate the areas to
be cleaned; frequencies of cleaning; materials, methods and equipment to be used; persons responsible
and safety precautions. In addition, any spillages must be cleaned up immediately.
51
10.3
A range of suitable, non-tainting cleaning chemicals should be kept available. This to include food-grade
detergent and surface sanitiser, beer line and optic cleaner(s), suitable wash up and glass wash
detergent/sterilant.
10.4
Cleaning cloths should be laundered daily and mop heads washed and rinsed. Disposable cloths are
recommended for food surfaces.
10.5
Washing up should be carried out using a suitable, approved detergent or
detergent/sterilant. Note these are not cross-compatible between the different glass wash methods and
the correct product must be chosen.
10.6
During washing up by hand, wash and rinse sink water must be changed frequently.
10.7
Drying cloths are inadvisable, utensils and glasses should be allowed to air dry. Dry glasses may be
polished using clean cloths or paper towels.
11.
11.1
HEALTH AND SAFETY
All equipment must be well-maintained and in good working order. It should have no visibly obvious
electrical defects. Pressure systems, electrical cables, flexes, plugs and socket outlets should be
maintained in good working condition, and show no signs of wear or damage. Circuits and sockets must
not be overloaded, and socket outlets not sited so as to present a hazard - such as beneath a sink unit.
11.2
Pressure systems must be periodically examined by a competent person. The brewery or other supplier
of the pressure system should be contacted for advice as to how this is achieved. If in doubt, Estates
and Buildings Dept. should be contacted for advice.
11.3
Access to cellars must be safe, and staircases provided with handrails.
External doors or flaps for deliveries must be weather and pest- proofed. Adequate guarding or
supervision of delivery flaps when in the open position is essential. Flaps must be secured when open.
11.4
Pressure gas cylinders must be secured safely. A sufficient number of wall chains or straps should be
fitted to allow all cylinders to be stored upright. An alternative for cylinders not in use is to store these
laying down, but they must be secured against movement and not cause obstruction.
11.5
Protective equipment must be kept available for use when handling heavy items (kegs, casks, crates
etc.) and caustic line cleaning chemicals. A pair of goggles and suitable, gloves or gauntlets are
necessary.
11.6
A carbon dioxide type fire extinguisher should be available for each bar and snack area.
11.3
Specific information should be clearly available as signs or notices in bars and cellars, giving instructions
and guidance in the event of an emergency - e.g. electric shock and carbon dioxide leak.
11.4
All those involved in specialist activities - such as operation of a pressure system, barrel changing and
beer line cleaning - need to be adequately trained. If the necessary knowledge and experience is not
available, the Health and Safety Service should be contacted for advice.
11.6
Floors must be in sound condition, free from obstruction, spillage and be dry. Appropriate warning signs
should indicate where floors have been recently washed and are still wet.
11.7
Suitable and adequate protective clothing must be available and seen to be used when handling beer
line cleaner and similar hazardous cleaning products. This will include rubber gloves and goggles.
11.8
Suitable equipment must be available to assist staff in safe manual handling activities (sack barrows,
trolleys, etc.) and in reaching areas of high storage (step ladders).
Reviewed : January 2006
52
Appendix 10
[back]
MOBILE FOOD VENDORS
INTRODUCTION
The issue of allowing mobile food vendors on University land was debated in 1997 and the consensus was for
such traders to be permitted – with certain guidelines and precautions to be followed by both the vendors and
those arranging for them to trade on University land.
Mobile food vendors are invariably booked by students as part of a Ball or other social event, but if a Department
wishes to provide this style of catering, the Action recommendations are similar.
ACTION
The procedure for permitting vendors is as follows :
Organiser to notify the College Bursar/Head of Department of any planned invitation, with a minimum of
thre weeks advance warning.
Organiser to obtain a signed copy of the Mobile Food Vendor Approval Form from each vendor,
agreeing and providing evidence of compliance.
Organiser to specify to each vendor where they are allowed to trade, together with the dates and times.
Vendors must be registered with their home local authority, be able to provide
evidence of this and a recent satisfactory inspection by a local authority Environmental Health Officer.
All food handlers must be adequately trained in food hygiene, to at least
the CIEH Foundation Certificate in Food Hygiene, or equivalent.
Vehicles, premises and equipment associated with the vendor‟s food business
must comply with current food safety legislation and any relevant guidance to
ensure that they operate in a hygienic way, so that all food supplied is of the correct nature, substance
and quality and is safe for human consumption.
Vendors must only operate on sites allocated by the College or Department,
follow the instructions given and ensure that they do not park so as to cause obstruction to other
vehicles using the roadways – particularly emergency vehicles.
Vendors must at all times drive with due care and attention and not exceed a
speed limit of 15 miles per hour whilst on University premises.
Reviewed : January 2006
FOOD VENDOR TERMS AND CONDITIONS
1. Vendors must only trade at the dates, times and locations specified by the organiser.
2. Vendors must be registered with their home local authority, be able to provide
evidence of this and a recent satisfactory inspection by a local authority Environmental Health Officer.
3. All food handlers must be adequately trained in food hygiene, to at least
the CIEH Foundation Certificate in Food Hygiene, or equivalent.
4. Vehicles, premises and equipment associated with the vendor‟s food business
must comply with current food safety legislation and any relevant guidance to
ensure that they operate in a hygienic way, so that all food supplied is of the correct nature, substance
and quality and is safe for human consumption.
5. Vendors must only operate on sites allocated by the College or Department,
follow the instructions given and ensure that they do not park so as to cause obstruction to other
vehicles using the roadways – particularly emergency vehicles.
6. Vendors must drive with due care and attention and not exceed a speed limit of 15 miles per hour whilst
on University premises.
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Appendix 11
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TRANSPORTING FOOD
INTRODUCTION
Food must remain within temperature control during transportation and delivery,
where this is necessary in the interests of food safety and quality. However, it is reasonable for hot and cold
food to be transported outside of temperature control for short travel times. For the purposes of the 2 hour (hot
food) and 4 hour (cold food) display rules, this travel time should be included in those maximum display periods.
The outdoor and inside-vehicle temperatures should be considered.
ACTION
Cold food should be prepared immediately before transportation, or stored under refrigeration to ensure
thorough pre-chilling before despatch.
Hot food which is for reheating at the site of consumption should be quickly cooled and chilled before
transportation.
For journeys in excess of 30 minutes travel time, food should be transported inside insulated containers,
together with freezer packs to maintain the temperature of cold food.
Reheating, if necessary, should take place on arrival at the destination.
All food must be suitably wrapped or covered, to prevent any risk of contamination during transportation.
Vehicles used for food transportation must be clean and suitable. Car boots can be used for transporting
small quantities, but vans with separation of the passenger and goods compartments are preferable.
IMPORTANT NOTE
There is no legal requirement for vehicles to be refrigerated, as it is the food temperature that is significant, not
how it is maintained. A combination of rapid delivery and/or chilled, insulated containers is an effective strategy,
but note that internal vehicle temperatures can easily exceed 40 degrees Celsius on a hot day, and the day‟s
ambient temperatures must be taken into account when considering the above.
Reviewed : January 2006
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Appendix 12
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TAKEAWAY FOOD
INTRODUCTION
This is normally of the packed/picnic lunch type for students not in College for the meal service time, but visitors,
conference delegates, holidaymakers and Open University students all receive this service when requested.
Where food is being given out for consumption at an unknown time, on or off University premises, only the
preparation of the food can be controlled and there is a lack of control over transportation, service and
consumption times, storage facilities, etc. Although the legal responsibility of the University is limited after the
point of sale or takeaway service, as producers and suppliers the Units retain some responsibility.
ACTION
A sensible, food safety-conscious approach is necessary in order to prevent the growth of pathogens, but also to
allow some degree of personal choice. Following hygienic preparation of food there should not be problems with
food intended for consumption within 4 hours of collection. Where it is expected that this time period will be
exceeded, there are three possible solutions :
Food should be transported and kept cold within insulated containers.
Packed meals should be made up without any “high-risk” food. (This very much restricts the menu
choice and may prove unpopular!)
Bags, containers etc. should be marked with an advisory note to keep the food refrigerated/chilled, or an
“eat by” time, measured as 4 hours from collection.
Reviewed : January 2006
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Appendix 13
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FOOD BUFFETS
INTRODUCTION
University Departments often organise events where food is served. Food should be provided by one of the
College or other on-site catering departments because a high standard of food safety management is known to
exist within the University – a state of affairs that cannot be guaranteed in premises off-site.
However, if an outside caterer is chosen, the existing system for assessing food suppliers must be applied to
allow a similar degree of control. Once found to be satisfactory, caterers are added to the Register of Approved
Food Suppliers and Caterers. (See Appendices 3 and 4)
Once a caterer has been chosen, it is up to the individual responsible for ordering the food to ensure certain
basic precautions. This is not merely a University requirement, but a legal obligation since the University has
some responsibility for ALL the food consumed on its premises – whether or not that food has been prepared
here.
The most important point to consider with a buffet delivered for more-or-less immediate consumption is the time
it is at ambient temperature from when preparation has finished to the time it is eaten. The only safe way to
extend food service or waiting time on sites is to provide cold and hot holding units, which will maintain
temperatures, but this is usually not practicable and so the time food is kept on display must be managed.
The following standards must be applied :
ACTION – CATERERS
When ordering a ready-to-eat buffet from a caterer, the following specifications must be included in the contract :
No raw egg shall be used as an ingredient for any food product not to be
thoroughly cooked or otherwise treated, unless it is pasteurised liquid egg.
(This applies principally to certain sauces, desserts and mayonnaise).
If vehicles are not refrigerated or suitable insulated containers are not available for delivering the food at
or below 5 degrees Celsius, then the caterer must provide it within 30 minutes travel time.
Food must be delivered and displayed not more than 30 minutes before service.
Caterers must indicate which, if any, of their foods contain nut or nut products.
This information should be made available to those attending the buffet.
Caterers must be informed that the University does not serve food which has been genetically modified,
so its suppliers/outside caterers must adhere to the same policy.
ACTION – ON SITE
Hand washing facilities should be readily available for the use of those involved in setting up the
displayed food, serving, etc. These could be any one of the following options, supplied with soap and
hand drying facilities :
 a readily accessible wash hand basin in a nearby toilet or wash room.
 one sink in a staff kitchen (or similar) can be designated as a wash hand basin.
The hot food on ambient display must be served within 2 hours; the cold food
within 4 hours, of being displayed. These times should be measured from when the food arrives on site
and at the end of the display period food must be treated as in below.
Staff (and others) involved in display and service must practice good standards of personal hygiene,
washing their hands prior to starting work.
Cold food left over may be retained, provided it is refrigerated and only
56
subsequently served from refrigerated storage.
Hot food left over must be discarded.
Food preparation should not take place within non-catering departments, unless adequate facilities are
available (contact the Health and Safety Service for advice).
Staff (and others) must not provide food from their own homes for such affairs.
Small-scale exemptions can be made to include home-baked cakes, biscuits, etc. but should not be
encouraged if part of an official function and not considered at all if money changes hands.
EXEMPTION
At times a group of visitors will arrange to hire University space (e.g. a College function room) to where food
prepared off-site is delivered for consumption by those attending a private function. For practical reasons if this
arrangement – similar in principle to the hire by a group of, say, a village hall – is to be permitted the above
standards do not apply PROVIDED the College or other site has no involvement in any aspect of food handling
or service.
For this exemption, the statutory health and safety responsibilities remain for ensuring the health and safety of
visitors through suitable arrangements and the provision of information. These are no different to those in place
for students or any other guests or visitors.
Reviewed : January 2006
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Appendix 14
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BARBECUES
INTRODUCTION
The hazards of barbecued food are no different to other forms of catering, but there are greater risks because of
the potential for cross-contamination from raw to cooked foods and of undercooking – particularly of minced or
“made up” products such as beefburgers.
The commonest food safety hazards of barbecue catering are Salmonella and Campylobacter, but E. coli
(0157:H7) is the greatest concern. Cases are almost always due to cross-contamination or undercooking. As a
result, it is essential to keep raw and other foods separate from one another, to cook food thoroughly and to
avoid cross-contamination via unwashed hands and equipment, plates, utensils, etc.
The following advice is relevant not only to barbecues, but also other forms of
al fresco catering.
ACTION
Food must not be prepared too far in advance. Temperature-sensitive and high-risk must be kept
indoors, covered and refrigerated, until needed.
Once outdoors, all food must be kept covered until needed. Use of insulated containers and freezer
packs for short-term storage of high-risk food and raw meat and poultry outdoors is recommended.
Touching food with bare hands should be avoided. Those doing the cooking should use utensils to turn
and serve the food from the grill.
All barbecued food must be thoroughly cooked all the way through, until juices are clear and there is no
trace of pink colour in the centre.
All raw meat must be kept separate from other foods to avoid direct contact, drip, etc. This includes
making sure that raw foods are not placed too close to cooked or partially-cooked products on the
barbecue.
Some difficult-to-cook foods – such as chicken portions – should be thoroughly cooked in advance, then
cooled and stored in the fridge. When needed, the food can be reheated through on the barbecue
without the risks of undercooking the interior.
There must be sufficient plates, utensils, etc. for cooking and service. Anything that has been in contact
with raw food must not be used for food service – this includes not only plates, but also sauces or
marinades previously use for raw products.
Those doing the cooking should not be involved in handling the cooked and other high-risk food
products at service or taking payment.
All those involved in cooking and serving food must ensure that their hands are washed before the
barbecue starts, after handling raw meat and at regular intervals during the catering session.
Mobile/portable handwashing facilities and/or suitable food-grade disinfectant wipes should be made
available for this purpose.
Reviewed : January 2006
58
Appendix 15
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GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
INTRODUCTION
At present only genetically modified (GM) tomato paste, soya beans and maize are available as foods
or for use in food manufacture. Recent food labelling regulations (Food Labelling (Amendment)
Regulations 1999) require information only on food containing GM soya and maize to be available to
the ultimate consumer. This effectively covers all University catering outlets at the point of sale. The
Regulations do not apply to additives, flavourings and other highly processed products that do not
contain any protein or DNA resulting from genetic modification.
The following information summarises and updates the advice contained in the Health and Safety
Service letter to all catering sites of 10 June 1999.
ACTION
There are two alternatives for providing information to customers – as specific or general notices. There is no
specified form for notices, but the following information must be displayed prominently at the point where
customers select or order their food.
1. Any individual food item sold on the premises is to be labelled with the relevant GM particulars on a menu,
label or notice.
OR
2. A general notice can be displayed, indicating that some of the food sold does/may contain GM soya or
maize and that further information is available from staff.
I think we all agree that option 2. is preferable and „may‟ is more appropriate than „does,‟ since the practice is
that the University is GM-free.
Where GM-containing food is provided for sale, suitably trained and knowledgeable staff need to be available at
all service times to provide any requested information. This should not be too onerous, since an awareness of
which items contain GM products is sufficient and can be obtained from suppliers. Staff should be kept up-todate and training records should indicate this.
In addition, since it is a requirement that pre-packed foods must list any GM soya or maize in their ingredients, it
is recommended that incoming product labels be checked. Site records should be kept of any GM-containing
products.
To summarise, all catering units should/should have :
Obtained a list of GM soya and maize-containing foods from suppliers.
Check labels of any pre-packed foods for details of GM soya and maize as ingredients.
Produced a suitable notice to the effect of 2. above.
Trained staff, and be noting details on individual training records.
Keep up-to-date.
Reviewed : January 2006
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Appendix 16
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FOOD ALLERGIES
In preparation
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Appendix 17
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FOOD SAFETY MANUAL RECORD FORMS
17.1
Food Supplier Questionnaire
17.2
Food Delivery Record
17.3
Refrigeration Equipment Temperature Record
17.4
Food Cooking Temperature Record
17.5
Food Cooling Temperature Record
17.6
Food Display Temperature Record
17.7
Internal Food Safety Inspection Record
17.8
Suspected Food Poisoning Investigation Record
17.9
Food Handler Health Questionnaire
17.10
Food Complaint Investigation Record
17.11
Thermometer Checking Record
17.12
Staff Training Record
17.13
Food Vendor Approval Form
Where relevant, these forms are referred to in the Food Safety Manual Standards or Appendices. It is essential
that forms are completed where indicated to provide a HACCP food safety record.
Reviewed : January 2006
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