Dictionary of Networking

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Introduction
Networks are currently one of the fastest growing and most important developments in
the computer industry. Not only are more and more PCs becoming parts of networks, but
networked PCs are being incorporated into larger enterprise-wide applications so that everyone in a company can access and share data.
With the expanding technology of networking comes the terminology to describe it.
This Dictionary of Networking provides definitions for all the terms you will encounter
when dealing with networks of any type.
Who Should Use This Book?
This book is designed to meet the needs of people who work with networks, communications, and mobile computing systems. Whether you are networking previously unconnected computers or downsizing from a mainframe, this book is for you. And if you are
studying for one of the network certification exams, you will find this book to be an essential reference.
Network users of all levels are barraged with an almost bewildering array of terms, abbreviations, and acronyms in books, magazine and newspaper articles, advertisements,
and their day-to-day conversations. Jargon is a useful shorthand, but it can easily become
incomprehensible and unmanageable, even to the most seasoned network administrator.
What You’ll Find in This Book
Along with clear explanations of the jargon and slang associated with networking, you’ll
find definitions of more than 3,000 networking technical terms, abbreviations, and acronyms. The list that follows gives you a brief overview of the topics that this book covers:
■
Acronyms and abbreviations
■
Active Directory
■
ActiveX
■
Application software
■
Cables, cards, and connectors
■
Certification schemes
■
Chips, memory, and adapters
■
Communications
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Introduction
■
Connectivity tools, products, and equipment
■
Disks and storage media
■
E-mail
■
Hardware
■
File systems
■
Industry standards
■
Internet organizations
■
Internet terms and abbreviations
■
Intranet terms and abbreviations
■
Java
■
Leading hardware and software companies
■
Linux, Free Software Foundation, GNU
■
Microprocessors
■
Microsoft Windows
■
Microsoft Windows NT and NT Server
■
Microsoft Windows 2000
■
Mobile computing
■
Networking theory and concepts
■
Novell NetWare
■
Novell Directory Services
■
Operating systems and environments
■
The OSI Reference Model
■
Popular networking products
■
Protocols and interfaces
■
Security and network administration
■
System architectures
■
Trade associations
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Introduction
■
Unix shells, tools, and utilities
■
The World Wide Web
■
Workstations
How This Book Is Organized
This book is organized for easy reference. Entries are arranged in letter-by-letter alphabetic
order, ignoring punctuation and spaces, with terms that begin with an uppercase letter (or
are all in uppercase) before those in all lowercase letters. So Internet comes before internet,
and link level comes before link-state routing algorithm. Numbers and symbols are listed
at the beginning of the book in ascending numeric order. If an entry begins with a letter or
letters, but contains a number, it is listed alphabetically according to the letter, and then according to numerical order, so V.42 bis comes between V.42 and V.54.
The information within each entry is always presented in the following order:
■
Entry name
■
Abbreviation or acronym
■
Pronunciation, if it isn’t obvious
■
Definition, written in clear standard English
■
URL pointing to further resources available on the Internet.
■
Cross-references to other entries that provide additional or related information on the
topic; more on the cross references in a moment.
If an entry has multiple definitions, each one is numbered to separate it from the next,
and some of the entries also contain illustrations.
Extensive Cross-Referencing
The Dictionary of Networking is the most extensively cross-referenced dictionary of computing and networking terms available today. It contains two kinds of cross references:
■
A See reference points to another entry that contains the information you are looking
for. Thus, you can start with an abbreviation, such as PPTP, or with the complete term,
such as Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, and be sure that you will arrive at the correct definition. You don’t have to know what an abbreviation stands for to be able to
look up a term. Some terms or concepts can be referred to by more than one name, such
as dialback modem and callback modem; you will find both here, so you can always
find your way to the appropriate definition.
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Introduction
■
A See also reference points to one or more entries that contain additional information
about a topic. This kind of cross-reference allows you to follow through a related set
of entries, broadening your search as you move from entry to entry.
We have also added an extra element in this dictionary to help you find information,
and that is the pronunciation of an acronym or abbreviation that is pronounced differently from the way it is spelled. For example, if you are reading a magazine article and
come across the abbreviation SCSI, you can look up the abbreviation, which will point
to the main entry term, Small Computer System Interface. But if you are discussing hard
disk interfaces with a colleague and hear the term scuzzy, you can look that up too, and
you will also find your way to the main entry, Small Computer System Interface.
The Appendices
This book contains four appendices to provide additional reference material:
Appendix A: Internet Resources Collects together URLs under a wide variety of headings to cut down on the amount of time you have to spend with your favorite search engine. Using this appendix, you can go straight to the right Web site every time.
Appendix B: Certification Resources Provides a guide through the complex and confusing world of computer and networking certification programs.
Appendix C: ASCII Charts Contains both the standard and the extended American
Standard Code for Information Interchange charts.
Appendix D: EBCDIC Chart Contains the most widely accepted Extended Binary
Coded Decimal Interchange Code chart.
A Note about the URLs in This Book
Nothing is more annoying than a dead URL, and link rot is all pervasive. (If you don’t
know what link rot is, go look it up.) All the URLs in this book have been individually
checked by our Technical Editor; and at the time of writing, they are all active, they all
work, and they all contain the information that I say they contain. But that is not to say that
some of them won’t have changed by the time you try them out.
The better-organized sites will simply post a link to the new site if they make substantive
changes, and you can use that new link to go right to the new or reorganized site. Other
sites, such as the Microsoft Web site, reorganize themselves periodically as a part of their
housekeeping; the information you want is still available, but you have to look in another
place to find it, or use the site’s built-in search engine to find it.
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Introduction
Some of the sites that contain the most advanced technical information belong to the
.edu domain and are usually computer science departments at the major universities. I have
tried to keep the number of such sites to a minimum in this book. Although they can be extremely useful, they usually have a lifespan that closely resembles that of the average graduate student. Once the student maintaining the information graduates, the site becomes
neglected and is usually removed soon after. Another dead URL.
To be consistent with current usage, I have not specified the protocol used to access each
Web site; unless a different protocol is specified, you can simply assume that HTTP will
work in all cases. Just add http:// to the beginning of each Web address in your browser
when you access a site.
And finally, we have tried very carefully not to break a URL across a line; you should
be able to type the characters you see without having to worry about whether to type that
hyphen. If a URL has to break, the break is before a period (.) or after a slash (/).
About the Companion CD
The companion CD contains an electronic version of this entire book. You can use it to find
entries quickly and follow cross-references without a great deal of page flipping.
And Finally…
Through more than 25 years of hands-on involvement in practical computer applications,
including the management of minicomputer systems, PC-based networks, large-scale data
communications systems, software development, and technical support, I have become intimately familiar with computer and networking terminology. The Dictionary of Networking is a direct result of that experience, and it represents a practical and down-to-earth
approach to computers and computing.
Everyone who has worked on this dictionary has tried to make sure that it is as complete
and accurate as possible. But if you think that we have missed a word or two that should
be included in a future edition, or if you think that an entry doesn’t contain enough information, please write to the following address:
Dictionary of Networking
c/o SYBEX Inc.
1151 Marina Village Parkway
Alameda, CA 94501-1044
USA
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4.4BSD Lite
Symbols and Numbers
! See bang.
& See ampersand.
* See asterisk.
*.* See star-dot-star.
. See period and double-period
directories.
.. See period and double-period
directories.
/ See slash.
3Com Corporation One of the largest
manufacturers of network hardware in the
world, particularly known for LAN and
WAN products, including remote access
products, hubs, network interface cards,
Gigabit Ethernet, and multimedia over networks. The company’s PalmPilot handheld computer has proved to be extremely
popular, with more than one million units
sold to date. In 1997, 3Com merged with
U.S. Robotics in a deal worth $6.6 billion.
For more information on 3Com, see
www.3com.com.
// See double-slash.
: See colon.
<> See angle brackets.
> See right angle bracket.
? See question mark.
@ See at symbol.
\ See backslash.
| See vertical bar.
1/4-inch cartridge See quarter-inch
cartridge.
2B+D Common abbreviation for Basic
Rate ISDN, which has two B, or bearer,
channels and one D, or data, channel.
See also 23B+D; Basic Rate ISDN.
3+ A network operating system, originally
developed by 3Com, that implemented Xerox Network System (XNS) transport protocols and Microsoft MS-Net file sharing.
4B/5B encoding A data-translation
scheme used to precede signal encoding in
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
networks. In 4B/5B, each group of four bits
is represented as a five-bit symbol, which is
then associated with a bit pattern, which in
turn is encoded using a standard method,
often NRZI (non-return to zero inverted).
See also Manchester encoding.
4.4BSD Lite A version of the 4.4 Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Unix from
which all the AT&T code has been removed in an attempt to avoid licensing
conflicts. It is not possible to compile and
then run 4.4BSD Lite without a preexisting
system because several important utilities
and other files from the operating system
are missing.
The 4.4BSD Lite version has served as the
basis for several other important Unix
implementations, including FreeBSD and
NetBSD.
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5B/6B encoding
See also Berkeley Software Distribution
Unix; FreeBSD; NetBSD; Unix.
5B/6B encoding A data-translation
scheme used to precede signal encoding in
100BaseVG networks. In 5B/6B, each
group of five bits is represented as a six-bit
symbol, which is then associated with a bit
pattern, which in turn is encoded using a
standard method, often NRZI (non-return
to zero inverted).
See also Manchester encoding.
9-track tape A tape storage format that
uses nine parallel tracks on 1/2-inch, reelto-reel magnetic tape. Eight tracks are used
for data, and one track is used for parity information. These tapes are often used as
backup systems on minicomputer and
mainframe systems; digital audio tapes
(DATs) are more common on networks.
coaxial cable; sometimes called thicknet.
The 10Base5 specification has a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps and a maximum cablesegment length of 500 meters (1650 feet),
over a bus topology. The cable attaches to
the Ethernet adapter with a vampire, or
piercing, connector and a transceiver.
See also bus network.
10BaseF An implementation of the
802.3 Ethernet standard over fiber-optic
cable. This specification allows throughput
of a maximum of 10Mbps and is separated
into these three categories:
■
■
■
10BaseFP (fiber passive) Used for desktop connections
10BaseFL (fiber link) For intermediate
hubs and workgroups
10BaseFB (fiber backbone) Used for
central facility lines between buildings
See also quarter-inch cartridge.
10/100 A term used to indicate that a device can support both Ethernet (at a data
transfer rate of 10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet
(at a data transfer rate of 100Mbps).
See also Ethernet.
10Base2 An implementation of the 802.3
Ethernet standard on thin Ethernet (RG-58)
coaxial cable; sometimes called thinnet or
cheapernet wire. The 10Base2 specification
has a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps and a
maximum cable-segment length of 185
meters (610.5 feet). A T-connector attaches
the thin coaxial cable to the BNC connector
on the Ethernet adapter.
10Base5 An implementation of the
802.3 Ethernet standard on thick Ethernet
10BaseT An implementation of the
802.3 Ethernet standard over UTP wiring—the same wiring and RJ-45 connectors
used with telephone systems. The standard
is based on a star topology, with each node
connected to a central wiring center and a
maximum cable-segment length of 100
meters (330 feet).
See also star network.
23B+D Common abbreviation for Primary Rate ISDN, which has 23 B, or bearer,
channels and 1 D, or data, channel.
See also 2B+D; Primary Rate ISDN.
24/7 Abbreviation for round-the-clock
availability, implying that the service is
available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
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802.x
56K modem standard See V.90.
100Base-FX A specification for Fast
Ethernet over fiber-optic cable.
See also Fast Ethernet
segmented-addressing scheme used by Intel
coprocessors.
Several models have been developed:
■
100Base-T4 A specification for Fast
Ethernet over four pairs of Category 3, 4, or
5 untwisted-pair wiring.
See also Fast Ethernet
■
100Base-TX A specification for Fast
Ethernet over two pairs of Category 5
unshielded twisted-pair or Category 1
shielded twisted-pair cable. The 100BaseTX specification requires two pairs of
wires.
■
See also Fast Ethernet
100VG-AnyLAN A term applied to the
IEEE 802.12 standard, originally developed
by Hewlett-Packard and supported by Novell, Microsoft, AT&T, and many others.
The 100VG-AnyLAN specification modifies the existing Ethernet standard to allow
speeds of 10 or 100Mbps and uses the
demand priority access method rather
than Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). A speed of
100Mbps transmission is supported over
Category 3 four-pair unshielded twistedpair cabling.
See also demand priority; Fast Ethernet.
680x0 A family of 32-bit microprocessors from Motorola, used in Macintosh
computers and many advanced workstations. The 680x0 is popular with programmers, because it uses a linear-addressing
mode to access memory, rather than the
■
68000 The first microprocessor in this
family, which used a 32-bit data word
with a 16-bit data bus and could address
16MB of memory. It was used in the first
Apple Macintosh computers as well as in
Hewlett-Packard’s LaserJet printers.
68020 A 32-bit microprocessor that
runs at 16MHz, 20MHz, 25MHz, or
33MHz and is capable of addressing as
much as 4GB of memory. The 68020 was
used in the Macintosh II computer, but
has been replaced by the 68030.
68030 Has a paged memory management unit built-in and, therefore, does not
need external hardware to handle this
function. The 68030 is used in the Macintosh II and SE computers.
68040 Incorporates a built-in floatingpoint processor and memory management unit, along with independent 4KB
data and instruction caches. It can perform parallel execution by using multiple,
independent instruction queues. The
68040 is used in the Macintosh Quadra
line of computers.
See also PowerPC.
802.x A set of communications standards
defining the physical and electrical connections in LANs, originally defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE).
A number followed by an uppercase letter
indicates a stand-alone standard; a number followed by a lowercase letter indicates
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802.1
either a supplement to a standard or a part
of a multiple-number standard.
The 802.3 standard includes the following:
■
Many of the IEEE standards have also been
adopted by the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO), whose standards
are accepted all over the world; IEEE standards 802.1 to 802.11 are now also known
as ISO 8802.1 to 8802.11. You will see
both designations in networking books and
magazines; it will take a while for everyone
to get used to these numbers.
■
See also IEEE standards.
■
802.1 An IEEE standard that specifies
the media-access-control level for bridges
linking 802.3, 802.4, and 802.5 networks.
It includes a spanning-tree algorithm for
Ethernet media-access-control layer bridges and the heterogeneous LAN management specification for Ethernet and tokenring hubs.
See also IEEE standards.
802.2 An IEEE standard that specifies the
logical link sublayer of the data-link layer in
the OSI protocol stack. The data-link layer
in the OSI protocol stack is divided into the
logical link layer and the media-access-control layer. The logical link layer provides
framing, addressing, and error-control
functions.
See also IEEE standards.
802.3 An IEEE standard for CSMA/CD
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) LANs, including both baseband and
broadband networks. The baseband version
is based on the Ethernet network, originally
developed by Xerox Corporation.
■
■
■
■
■
10Base2 An implementation of the
Ethernet standard on thin Ethernet cable,
with a data-transfer rate of 10Mbps and a
maximum cable-segment length of 185
meters (600 feet).
10Base5 An 802.3 Ethernet standard on
thick Ethernet cable, with a 10Mbps datatransfer rate and a cable-segment length
of a maximum of 500 meters (1650 feet),
over a bus topology.
10BaseT Establishes a standard for
Ethernet over UTP wiring, the same wiring and RJ-45 connectors used with telephone systems. The standard is based on
a star topology. Each node is connected to
a wiring center, with a cable-length limitation of 100 meters (330 feet).
1Base5 A 1Mbps network standard
with twisted-pair cable based on AT&T’s
StarLAN.
10Broad36 Defines a long-distance
Ethernet with a 10Mbps data-transfer
rate and a maximum cable-segment
length of 3600 meters (11,880 feet).
10BaseF Explicitly specifies fiber-optic
cable in three settings; 10Base-FP (fiber
passive) for desktops, 10Base-FL (fiber
link) for intermediate hubs and workgroups, and 10Base-FB (fiber backbone)
for central facility lines between buildings.
100BaseVG A 100Mbps Ethernet network developed by Hewlett-Packard and
AT&T Microelectrics.
100BaseT A 100Mbps Ethernet developed by Grand Junction Networks.
See also 100VG-AnyLAN; Ethernet; Fast
Ethernet; Gigabit Ethernet; IEEE standards.
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1394
802.4 An IEEE standard for bus topology networks that use token passing to control access and network traffic, running at
10Mbps a second. Token-bus networks
are sometimes used in manufacturing settings, but they are not often found in office
networks.
See also ARCnet; IEEE standards; Technical and Office Protocol.
802.5 An IEEE standard that defines ring
networks using token passing to control access and network traffic, running at 4 or
16Mbps. It is used by IBM's Token Ring
network over STP, UTP, or fiber-optic
cabling. Also known as ANSI 802.1-1985.
See also IEEE standards.
802.6 An IEEE standard for metropolitan-area networks (MANs). It describes a
DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual Bus) used
for transmitting voice, video, and data over
two parallel fiber-optic cables, with signaling rates in excess of 100Mbps per second.
See also IEEE standards; Switched Multimegabit Data Services.
802.7 An IEEE Technical Advisory Group
(TAG) report on broadband networks carrying voice, data, and video traffic.
See also IEEE standards.
802.8 An IEEE Technical Advisory
Group (TAG) report on the use of fiber optics as alternatives to copper-based cable in
LANs.
See also IEEE standards.
802.9 An IEEE advisory committee on integrated data, voice, and video networking.
The specification has been called IVD (Integrated Voice and Data), but is now more
commonly referred to as Iso-Ethernet.
See also IEEE standards; Iso-Ethernet.
802.10 An IEEE Technical Advisory
Group (TAG) working on the definition of
a standard security model for use over a variety of network types that incorporates authentication and encryption methods.
See also IEEE standards.
802.11 A proposed IEEE standard that
will define wireless LANs, including
spread-spectrum radio, narrowband radio,
infrared transmission, and transmission
over power lines.
See also IEEE standards.
802.12 An IEEE working group defining
the 100Mbps Ethernet 100VG-AnyLAN
originally developed by Hewlett-Packard
and several other vendors.
See also 100VG-AnyLAN; IEEE standards.
802.14 An IEEE working group defining
standards for data transmission over traditional cable TV networks using cable
modems.
See also IEEE standards.
1394 An IEEE standard for a digital plugand-play bus, originally conceived by Apple
Computer in 1986. The 1394 standard supports a maximum of 63 nodes per bus and
a maximum of 1023 buses.
Three speeds for device connections are
available:
■
100Mbps
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3270
■
200Mbps
■
400Mbps
cause of an error and can address 16MB
of memory.
All devices are hot pluggable, and both selfpowered and bus-powered devices can be
attached to the same bus. Also known as
FireWire, 1394 uses six-pair shielded
twisted-pair cable and is intended for highend applications such as digitized video.
See also Universal Serial Bus.
3270 A general description for the family
of products from IBM that includes terminals, printers, and terminal cluster controllers. These products all communicate with a
mainframe computer using the SNA (Systems Network Architecture) protocol.
80286 Also called the 286. A 16-bit microprocessor from Intel, first released in
February 1982, used by IBM in the IBM PC/
AT computer in 1984. Since then, it has
been used in many other IBM-compatible
computers.
The 80286 uses a 16-bit data word and a
16-bit data bus, with 24 bits to address
memory. It has two modes:
■
■
Real mode effectively limits performance
to that of an 8086 microprocessor and can
address 1MB of memory.
Protected mode prevents an application
from stopping the operating system be-
80386 Also called the 386DX and the
386. A full 32-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in October 1985 and used in
many IBM and IBM-compatible computers. The 80386 has a 32-bit data word, can
transfer information 32 bits at a time over
the data bus, and can use 32 bits in addressing memory. It has the following modes:
■
■
■
Real mode effectively limits performance
to that of an 8086 microprocessor and can
address 1MB of memory.
Protected mode prevents an application
from stopping the operating system because of an error, and it can address 4GB
of memory.
Virtual 8086 mode allows the operating
system to divide the 80386 into several
virtual 8086 microprocessors, all running
with their own 1MB of space, and all running a separate program.
80486 Also called the 486 or i486. A 32bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in
April 1989. The 80486 adds several notable
features to the 80386, including an onboard cache, a built-in floating-point processor, and a memory management unit
(MMU), as well as advanced provisions for
multiprocessing and a pipelined execution
scheme.
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accelerator board
A
A+ Certification A certification program
from the CompTIA (Computer Technology
Industry Association) designed to measure
competence in basic computer repair and
aimed at the computer technician. Certification requires passing two tests: a core
exam to test general knowledge of PCs, including configuration, installation and upgrading, diagnosis, repair, maintenance,
customer interaction, and safety, and at
least one specialty exam that tests operating
system knowledge.
A+B signaling A type of in-band signaling used in T1 transmission; 1 bit from each
of the 24 subchannels in every sixth frame is
used to carry dialing and other control information. A+B signaling reduces the T1 bandwidth from 1.544Mbps to 1.536 Mbps.
See also T1.
Motorola 68020 or higher microprocessor
and at least 4MB of memory to use A/UX.
See also Unix.
AAL
See ATM Adaptation Layer.
AASE See Associate Accredited
Systems Engineer.
ABCP See Associate Business
Continuity Professional.
abend Contraction of abnormal end. A
message issued by an operating system when
it detects a serious problem, such as a hardware failure or major software damage.
ABI See Application Binary Interface.
ABR See Available Bit Rate.
ABUI See Association of Banyan Users
International.
a-b box A switching box that allows two
or more computers to share a peripheral device such as a printer. It can be switched
manually or through software.
A/UX A version of the Unix operating
system that runs on the Macintosh. A/UX is
based on the System V release 2 of Unix and
includes a number of Apple features, such
as support for the Macintosh Toolbox. This
support allows applications running under
A/UX to use the familiar Macintosh user interface. You need a Macintosh II with a
accelerator board An add-in, printed
circuit board that replaces the main processor with a higher-performance processor.
Using an accelerator board can reduce upgrading costs substantially, because you
don’t need to replace the monitor, case,
keyboard, and so on. However, the main
processor is not the only component that affects the overall performance of your system. Other factors, such as disk-access time
and video speed, contribute to a system’s
performance.
See also graphics accelerator board.
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access
access To use, write to, or read from a
file, or to log in to a computer system or
network.
AccessBuilder Remote access software
from 3Com Corporation that lets you access network resources over a dial-up connection from a remote location.
access control entry Abbreviated
ACE. The basic unit of security in Microsoft Windows 2000 that controls access
to the file system, to Active Directory objects, to printers and other network resources, and to the Registry.
An ACE consists of a security identifier
(SID) and an access mask that defines the
access rights of that SID. A collection of
ACEs that control access to an object is
known as an access control list.
See also access control list; security
identifier.
access control list Abbreviated ACL. A
list or table containing information about
the users, processes, and objects that can access a specific file or object. ACLs are usually attached to file-system directories, and
they specify access permissions such as
read, write, execute, delete, and so on.
ACLs are implemented in Novell NetWare,
Microsoft Windows 2000, and Unix:
■
■
In Novell Directory Services, ACLs are associated with every object in the NDS tree,
storing the list of rights for each trustee
that can access the object.
In the Unix Network File System, ACLs
include the name of the user or group,
along with the rights granted to that user
or group.
■
In Windows 2000, everything is an object,
and every object has an associated ACL.
See also Active Directory; authentication;
NDS tree; Novell Directory Services; rights;
security.
access method The set of rules that determines which node in a network has access to the transmission media at any
moment.
Attempts at simultaneous access are either
managed by a collision detection mechanism such as CSMA/CD or prevented by
use of a token-passing method.
access protocol The set of rules that
workstations use to avoid collisions when
sending information over shared network
media. Also known as the media access control protocol.
access rights See rights.
access server A computer that provides
access for remote users who dial in to the
system and access network resources as
though their computers were directly attached to the network.
See also communications/modem server;
mobile computing.
access time The period of time that
elapses between a request for information
from disk or memory and the arrival of that
information at the requesting device.
Memory-access time refers to the time it
takes to transfer a character between memory and the processor. Disk-access time
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ACF
refers to the time it takes to place the read/
write heads over the requested data. RAM
may have an access time of 80 nanoseconds
or less, while hard-disk access time could be
10 milliseconds or less.
access token In Microsoft Windows
2000, an object that contains the security
identifier (SID) of a running process.
When a process is started by another process, the second process inherits the starting
process’s access token. This access token is
then checked against each object’s access
control list to confirm that the appropriate
permissions are in place to permit any services requested by the process.
See also access control list; permissions;
process; rights.
account On LANs or multiuser operating
systems, an account is set up for each user.
Accounts are usually kept for administrative
or security reasons. For communications
and online services, accounts identify a subscriber for billing purposes.
See also user account.
accounting The process of tracking the
resources on a network. The network administrator can charge for files accessed,
connect time, disk space used for file storage, and service requests by assigning account balances to users. The users can then
draw from their account balances as they
use network services.
account lockout In Microsoft Windows
2000 and other operating systems, a count
of the number of invalid logon attempts allowed before a user is locked out.
See also authentication; user account.
account policy On networks and multiuser operating systems, the set of rules
that defines whether a new user is permitted
access to the system and whether an existing user is granted additional rights or expanded access to other system resources.
Account policy also specifies the minimum
length of passwords, the frequency with
which passwords must be changed, and
whether users can recycle old passwords
and use them again.
Accredited Systems Engineer Abbreviated ASE. A certification from Compaq
designed to evaluate and recognize expertise in installing and administering Compaq
workstations and servers running both Microsoft Windows 2000 and Novell NetWare network operating systems.
See also Associate Accredited Systems
Engineer.
ACE See access control entry.
Acer Group One of the top five PC makers in the world, with factories in Malaysia,
the Netherlands, the Philippines, Taiwan,
and the United States. The Acer Group
bought Texas Instrument’s notebook computer business in 1997 and has formed business alliances with companies, including
3Com and Hitachi, for the development of
advanced digital consumer products such
as PC-ready televisions and DVD systems.
For more information on the Acer Group,
see www.acer.com.tw.
ACF See Advanced Communications
Function.
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ACK
ACK See acknowledgment.
acknowledgment Abbreviated ACK. In
communications, ACK is a control code,
ASCII 06, sent by the receiving computer to
indicate that the data has been received
without error and that the next part of the
transmission may be sent.
See also NAK.
migration to upgrade from LAN Manager,
LAN Server, and earlier versions of NetWare; a similar process known as BMIGRATE allows users to migrate from
Banyan VINES.
ACS See Advanced Communications
Service.
ACTE See Ascend Certified Technical
ACL See access control list.
ACONSOLE A Novell NetWare 3.x
workstation utility that controls a modem
attached to the workstation. ACONSOLE is
used to establish an asynchronous remote
console connection to a server. The RS232
NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) must be
loaded on the server to which you want to
connect. In NetWare 4.x, use RCONSOLE
to perform this function.
acoustic coupler A modem that includes a pair of rubber cups that fit over the
mouthpiece and earpiece of a standard telephone handset (to prevent external noise
from being picked up). An acoustic coupler
allows you to connect your computer to a
telephone system that does not have the
standard RJ-11 connections used with conventional modems.
Expert.
Active Desktop In Microsoft Windows,
a user interface feature that makes the Desktop look and behave just like a Web page,
with underlined icons and a hand mouse
pointer. Active Desktop is offered as an alternative to the classic Windows user interface; you can use Active Desktop, you can
use the classic Windows interface, or you
can swap back and forth between the two.
Active Directory In Microsoft Windows
2000, a system for large-scale network
management that views the network as a hierarchy of objects. Active Directory does
the following:
■
■
ACPI See Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface.
ACR See Available Cell Rate.
across-the-wire migration A method
of migrating file-server data, trustee rights,
and other information to a Novell NetWare server using the NetWare Migration
utility. You can also use across-the-wire
■
■
Provides a hierarchy for the management
of all network objects, including users,
servers, services, file shares, Web pages,
printers, and so on.
Divides administration and security into
subdomains, domains, and trees of
domains.
Scales to 10 million users per domain.
Implements MIT’s Kerberos authentication
system based on private key encryption and
also supports public key encryption for
authentication of clients and business
partners.
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active termination
■
■
■
■
Emulates Windows NT 4.x directory services for backward compatibility.
Uses DNS rather than WINS, and requires
all user and host names to be in DNS
form.
Uses LDAP rather than a proprietary protocol so that non-Microsoft applications
can query the name database.
Interoperates with Novell NetWare Directory Services.
See also forest; Kerberos; Lightweight Directory Access Protocol; NetWare Directory Services; Microsoft Windows 2000; tree.
An active hub may have ports for coaxial,
twisted-pair, or fiber-optic cable connections, as well as LEDs to show that each
port is operating correctly.
See also repeater.
Active Monitor The first station to be
started on a Token Ring network. The Active Monitor is responsible for passing and
maintaining the token and detects error conditions. The Active Monitor’s performance
is constantly monitored by the Standby
Monitor
See also Standby Monitor.
Active Directory Service Interface
Abbreviated ADSI. In Microsoft Active Directory, an application programming interface (API) designed to simplify access to
Active Directory objects.
See also Active Directory; application programming interface.
Active Directory Users and
Computers Abbreviated ADUC. In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, the main administrative tool used to manage user
accounts, security groups, organizational
units, and policies.
ADUC is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in and replaces Windows
NT User Manager.
See also Active Directory; Microsoft Management Console; snap-in.
active hub A device that amplifies transmission signals in a network, allowing signals to be sent over a much greater distance
than is possible with a passive hub.
Active Server Pages Abbreviated ASP.
In Microsoft Internet Information Server, a
script interpreter and execution environment that supports VBScript and JavaScript and is compatible with other scripting languages such as Perl, REXX, Tcl, and
Python through add-ins from third-party
developers.
ASP allows you to combine HTML, scripts,
and ActiveX components on the same Web
server; all the code runs on the server and
presents the results of this dynamic process
to the client browser as a standard HTML
page.
See also JavaScript; Perl; Tcl; VBScript.
active termination A technique used to
terminate a SCSI. Active termination reduces electrical interference in a long string of
SCSI devices.
See also forced perfect termination; passive termination.
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active window
active window The window currently
accepting mouse clicks and keyboard input.
The title bar of the active window is always
a different color from that of the other open
windows.
ActiveX The latest development of Microsoft’s COM, the foundation that supported OLE. By adding network capabilities
(and so creating DCOM, or Distributed
COM) and by reducing the scope of OLE to
create ActiveX, Microsoft has created a
comprehensive set of component-based
Internet- and intranet-oriented applications.
In an attempt to promote ActiveX as a standard, in 1996 Microsoft turned over control of ActiveX to the Open Group to
manage future developments.
See also ActiveX control; Distributed Component Object Model; Java.
ActiveX control The basic building
block of Microsoft’s ActiveX specification.
An ActiveX control is a software module
that cannot run by itself, but requires an ActiveX container such as a Web browser, a
word processor, or a spreadsheet. Each
control delivers a specific function such as
database access, user-interface elements, or
file access and can communicate with another ActiveX control, an ActiveX container, or the underlying Windows operating
system.
Unlike Java applets, which for security reasons run in a sandbox designed to protect
the file system from unauthorized access,
ActiveX can directly access files. To provide
a measure of security, ActiveX controls are
packaged with digital certificates that prove
the origin of the control.
See also ActiveX; certificate; Java; Java
applet; Java Virtual Machine; sandbox.
AD
See Active Directory.
Adaptec, Inc. A leading manufacturer of
high-performance networking and connectivity products, including SCSI adapters,
RAID products, Fast Ethernet adapters,
ATM network interface cards, and server
management software. In 1998, Adaptec
acquired Ridge Technologies, a manufacturer of RAID and other storage solutions
for Microsoft Windows 2000.
For more information on Adaptec, see
www.adaptec.com.
adapter A printed circuit board that
plugs into a computer’s expansion bus to
provide added capabilities.
Common adapters include video adapters,
joy-stick controllers, and I/O adapters, as
well as other devices, such as internal modems, CD-ROMs, and network interface
cards. One adapter can often support several different devices. Some of today’s PC
designs incorporate many of the functions
previously performed by these individual
adapters on the motherboard.
adaptive equalization See adaptive
speed leveling.
adaptive routing A mechanism that allows a network to reroute messages dynamically, using the best available path, if a
portion of the network fails.
See also alternative route.
adaptive speed leveling A modem
technology that allows a modem to respond
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address classes
to changing line conditions by changing its
data rate. As line quality improves, the modem attempts to increase the data rate; as
line quality declines, the modem compensates by lowering the data rate. Also known
as adaptive equalization.
ADCCP See Advanced Data Communications Control Procedures.
address 1. The precise location in memory or on disk where a piece of information
is stored. Each byte in memory and each
sector on a disk has its own unique address.
2. The unique identifier for a specific node
on a network. An address may be a physical
address specified by switches or jumpers on
the network interface card hardware, or it
can be a logical address established by the
network operating system.
3. To reference or manage a storage
transmit the signals that specify locations in
memory.
The number of lines in the address bus determines the number of memory locations
that the processor can access, because each
line carries one bit of the address. A 20-line
address bus (used in early Intel 8086/8088
processors) can access 1MB of memory, a
24-line address bus can access 16MB, and a
32-line address bus can access more than
4GB. A 64-line address bus (used in the
DEC Alpha APX) can access 16EB.
address classes In a 32-bit IP address,
which is shown in the accompanying illustration, the number of bits used to identify
the network and the host vary according
to the network class of the address, as
follows:
■
location.
4. In Unix, an IP address as specified in the
/etc/hosts file.
5. Information used by a network or the In-
ternet to specify a specific location in the
form username@hostname; username is
your user name, logon name, or account
name or number, and hostname is the name
of the Internet Service Provider (ISP) or
computer system you use. The hostname
may consist of several parts, each separated
from the next by a period.
See also address bus; Domain Name Service; e-mail address; Internet Service Provider; IP address; memory address.
address bus The electronic channel,
usually from 20 to 64 lines wide, used to
■
Class A is used only for very large networks. The high-order bit in a Class A
network is always zero, leaving 7 bits
available to define 127 networks. The remaining 24 bits of the address allow each
Class A network to hold as many as
16,777,216 hosts. Examples of Class A
networks include General Electric, IBM,
Hewlett-Packard, Apple Computer,
Xerox, Digital Equipment Corporation,
and MIT. All the Class A networks are in
use, and no more are available.
Class B is used for medium-sized networks. The 2 high-order bits are always
10, and the remaining bits are used to define 16,384 networks, each with as many
as 65,535 hosts attached. Examples of
Class B networks include Microsoft and
Exxon. All Class B networks are in use,
and no more are available.
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addressing space
■
■
Class C is for smaller networks. The 3
high-order bits are always 110, and the remaining bits are used to define 2,097,152
networks, but each network can have a
maximum of only 254 hosts. Class C networks are still available.
Class D is a special multicast address and
cannot be used for networks. The 4 high-
order bits are always 1110, and the remaining 28 bits allow for more than 268
million possible addresses.
■
Class E is reserved for experimental purposes. The first four bits in the address are
always 1111.
See also Classless Inter-Domain Routing;
IP address; subnet mask.
IP ADDRESS STRUCTURE
addressing space The amount of RAM
available to the operating system running
on a server.
address mask See subnet mask.
Address Resolution Protocol Abbreviated ARP. A protocol within TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) and AppleTalk networks that allows a host to find the physical address of a
node on the same network when it knows
only the target’s logical or IP address.
Under ARP, a network interface card contains a table (known as the address resolution cache) that maps logical addresses to
the hardware addresses of nodes on the network. When a node needs to send a packet,
it first checks the address resolution cache
to see if the physical address information is
already present. If so, that address is used,
and network traffic is reduced; otherwise, a
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Advanced Communications Service
normal ARP request is made to determine
the address.
See also IP address.
The Administrator account cannot be deleted, but it can be renamed, which is probably
a good security policy.
See also permissions.
address translation gateway Abbreviated ATG. A function in Cisco DECnet
routing software capable of establishing a
user-specified address translation mechanism for certain selected nodes on the network.
adjacency A term describing the relationship formed between certain neighboring routers for the purpose of swapping
routing information. Adjacency is based on
the use of a common network segment.
administrative alerts In Windows
2000, informational messages sent to specific accounts, groups, or computers to announce security events, impending
shutdown due to loss of server power, performance problems, and printer errors.
When a server generates an administrative
alert, the appropriate message is sent to a
predefined list of users and computers.
See also Alerter service.
administrative distance A term used
by Cisco Systems, Inc., to express the
integrity of a routing-information source.
Administrative distance is expressed as a
value in the range 0 through 255; the higher
the value, the lower the quality of the routing information.
Administrator account In Microsoft
Windows 2000, a special account with the
maximum authority and permissions that
can assign any permission to any user or
group.
ADMIN object A NetWare Directory
Services User object, created during the installation of NetWare, that has special privileges, including the supervisory rights to
create and manage other objects.
ADMIN has Supervisor rights and can,
therefore, manage the NetWare Directory
Services tree and add or delete Directory
objects.
ADSI See Active Directory Service
Interface.
ADSL See Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
ADUC See Active Directory Users and
Computers.
Advanced Communications
Function Abbreviated ACF. A set of
program packages from IBM that allows
computer resources to be shared over
communications links using the concepts of
SAA (Systems Application Architecture).
For example, ACF/TCAM (Advanced Communications Functions/Telecommunications Access Method) and ACF/VTAM
(Advanced Communications Functions/Virtual Telecommunications Access Method)
allow the interconnection of two or more domains into one multiple-domain network.
Advanced Communications Service
Abbreviated ACS. A large data-communications network established by AT&T.
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Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface Abbreviated ACPI. An interface specification developed by Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba for controlling power
use on the PC and all other devices attached to the system. A BIOS-level hardware specification, ACPI depends on
specific hardware that allows the operating system to direct power management
and system configuration.
See also Advanced Power Management.
Advanced Data Communications Control Procedures Abbreviated ADCCP.
A bit-oriented, link-layer, ANSI-standard
communications protocol.
See also High-level Data Link Control.
Advanced Interactive Executive
Abbreviated AIX. A version of Unix from
IBM that runs on its RS/6000 workstations
and on minicomputers and mainframes.
Although AIX is based on Unix System V
Release 3, it contains many of the features
available in System V Release 4, is
POSIX-compliant, and meets the Trusted
Computer Base (TCB) Level C2 security.
One of the major enhancements of AIX is
Visual Systems Management (VSM), a
graphical interface into the older Systems
Management Interface Tool (SMIT). VSM
contains four main elements: Print Manager, Device Manager, Storage Manager, and
Users and Groups Manager.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Abbreviated AMD. The fifth largest manufacturer of integrated circuits, flash memory, and
microprocessors, specializing in clones of
Intel’s popular PC chips, including the
AMD386, AMD486, AMDK5, and the
AMDK6.
For more information about AMD, see
www.amd.com.
See also Cyrix; Intel Corporation; Pentium;
Pentium II; Pentium III.
Advanced Mobile Phone Service Abbreviated AMPS. Currently the cellular
telephone standard in the United States; an
analog, cellular communications system developed by AT&T. AMPS uses frequencydivision multiplexing (FDM) and operates
in the 825 to 890MHz range.
See also Cellular Digital Packet Data.
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking An SNA routing scheme proposed by Cisco Systems and eventually
abandoned.
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking
Abbreviated APPN. IBM’s SNA (Systems
Network Architecture) protocol, based on
APPC (Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications). APPN allows nodes on
the network to interact without a mainframe host computer and implements dynamic network directories and dynamic
routing in an SNA network.
APPN can run over a variety of network media, including Ethernet, token ring, FDDI,
ISDN, X.25, SDLC, and higher-speed links
such as B-ISDN or ATM.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Customer Information Control System;
Systems Network Architecture.
Advanced Power Management Abbreviated APM. An API specification from
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Aggregate Route-Based IP Switching
Microsoft and Intel intended to monitor
and extend battery life on a laptop computer by shutting down certain system components after a period of inactivity.
Ware uses the Service Advertising Protocol
(SAP) for this purpose.
See also Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface.
AFS See Andrews File System.
Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications Abbreviated APPC. A
set of protocols developed by IBM as a part
of its SNA (Systems Network Architecture),
designed to allow applications running on
PCs and mid-range hosts to exchange data
easily and directly with mainframes. APPC
can be used over an SNA, Ethernet, X.25,
or Token Ring network and is an open,
published communications protocol.
APPC/PC is a PC-based version of APPC
used over a Token Ring network.
advanced run-length limited
encoding Abbreviated ARLL. A technique used to store information on a hard
disk that increases the capacity of runlength limited (RLL) storage by more than
25 percent and increases the data-transfer
rate to 9Mbps.
See also RLL encoding.
Advanced Technology Attachment
Abbreviated ATA. The ANSI X3T10 standard for the disk-drive interface usually
known as Integrated Drive Electronics
(IDE).
See also Integrated Drive Electronics.
advertising The process by which services on a network inform other devices on the
network of their availability. Novell Net-
AFP See AppleTalk Filing Protocol.
aftermarket The market for related
hardware, software, and peripheral devices
created by the sale of a large number of
computers of a specific type.
agent 1. A program that performs a task
in the background and informs the user
when the task reaches a certain milestone or
is complete.
2. A program that searches through ar-
chives looking for information specified by
the user. A good example is a spider that
searches Usenet articles. Sometimes called
an intelligent agent.
3. In SNMP (Simple Network Manage-
ment Protocol), a program that monitors
network traffic.
4. In client-server applications, a program
that mediates between the client and the
server.
Aggregate Route-Based IP
Switching Abbreviated ARIS. A scheme
from IBM used to establish switched paths
through networks that act as virtual circuits, transmitting data packets through the
network without the need to make routing
decisions at every step. ARIS uses tagging
techniques to add information to the data
packets that can be used to guide the packets through the virtual circuits based on information already established by protocols
such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
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AIX
AIX See Advanced Interactive
Executive.
alert log In Microsoft Windows 2000, a
System Monitor log used to monitor
counters that exceed user-specified limits.
When such a limit is exceeded, the event is
logged into the alert log.
See also counter log; System Monitor;
trace log.
alpha testing The first stage in testing a
new hardware or software product, usually
performed by the in-house developers or
programmers.
See also beta testing.
alternative route A secondary communications path to a specific destination. An
alternative route is used when the primary
path is not available.
See also adaptive routing.
Alerter service A Microsoft Windows
2000 service that warns a predefined list of
users and computers of an administrative
alert. The Alerter service is used by the
Server service and requires the Messenger
service.
See also administrative alerts; Messenger
service; service.
Alias object In Novell NetWare, a leaf
object that references the original location
of an object in the directory. Using Alias objects, one object can appear in several containers at the same time, allowing users to
locate and use the object quickly and easily.
See also leaf object.
Allowed Cell Rate
alt newsgroups A set of Usenet newsgroups containing articles on controversial
subjects often considered outside the mainstream. Alt is an abbreviation for alternative.
These newsgroups were originally created
to avoid the rigorous process required to
create an ordinary newsgroup. Some alt
newsgroups contain valuable discussions
on subjects ranging from agriculture to
wolves, others contains sexually explicit
material, and others are just for fun. Not all
ISPs and online services give access to the
complete set of alt newsgroups.
See also mailing list; moderated
newsgroup; newsgroup; unmoderated
newsgroup.
See Available Cell
AMD See Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
alphanumeric Consisting of letters,
numbers, and sometimes special control
characters, spaces, and other punctuation
characters.
American National Standards
Institute Abbreviated ANSI. A nonprofit
organization of more than 1000 business
and industry groups, founded in 1918,
devoted to the development of voluntary
standards.
Rate.
See also American Standard Code for
Information Interchange; Extended Binary
Coded Decimal Interchange Code;
Unicode.
ANSI represents the United States in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and is affiliated with CCITT.
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analog
ANSI committees have developed many important standards, including the following:
■
■
■
■
■
ANSI X3J11: Standard for the C programming language, including language
semantics, syntax, execution environment, and the definition of the library and
header files.
ANSI X3J16: Standard for the C++ programming language.
ANSI X3J3: Definition of the Fortran programming language compiler.
ANSI X3.131-1986: Definition of the
SCSI standard. The X3T9.2 standard contains the extensions for SCSI-2.
ANSI X3T9.5: The working group for the
FDDI definition.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange Abbreviated ASCII,
pronounced “as-kee.” A standard coding
scheme that assigns numeric values to letters, numbers, punctuation characters, and
control characters to achieve compatibility
among different computers and peripheral
devices. In ASCII, each character is represented by a unique integer value in the range
0 through 255. See Appendix C.
See also ASCII extended character set;
ASCII file; ASCII standard character set;
double-byte character set; Extended
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code;
Unicode.
American Wire Gauge Abbreviated
AWG. A measurement system that specifies
copper wire by thickness; as thickness
increases, the AWG number decreases.
Some common conductor gauges are:
■
■
Thick Ethernet: 12 AWG
■
Thin Ethernet: 20 AWG
See also cabling standards; EIA/TIA 586;
Type 1–9 cable.
America Online, Inc. Abbreviated
AOL. The world’s largest online service,
headquartered in Vienna, Virginia, with
more than 15 million subscribers. AOL
provides a gateway to the Internet, as well
as its own news, sports, e-mail, chat rooms,
and other fee-based services. In 1997, AOL
bought CompuServe, and in 1998,
Netscape Communications.
For more information about America Online, see www.aol.com.
ampersand (&) 1. In Unix, a command
suffix used to indicate that the preceding
command should be run in the background.
2. In Unix, a root user command used to
start a daemon that is to keep running after
logout.
3. In HTML, a special character entry in a
document.
See also daemon; HyperText Markup
Language.
AMPS See Advanced Mobile Phone
Service.
analog Describes any device that represents changing values by a continuously
variable physical property, such as a voltage in a circuit. Analog often refers to transmission methods developed to transmit
voice signals rather than high-speed digital
signals.
RS-232-C: 22 or 24 AWG
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Andrews File System
Andrews File System Abbreviated
AFS. A protocol developed at Carnegie
Mellon University; used to share remote
files across systems using TCP/IP.
AFS has certain advantages over NFS in
that it only allows users to access files
linked to AFS rather than giving access to
all files, it has a built-in cache that helps to
reduce the demands made on the system,
and system administrators can allocate disk
space on the fly as required.
See also Distributed File System; Network
File System; Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
angle brackets The less-than (<) and
greater-than (>) symbols used to identify a
tag in an HTML document.
Also used to identify the return address in
an e-mail message header.
See also HyperText Markup
Language; tag.
ANI See automatic number
identification.
anonymous FTP A method used to access an Internet computer that does not require you to have an account on the target
computer system. Simply log on to the Internet computer with the user name anonymous, and use your e-mail address as your
password. This access method was originally provided as a courtesy so that system administrators could see who had logged on
to their systems, but now it is often required
to gain access to an Internet computer that
has FTP service.
You cannot use anonymous FTP with every
computer on the Internet, only with those
systems set up to offer the service. The system administrator decides which files and
directories will be open to public access,
and the rest of the system is considered off
limits and cannot be accessed by anonymous FTP users. Some sites only allow you
to download files; as a security precaution,
you are not allowed to upload files.
See also File Transfer Protocol; Telnet.
anonymous posting In a Usenet newsgroup, a public message posted via an anonymous server in order to conceal the
identity of the original sender.
anonymous remailer See anonymous
server.
anonymous server A special Usenet
service that removes from a Usenet post all
header information that could identify the
original sender and then forwards the message to its final destination. If you use an
anonymous server, be sure to remove your
signature from the end of the message; not
all anonymous servers look for and then
strip a signature. Also known as an anonymous remailer.
ANSI See American National Standards
Institute.
answer mode A function that allows a
modem to answer an incoming call, detect
the protocol being used by the calling modem, and synchronize with that protocol.
See also auto-answer; auto-dial.
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Apple Computer, Inc.
antivirus program A program that detects or eliminates a computer virus. Some
antivirus programs can detect suspicious
activity on your computer as it happens;
others must be run periodically as part of
your normal housekeeping activities.
An antivirus program locates and identifies
a virus by looking for characteristic patterns or suspicious activity in the system,
such as unexpected disk access or .EXE files
changing in some unusual way. It recognizes the virus by comparing information from
the system against a database of known viruses, which is kept on disk.
Be sure you test an antivirus program carefully on your network before you employ
it everywhere; some programs impose an
enormous overhead on normal network
operations.
Apache dominates the Web because of its
low cost, excellent performance, good scalability, and great flexibility. Don’t expect
easy graphical configuration programs and
hypertext help; you’ll get the command line
and the man pages instead, so it certainly
helps to have staff with Unix experience.
Apache Server is available as part of the Red
Hat Software Linux distribution, which
also provides developers with full support
for CGI, Perl, Tcl, a C or C++ compiler, an
Apache server API, and a SQL database.
For more information on Apache Server,
see The Apache Group Web site at
www.apache.org.
See also Linux; Red Hat Software.
API See application programming
interface.
APM See Advanced Power
See also file-infecting virus; macro virus;
multipart virus; polymorphic virus; stealth
virus; Trojan Horse; vaccine; virus.
AnyNet A family of gateway products
from IBM used to integrate SNA, TCP/IP,
and NetBIOS networks with products running on IBM’s AIX/6000, OS/2, and OS/
400 and with Microsoft Windows.
AOL See America Online, Inc.
Apache HTTP Server A freeware Web
server, supported by the Unix community,
in use on almost half of the Web sites on the
Internet. So called because the original university-lab software was patched with new
features and fixes until it became known as
“a patchy server.”
Management.
app See application.
APPC See Advanced Program-to-Program Communications.
APPI See Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking.
Apple Computer, Inc. Manufacturer of
the successful Macintosh and Quadra series
of computers based on Motorola chips. The
company was founded by Steve Wozniak
and Steve Jobs in a garage on April 1, 1976.
In 1993, Apple entered the consumer electronics marketplace with a personal digital
assistant known as Newton, combining
fax, electronic mail, and other functions
into a unit small enough to fit into a pocket.
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Apple Desktop Bus
In 1994, Apple launched a new series of
computers called the Power Macintosh (or
Power Mac), based on the PowerPC, capable of running either the Macintosh operating system or Windows programs under
software emulation.
Apple always kept the architecture of the
Mac proprietary, a move that has cost the
company considerable market share; nevertheless, Apple has always had a strong following among musicians and graphical
designers.
In 1997, Steve Jobs rejoined Apple and, after realigning Apple’s product line, led the
development and launch of the popular and
capable Internet-ready iMac computer.
For more information on Apple Computer,
Inc., see www.apple.com.
Apple Desktop Bus A serial communications link that connects low-speed input
devices, such as a mouse or a keyboard, to
the computer on the Macintosh SE, II, IIx,
IIcx, and SE/30.
Light pens, trackballs, and drawing tablets
may also be connected via the Apple Desktop Bus. Most Apple Desktop Bus devices
allow one device to be daisy-chained to the
next, up to a maximum of 16 devices.
Apple Macintosh See Macintosh.
AppleShare Network software from
Apple Computer that requires a dedicated
Macintosh computer acting as a centralized server and includes both server and
workstation software. AppleShare uses the
AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP).
AppleTalk An Apple Macintosh network
protocol, based on the OSI Reference Model, which gives every Macintosh networking capabilities. AppleTalk can run under
several network operating systems, including Apple Computer’s AppleShare, Novell
NetWare for the Macintosh, and TOPS
from Sun Microsystems.
AppleTalk includes specifications for the
data-link layer as LocalTalk, EtherTalk,
FDDI-Talk, or TokenTalk, and the network
layer as Datagram Delivery Protocol. The
transport layer contains four protocols:
■
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
(RTMP)
■
AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP)
■
AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)
■
Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
The session layer includes
■
AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP)
■
AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP)
■
Printer Access Protocol (PAP)
■
Zone Information Protocol (ZIP)
The presentation layer adds the AppleTalk
Filing Protocol (AFP) for access to remote
files on shared disks.
AppleTalk Filing Protocol Abbreviated AFP. AFP is located in the presentation
and application layers of the AppleTalk
protocol stack. AFP lets users access remote
files as though they were local, as well as
providing security features that can restrict
user access to certain files.
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application
APPLETALK PROTOCOL STACK
application Abbreviated app, or if the
application is a small one, it is referred to as
an applet. A computer program designed to
perform a specific task, such as accounting,
scientific analysis, word processing, or
desktop publishing.
In general, applications can be distinguished
from system software, system utilities, and
computer language compilers, and they can
be categorized as either stand-alone or
network applications. Stand-alone applications run from the hard disk in an independent computer, so only one user at a time can
access the application. Network applications run on networked computers and can
be shared by many users. Advanced applications such as groupware and e-mail allow
communications between network users.
See also application metering; client/
server architecture; LAN-aware.
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Application Binary Interface
Application Binary Interface Abbreviated ABI. A specification that aims to ensure
binary compatibility between applications
running on the same family of processors or
CPUs using Unix System V Release 4.
application log In Microsoft Windows
2000, a system log that contains events generated by applications or by alert logs. You
can use the Event Viewer to display the contents of the application log.
Applications developed using ABI can run
on hardware from different manufacturers
without being recompiled; any system calls
needed for specific hardware are maintained in libraries.
See also Event Viewer; security log; system log.
The specification was originally developed
by AT&T and Sun Microsystems and includes a test and verification suite used to
determine if a system complies with the
standard.
See also application programming
interface.
application layer The seventh, or highest, layer in the OSI Reference Model for
computer-to-computer communications.
This layer uses services provided by the
lower layers but is completely insulated
from the details of the network hardware. It
describes how applications interact with
the network operating system, including
database management, electronic mail, and
terminal emulation programs.
See also OSI Reference Model.
application-level filter A category of
firewall that provides a high degree of security but at the cost of lower speed and greater complexity. Typical application-level
filters can provide proxy services for applications and protocols such as Telnet, FTP,
HTTP, and SMTP.
See also firewall; packet-level filter; stateless filter.
application metering The process of
counting the number of executions of the
copies of an application in use on the network at any given time and ensuring that
the number does not exceed preset limits.
Application metering is usually performed
by a network management application running on the file server. Most application
metering software will allow only a certain
number of copies (usually that number
specified in the application software license) of an application to run at any one
time and will send a message to any users
who try to exceed this limit.
See also concurrent license.
Application object In Novell Directory
Services (NDS), a leaf object that represents
a network application in a NetWare Directory tree.
See also Computer object; container object; leaf object; Novell Directory Services.
application programming interface
Abbreviated API. The complete set of all
operating system functions that an application can use to perform such tasks as managing files and displaying information.
An API provides a standard way to write an
application, and it also describes how the
application should use the functions it provides. Using an API is quicker and easier
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archive file
than developing functions from scratch and
helps to ensure some level of consistency
among all the applications developed for a
specific operating system.
In operating systems that support a graphical user interface, the API also defines functions to support windows, icons, drop-down
menus, and other components of the interface. In network operating systems, an API
defines a standard method that applications
can use to take advantage of all the network
features.
application server A special-purpose
file server that is optimized for a specific
task, such as communications or a database
application, and that uses higher-end hardware than a typical file server.
See also superserver.
Archie A system used on the Internet to
locate files available by anonymous FTP.
Once a week, special programs connect to
all the known anonymous FTP sites on the
Internet and collect a complete listing of all
the publicly available files. This listing of
files is kept in an Internet Archive Database,
and when you ask Archie to look for a file,
it searches this database rather than the
whole Internet; you then use anonymous
FTP to retrieve the file.
See also anonymous FTP.
architecture 1. The overall design and
construction of all or part of a computer,
particularly the processor hardware and the
size and ordering sequence of its bytes.
2. The overall design of software, including
interfaces to other software, the operating
system, and to the network.
application-specific integrated
circuit Abbreviated ASIC. A computer
chip developed for a specific purpose, designed by incorporating standard cells from
a library rather than created from scratch.
Also known as gate arrays, ASICs are found
in all sorts of appliances, including modems, security systems, digital cameras, and
even microwave ovens and automobiles.
See also client/server architecture; closed
architecture; complex instruction set computing; open architecture; reduced instruction set computing.
APPN See Advanced Peer-to-Peer Net-
2. On the Internet, a site containing a
working.
collection of files available via anonymous
FTP.
ARB
See Area Border router.
arbitration The set of rules used to manage competing demands for a computer
resource, such as memory or peripheral devices, made by multiple processes or users.
See also contention.
archive 1. To transfer files to some form
of long-term storage, such as magnetic tape
or large-capacity disk, when the files are no
longer needed regularly but must be maintained for periodic reference.
3. A compressed file.
archive file A single file that contains one
or more files or directories that may have
been compressed to save space. Archives are
often used as a way to transport large numbers of related files across the Internet.
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ARCNet
An archive file created under Unix may have
the filename extension .TAR (for tape archive), .GZ (for gzip), or .Z (for compress or
pack). Those created in Windows may have
the filename extension .ZIP from the PKZIP
or WinZip programs. Archive files created
on a Macintosh will have the filename extension .SAE or .SIT from the StuffIt program.
An Internet host that provides access to
large numbers of archive files is known as
an archive site.
ARCNet Acronym for Attached Resources Computing Network. A network available from the Datapoint Corporation and
other vendors that can connect a wide variety of PCs and workstations (up to a maximum of 255) on coaxial, twisted-pair, or
fiber-optic cable. ARCnet uses a proprietary
token-passing access method at speeds of
2.5Mbps. ARCNet Plus is Datapoint’s proprietary product that runs at 20Mbps.
ARCNet was popular for smaller networks,
because it is relatively easy to set up and to
operate and also because the components
are inexpensive and widely available. These
days, however, it is showing its age and is
no longer sold by the major vendors.
See also Token Ring network.
Area Border router Abbreviated ARB.
In an internetwork that uses link state routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path
First (OSPF) protocols, a router that has at
least one connection to another router in a
different part of the internetwork. Also
known as a Border router.
See also Autonomous System Border
router; Open Shortest Path First.
ARIS See Aggregate Route-Based IP
Switching.
ARLL See advanced run-length limited
encoding.
ARP See Address Resolution Protocol.
ARPAnet Acronym for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. A research network funded by the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) to link universities and government research agencies, originally built by
BBN, Inc., in 1969. It was the backbone
for the now huge Internet. TCP/IP protocols were pioneered on ARPAnet. In 1983,
the military communications portion was
split off into the MILnet.
article An e-mail message posted to one
of the Usenet newsgroups, accessible by
anyone with a newsreader and a connection
to the Internet. Also called a post.
See also newsreader.
AS/400 A series of mid-range minicomputers from IBM, first introduced in
1988, that replaces the System/36 and System/38 series of computers. The AS/400
can serve in a wide variety of network configurations: as a host or an intermediate
node to other AS/400 and System/3x computers, as a remote system to System/370controlled networks, or as a network server to a group of PCs.
ASBR See Autonomous System Border router.
Ascend Certified Technical Expert
Abbreviated ACTE. A certification scheme
from Ascend Communications, Inc., aimed
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ASP
at technical professionals with experience
in installing, configuring, and troubleshooting Ascend remote-access products.
Two written exams, the Networking and
Telecommunications exam, and the Remote Access exam, are followed by a handson lab test administered at Ascend’s headquarters in Alameda, CA.
Ascend Communications, Inc. A leading provider of solutions for telecommunications carriers, ISPs, and corporate
customers, Ascend manufactures products
for remote access, for wide area networking, and for linking telephone switches, network connections, and videoconferencing
facilities to phone company networks.
Ascend recently acquired Cascade Communications, establishing the company as one
of the largest suppliers of frame-relay and
ATM equipment. In 1999, Ascend was
bought by Lucent Technologies.
For more information on Ascend, see
www.ascend.com.
ASCII See American Standard Code for
Information Interchange.
ASCII extended character set The second group of characters, from 128 through
255, in the ASCII character set. The extended ASCII character set is assigned variable
sets of characters by computer hardware
manufacturers and software developers, and
it is not necessarily compatible between different computers. The IBM extended character set used in the PC (see Appendix C)
includes mathematics symbols and characters from the PC line-drawing set.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; ASCII file; ASCII
standard character set; double-byte character set; Extended Binary Coded Decimal
Interchange Code; Unicode.
ASCII file A file that contains only text
characters from the ASCII character set. An
ASCII file can include letters, numbers, and
punctuation symbols, but does not contain
any hidden text-formatting codes. Also
known as a text file or an ASCII text file.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; ASCII extended
character set; ASCII standard character set;
binary file.
ASCII standard character set A character set that consists of the first 128 (from
0 through 127) ASCII characters. The values 0 through 31 are used for nonprinting
control codes (see Appendix C), and the
range 32 through 127 is used to represent
the letters of the alphabet and common
punctuation symbols. The entire set from 0
through 127 is referred to as the standard
ASCII character set. All computers that use
ASCII can understand the standard ASCII
character set.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; ASCII file; ASCII extended character set; double-byte
character set; Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code; Unicode.
ASCII text file See ASCII file.
ASE See Accredited Systems Engineer.
ASIC See application-specific
integrated circuit.
ASP See Active Server Pages.
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assembly language
assembly language A low-level programming language in which each program
statement must correspond to a single machine language instruction that the processor can execute.
Assembly languages are specific to a given
microprocessor and, as such, are not portable; programs written for one type of processor must be rewritten before they can be
used on another type of processor.
You use assembly language for two reasons:
■
■
To wring as much performance out of the
processor as possible
To gain access to specific characteristics
of the hardware that might not be possible
from a higher-level language
See also compiler; interpreter; machine
language; microcode
Associate Business Continuity
Professional Abbreviated ABCP. A certification from Disaster Recovery Institute
International (DRII) that covers basic information on business continuity planning
and disaster recovery.
See also Certified Business Continuity
Professional; Master Business Continuity Professional.
Associated Accredited Systems
Engineer Abbreviated AASE. A certification from Compaq designed to evaluate and
recognize basic knowledge of PC architecture and operations. An AASE may choose
to specialize in Microsoft Windows 2000 or
Novell NetWare operation.
See also Accredited Systems Engineer.
Association of Banyan Users
International Abbreviated ABUI. The
Banyan user group, with 1700 members
worldwide, concerned with all hardware
and software related to the Banyan system,
including Banyan VINES.
See also Banyan VINES.
asterisk In several operating systems,
you can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard
character to represent one or more unknown characters in a filename or filename
extension.
See also question mark; star-dot-star.
AST Research One of the world’s top
ten computer manufacturers, AST Research makes desktop, laptop, notebook,
and hand-held computers, as well as monitors, graphics cards, and memory products.
A subsidiary of Samsung Electronics Company Limited.
For more information on AST Research, see
www.ast.com.
asymmetrical multiprocessing A multiprocessing design in which the programmer matches a specific task to a certain
processor when writing the program.
This design makes for a much less flexible
system than SMP (symmetrical multiprocessing) and may result in one processor being overworked while another stands idle.
SMP allocates tasks to processors as the
program starts up, on the basis of current
system load and available resources. Needless to say, asymmetrical multiprocessing
systems are easier to design, code, and test
than symmetrical multiprocessing systems.
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asynchronous transmission
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Abbreviated ADSL. A high-speed data
transmission technology originally developed by Bellcore and now standardized by
ANSI as T1.413. ADSL delivers high bandwidth over existing twisted-pair copper
telephone lines. Also called Asymmetric
Digital Subscriber Loop.
ADSL supports speeds in the range of 1.5 to
9Mbps in the downstream direction (from
the network to the subscriber) and supports
upstream speeds in the range of 16 Kbps to
640 Kbps; hence, the term asymmetric.
See also Digital Subscriber Line; High-BitRate Digital Subscriber Line; Rate-Adaptive
Digital Subscriber Line; Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line; Very-High-Bit-Rate
Digital Subscriber Line.
Assymetric Digital Subscriber Loop
See Assymetric Digital Subscriber Line.
asynchronous communications See
asynchronous transmission.
asynchronous communications
server A LAN server that allows a network user to dial out of the network into
the public switched telephone system or to
access leased lines for asynchronous communications. Asynchronous communications servers may also be called dial-in/dialout servers or modem servers.
asynchronous time-division
multiplexing Abbreviated ATDM. An
asynchronous and adaptive version of time-
division multiplexing in which time slots are
allocated dynamically based on demand.
See also time-division multiplexing.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode Abbreviated ATM. A method used for transmitting voice, video, and data over high-speed
LANs and WANs. ATM uses continuous
bursts of fixed-length packets called cells to
transmit data. The basic packet consists of
53 bytes, 5 of which are used for control
functions and 48 for data.
ATM is a connection-oriented protocol,
and two kinds of connections are possible:
■
■
Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs), in
which connections are created manually
Switched virtual circuits (SVCs), in which
connections are made automatically
Speeds of up to 2.488Gbps have been
achieved in testing. ATM will find wide acceptance in the LAN and WAN arenas as a
solution to integrating disparate networks
over large geographical distances. Also
known as cell relay.
See also permanent virtual circuit;
switched virtual circuit.
asynchronous transmission A method
of data transmission that uses start bits and
stop bits to coordinate the flow of data so
that the time intervals between individual
characters do not need to be equal. Parity
also may be used to check the accuracy of
the data received.
See also communications parameters;
data bits; synchronous transmission.
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ATA
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
ATA See Advanced Technology
Attachment.
AT command set A set of standard instructions used to activate features on a modem. Originally developed by Hayes
Microcomputer Products, the AT command set is now used by almost all modem
manufacturers.
See also modem.
ATDM See asynchronous time-division
multiplexing.
ATG
See address translation gateway.
ATM See Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
ATM25 A low-cost version of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) that runs on
Category 3 unshielded twisted-pair cable
and provides 25Mbps transmissions in
both directions.
ATM Adaptation Layer Abbreviated
AAL. A service-dependent layer in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) that provides the protocol translation between
ATM and the other communications services involved in a transmission.
AAL has several service types and classes of
operation to handle different kinds of traffic, depending on how data is transmitted,
the bandwidth required, and the types of
connection involved.
See also convergence sublayer; segmentation and reassembly sublayer.
ATM LAN Emulation An Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) variation that
uses software to make the network operating system see an ATM adapter as an Ethernet or Token Ring adapter.
See also IP over ATM; LAN Emulation;
Multiprotocol over ATM.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode; IP
over ATM; LAN Emulation; Multiprotocol
over ATM.
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AUDITCON
at symbol The separating character (@)
between account name and domain name in
an Internet e-mail address.
See also bang path.
AT&T The parent company of Bell Laboratories, the original developers of Unix.
For many years Bell Labs was one of the
two major development centers for Unix
(the other being the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California at Berkeley), but in 1990, AT&T
formed Unix Systems Laboratories, or USL,
to continue the development of Unix. In
1993, USL was sold to Novell, and in 1995,
Novell sold the rights to SCO (Santa Cruz
Operation).
See also Baby Bells; Regional Bell Operating Companies.
attenuation The decrease in power of a
signal with increasing distance. Attenuation is measured in decibels, and it increases
as the power of the signal decreases. The
best cables (those exhibiting the least attenuation) are fiber-optic lines, and the worst
cables are unshielded, untwisted-pair lines,
such as the silver, flat-satin cables used in
short-run telephone and modem lines.
In a LAN, attenuation can become a problem when cable lengths exceed the stated
network specification; however, the useful
length of a cable may be extended by the use
of a repeater.
attribute 1. A file attribute is a technique for describing access to and properties of files and directories within a file
system. You may see the term attribute used
interchangeably with the term property.
attach To establish a connection between a workstation and a network file
server; particularly, to access additional
servers after logging on to one server.
2. A screen attribute controls a character’s
attachment See enclosure.
3. In operating systems, a characteristic
Attachment Unit Interface Abbreviated AUI. A 15-pin socket used by some
Ethernet devices. AUI connections adapt
between two different cabling types and
work with a wide range of wiring schemes.
Also known as a DIX (for Digital, Intel,
Xerox) connector.
background and foreground colors, as well
as other characteristics, such as underlining,
reverse video, and blinking or animation.
that indicates whether a file is a read-only
file, a hidden file, or a system file or has
changed in some way since it was last
backed up.
4. In markup languages such as HTML and
SGML, a name-value pair within a tagged
element that modifies certain characteristics of that element.
attack An attempt to circumvent the security measures in place on a network either
to gain unauthorized access to the system or
to force a denial of service.
5. In a database record, the name or struc-
See also brute-force attack; dictionary attack; social engineering.
AUDITCON A Novell NetWare and IntranetWare workstation utility that creates
ture of a field.
See also tag.
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audit policy
a log file to allow an independent auditor to
verify that network transactions are accurate and that confidential information is secure. When auditing is enabled, an auditor
can track when files or directories are created, deleted, modified, salvaged, moved,
or renamed. Changes to security rights can
also be tracked.
audit policy In Microsoft Windows
2000, the policy that defines the security
events to track and report to the network
administrator.
See also security log.
audit trail An automatic feature of certain programs or operating systems that
creates a running record of all transactions.
An audit trail allows you to track a piece of
data from the moment it enters the system
to the moment it leaves and to determine
the origin of any changes to that data.
auditing The process of scrutinizing network security-related events and transactions to ensure that they are accurate,
particularly reviewing attempts to create,
access, and delete files and directories and
reviewing security violations. Records of
these events are usually stored in a security
log file, which can only be examined by users with special permissions.
AUI See Attachment Unit Interface.
authentication In a network operating
system or multiuser system, the process that
validates a user’s logon information.
Authentication may involve comparing the
user name and password to a list of authorized users. If a match is found, the user can
log on and access the system in accordance
with the rights or permissions assigned to
his or her user account.
See also authorization; Kerberos; password; user; user account.
authoring The process of preparing a
multimedia presentation or a Web page.
This involves not only writing the text of
the presentation or Web page, but also the
production of the slides, sound, video, and
graphical components.
authorization The provision of rights or
permissions based on identity. Authorization and authentication go hand in hand in
networking; your access to services is based
on your identity, and the authentication
processes confirm that you are who you say
you are.
See also authentication.
auto-answer A feature of a modem
that allows it to answer incoming calls
automatically.
See also answer mode; dialback modem.
auto-dial A feature of a modem that allows it to open a telephone line and start a
call. To auto-dial, the modem sends a series
of pulses or tones that represent a stored
telephone number.
See also callback modem.
AUTOEXEC.BAT A contraction of Automatically Executed Batch. A special
MS-DOS batch file, located in the root directory of the startup disk, that runs automatically every time you start or restart
your computer. The commands contained
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Available Cell Rate
in AUTOEXEC.BAT are executed one by
one, just as if you typed them at the system
prompt. An AUTOEXEC.BAT file can be
used to load hardware device drivers, set
the system prompt, change the default
drive to the first network drive, and log the
user in to the file server.
In OS/2, you can select any batch file to be
used as AUTOEXEC.BAT for a specific
MS-DOS session, so you can tailor specific
environments for separate MS-DOS sessions,
each using a different AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
See also AUTOEXEC.NCF; boot; bootstrap;
CONFIG.SYS.
AUTOEXEC.NCF A Novell NetWare
batch file usually located on the NetWare
partition of the server’s hard disk, used to
set the NetWare operating system configuration. AUTOEXEC.NCF loads the LAN
drivers, the NLMs, and the settings for the
network interface boards and then binds
the protocols to the installed drivers.
Automatic Client Upgrade A mechanism used to upgrade Novell client software
during the logon process by executing four
separate programs called by the logon
script. Automatic Client Upgrade can be
very useful when all client workstations use
standard configurations.
automatic forwarding A feature of
many e-mail programs that automatically
retransmits incoming messages to another
e-mail address.
automatic number identification Abbreviated ANI. A method of passing a caller’s telephone number over the network to
the recipient so that the caller can be iden-
tified. ANI is often associated with ISDN
and is sometimes known as caller ID.
automatic rollback In a Novell NetWare network, a feature of the Transaction
Tracking System (TTS) that abandons the
current transaction and returns a database
to its original condition if the network fails
in the middle of a transaction. Automatic
rollback prevents the database from being
corrupted by information from incomplete
transactions.
See also backing out.
Autonomous System Border router
Abbreviated ASBR. In an internetwork that
uses link state routing protocols such as
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocols,
a router that has at least one connection
to a router in an external network.
See also Area Border router; Open Shortest Path First.
AutoPlay A feature of Microsoft Windows that automatically executes an application from a CD-ROM or automatically
plays an audio CD when the disk is inserted
into the CD-ROM drive.
Available Bit Rate A Type 3 or Type 4
Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaption
Layer (AAL) service designed for non–timecritical applications such as LAN emulation
and LAN internetworking.
See also Constant Bit Rate; Unspecified Bit
Rate; Variable Bit Rate.
Available Cell Rate Abbreviated ACR.
A measure of the bandwidth in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The
ACR value represents the number of ATM
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avatar
cells available or allowed per second for a
specific quality of service (QoS) class.
Available Cell Rate is also known as Allowed Cell Rate.
avatar 1. In Unix, another name for the
superuser account; an alternative to the
name root.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Minimum Cell Rate; Peak Cell Rate; Sustainable Cell Rate.
shared virtual-reality environment.
2. A visual representation of a user in a
AWG See American Wire Gauge.
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back-end system
B
Baan Advanced Certification Abbreviated BAC. A certification from Baan available in four specialties covering the Baan
IV suite of products: Enterprise Logistics,
Enterprise Finance, Enterprise Tools,
and Enterprise Modeler.
See also Baan Basic Certification.
Baan Basic Certification Abbreviated
BBC. A certification from Baan designed to
evaluate basic proficiency with the Baan IV
suite of products; a prerequisite qualification to taking the Baan Advanced Certification exams.
See also Baan Advanced Certification.
Baan Company A leading provider of
enterprise and inter-enterprise business
software used for managing finance, manufacturing, inventory, distribution, transportation, and administrative functions for
large companies.
For more information on Baan, see
www2.baan.com.
Baby Bells A slang term for the 22 Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOC),
formed when AT&T was broken up in 1984.
See also Bell Labs.
BAC See Baan Advanced Certification.
backbone That portion of the network
that manages the bulk of the traffic. The
backbone may connect several locations or
buildings, and other, smaller networks may
be attached to it. The backbone often uses
a higher-speed protocol than the individual
LAN segments.
back-end processor A secondary processor that performs one specialized task
very effectively, freeing the main processor
for other, more important work.
back-end system The server part of a
client/server system that runs on one or
more file servers and provides services to
the front-end applications running on networked workstations. The back-end system
accepts query requests sent from a frontend application, processes those requests,
and returns the results to the workstation.
Back-end systems may be PC-based servers, superservers, midrange systems, or
mainframes.
See also client/server architecture.
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background
BACKBONE
background 1. On a computer screen,
the color on which characters are displayed;
for example, white characters may appear
on a blue background.
2. In an operating system, a process that
runs in the background generally runs at a
lower level of priority than a foreground
task and does not accept input from the user. Only multitasking operating systems
support true background and foreground
processing, but some applications can mimic it. For example, many word processors
can print a document while still accepting
input from the keyboard. In older systems,
a process spends its entire existence in either
the background or the foreground; in newer
systems, you can change the processing environment and move foreground programs
into the background, and vice versa.
See also ampersand; foreground;
multitasking.
background authentication The process used to give a workstation access to a
particular server. For example, in Novell
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backup
NetWare, password authentication uses a
public key encryption scheme to protect
password information before it is transmitted over the network. All this activity takes
place in the background, and all the user
has to do is enter his or her password.
background noise Any unwanted signal that enters a line, channel, or circuit; for
example, electrical interference on a telephone circuit.
completely, taking all your work with
them. If this failure occurs, you can reload
your files and directories from the backup
copy. A backup is your insurance against
disk failure affecting the thousands or
possibly tens of thousands of files you
might have on your file server.
■
See also noise.
■
backing out The process of abandoning
the current transaction and returning a database to its original condition if the network fails during the transaction. This
process prevents the database from being
corrupted by information from the incomplete transaction.
See also automatic rollback; Transaction
Tracking System.
backlink In Novell Directory Services, an
attribute used by a directory to indicate the
external references to a property.
backslash 1. In MS-DOS, OS/2, and
other operating systems, you must use the
backslash character (\) to separate directory
or subdirectory names in a path statement
or when changing to another directory.
■
■
■
■
See also slash.
backup An up-to-date copy of all your
files. You make a backup for several reasons:
■
Insurance against possible hard-disk or
file-server failure. Hard disks often fail
Protection against the new version of software you are about to install not working
to your expectations; make a backup before installing new software.
As an archive at the end of a project, when
a person leaves your company, or at the
end of a financial period such as year-end
close.
Your decision when or how often to make
a backup depends on how frequently important data on your system changes. If you
rely on certain files always being available
on your system, it is crucial that you make
regular, consistent backups. Here are some
backup tips:
2. A shorthand name for the root directory.
Sometimes called the reverse slash or
backslant.
Protection against accidental deletion of
files or directories. Again, if you mistakenly delete a file or directory, you can retrieve a copy from your last backup.
■
Keep multiple copies; redundancy should
be a part of your backup plan.
Test your backups to make sure they are
what you think they are before you bring
the server into service, and make sure you
can reload the information you need.
Store your backups in a secure off-site location; do not leave them right next to the
computer (if the computer is damaged by
an accident, the backup may be damaged
as well).
Replace your backup media on a regular
basis.
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backup browser
■
Consider making incremental backups of
critical data at more frequent intervals.
It all comes down to one very simple rule:
back up all the files that you cannot afford
to lose. Do it now.
See also archive; differential backup; disk
duplexing; disk mirroring; full backup; incremental backup.
backup browser In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a computer that maintains a
list of computers and services available on
the network. This list is provided by the
master browser and distributed to a workgroup or a domain by the backup browser.
See also browser; master browser.
backup domain controller In Microsoft Windows NT, a server containing accurate replications of the security and user
databases.
The backup domain controller receives a
copy of the domain’s directory database,
containing all the account and security information for the domain, from the primary domain controller. This copy is periodically
synchronized with the original master database. A domain can contain several backup
domain controllers.
See also domain controller; primary domain controller.
backup program An application that
you use to make archive or backup copies of
important data files.
Most operating systems offer commands
for making backups, but many are limited
in capability. The most cost-effective backup programs are from third-party vendors.
See also disk duplexing; disk mirroring; full
backup; incremental backup; tape cartridge; tape drive.
backward compatibility Full compatibility with earlier versions of the same application or computer system.
Backward Error Correction Abbreviated BEC. An error-correction method in
which an error can be detected by the recipient, which immediately requests a retransmission of the affected data.
See also error detection and correction.
BACP
See Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol.
bad sector An area on a hard disk or
floppy disk that cannot be used to store
data because of a manufacturing defect or
accidental damage.
The operating system will find, mark, and
isolate bad sectors. Almost all hard disks
have some bad sectors, often listed in the
bad track table. Usually, bad sectors are a
result of the manufacturing process and not
a concern; the operating system will mark
them as bad, and you will never even know
they are there.
bad track table A list of the defective areas on a hard disk, usually determined during final testing of the disk at the factory.
Some disk-preparation programs ask you
to enter information from this list to reduce
the time that a low-level format takes to
prepare the disk for use by the operating
system.
balun A contraction of balanced
unbalanced. A small device used to connect
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Banyan VINES
a balanced line (such as a twisted-pair
cable) to an unbalanced line (such as a
coaxial cable). The balun matches
impedances between the two media.
bandwidth 1. In communications, the
difference between the highest and lowest
frequencies available for transmission in
any given range.
2. In networking, the transmission capaci-
ty of a computer or a communications
channel, stated in megabits per second
(Mbps). For example, FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) has a bandwidth of
100Mbps. To relate this to a real-world example, a complete page of text, in English,
is approximately 16,000 bits.
Bandwidth Allocation Control
Protocol Abbreviated BACP. A proposed Internet protocol designed to manage
a combination of dial-up links, usually over
ISDN connections.
BACP provides bandwidth on demand and
can combine two or more circuits into a single circuit with a higher data rate.
See also bandwidth on demand.
bandwidth on demand A technique
that allows the user to add additional bandwidth as the application requires it.
Most network traffic does not flow in steady
and easily predictable streams, but in short
bursts, separated by longer periods of inactivity. This pattern makes it difficult to predict peak loads. Bandwidth on demand is
useful for applications such as backups and
videoconferencing and allows the user to pay
for only the amount of bandwidth used.
See also virtual data network.
bandwidth reservation A technique
used to reserve channel capacity for special
time-sensitive transmissions such as
videoconferencing and real-time audio
transmissions.
bandwidth throttling A feature in some
Web server software that allows the system
administrator to control or alter the proportions of bandwidth available to the services that the server provides.
bang A name given in the Unix and Internet worlds to the exclamation point (!)
character; also known as pling in the United
Kingdom.
See also bang path.
bang path An old-style uucp e-mail address that uses exclamation points to separate the sequence of computer names
needed to get to the addressee.
Bang paths list addresses—general to specific—from left to right, which is the reverse
of the sequence used by other addressing
schemes.
See also at symbol; domain name; e-mail
address; uucp.
Banyan Systems, Inc. A leading provider of enterprise network products, including the Banyan VINES network
operating system, products based on the
Banyan StreetTalk Directory, and BeyondMail messaging technologies.
For more information on Banyan, see
www.banyan.com.
Banyan VINES A network operating system from Banyan Systems. VINES (a contraction of Virtual Networking Software) is
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Banyan VINES
based on a special version of the Unix System V operating system.
different LAN segments. A complete set of
network management tools is also available.
The following illustration shows the internal
organization of VINES. The Unix layer is
hidden from view by VINES and is not available for other applications. VINES provides
all server functions, including those of a communications/modem server, and offers many
options for connecting to minicomputers,
mainframes, and other network file servers.
VINES automatically manages protocol
binding and translations required between
the network interface cards for routing to
Workstations can run MS-DOS, Microsoft
Windows, Unix, or OS/2, and they can store
native-form files on the server. Macintosh
computers can also attach to the network.
VINES offers special support for very large
LANs and WANs with multiple file servers.
VINES also allows PCs that support multiple processors to use multiprocessing to divide the file-server processing load.
See also Enterprise Network Services;
StreetTalk.
BANYAN VINES
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Basic Rate ISDN
base 10 radix See decimal.
base64 An encoding scheme used by
MIME-compliant mail systems to convert
binary files into a text format that can be
processed and sent as e-mail.
See also binary file; Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extension.
baseband modem See line driver.
baseband network A technique for
transmitting signals as direct-current pulses
rather than as modulated signals. The entire
bandwidth of the transmission medium is
used by a single digital signal, so computers
in a baseband network can transmit only
when the channel is not busy. However, the
network can use techniques such as multiplexing to allow channel sharing.
A baseband network can operate over relatively short distances (up to 2 miles if network traffic is light) at speeds from 50Kbps
to 100Mbps. Ethernet, AppleTalk, and
most PC local-area networks (LANs) use
baseband techniques.
See also bandwidth; broadband network;
frequency-division multiplexing; statistical
multiplexing; time-division multiplexing.
baseline The process of determining and
documenting network throughput and other performance information when the network is operating under what is considered
a normal load. Measured performance
characteristics might include error-rate
and data-transfer information, along with
information about the most active users
and their applications.
Bash In Unix, a popular command interpreter. Bash, the Bourne-Again Shell, was
first released in 1989 by Brian Fox and Chet
Ramey, as part of the Free Software Foundation GNU Project.
Bash provides features found in the other
Unix shells, particularly the Bourne shell,
the C shell, and the Korn shell, and includes
Bourne shell syntax, redirection and quoting, C-shell command-line editing and tilde
expansion, job control, and command history. Bash also includes built-in commands
and variables, as well as aliases from the
Korn shell.
See also Bourne shell; C shell; Korn shell;
Linux; Unix shell.
basic disk In Microsoft Windows 2000
Server, a normal hard disk, available from
any operating system, that uses primary
and extended partitions to divide the available space into logical units.
See also dynamic disk.
Basic Rate ISDN Abbreviated BRI. An
ISDN service that offers two 64Kbps B
channels used for data transfer and one
16Kbps D channel used for signaling and
control information.
Each B channel can carry a single digital
voice call or can be used as a data channel;
the B channels can also be combined into a
single 128Kbps data channel.
See also 23B+D; 2B+D; Primary Rate ISDN.
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bastion host
BASIC RATE ISDN
bastion host A computer system that
acts as the main connection to the Internet
for users of a LAN. A bastion host is usually
configured in such a way as to minimize the
risk of intruders gaining access to the main
LAN. It gets its name from the fortified projections on the outer walls of medieval European castles.
See also firewall; proxy server.
batch file An ASCII file that contains
operating system commands and other
commands supported by the batch processor. Batch files are used to automate repetitive tasks. The commands in the file are
executed one line at a time, just as if you
had typed them at the system prompt.
baud A measurement of data-transmission speed. Originally used in measuring
the speed of telegraph equipment, it now
usually refers to the data-transmission
speed of a modem or other serial device.
See also baud rate.
baud rate In communications equipment, a measurement of the number of state
changes (from 0 to 1 or vice versa) per sec-
ond on an asynchronous communications
channel.
Baud rate is often assumed to correspond to
the number of bits transmitted per second,
but baud rate and bits per second (bps) are
not always the same. In high-speed digital
communications systems, one state change
can be made to represent more than one
data bit.
See also baud; bits per second.
Bay Networks Certified Expert A certification from Bay Networks, Inc., designed to recognize technical expertise in
constructing enterprise-wide networking
solutions. Currently, this certification is
available in Router, Hub, and Network
Management technologies.
Bay Networks Certified Specialist A
certification from Bay Networks, Inc., designed to evaluate a basic level of technical
expertise in one or more Bay Networks
product areas. Currently, this certification
is available in Router, Hub, Network Management, Remote Access, and Switching
technologies.
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Berkeley Software Distribution Unix
Bay Networks, Inc. A leading manufacturer of networking products such as hubs,
routers, and switches, now venturing into
the areas of network management and virtual private networks. In 1998, the company announced a merger with Northern
Telecom.
For more information on Bay Networks,
see www.baynetworks.com.
BBC See Baan Basic Certification.
BBS See bulletin board system.
bcc See blind carbon copy.
BCD See binary coded decimal.
beaconing In a token-ring network, the
process of informing other nodes that token
passing has been suspended because of a severe error condition, such as a broken cable.
Communication cannot resume until the
condition is resolved.
See also Berkeley Software Distribution
Unix; Computer Systems Research Group.
benchmark A specific standard against
which some aspect of computer performance can be compared.
A benchmark is a test that attempts to
quantify hardware, software, or system
performance—usually in terms of speed, reliability, or accuracy. One of the major
problems in determining performance is deciding which of the many benchmarks
available actually reflects the way you intend to use the system.
See also benchmark program.
benchmark program A program that
attempts to provide a consistent measurement of system performance. Here are some
examples:
■
■
BEC See Backward Error Correction.
■
Bell communications standards A set
of data-transmission standards developed
by AT&T in the 1980s that rapidly became
the de facto standard for modem manufacturers. Although several of these standards
are still widely used in the United States, the
CCITT V series definitions are now generally accepted as the defining standards for
modem use, data compression, and associated hardware.
Bell Labs The research arm of AT&T
and the birthplace of the Unix operating
system and the C programming language in
the 1970s.
Dhrystone, which measures microprocessor and memory performance
Whetstone, which measures speed of
arithmetic operations
Khornerstone, which measures overall
system performance, including disk-drive
access speed, memory access speed, and
processor performance
The Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative (SPEC) developed a set of ten
tests to measure performance in actual application environments. The results of these
tests are known as SPECmarks.
BER See bit error rate; error rate.
Berkeley Software Distribution Unix
Abbreviated BSD Unix, and also known as
Berkeley Unix. BSD Unix was developed at
the University of California at Berkeley by
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Berkeley Unix
researchers working in the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) from the
1970s to 1993 when the group finally
closed its doors. BSD added many significant advanced features to Unix, including
the C shell, the vi editor, TCP/IP networking additions, and virtual memory.
Because the CSRG was an academic group
producing state-of-the-art software with no
support obligations, BSD Unix was not supported in the normal way; bug fixes were
sometimes made available, but it was a hitand-miss process at best. For this reason,
BSD Unix appealed to the research community and scientific users rather than to commercial users who tended to use Unix from
AT&T.
BSD Unix 4.1 through to the last release,
version 4.4, and the related commercial
products, including those from Sun Microsystems, DEC, and Mt Xinu, are still
popular and in use in universities and commercial institutions all over the world.
See also FreeBSD; Linux; NetBSD; Unix.
Berkeley Unix See Berkeley Software
Distribution Unix.
beta site A location where beta testing is
performed before a hardware or software
product is formally released for commercial
distribution.
See also beta software; beta testing.
beta software Software that has been
released to a cross-section of typical users
for testing before the commercial release of
the package.
See also beta testing.
beta testing The process of field testing
new hardware or software products before
the product’s commercial or formal release.
Beta testing is usually done by a cross-section of users, not just programmers. The
purpose of beta testing is to expose the new
product to as many real-life operating conditions as possible.
If the beta tests indicate a higher-thanexpected number of bugs, the developer
usually fixes the problems and sends the
product out again for another round of beta
testing. Preliminary versions of the product
documentation are also circulated for review during the beta testing.
See also alpha testing.
BGP See Border Gateway Protocol.
Big Blue A nickname for International
Business Machine Corporation (IBM),
which uses blue as its corporate color.
big endian A computer architecture in
which the most significant byte has the lowest address and so is stored big end first.
Many processors, including those from
Motorola and Sun, certain RISC processors, the PDP-11, and the IBM 3270 series
are all big endian. The term comes from
Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, in
which wars were fought over whether
boiled eggs should be opened at the big end
or the little end.
See also holy wars; little endian.
binaries A slang term for a group of binary files.
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bindery emulation
binary Any scheme that uses two different states, components, conditions, or
conclusions.
In mathematics, the binary or base-2 numbering system uses combinations of the
digits 0 and 1 to represent all values. The
more familiar decimal system has a base of
10 (0–9).
Unlike computers, people find binary numbers that consist of long strings of zeros and
ones difficult to read, so most programmers
use hexadecimal (base-16) or octal (base-8)
numbers instead.
Binary also refers to an executable file containing a program.
binary coded decimal Abbreviated
BCD. A simple system for converting decimal numbers into binary form, in which
each decimal digit is converted into binary
and then stored as a single character.
binary file A file consisting of binary information. Usually, a binary file is a program or data file in machine-readable form
rather than in human-readable ASCII text.
You can convert a binary file into a textbased form so that you can transmit it over
the Internet.
See also base64; Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extension.
although a certain level of configuration
can be done, and the user does not have the
right to modify the software in any way beyond this simple configuration.
See also open source software; source
license.
BIND 1. A Novell NetWare server utility
used to bind a protocol to a network interface card or device driver.
2. Abbreviation for Berkeley Internet
Name Domain, a BSD client/server program that manages host and IP addresses by
matching the host name with the IP dotted
decimal address.
See also Domain Name Service; dotted
decimal.
bindery A database maintained by older
Novell NetWare network operating systems. The bindery contains information
about users, servers, and other important
network configuration details in a flat database. The bindery is crucial to NetWare’s
operation and is constantly consulted by
the operating system.
In NetWare 4.x and later systems, the bindery is replaced by NetWare Directory Services (NDS).
See also NetWare Directory Services.
binary license A license granted to a
user by a software developer, entitling the
user to run a specific software package under well-defined circumstances, using the
binary files provided by the developer.
bindery emulation A NetWare 4.x and
later feature that allows bindery-based utilities to work with NetWare Directory Services (NDS) on the same network. Bindery
emulation applies only to leaf objects within the Organizational container object.
A binary license does not entitle the user to
a copy of the source code for the package,
See also container object; leaf object; NetWare Directory Services.
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Bindery object
Bindery object A leaf object that represents an object placed in the Directory tree
by an upgrade utility, but that cannot be
further identified by NetWare Directory
Services (NDS). The Bindery object is available for the purposes of backward compatibility with older, bindery-based utilities
and applications.
See also leaf object; NetWare Directory
Services.
your computer supplier for information
about BIOS updates.
bis A term describing a secondary CCITT
(Consultative Committee for International
Telephony and Telegraphy) recommendation that is an alternative or extension to the
primary recommendation. For example,
the CCITT V.42 standard refers to error
correction, and the V.42 bis standard refers
to data compression.
See also ter.
bindery services See bindery
B-ISDN See Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network.
emulation.
binding The process of establishing communications between the protocol device
driver and the network interface card driver.
BIOS Acronym for basic input/output
system, pronounced “bye-os.” In the PC,
the BIOS is a set of instructions that tests the
hardware when the computer is first turned
on, starts to load the operating system, and
lets the computer’s hardware and operating
system communicate with applications and
peripheral devices, such as hard disks,
printers, and video adapters. These instructions are stored in ROM as a permanent
part of the computer.
As new hardware is developed, new BIOS
routines must be created to service those devices. For example, BIOS support has been
added for power management and for everlarger hard disks. If you are experiencing
problems accessing such devices after adding them to an existing system, your computer's BIOS may be out of date. Contact
bisynchronous communications A
protocol used extensively in mainframe
computer networks. With bisynchronous
communications, both the sending and receiving devices must be synchronized before data transmission begins.
Data is collected into a package known as a
frame. Each frame contains leading and
trailing characters that allow the computers
to synchronize their clocks. The structure of
a bisynchronous communications frame is
shown in the accompanying illustration.
The STX and ETX control characters mark
the beginning and end of the message. BCC
is a set of characters used to verify the accuracy of the transmission.
A more modern form of this kind of protocol is SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control), which is used in IBM’s proprietary
networking scheme, SNA.
See also asynchronous transmission; Synchronous Data Link Control.
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bit stuffing
BISYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATIONS
bit Contraction of binary digit. A bit is
the basic unit of information in the binary
numbering system, representing either 0
(off) or 1 (on). Bits can be grouped to form
larger storage units; the most common
grouping is the 7- or 8-bit byte.
See also octet.
Data Link Control) are both bit-oriented
protocols.
See also byte-oriented protocol.
bit rate The rate at which bits are transmitted over a communications channel, described in terms of bits per second (bps).
See also baud rate.
bit error rate Abbreviated BRI. The
number of erroneous bits in a data transmission or in a data transfer, such as from
CD-ROM to memory.
bit-oriented protocol A communications protocol in which data is transmitted
as a stream of bits rather than as a stream of
bytes.
A bit-oriented protocol uses specific sequences of bits as control codes, unlike a
byte-oriented protocol, which uses reserved
characters. HDLC (High-level Data Link
Control) and IBM's SDLC (Synchronous
bits per inch Abbreviated bpi. The number of bits that a tape or tape cartridge can
store per inch of length.
bits per second Abbreviated bps. The
number of binary digits, or bits, transmitted
every second during a data-transfer procedure. Bits per second is a measurement of
the speed of operation of equipment, such
as a computer’s data bus or a modem that
connects a computer to a communications
circuit.
bit stuffing A technique used to ensure
that a specific bit pattern never occurs in
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blackout
the data transmitted over a communications channel. Additional bits are added at
the transmitting end and removed at the
receiving end of the channel as the data is
processed.
blackout A total loss of commercial electric power. To avoid loss of computer data
due to a blackout, use a battery-backed UPS
(uninterruptible power supply).
See also brownout; power conditioning.
blind carbon copy Abbreviated bcc. A
list of recipients of an e-mail message whose
names do not appear in the normal message
header, so the original recipient of the message does not know that copies have been
forwarded to other locations. Sometimes
called blind courtesy copy.
block In communications, a unit of transmitted information that includes header
codes (such as addresses), data, and errorchecking codes.
See also checksum; error; error detection
and correction.
blocks Sections of a tape or disk that are
read or written at the same time; units of
storage that are transferred as single units.
block size The largest contiguous
amount of disk space allocated by the file
system. Files larger than the file system’s
block size may be broken into smaller fragments when they are stored, with sections
of the file being stored in different loca-
tions across the disk. This is known as
fragmentation and, in some cases when
taken to an extreme, can severely limit system performance.
The file system’s block size is often different
from the hard disk’s physical block size.
See also fragmentation.
block suballocation A mechanism used
in Novell NetWare that allows files to share
the same block space by dividing each 8K
hard-disk block into smaller 512-byte segments. Files needing extra space can use
these smaller segments rather than wasting
a whole new disk block, making for more
efficient disk-space use.
blue screen of death Abbreviated
BSOD. An affectionate name for the screen
displayed when Microsoft Windows encounters an error so serious that the operating system cannot continue to run.
Windows may also display information
about the failure and may perform a memory dump and an automatic system restart.
BNC connector A small connector with
a half-turn locking shell for coaxial cable,
used with thin Ethernet and RG-62 cabling.
The accompanying illustration shows both
male and female connectors.
BNCE See Bay Networks Certified
Expert.
BNCS See Bay Networks Certified
Specialist.
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boot
BNC CONNECTOR
bookmark 1. In the Microsoft Windows NT Performance Monitor, a feature
that allows you to mark a point of interest
in a log file and then return to that same
point in the file at a later time.
2. An option available in a Web browser
that lets you mark a Web page so that you
can identify and return to a favorite site
quickly and easily without having to retype
the URL or even remember how you got
there.
Boolean Any variable that can have a
logical value of true or false. Named after
George Boole, the developer of a branch of
algebra based on the values of true and
false, Boolean works with logical rather
than numeric relationships.
Boolean operators include AND (logical
conjunction), OR (logical inclusion), XOR
(exclusive or), and NOT (logical negation)
and are sometimes described as logical
operators.
Many popular Internet search engines allow Boolean searches.
See also search engine.
boot To load an operating system into
memory, usually from a hard disk, although
occasionally from a floppy disk. Booting is
generally an automatic procedure that begins when you turn on or reset your computer. A set of instructions contained in ROM
begins executing. The instructions run a series of power-on self tests (POSTs) to check
that devices such as hard disks are in working order, locate and load the operating system, and finally pass control over to that
operating system.
Boot may be derived from the expression
“pulling yourself up by your own bootstraps” and is sometimes called bootstrap.
See also BIOS; cold boot; warm boot.
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bootable disk
bootable disk Any disk capable of loading and starting the operating system. Bootable floppy disks are becoming less common
because operating systems are growing larger. In some cases, all the files needed to start
the operating system will not fit on even the
largest-capacity floppy disk, which makes it
impossible to boot from a floppy disk.
BOOTCONF.SYS A Novell NetWare
configuration file that specifies how a diskless workstation boots the operating system
from the file server. If the file server contains several remote boot image files,
BOOTCONF.SYS determines which one
will be loaded onto the workstation.
See also diskless workstation.
BOOTP See Bootstrap Protocol.
boot ROM A type of ROM that allows a
workstation to communicate with the network file server and to read an image file
containing an operating system program. In
this way, a workstation without a local disk
can boot the operating system from the file
server.
See also diskless workstation.
boot sector virus A virus that infects
the master boot record of a computer by
overwriting the original boot code with infected boot code. This kind of virus is usually spread to a hard disk from an infected
floppy disk being used as a boot disk.
See also antivirus program; file-infecting
virus; macro virus; multipart virus; polymorphic virus; stealth virus; Trojan Horse;
vaccine; virus.
bootstrap See boot.
Bootstrap Protocol Abbreviated
BOOTP. An Internet protocol that provides
network configuration information to a
diskless workstation.
When the workstation first boots, it sends
out a BOOTP message on the network. This
message is received by the server, which obtains the appropriate configuration information and returns that information to the
workstation. This information includes the
workstation’s IP address, the IP address of
the server, the host name of the server, and
the IP address of a default router.
See also Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol.
border A security perimeter formed by
logical boundaries that can only be crossed
at specifically defined locations known as
border gateways.
See also border gateway.
border gateway A router that connects a
private LAN to the Internet. A border gateway is a security checkpoint used to force all
network traffic, either inbound or outbound, through a single point of control.
See also border; firewall; Novell BorderManager; router.
Border Gateway Protocol Abbreviated BGP. A routing protocol designed to replace EGP (External Gateway Protocol)
and interconnect organizational networks.
BGP, unlike EGP, evaluates each of the possible routes for the best one.
Border router
See Area Border router.
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bridge
Borland International, Inc. See Inprise
Corporation.
bot See robot.
bounce The return of an e-mail message
to its original sender due to an error in delivery. You may have made a simple spelling
mistake in the e-mail address, the recipient’s
computer system may be down, or the recipient may no longer subscribe to or have an
account on the system. A returned e-mail
message will usually contain a description of
why the message bounced.
Bourne shell In Unix, a popular command interpreter with a built-in programming language.
The Bourne shell, developed by Dr. Steven
Bourne of Bell Labs, is the oldest Unix shell
still in popular use and features a built-in
command set for writing shell scripts,
background execution of commands, input and output redirection, job control,
and a set of shell variables to allow environment customization.
See also Bash; C shell; Korn shell; Linux;
Unix shell.
bpi See bits per inch.
bps See bits per second.
brain damaged An expression used to
describe any poorly designed program or
piece of hardware that does not include
those features most users would consider
essential. The implication is that the designer should have known better than to leave
those features out of the product.
breach A loss of network security as a result of a successful attack.
See also brute-force attack; dictionary attack; social engineering.
breakout box A small device that can be
connected into a multicore cable for testing
the signals in a transmission. Small LEDs in
the breakout box indicate when a signal is
transmitted over one of the lines. Switches
or short jumper cables can be used to reroute these signals to other pins as required
for troubleshooting.
See also sniffer.
BRI See Basic Rate ISDN.
bridge A hardware device used to connect LANs so that they can exchange data.
Bridges can work with networks that use
different wiring or network protocols, joining two or more LAN segments to form
what appears to be a single network.
A bridge operates at the data-link layer of
the OSI Reference Model for computer-tocomputer communications. It manages the
flow of traffic between the two LANs by
reading the address of every packet of data
that it receives.
See also brouter; gateway; OSI Reference
Model; router.
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BrightWorks
BRIDGE
BrightWorks A package of network
management utilities from McAfee Associates that includes hardware and software
inventory, application metering, remote
control of clients, virus detection, and a
help-desk utility.
that handles high-bandwidth applications,
such as video, voice, data, and graphics.
Broadband Integrated Services Digital
Network Abbreviated B-ISDN. A highspeed communications standard for WANs
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
SONET; Switched Multimegabit Data
Services.
SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Services) and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer
Mode) are two BISDN services that can
provide a huge bandwidth.
BROADBAND INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK
broadband network A technique for
transmitting a large amount of information,
including voice, data, and video, over long
distances using the same communications
channel. Sometimes called wideband transmission, it is based on the same technology
used by cable television.
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brouter
The transmission capacity is divided into
several distinct channels that can be used
concurrently by different networks, normally by frequency-division multiplexing
(FDM). The individual channels are pro-
tected from each other by guard channels of
unused frequencies. A broadband network
can operate at speeds of up to 20Mbps.
See also baseband network; multiplexer.
BROADBAND NETWORK
broadcast To send a message to all users
currently logged in to the network.
See also multicast.
broadcast storm Congestion on a network that occurs when a large number of
frames are transmitted by many workstations in response to a transmission from one
workstation.
broker A Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS) service providing management
services for network printers, including
event notification and storage of printer resources such as device drivers.
brouter A networking device that combines the attributes of a bridge and a router.
A brouter can route one or more specific
protocols, such as TCP/IP, and bridge all
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brownout
others, for example, and can operate at either the data-link layer or the network layer
of the OSI Reference Model.
See also denial of service attack; dictionary
attack; social engineering; Trojan Horse.
BSD Unix See Berkeley Software DistriSee also gateway.
bution Unix.
brownout A short period of low voltage, often the result of an unusually heavy
demand for power, that may cause your
computer to crash. If your area experiences frequent brownouts, consider using a
UPS (uninterruptible power supply) as a
battery backup system.
BSOD See blue screen of death.
browse list A list of computers and services available on a network.
browser 1. An application program used
to explore Internet resources. A browser lets
you wander from Web site to Web site without concern for the technical details of the
links between them or the specific methods
used to access them and presents the information—text, graphics, sound, or video—as
a document on the screen.
2. A small application used to scan a data-
base or a list of files.
3. In Windows NT networking, a mecha-
nism used as a name service.
See also Web browser; World Wide Web.
brute-force attack A technique employed by intruders that checks every password in a password file against every
possible password generated sequentially.
A brute-force attack is very clumsy, is usually considered the last resort in an attack,
takes a long time to run, and is easily detected by even the most modest security precautions. Also called a keyspace attack.
buffer An area of memory set aside for
temporary storage of data. Often, the data
remains in the buffer until some external
event finishes. A buffer can compensate for
the differences in transmission or processing speed between two devices or between a
computer and a peripheral device, such as a
printer.
Buffers are implemented in a variety of ways,
including first-in-first-out (FIFO) used for
pipes and last-in-last-out used for stacks and
circular buffers such as event logs.
See also pipe.
buffered repeater Any device that amplifies and retransmits a signal so that it can
travel greater distances. A buffered repeater
can also control the flow of information to
prevent collisions.
See also repeater.
bug A logical or programming error in
hardware or software that causes a malfunction of some sort. If the problem is in
software, it can be fixed by changes to the
program. If the fault is in hardware, new
circuits must be designed and constructed.
Some bugs are fatal and may cause a program to stop responding or cause data loss,
others are just annoying, and many are not
even noticeable. The term apparently originates from the days of the first electromechanical computers, when a problem was
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bus mastering
traced to a moth caught between two contacts inside the machinery.
of the interface card, which ensures that every card has a unique address.
See also bug fix.
See also hardware address.
bug fix A release of hardware or software that corrects known bugs but does not
contain new features. Such releases are usually designated by an increase in the decimal
portion of the revision number; for example, the revision level may advance from 2.0
to 2.01 or 2.1, rather than from 2.0 to 3.0.
burst mode A method of data transmission in which information is collected and
then sent in one single high-speed transmission, rather than one packet or character at
a time.
built-in groups The default groups provided with some operating systems that define a collection of rights and permissions
for members. Using built-in groups is an
easy way of providing access to commonly
used network resources.
bulletin board system Abbreviated
BBS. A computer system equipped with one
or more modems, serving as a messagepassing system or centralized information
source, usually for a particular special interest group. Bulletin board systems were
often established by software vendors and
by PC user groups in the past, but have been
replaced in recent times by Web sites.
bundled software Programs combined
into a single package sold for a single price.
Sales aimed at a specific target, such as the
medical profession, usually bundle hardware with application-specific software
suited to that profession.
See also unbundled software.
burned-in address The hardware address on a network interface card (NIC).
This address is assigned by the manufacturer
Systems that use multiplexers to serve several channels often use burst mode to service
each channel in turn. Much LAN traffic can
be considered burst mode transmission: long
periods of inactivity punctuated by short
bursts of intense activity. In Novell NetWare, burst mode is known as packet burst.
bus An electronic pathway along which
signals are sent from one part of a computer
to another. A PC contains several buses,
each used for a different purpose:
■
■
■
The address bus allocates memory
addresses.
The data bus carries data between the processor and memory.
The control bus carries signals from the
control unit.
See also architecture; Extended Industry
Standard Architecture; Industry Standard
Architecture; local bus; Microchannel
Architecture; Peripheral Component
Interconnect local bus.
bus mastering A technique that allows
certain advanced bus architectures to delegate control of data transfers between the
CPU and associated peripheral devices to an
add-in board. This technique gives network
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bus network
interface cards (NICs) greater system bus
access and higher data-transfer speeds.
Peripheral Component Interconnect local
bus.
In the PC, bus mastering is supported by all
the common architectures except for the
older Industry Standard Architecture.
bus network In networking, a topology
that allows all network nodes to receive the
same message through the network cable at
the same time.
See also Extended Industry Standard Architecture; Industry Standard Architecture;
local bus; MicroChannel Architecture;
See also ring network; star network; tokenring network.
BUS NETWORK
byte Contraction of binary digit eight. A
group of bits. In computer storage terms, a
byte usually holds a single character, such
as a number, letter, or symbol. A byte usually contains 8 bits, but on some older systems, a byte may only have 7 bits or may
have as many as 11.
Because bytes represent a very small
amount of storage, they are usually
grouped into kilobytes (1,024 bytes),
megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), and gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes) for convenience when describing hard-disk capacity
or computer memory size.
See also octet.
bytecode An intermediate form of computer code produced by Java and other programming languages.
Most language compilers create code that
is ready to run on a specific kind of processor. Java creates the bytecode in an abstract, processor-independent form, which
requires further processing before it can
actually execute on a computer. When a
byte-code file is downloaded into your
computer from a Web page, it provides 70
to 80 percent of the data needed to run the
Java applet; the other 20 to 30 percent is
provided by the Java run-time environment, which tells the applet how to perform on the target computer system.
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byte-oriented protocol
See also Java; Java applet; just-in-time
compiler; sandbox.
byte-oriented protocol A communications protocol in which data is transmitted
as a series of bytes, or characters. In order
to distinguish the data from the control in-
formation, the protocol uses control characters that have a special meaning for the
transmitting and receiving stations. Most of
the common asynchronous communications protocols used in conjunction with
modems are byte-oriented protocols.
See also bit-oriented protocol.
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C2
C
C2 One of a series of seven levels of computer security defined by the National Security Agency.
management solutions, Cabletron is also
moving into Gigabit Ethernet and data,
voice, and video systems.
C2-level security requires that users are
logged in and tracked during their session,
that all resources have owners, that objects
such as files be protected from processes
that might damage them, that events can be
audited, and that the system has adequate
protection against intrusion.
For more information about Cabletron, see
C2 security applies to a stand-alone system,
so in theory a networked computer cannot
be C2-compliant; following the guidelines
can certainly help you to set up a more secure system.
CA See certificate authority.
cable modem A modem that sends and
receives signals through a coaxial cable
connected to a cable-television system,
rather than through conventional telephone lines.
Cable modems, with speeds of up to
500Kbps, are faster than current conventional modems, but are subject to performance changes as system load increases.
Theoretical data rates are much higher than
those achieved with conventional modems;
downstream rates of up to 36Mbps are possible, with 3Mbps to 10Mbps likely, and
upstream rates up to 10Mbps.
www.cabletron.com.
cabling standards National cabling
standards, concerned with the performance
of cables and connectors under conditions
of actual use, are specified by the National
Electric Code, American National Standards Institute, and Underwriters Laboratories. Other standards have been specified
by the Electronics Industry Association/
Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA). Standards include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Cabletron Systems A leading producer
of Internet and intranet hardware and
ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-1991 Commercial
Building Telecommunications Wiring.
EIA/TIA TSB-36 Additional Cable Specifications for UTP Cables. 1991.
EIA/TIA TSB-40 Telecommunications
Systems Bulletin—Additional Transmission Specifications for UTP Connecting
Hardware. 1992.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-568A 1995 revises the
original 568 document and adds material
from TSB-36 and TSB-40.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-569-1990 Commercial
Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-570-1991 Residential and
Light Commercial Telecommunications
Wiring Standard.
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cache buffer
■
■
ANSI/EIA/TIA-606-1993 Administration
Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings.
There are several types of caches:
■
ANSI/EIA/TIA-607-1994 Commercial
Building Grounding and Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications.
Local codes and standards may impose additional requirements.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) tests cable
and other devices to determine the conditions under which the device will function
safely. Two important tests for cable performance are:
■
■
■
UL-910, which tests smoke emission and
flame spread for plenum cable
UL-1666, which tests smoke emission and
flame spread for riser cable
■
CAC
See Connection Admission
Control.
cache Pronounced “cash.” A special area
of memory, managed by a cache controller,
that improves performance by storing the
contents of frequently accessed memory locations and their addresses.
A memory cache and a disk cache are not
the same. A memory cache is implemented
in hardware and speeds up access to memory. A disk cache is software that improves
hard-disk performance.
When the processor references a memory
address, the cache checks to see if it holds
that address. If it does, the information is
passed directly to the processor, so RAM
access is not necessary. A cache can speed
up operations in a computer whose RAM
access is slow compared with its processor
speed, because cache memory is always
faster than normal RAM.
Direct-mapped cache A location in the
cache corresponds to several specific locations in memory, so when the processor
calls for certain data, the cache can locate
it quickly. However, since several blocks
in RAM correspond to that same location
in the cache, the cache may spend its time
refreshing itself and calling main memory.
Fully associative cache Information
from RAM may be placed in any free
blocks in the cache so that the most recently accessed data is usually present;
however, the search to find that information may be slow because the cache has to
index the data in order to find it.
Set-associative cache Information from
RAM is kept in sets, and these sets may
have multiple locations, each holding a
block of data; each block may be in any of
the sets, but it will only be in one location
within that set. Search time is shortened,
and frequently used data are less likely to
be overwritten. A set-associative cache
may use two, four, or eight sets.
See also disk cache; wait state; write-back
cache; write-through cache.
cache buffer A Novell NetWare implementation of a disk cache used to speed
server disk accesses, thereby allowing
workstations to access data more quickly.
Reading data from cache memory is much
faster than reading data from the hard disk.
NetWare uses cache buffers for a variety of
purposes:
■
For use by NetWare Loadable Modules
(NLMs), such as LAN drivers, database
servers, communications servers, and
print servers
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cache buffer pool
■
To cache each volume’s FAT
■
To cache files currently in use
■
To build a hash table of directory
information
See also disk cache.
disk drives. Most current CD-ROM drives
do not require a caddy.
CAE See Common Application
Environment.
CAI See Computer Associates
International.
cache buffer pool In Novell NetWare,
the amount of memory available for use after the SERVER.EXE file has been loaded
into memory. Memory in the pool can be
used for a variety of purposes, including
caching the file allocation tables for each
volume and creating a hash table of directory information.
See also hash table.
cache controller Pronounced “cash
controller.” A special-purpose processor
whose sole task is to manage cache memory. On newer processors, such as the Intel
Pentium II, cache management is integrated
directly into the processor.
See also cache.
cache memory Pronounced “cash
memory.” A relatively small section of very
fast memory (often static RAM) reserved
for the temporary storage of the data or instructions likely to be needed next by the
processor.
Cache memory integrated directly onto the
microprocessor is called primary cache or
L1 cache, and cache memory located in an
external circuit is known as secondary
cache or L2 cache.
See also cache.
caddy The flat plastic container used to
load a compact disc into certain CD-ROM
Caldera, Inc. A software company in
Provo, Utah, that repackages one of the
most popular versions of Linux under the
name of OpenLinux.
For more information on Caldera, see
www.caldera.com.
callback modem Also known as a dialback modem. A special modem that does
not answer an incoming call, but instead requires the caller to enter a code and hang up
so that the modem can return the call. As
long as the entered code matches a previously authorized number, the modem dials
the number. Callback modems are useful in
installations for which communications
lines must be available for remote users but
data must be protected from intruders.
caller ID See automatic number
identification.
call packet A block of data that carries
addressing information, as well as any other information needed to establish an X.25
switched virtual circuit.
campus network A network that connects LANs from multiple departments inside a single building or set of buildings.
Campus networks are LANs because they
do not include WAN services, even though
they may extend for several miles.
canonical The usual standard Unix way
of doing something. This term has a more
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carrier signal
precise meaning in mathematics, in which
rules dictate the way that formulas are written, but in Unix, it tends to mean “according to ancient or religious law.”
display cursor to return to the first position
of the current line.
See also holy wars.
carrier An analog signal of fixed amplitude and frequency that is combined with a
data-carrying signal to produce an output
signal suitable for transmitting data.
Canon, Inc. One of the world’s leading
suppliers of imaging products, electronic
equipment, computer printers, fax machines, and scanners.
For more information on Canon, see
www.canon.com.
CAPI See Cryptography API.
card A printed circuit board or adapter
that you plug into a computer to add support for a specific piece of hardware.
See also expansion board; expansion bus.
card services Part of the software support needed for PCMCIA hardware devices
in a portable computer. Card services control the use of system interrupts, memory,
and power management.
When an application wants to access a PCMCIA card, it always goes through the card
services software and never communicates
directly with the underlying hardware. For
example, if you use a PCMCIA modem, it is
the card services, not the applications program, that establishes which communications port and which interrupts and I/O
addresses are in use.
See also device driver; PC Memory Card
International Association; socket services.
carriage return A control character
(ASCII 13) that signals the print head or
See also line feed.
See also carrier signal.
carrier detect Abbreviated CD. An electrical signal sent from a modem to the attached computer to indicate that the modem
is online.
See also Data Carrier Detect; RS-232-C.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Detection Abbreviated
CSMA/CD. A baseband protocol with a
built-in collision-detection technique. Each
node on the network listens first and transmits only when the line is free. If two nodes
transmit at exactly the same time and a collision occurs, both nodes stop transmitting.
Then, to avoid a subsequent collision, each
node waits for a different random length of
time before attempting to transmit again.
Ethernet and 802.3 LANs use CSMA/CD
access methods.
See also collision; demand priority; Fast
Ethernet; token passing.
carrier signal A signal of chosen frequency generated to carry data; often used
for long-distance transmissions. A carrier
signal does not convey any information
until the data is added to the signal by
modulation and then decoded on the receiving end by demodulation.
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cascaded star
cascaded star A network topology in
which multiple hubs or data centers are con-
nected in a succession of levels, which permits
many more connections than a single level.
CASCADED STAR
cascading menus In Microsoft Windows 2000, a function that presents the
contents of network drives or special folders such as Control Panel as menu items
that can be selected by name.
See also personalized menus.
Castanet A collection of software-update
tools from Marimba, Inc. that operate over
the Internet. Based on Java technology, Castanet can automatically deliver software updates not only for Java programs, but also
for those written in C, C++, and Visual
Basic, and because only the updated content
is downloaded, performance is optimized.
For more information on Castanet, see
www.marimba.com.
See also server push.
Category 1–5 The Electronics Industry
Association/Telecommunications Industry
Association (EIA/TIA) 586 cabling standards, sometimes abbreviated CAT 1-5, as
follows:
■
Category 1 For unshielded twisted-pair
(UTP) telephone cable. This cable may be
used for voice, but is not suitable for data
transmissions.
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CCITT V Series
■
■
■
■
Category 2 For UTP cable use at speeds
up to 4Mbps. Category 2 cable is similar
to IBM Cabling System Type 3 cable.
Category 3 For UTP cable use at speeds
up to 10Mbps. Category 3 cable is the
minimum requirement for 10BaseT and is
required for Token Ring. This cable has
four pairs of conductors and three twists
per foot.
CCITT See Consultative Committee for
International Telephony and Telegraphy.
CCITT Groups 1–4 A set of four standards for facsimile transmissions. Groups 1
and 2, which are no longer used, define analog facsimile transmissions. Groups 3 and
4 describe digital systems, as follows:
■
Category 4 For the lowest acceptable
grade of UTP cable for use with 16Mbps
Token Ring.
Category 5 For 100-ohm, four-wire
twisted-pair copper cable for use at speeds
up to 100Mbps with Ethernet or ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode). This cable is low-capacitance and shows low
crosstalk when installed according to
specifications.
■
■
See also cabling standards; Type 1–9
cable.
CAU See Controlled Access Unit.
CAV See constant angular velocity.
CBCP See Certified Business Continuity
Professional.
CBE See Certified Banyan Engineer.
CBR See Constant Bit Rate.
CBS See Certified Banyan Specialist.
CCDA See Cisco Certified Design
Associate.
CCDP See Cisco Certified Design
Professional.
CCIE See Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert.
CCITT Group 3 Specifies a 9600bps
modem to transmit standard images of
203 dpi horizontally by 98 dpi vertically
in standard mode, and 203 dpi by 198 dpi
in fine mode.
CCITT Group 4 Supports images up to
400 dpi for high-speed transmission over
a digital data network (for example, ISDN), rather than over a dial-up telephone
line.
CCITT is now known as the International
Telecommunication Union.
See also International Telecommunication
Union.
CCITT V Series A set of recommended
standards for data communications, including transmission speeds and operational modes, issued by CCITT, now known as
the International Telecommunication
Union.
Each standard is assigned a number, although not in chronological order. Higher
numbers do not always indicate a newer
standard. A second or revised version is
indicated by bis, and ter indicates a third
version.
See also International Telecommunication
Union.
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CCITT X Series
CCITT X Series A set of recommended
standards issued by CCITT to standardize
protocols and equipment used in public and
private computer networks. The standards
include transmission speeds, interfaces to
and between networks, and operation of
user hardware. CCITT is now known as the
International Telecommunication Union.
See also International Telecommunication
Union.
CCNA See Cisco Certified Network
Associate.
CCNP See Cisco Certified Network
Professional.
CCP See Certified Computing
Professional.
CCP See Compression Control Protocol.
CD See carrier detect.
CDA See Certified Database
Administrator.
CDDI See Copper Distributed Data
Interface.
CDE See Common Desktop
Environment.
CD-I See Compact Disc-Interactive.
CDIA See Certified Document Imaging
Architect.
CDMA See Code Division Multiple
Access.
CDP
See Cisco Discovery Protocol.
CDPD See Cellular Digital Packet Data.
CD-R See CD-Recordable.
CD-Recordable Abbreviated CD-R. Using CD-R, you can write to the disc only
once; after that, the disc can only be read
from and not written to.
From a functional point of view, a CD-R
and a CD-ROM are identical; you can read
CD-R discs using almost any CD-ROM
drive, although the processes that create the
discs are slightly different. Low-cost CD-R
drives are available from several manufacturers, including Kao, Kodak, Mitsui,
Phillips, Ricoh, Sony, TDK, 3M, and
Verbatim.
See also CD ReWritable; digital video disc;
Magneto-optical storage; WORM.
CD ReWritable Abbreviated CD-RW. A
CD format that can be written to and erased
as many as 1000 times.
From a functional point of view, a CD-RW
and a CD-ROM are identical, but not all
CD-ROM drives can read CD-RW discs.
Low-cost CD-RW drives are available from
several manufacturers, including Kodak,
Mitsui, Phillips, and Sony.
See also CD-Recordable; digital video disc;
Magneto-optical storage; WORM.
CD-ROM See Compact Disc—ReadOnly Memory.
CD-ROM disk drive A disk device that
uses compact disc technology for information storage. Many CD-ROM disk drives
also have headphone jacks, external speaker jacks, and a volume control.
CD-ROM disk drives designed for computer use are more expensive than audio
CD players, because CD-ROM disk drives
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central processing unit
are manufactured to much higher tolerances. If a CD player misreads a small
amount of data, the human ear probably
will not detect the difference; if a CDROM disk drive misreads a few bytes of a
program, the program will not run.
The two most popular CD-ROM drive interface cards are SCSI and ATAPI (AT Attachment Packet Interface). ATAPI is part of
the Enhanced IDE specification introduced
by Western Digital in 1994 and lets you plug
an IDE CD-ROM directly into an IDE controller on the system’s motherboard. Other
CD-ROM drives may use the computer’s
parallel port or a PCMCIA connection.
See also Compact Disc—Read-Only
Memory.
CD-ROM Extended Architecture Abbreviated CD-ROM/XA. An extension to
the CD-ROM format, developed by Microsoft, Phillips, and Sony, that allows for
the storage of audio and visual information
on compact disc so that you can play the audio at the same time you view the visual data.
CD-ROM/XA is compatible with the High
Sierra specification, also known as ISO
standard 9660.
CD-ROM/XA See CD-ROM Extended
Architecture.
CD-RW See CD ReWritable.
cell Any fixed-length data packet. For
example, Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) uses 53-byte cells, consisting of
48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header
information.
Cell Loss Priority Abbreviated CLP. In
an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
cell, a field contained in the 5-byte cell
header that defines how to drop a cell if network congestion occurs. The value holds
priority values, with 0 indicating a cell with
the highest priority.
See also Header Error Control; Payload
Type Identifier; Virtual Channel Identifier;
Virtual Path Identifier.
cell relay A form of packet transmission
used in Broadcast Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) networks that uses
a fixed-length, 53-byte cell over a packetswitched network. Also known as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).
cell switching A term that describes
how a cellular telephone system switches
from one cell to the next as the signal
strength fades. The switch takes about 300
milliseconds to complete and is not noticeable by the user.
Cellular Digital Packet Data Abbreviated CDPD. A method used in cellular communications and wireless modems for
sending data more efficiently by using any
idle cellular channel. Capacity becomes
available for data transmissions when a
voice call is terminated or when a call is
switched from cell to cell.
CDPD uses voice channels, but can switch
to a new frequency if a voice transmission
begins in the cell currently in use.
central processing unit Abbreviated
CPU. The computing and control part of the
computer. The CPU in a mainframe computer may be contained on many printed circuit
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Centrex
boards. In a minicomputer, the CPU may be
contained on several boards. The CPU in a
PC is usually contained in a single, extremely
powerful microprocessor.
Centrex Acronym formed from Central
Exchange. Services provided to a company
by the local telephone company. All the
switching takes place at the telephone company’s central office rather than at the customer site, so Centrex services are easy to
expand.
Centronics parallel interface A standard 36-pin interface used to connect a PC to
a peripheral device, such as a printer; originally developed by the printer manufacturer
Centronics, Inc. The standard defines eight
parallel data lines, plus additional lines for
status and control information.
See also parallel port.
CERN See Conseil Européen pour la
Researche Nucléaire.
CERT See Computer Emergency
Response Team.
certificate An encrypted digital signature used for authentication to prove that
you are who you claim to be, either as an individual, the provider of a service, the vendor of a product, or a corporation, or to
guarantee that an e-mail message is actually
from the person you think it is from and
that it has not been altered in any way during transmission.
See also authentication; certificate authority; Secure Sockets Layer.
certificate authority Abbreviated CA.
A trusted organization that validates and
issues certificates; often called a “trusted
authority.”
Certified Application Developer for
Developer/2000 A certification from
Oracle consisting of a set of exams covering
Structured Query Language, the creation of
procedures using Oracle Procedure Builder,
using Developer/2000, and managing the
user interface.
Certified Banyan Engineer Abbreviated CBE. A premium certification from
Banyan designed to evaluate technical
knowledge of the Banyan VINES network
operating system. A candidate must complete two required courses and pass two
exams.
Certified Banyan Specialist Abbreviated CBS. A basic certification from Banyan
designed to evaluate technical knowledge
of the Banyan VINES network operating
system. A candidate must complete one required course and pass three exams. An additional certification concentrates on the
integration of Banyan’s StreetTalk onto
Microsoft Windows 2000 servers; to complete this certification, you must first become a Microsoft Certified Professional.
Certified Business Continuity
Professional Abbreviated CBCP. A certification from Disaster Recovery Institute International (DRII) that covers intermediate
information on business continuity planning
and disaster recovery and associated work
experience and board certification.
See also Associate Business Continuity
Professional; Master Business Continuity Professional.
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Certified Lotus Specialist
Abbreviated CCP. A certification from the
Institute for Certification of Computing
Professionals designed for experienced professionals with more than four years experience in a wide variety of computing and
related tasks.
Consortium (ISC)2 designed for system security experts with at least three years of practical experience. The exam covers access
control systems, operations security, cryptography, applications and systems planning, business continuity and disaster
planning, telecommunications and network
security, ethics, and the law.
Certified Database Administrator
1. Abbreviated CDA. A certification from
Oracle that covers knowledge of Structured
Query Language, administration of Oracle
products, along with backup and recovery,
and system performance tuning.
Certified Java Developer Abbreviated
CJD. An advanced certification from Sun
Microsystems designed to evaluate Java
programming language skills.
Certified Computing Professional
See also Certified Java Programmer.
2. Abbreviated CDA. A certification from
Sybase that covers designing, building, and
supporting Sybase SQL Server databases.
See also Certified Performance and Tuning Specialist.
Certified Java Programmer Abbreviated CJP. A certification from Sun
Microsystems designed to evaluate Java
programming language skills.
See also Certified Java Developer.
Certified Document Imaging Architect
Abbreviated CDIA. A certification from the
Computer Technology Industry Association
(CompTIA) that assesses skills in document
management, including scanning and storing documents in digital form and using optical character recognition software.
Certified Information System Auditor
Abbreviated CISA. A certification from the
Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) that covers ethics, security, system organization and management,
and system development, acquisition, and
maintenance.
Certified Information Systems Security Professional Abbreviated CISSP.
A certification from the International Information System Security Certification
Certified Lotus Professional Abbreviated CLP. A certification from Lotus designed to evaluate a wide range of skills and
knowledge of Lotus products. Several certifications are available, including CLP: Application Developer, CLP: Principal Application
Developer, CLP: System Administrator, CLP:
Principal System Administrator, CLP:
cc:Mail System Administrator.
See also Certified Lotus Specialist.
Certified Lotus Specialist Abbreviated
CLS. A certification from Lotus designed to
evaluate knowledge of a single Lotus product. Options include certification in Lotus
Domino, Lotus 1-2-3, Lotus Notes, and
cc:Mail.
See also Certified Lotus Professional.
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Certified Network Professional
Certified Network Professional Abbreviated CNP. A certification from the
Network Professional Association (NPA)
that involves meeting requirements in the
areas of client operating systems, networking hardware, network operating systems,
communications protocols, and network
topologies. Two years of relevant work experience and two vendor-based certifications are required to complete the program.
Certified Novell Administrator Abbreviated CNA. A Novell certification program
for network administrators responsible for
the day-to-day operation of a network.
Within the CNA program, a candidate can
specialize in one or more Novell products,
including IntranetWare, NetWare, or
GroupWise.
See also Certified Novell Engineer; Master
Certified Novell Engineer.
Certified Novell Engineer Abbreviated
CNE. A Novell certification program for
technical professionals concerned with network system design, implementation, and
maintenance. Within the CNE program, a
candidate can specialize in one or more Novell products, including IntranetWare, NetWare, or GroupWise.
See also Certified Novell Administrator;
Master Certified Novell Engineer.
Certified Novell Engineer Professional
Association Abbreviated CNEPA. An
association of Certified Novell Engineers
(CNEs) that provides benefits, such as
workshops demonstrating how to configure and troubleshoot Novell products, as
well as admission to network-related events
and complementary subscriptions.
See also Certified Novell Engineer.
Certified Novell Instructor Abbreviated CNI. A Novell certification program for
trainers who want to teach Novell courses.
Once certified, by passing the appropriate
exam at the instructor level, a CNI can
teach any instructor-led Novell course, including those for Certified Novell Administrator (CNA), Certified Novell Engineer
(CNE), and Master CNE (MCNE).
See also Master Certified Novell Instructor.
Certified Performance and Tuning
Specialist Abbreviated CPTS. A certification from Sybase that tests for proficiency
across a wide range of database administration, tuning, and performance concepts.
See also Certified Database Administrator.
Certified PowerBuilder Developer
Associate Abbreviated CPDA. A certification from Sybase designed for experienced PowerBuilder developers that tests
knowledge in the areas of client/server architecture, object-oriented programming,
relational databases, and Structured Query
Language.
See also Certified PowerBuilder Developer
Professional.
Certified PowerBuilder Developer
Professional Abbreviated CPDP. A certification from Sybase designed for experienced PowerBuilder developers that requires
hands-on experience building PowerBuilder
applications as well as a demonstration of
good development practices.
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character
See also Certified PowerBuilder Developer
Associate.
Certified Solutions Expert Abbreviated CSE. A pair of Internet certifications
from IBM. CSE: Net.Commerce is aimed
at the developers of Internet store fronts
and other financial transactions over the
Internet. CSE: Firewall is a security-related
certification.
Certified Unicenter Engineer Abbreviated CUE. A certification from Computer
Associates designed to evaluate expertise in
the Unicenter TNG product line.
CGI See Common Gateway Interface.
Challenge-Handshake Authentication
Protocol Abbreviated CHAP. A method
of authentication that you can use when
connecting to an ISP that allows you to log
on automatically.
See also Password Authentication
Protocol.
challenge-response authentication A
method of authentication used by Microsoft
Windows 2000 and other operating systems.
When a user contacts a server, the server responds with a challenge, upon which the
user then performs a cryptographic operation and returns the result to the server. The
server then performs the same operation,
and if the two results are the same, the user
is considered authentic.
See also clear text authentication.
channel 1. In communications, any connecting path that carries information from
a sending device to a receiving device. A
channel may refer to a physical medium (for
example, a coaxial cable) or to a specific
frequency within a larger channel.
2. In Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a named
forum where you can chat in real time with
other users; also known as a chat room.
channelization The process of dividing
the bandwidth of a communications circuit
into smaller increments.
See also T1.
channelized T1
See T1.
Channel Service Unit Abbreviated
CSU. A device that functions as a certified
safe electrical circuit, acting as a buffer
between the customer’s equipment and a
public carrier’s WAN.
A CSU prevents faulty CPE (customer-premises equipment), such as DSUs (data service units), from affecting a public carrier’s
transmission systems and ensures that all
signals placed on the line are appropriately
timed and formed. All CSU designs must be
approved and certified by the FCC.
See also Data Service Unit.
CHAP See Challenge-Handshake
Authentication Protocol.
character A symbol that corresponds to a
key on the keyboard. A character can be a letter, a number, punctuation, or a special symbol and is usually stored as a single byte. A
collection of related characters is known as a
character set, and the most common character set on PC systems is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange
(ASCII). Some larger IBM systems still use
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange
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character-based interface
Code (EBCDIC). In an attempt to rationalize
the many international character sets in use
these days, some systems use more than one
byte to store a character.
See also American Standard Code for
Information Interchange; Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code;
Unicode.
character-based interface An operating system or application that uses text
characters rather than graphical techniques
for the user interface.
See also command line; graphical user
interface.
character code A code that represents
one specific alphanumeric or control character in a set of characters.
See also American Standard Code for
Information Interchange; Extended
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code;
Unicode.
character mode A mode in which the
computer displays characters on the screen
using the built-in character set, but does not
show any graphics characters or a mouse
pointer. Also known as text mode.
character set A standard group of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, special
symbols, and control characters used by a
computer.
See also American Standard Code for
Information Interchange; Extended
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code;
Unicode.
characters per second Abbreviated
cps. The number of characters, or bytes,
transmitted every second during a data
transfer. A measurement of the speed of operation of equipment, such as serial printers
and terminals.
character string Any group of alphanumeric characters treated as a single unit.
Also known as a string.
cheapernet wire See thin Ethernet.
checkpointing The process of moving
transactions from the transaction log to
their permanent disk location.
checksum A method of providing information for error detection, usually calculated by summing a set of values.
The checksum is usually appended to the
end of the data that it is calculated from so
that they can be compared. For example,
Xmodem, a popular file-transfer protocol,
uses a 1-byte checksum calculated by adding all the ASCII values for all 128 data
bytes and ignoring any numeric overflow.
The checksum is added to the end of the
Xmodem data packet. This type of checksum does not always detect all errors. In later versions of the Xmodem protocol,
cyclical redundancy check (CRC) is used instead for more rigorous error control.
See also cyclical redundancy check; error
detection and correction.
child domain In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a secondary domain beneath
the top-level domain in a Windows 2000
domain tree.
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Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert
See also first-layer domain; parent domain; root domain.
chip A slang expression for integrated
circuit.
See also integrated circuit.
choke packet A packet used for flow
control. A node that notices congestion on
the network generates a choke packet and
sends it toward the source of the congestion, which is then required to reduce its
sending rate.
CHRP See Common Hardware Reference Platform.
CICS See Customer Information Control System.
CIDR See Classless Inter-Domain
Routing.
Cirrus Logic, Inc. A leading manufacturer of integrated circuits, particularly
semiconductor wafers, Cirrus Logic has
also moved into the areas of 56K modem
chip sets and sound-card chip sets.
For more information on Cirrus Logic, see
www.cirrus.com.
CIS See CompuServe.
CISA See Certified Information System
Auditor.
CISC See complex instruction set
computing.
ciscoBus The bus used in routers from
Cisco Systems, Inc.
See also Cisco Extended Bus; switch
processor.
ciscoBus controller See switch
CIFS See Common Internet File System.
processor.
CIOS
Cisco Certified Design Associate Abbreviated CCDA. A certification from Cisco
designed to evaluate knowledge of relatively
simple networks.
See Internetworking Operating
System.
circuit 1. A communications channel or
path between two devices capable of carrying electrical current.
2. A set of components connected to per-
form a specific task.
circuit switching A temporary communications connection established as required between the sending and receiving
nodes. Circuit switching is often used in
modem communications over dial-up telephone lines. It is also used in some privately
maintained communications networks.
See also message switching; packet
switching; virtual circuit.
See also Cisco Certified Design
Professional.
Cisco Certified Design Professional
Abbreviated CCDP. A certification from
Cisco designed to evaluate knowledge of
complex networks based on Cisco LAN
and WAN routers and LAN switches.
See also Cisco Certified Design Associate.
Cisco Certified Internetworking
Expert Abbreviated CCIE. An advanced
certification from Cisco offered in three
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Cisco Certified Network Associate
areas: CCIE-Routing and Switching, CCIEInternet Service Provider (ISP) Dial, and
CCIE-WAN Switching.
Cisco Certified Network Associate
Abbreviated CCNA. A certification from
Cisco designed to evaluate network support
knowledge.
See also Cisco Certified Network
Professional.
Cisco Certified Network Professional
Abbreviated CCNP. An advanced certification from Cisco designed to evaluate network support knowledge.
See also Cisco Certified Network
Associate.
Cisco Discovery Protocol Abbreviated
CDP. A proprietary Cisco protocol that
runs on all hardware made by Cisco, including routers, switches, access servers,
and bridges.
CDP is both protocol- and mediaindependent. A router running CDP can
advertise its existence to other routers and
can discover a directly connected neighbor’s port and hostname information, as
well as hardware model number and system capabilities.
Cisco Extended Bus Abbreviated CxBus. The extended bus used in routers from
Cisco Systems, Inc.
See also ciscoBus; switch processor
Cisco Systems, Inc. The world’s leading manufacturer of routers and internetworking hardware and software products.
More than 80 percent of the backbone routers currently in use on the Internet were
made by Cisco, and its Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is quickly becoming an
industry standard that other vendors are incorporating into their own products.
For more information on Cisco, see
www.cisco.com.
CiscoView Device management software for Cisco networking devices. CiscoView provides troubleshooting and device
monitoring functions and can be used in
conjunction with Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) products.
See also Simple Network Management
Protocol.
Ciscoworks A set of management applications from Cisco Systems, Inc., designed
for use with Cisco routers.
CISSP See Certified Information Systems Security Professional.
CIX See Commercial Internet Exchange.
CJD See Certified Java Developer.
CJP See Certified Java Programmer.
cladding The transparent material, usually glass, that surrounds the core of an optical fiber. Cladding has a lower refractive
index than the core and so prevents the light
signal from spreading out due to modal dispersion, by reflecting the signal back into
the central core. This helps to maintain the
signal strength over long distances.
See also dispersion.
Class A certification An FCC certification for computer equipment, including
mainframe computers and minicomputers
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Classless Inter-Domain Routing
destined for industrial, commercial, or office use, rather than for personal use at
home. The Class A commercial certification is less restrictive than the Class B
certification for residential use, because it
assumes that most residential areas are
more than 30 feet from any commercial
computer equipment.
See also Class B certification.
Class A network In the IP addressing
scheme, a very large network. The high-order bit in a Class A network is always zero,
leaving 7 bits available to define 127 networks. The remaining 24 bits of the address
allow each Class A network to hold as
many as 16,777,216 hosts. Examples of
Class A networks include General Electric,
IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Apple Computer,
Xerox, Digital Equipment Corporation,
and MIT. All the Class A networks are in
use, and no more are available.
See also address classes; IP address.
bits are used to define 16,384 networks, each
with as many as 65,535 hosts attached. Examples of Class B networks include Microsoft
and Exxon. All Class B networks are in use,
and no more are available.
See also address classes; IP address.
Class C network In the IP addressing
scheme, a smaller network. The 3 high-order bits are always 110, and the remaining
bits are used to define 2,097,152 networks,
but each network can have a maximum of
only 254 hosts. Class C networks are still
available.
See also address classes; IP address.
Class D network In the IP addressing
scheme, a special multicast address that
cannot be used for networks. The 4 high-order bits are always 1110, and the remaining
28 bits allow access to more than 268 million possible addresses.
See also address classes; IP address.
Class B certification An FCC certification for computer equipment, including
PCs, laptops, and portables destined for use
in the home rather than in a commercial setting. Class B levels of radio frequency interference (RFI) must be low enough so that
they do not interfere with radio or television reception when there is more than one
wall and 30 feet separating the computer
from the receiver. Class B certification is
more restrictive than the commercial Class
A certification.
Class E network In the IP addressing
scheme, a special address reserved for experimental purposes. The first 4 bits in the
address are always 1111.
See also address classes; IP address.
classes In Novell Directory Services, an
object can be defined as an instance of
an object class. Classes include User,
Group, Printer, Print Server, Computer,
and so on.
See also Class A certification.
Class B network In the IP addressing
scheme, a medium-sized network. The 2 highorder bits are always 10, and the remaining
Classless Inter-Domain Routing Abbreviated CIDR, pronounced “cider.” An
interim solution to the problem that the Internet is running out of addresses.
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cleartext
Blocks of Class C addresses are assigned to
a site based on the number of addresses that
site requires, to prevent wasted addresses.
Also, the Class C address space is divided
into four major areas—Europe, North
America, Central and South America, and
Asia and the Pacific—and each zone is assigned 32 million addresses.
CIDR networks are often described as
“slash x” networks; the x represents the
number of bits in the IP address range controlled by the granting authority. For example, a Class C network in CIDR terms
becomes a slash 24 network.
See also address classes; IP address.
cleartext Text that has not been encrypted in any way and that can be intercepted
and read easily while in transit; usually applied to an unencrypted password.
See also plaintext.
clear text authentication An authentication method that encodes user name and
password information according to a freely
available 64-bit encoding utility.
See also challenge-response authentication; encryption.
Clear to Send Abbreviated CTS. A
hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C
standard that indicates that the transmission can proceed.
See also RS-232-C; Request to Send.
CLEC See Competitive Local Exchange
Carrier.
client A device or application that uses
the services provided by a server.
A client may be a PC or a workstation on a
network using services provided from the
network file server, or it may be that part of
an application program that runs on the
workstation supported by additional software running on the server.
One of the most familiar clients is the Web
browser.
See also client/server architecture; DOS client; Macintosh client; OS/2 client; Unix
client; Windows client.
client application In OLE, the application that starts a server application to manipulate linked or embedded information.
client pull A mechanism used on the Internet whereby a client application, usually
a Web browser, initiates a request for services from a Web site.
See also server push.
Client Services for NetWare A software package included with Microsoft
Windows 2000 that connects a Windows
2000 client to a Novell NetWare file server.
client/server architecture A computing architecture that distributes processing
between clients and servers on the network.
In the past, traditional computing has relied
on a hierarchical architecture based on nonprogrammable dumb terminals connected
to a mainframe computer. In this scheme,
the database was on the same computer
that was running the application. A client/
server approach replaces this structure by
dividing the application into two separate
parts: a front-end client and a back-end
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clock
server, usually referred to as a client and a
server.
server may also be a minicomputer or a
mainframe computer.
The client component provides the user
with the power to run the data-entry part of
the application, and this part of the client is
usually optimized for user interaction with
the system.
Typically, a client/server approach reduces
network traffic, because relatively small
amounts of data are moved over the network. This is in sharp contrast to the typical
network, in which entire files are constantly
being transmitted between the workstation
and the file server.
The server component, which can be either
local or remote, provides the data management, administration, and system security
features and manages information sharing
with the rest of the network.
In other words, clients request information
from the servers, and the servers store data
and programs and provide network services
to clients.
Client/server architecture can sustain several levels of organizational complexity, including the following:
■
■
■
■
Stand-alone (non-networked) client applications, such as local word processors
Applications that run on the client but
request data from the server, such as
spreadsheets
Programs that use server capabilities to
share information among network users,
such as electronic mail systems
Programs in which the physical search of
records takes place on the server, while a
much smaller program running on the client handles all user-interface functions,
such as database applications
Client/server computing lightens the processing load for the client PCs, but increases
the load on the server. For this reason, server computers tend to have larger and faster
hard-disk drives and much more memory
installed than conventional file servers. The
Database applications were some of the
first to embrace the client/server concept,
particularly those using Structured Query
Language (SQL). SQL has grown into an industry standard database language; it is relatively easy to implement, it is robust and
powerful, and it is easy for users to learn.
See also network computer; thin client.
client-side caching
See offline files.
Clipper chip A low-cost encryption device backed by the U.S. federal government.
The chip would allow businesses to transmit encoded messages, but at the same time,
allow certain government agencies to intercept and decode the messages if criminal activities were suspected. Needless to say, this
proposal has generated a lot of intense discussion, particularly from civil rights
groups concerned with an individual’s right
to privacy and other ethical issues; other
potential users want access to the best available encryption systems, not just those put
forward by the government.
CLNP See Connectionless Network
Protocol.
clock An electronic circuit that generates
regularly spaced timing pulses at speeds up
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clock-multiplying
to millions of cycles per second. These pulses are used to synchronize the flow of information through the computer’s internal
communications channels.
See also clock speed.
clock-multiplying A mechanism used by
some Intel processors that allows the chip
to process data and instructions internally
at a speed different from that used by the
rest of the system.
clock speed The internal speed of a computer or processor, normally expressed in
megahertz (MHz). Also known as clock rate.
The faster the clock speed, the faster the
computer will perform a specific operation
(assuming the other components in the
system, such as disk drives, can keep up
with the increased speed).
The Intel 8088 processor used in the original
IBM PC had a clock speed of 4.77MHz—
painfully slow when compared with speeds
used by current processors, which can run at
clock speeds of several hundred MHz.
clone Hardware that is identical in function to an original.
For example, an IBM clone is a PC that uses
an Intel (or similar) microprocessor and
functions in the same way as the IBM PC
standard. A Macintosh clone functions in
the same way as a computer manufactured
by Apple Computer, Inc.
Although most clones do perform as intended, small internal differences can cause
problems in some cases. It can be difficult to
ensure consistency of components and level
of operation when using a number of clones
purchased over a long period of time.
See also Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.;
Cyrix.
closed architecture A design that does
not allow for easy, user-supplied additions.
This term is often used to describe some of
the early Macintosh computers, which did
not allow easy expansion of the system with
add-in cards. Closed architecture can also
refer to a computer design whose specifications are not published or generally available, making it impossible for third-party
companies to provide products that work
with the computer.
See also open architecture.
CLP See Cell Loss Priority; Certified
Lotus Professional.
CLS See Certified Lotus Specialist.
CLTP See Connectionless Transport
Protocol.
cluster controller An IBM or IBM-compatible device located between a group of
3270 terminals and the mainframe computer. The cluster controller communicates between the computer and the terminals using
SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) or
a bisynchronous communications protocol.
clustering A fault-tolerant technology
designed to keep server availability at a very
high level.
Clustering groups servers and other network resources into a single system; if one
of the servers in the cluster fails, the other
servers can take over the workload. Clustering software also adds a load-balancing
feature to make sure that processing is
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codec
distributed in such as way as to optimize
system throughput.
CNP See Certified Network
CLV See constant linear velocity.
coax See coaxial cable.
CMIP See Common Management Infor-
coaxial cable Abbreviated coax, pronounced “co-ax.” A high-capacity cable
used in networking that contains a solid inner copper conductor surrounded by plastic
insulation, and an outer braided copper or
foil shield.
mation Protocol.
CMIS See Common Management Information Services.
CMOS See Complementary MetalOxide Semiconductor.
CNA See Certified Novell Administrator.
CNE See Certified Novell Engineer.
CNEPA See Certified Novell Engineer
Professional Association.
CNI See Certified Novell Instructor.
Professional.
Coaxial cable is used for broadband and
baseband communications networks (and
for cable television), because the cable is
usually free from external interference and
permits high transmission rates over long
distances.
See also fiber-optic cable; RG-58; RG-59;
RG-62; thick Ethernet; thin Ethernet.
COAXIAL CABLE
codec 1. Acronym for coder/decoder,
pronounced “coe-deck.” A device that
converts analog signals (such as voice or
video) into a digital bit stream suitable for
transmission and then converts those digital signals back into analog signals at the
receiving end.
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Code Division Multiple Access
2. Acronym for compression/decompres-
sion, pronounced “coe-deck.” An overall
term to describe the hardware and software
used in processing animation, digital video,
and stereo-quality audio.
See also lossless compression; lossy
compression.
Code Division Multiple Access Abbreviated CDMA, also known as spread spectrum. A digital cellular standard approved
by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) in 1993 and known as IS-95.
CDMA combines both data and voice into
a single wireless network and can provide
users with digital voice services, voice mail,
text messaging, and caller ID. CDMA also
increases system capacity up to 10 times
that of analog systems.
See also Advanced Mobile Phone Service;
Cellular Digital Packet Data; wireless
communications.
cold boot The computer startup process
that begins when you turn on power to the
computer. You are doing a cold boot when
you first turn on your computer. A cold
boot might also be necessary if a program
or the operating system crashes and freezes
entirely. If your keyboard is operational, a
warm boot may suffice.
See also boot; warm boot.
collaboration software A set of network-based applications that let users share
information quickly and easily.
message on the same channel at exactly the
same moment.
See also Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Detection; token-ring network.
colon The symbol used after the protocol
name in a URL.
See also Uniform Resource Locator.
COM See Common Object Model; Component Object Model.
COM 1–4 See COM port.
command interpreter See command
processor.
command line Any interface between
the user and the command processor that
allows you to enter commands from the
keyboard for execution by the operating
system.
See also graphical user interface; shell;
text mode.
command-line argument A parameter
that alters the default mode of a command.
In many operating systems, a commandline argument is one or more letters or
numbers preceded by the / (slash) character. In Unix, a command-line argument
may be called an option or a flag and is
usually a single character preceded by a hyphen (as in -r). With some commands, you
can group several switches. Sometimes
called a command-line switch.
See also command line.
See also whiteboard.
collision In networking or communications, an attempt by two nodes to send a
command processor The part of the
operating system that displays the command prompt on the screen, interprets and
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Common Hardware Reference Platform
executes all the commands and filenames
that you enter, and displays error messages
when appropriate. Also called the command interpreter. The command processor
also contains the system environment.
command prompt A symbol (character
or group of characters) on the screen that
lets you know that the operating system is
available and ready to receive input.
Commercial Internet Exchange Abbreviated CIX, pronounced “kicks.” A connection point between ISPs.
A location where top-tier ISPs maintain the
routers used to route packets between their
respective network segments.
Common Application Environment
Abbreviated CAE. A set of standards, developed by X/Open for application development, including standards for the operating
system, compilers, software development
tools, data management, networking, and
the graphical user interface.
common carrier A communications
company, such as AT&T or MCI, that provides data and voice telecommunication
services to the general public.
See also Postal Telephone and Telegraph.
Common Desktop Environment Abbreviated CDE. A set of specifications developed by the Common Open Software
Environment (COSE) that defines an API
for a common Unix graphical user interface. The specifications cover the interoperability of applications across different
hardware platforms, multimedia and
networking operations, as well as object-
oriented technology and system administration issues.
Common Gateway Interface Abbreviated CGI. A standard way that programs
can interface with Web servers and allow
them to run applications such as search engines and to access databases and other
back-end applications.
CGI defines the field specifics and control
tags to be placed in an HTML document,
the environment variables where the Web
server places information for use by scripts,
and the flow of information between client
Web browser, the server, and the Web server scripts. CGI is platform-independent.
See also HyperText Markup Language;
script; Web server.
Common Internet File System Abbreviated CIFS. A file system supported by Microsoft, DEC, Data General, SCO, and
others, which allows users and organizations to run file systems over the Internet.
CIFS is an extension to Microsoft’s Server
Message Blocks (SMB) file-sharing protocol and allows users to share files over the
Internet in the same way that they share
files using networking services on Windows
clients.
See also WebNFS.
Common Hardware Reference
Platform Abbreviated CHRP. An open
hardware architecture, based on the PowerPC and originally defined by IBM, that ensures compatibility between systems made
by different manufacturers.
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Common Management Information Protocol
Common Management Information
Protocol Abbreviated CMIP. The Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) management information protocol for network
monitoring and control information, designated ISO 9596.
CMIP includes fault management, configuration management, performance management, and security and accounting
management. It is not widely available.
See also Common Management Information Services; Simple Network Management Protocol.
Common Management Information
Services Abbreviated CMIS. The Open
Systems Interconnect (OSI) standard functions for network monitoring and control.
See also Common Management Information Protocol.
Common name In Novell Directory
Services, every object has a name that is
unique within its context in the directory
structure. This name is known as the Common name when it refers to users, nodes, or
servers.
See also Distinguished Name.
Common Object Request Broker
Architecture Abbreviated CORBA. A
standard from the Object Management
Group (OMG), whose members include
Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, DEC,
and IBM, that enables communications between distributed object-oriented applications, regardless of the language they are
written in and the hardware platform on
which they run.
CORBA uses Object Request Brokers to set
up communications between objects and to
invoke methods on behalf of these objects.
CORBA competes with Microsoft’s Distributed Component Object Model
(DCOM) and ActiveX technology.
See also Distributed Component Object
Model.
Common Open Software Environment Abbreviated COSE, pronounced
“cosy.” An industry group consisting of almost 100 members, organized to develop a
standard graphical user interface for Unix,
known as the Common Desktop Environment, or CDE. Original members included
Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, IBM,
SCO, and the UNIX Systems Group.
Common Object Model Abbreviated
COM. A specification from Microsoft and
DEC to provide cross-platform interoperability across non-Windows platforms.
Common Programming Interface for
Communications Abbreviated CPI-C.
A cross-platform API from IBM that interfaces to the Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications (APPC) environment.
COM was developed to allow networks using Microsoft’s OLE technology to communicate with networks using DEC’s ObjectBroker technology.
CPI-C is designed to support a common environment for application execution across
several IBM operating systems, including
MVS, VS, OS/400, and OS/2-based systems.
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Compact Disc-Interactive
See also Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking; Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications; Advanced Interactive
Executive; Multiple Virtual Storage.
common share In Microsoft Windows
2000, system elements automatically
shared by default when the operating system is installed or upgraded. Many common shares are also hidden shares.
See also default shares; hidden share;
share; sharing.
communications/modem server In a
network, a server equipped with a bank of
modems, which can be shared by users for
outgoing calls.
See also access server.
communications parameters Any of
several settings required to allow computers to communicate successfully. In asynchronous transmissions, commonly used in
modem communications, the settings for
baud rate, number of data bits, number of
stop bits, and parity parameters must all be
correct.
communications protocol 1. A standard way of communicating between computers or between computers and terminals.
Communications protocols vary in complexity, ranging from Xmodem, a simple
file-transfer protocol used to transfer files
from one PC to another, to the seven-layer
OSI Reference Model used as the theoretical
basis for many large, complex computer
networks.
2. A hardware interface standard, such as
RS-232-C.
communications satellite A satellite in
geostationary orbit, acting as a microwave
relay station. The satellite receives signals
from a groundstation, amplifies them, and
retransmits them on a different frequency
to another groundstation.
See also downlink; propagation delay;
uplink.
compact disc Abbreviated CD. A nonmagnetic, polished, optical disc used to store
large amounts of digital information. A CD
can store approximately 650MB of information, equivalent to more than 1700 lowdensity floppy disks. This storage capacity
translates into approximately 300,000 pages
of text or 72 minutes of music, all on a single
4.72-inch disc.
Digital information is stored on the compact disc as a series of microscopic pits and
smooth areas that have different reflective
properties. A beam of laser light shines on
the disc so that the reflections can be detected and converted into digital data.
See also CD-Recordable; CD ReWritable;
CD-ROM Extended Architecture; Compact
Disc-Interactive; Compact Disc—ReadOnly Memory; digital video disc.
Compact Disc-Interactive Abbreviated CD-I. A hardware and software standard disc format for data, text, audio, still
video images, and animated graphics. The
standard also defines methods of encoding
and decoding compressed data, as well as
displaying data.
See also compact disc; Compact Disc—
Read-Only Memory.
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Compact Disc—Read-Only Memory
Compact Disc—Read-Only Memory
Abbreviated CD-ROM. A high-capacity,
optical storage device that uses the same
technology used to make ordinary music
discs to store large amounts of information.
A single 4.72-inch disc can hold up to
650MB.
CD-ROMs are important components of
multimedia applications. They are also
used to store encyclopedias, dictionaries,
and other large reference works, as well as
libraries of fonts and clip art for desktop
publishing. CD-ROMs have replaced floppy disks as the distribution mechanism for
software packages, including network operating systems and large applications; you
can load the whole package from a single
compact disc, and you can load an operating system from a set of discs.
A CD-ROM uses the constant linear velocity data encoding scheme to store information in a single, spiral track, divided into
many equal-length segments. To read data,
the CD-ROM disk drive must increase the
rotational speed as the read head gets closer
to the center of the disk and must decrease
as the head moves back out.
See also CD-Recordable; Compact Disc-Interactive; constant angular velocity; High
Sierra specification.
Compaq Computer Corporation One
of the world’s largest computer manufacturers, Compaq recently acquired the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), which
boosted the company into the top three
along with IBM and Hewlett-Packard.
By acquiring DEC, Compaq gained a
world-wide service and support structure,
as well as access to DEC’s highly regarded
hardware and software products.
Compaq also shook up the computer industry when it introduced the first PC that cost
less than $1,000.
For more information about Compaq, see
www.compaq.com.
compatibility The extent to which a given piece of hardware or software conforms
to an accepted standard, regardless of the
original manufacturer.
In hardware, compatibility is often expressed in terms of widely accepted models—this designation implies that the device
will perform in the same way as the standard device.
In software, compatibility is usually described as the ability to read data file formats
created by another vendor’s software or the
ability to work together and share data.
See also plug-compatible.
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
Abbreviated CLEC. A term coined from the
Telecommunications Act of 1996 to describe the deregulated, competitive phone
companies that will be able to offer local exchange service as well as long distance and
international services, Internet access, and
cable and video on-demand services.
See also Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier; Local Exchange Carrier.
compiler A program that converts a set
of program language source code statements into a machine-readable form suitable for execution by a computer.
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compressed file
Most compilers do much more than this,
however; they translate the entire program
into machine language, while at the same
time, they check your source code syntax
for errors and then post error messages or
warnings as appropriate.
COM components can be written in any
programming language and can be added
to or removed from a program without
requiring recompilation. COM is the foundation of the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) and ActiveX specifications.
See also just-in-time compiler.
See also ActiveX; Common Object Request Broker Architecture; Distributed
Component Object Model.
Complementary Metal-Oxide
Semiconductor Abbreviated CMOS,
pronounced “See-moss.” A type of integrated circuit used in processors and for
memory. Because CMOS devices operate at
very high speeds and use little power, they
generate little heat. In the PC, batterybacked CMOS memory is used to store operating parameters, such as the hard disk
type, when the computer is switched off.
complex instruction set computing
Abbreviated CISC, pronounced “sisk.” A
processor that can recognize and execute
more than 100 different assembly-language,
or low-level, instructions. CISC processors
can be powerful, but the instructions take a
high number of clock cycles to execute.
This complexity is in contrast to the simplicity of reduced instruction set computing
(RISC) processors, in which the number of
available instructions has been cut to a minimum. RISC processors are common in
workstations and can be designed to run up
to 70 percent faster than CISC processors.
See also assembly language; reduced
instruction set computing.
Component Object Model Abbreviated COM. A specification from Microsoft
that defines how objects interact in the
Windows environment.
COM port In MS-DOS and Microsoft
Windows, the device name used to denote a
serial communications port. In versions of
MS-DOS after 3.3, four COM ports are
supported: COM1, COM2, COM3, and
COM4. Earlier versions support only
COM1 and COM2.
compound document A document file
that consists of information created by two
or more applications, for example, a database document embedded within a wordprocessing document.
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) can
link and embed documents and can be
used to start the appropriate application
program.
See also Object Linking and Embedding.
compressed file A file that has been
processed by a special utility so that it occupies as little hard-disk space as possible.
When the file is needed, the same program
decompresses the file back into its original
form so that it can be read by the computer.
Popular compression techniques include
schemes that replace commonly occurring
sequences of characters by tokens that take
up less space. Some utilities use Huffman
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Compression Control Protocol
coding to shrink a file, and others use adaptive Lempel-Ziv coding.
See also data compression; file compression; PKZip; WinZip; ZIP file.
Compression Control Protocol Abbreviated CCP. A protocol used with Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP) to configure, enable, and disable data compression algorithms at both ends of the point-to-point
connection. CCP can support different
compression algorithms in each direction of
the connection.
See also Point-to-Point Protocol.
CompuServe Abbreviated CIS. A major
provider of online services including e-mail,
file downloading, forums on a variety of topics, chat rooms, and Internet access, as well
as commercial services offered to a large
number of business users. In 1998, CompuServe was bought by America Online.
For more information on CompuServe, see
www.compuserve.com.
computation bound A condition in
which the speed of operation of the processor actually limits the speed of program execution. The processor is limited by the
number of arithmetic operations it can
perform.
See also input/output bound.
computer account In Microsoft Windows 2000, an object in the Security Accounts Manager that describes a specific
computer within a network domain. A
computer account is added for each node
added to the domain.
Computer Associates International
Abbreviated CAI. A leading supplier of enterprise applications and services to the corporate world, including defense contractors
and Fortune 500 companies.
CAI’s rapid expansion in recent years has
been due to an aggressive acquisitions policy that has led to the incorporation of
Legent and Cheyenne Software and to a
joint venture with Fujitsu that created the
object-oriented database Jasmine.
CAI currently enjoys success with Unicenter
TNG, a collection of applications and tools
used to manage enterprise computing.
For more information on CAI, see
www.cai.com.
Computer Emergency Response
Team Abbreviated CERT. Founded in
1988 at Carnegie-Mellon University,
CERT works with the Internet community
to increase awareness of security issues; it
conducts research into improving existing
systems and provides 24-hour technical assistance service for responding to security
incidents.
Computer Management In Microsoft
Windows 2000, the administrative tool
used to manage a local or remote computer.
Computer Management is a Microsoft
Management Console (MMC) snap-in and
replaces several Windows NT administrative tools, including Server Manager, User
Manager for Domains, and Disk Administrator.
See also Active Directory; Microsoft Management Console; snap-in.
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concurrent license
computer name 1. In Microsoft Windows NT, a name of up to 15 uppercase letters that identifies a specific computer to the
other computers on the network. The computer name is created during installation
and must be unique within the workgroup
or domain; you can change the computer
name using the Network applet in Control
Panel.
2. In NetBIOS, a name of up to 15 char-
acters that uniquely identifies a workstation to computers and users. Once a
computer is named, NetBIOS can establish
sessions between computers and use those
links to exchange data between systems.
These exchanges can be either NetBIOS
requests or Server Message Block (SMB)
data. Network applications use NetBIOS
names to locate resources, although the
Windows Sockets API is now more commonly used.
See also NetBIOS; WinSock.
Computer object In NetWare Directory
Services, a leaf object representing a computer on the network. The Computer object’s
properties can contain information such as
the computer’s physical serial number and
the name of the person to whom the computer is currently assigned.
See also leaf object; Novell Directory
Services.
Computer Systems Research Group
Abbreviated CSRG. The University of California, Berkeley, group responsible for the
development of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
CSRG was home to some remarkable programmers over the years and introduced
into Unix many of the fundamental features
we take for granted. The last BSD release,
4.4BSD, was made during 1993, and the
group was disbanded shortly afterward.
concentrator A repeater or hub that
joins communications channels from several network nodes. Concentrators are not
just simple wire-concentration centers, but
also provide bridging, routing, and other
management functions.
concurrent When two or more programs
(processes) have access to the processor at
the same time and must share the system resources, they are said to be “running concurrently.” Because a computer can
perform operations so quickly, the processes seem to be occurring at the same time, although actually they are not.
See also multiprocessing; task; task
switching; thread.
concurrent license A software license
that allows more than one person at a company to share an application over a network, providing that, at any given time,
only one person is using it.
Different versions of concurrent licensing
allow a fixed number of people in an office
to share one copy of an application and allow the application to be used on both desktop and portable PCs, rather than run only
from the file server.
See also application metering.
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CONFIG.SYS
CONFIG.SYS In MS-DOS and OS/2, a
special text file containing settings that control the way the operating system works.
In MS-DOS, the CONFIG.SYS file may contain 10 to 20 lines of entries. In OS/2, it is
likely to contain between 70 and 100 lines of
configuration information. CONFIG.SYS
must be in the root directory of the default
boot disk, normally drive C, and is read once
as the system starts running.
configuration The process of establishing your own preferred setup for an application, expansion board, computer system,
or network. Most current software can establish a configuration for you automatically, although you may need to adjust that
configuration to get the best results.
See also Desktop Management Interface;
Plug and Play.
configuration file A file, created by an
application or an operating system, containing configuration information specific
to your own computing environment. Application configuration files may have a filename extension of CFG or SET; Windows
configuration files use the INI filename
extension.
If you accidentally erase an application’s
configuration file, the program will return
to using its default settings. Although the
program will continue to function, its configuration settings may not be suitable for
your system.
See also AUTOEXEC.BAT; CONFIG.SYS;
NET.CFG.
configuration management A term
covering a wide range of network
administration tasks, often performed by
the network administrator, including:
■
■
■
Maintaining a hardware database containing details of routers, bridges, and connections so that changes in the network can be
made quickly in the event of a failure
Adding and removing workstations and
users to the network as needed
Adding and configuring new servers and
cabling systems as the network expands
See also Desktop Management Interface.
configuration register A 16-bit, userconfigurable value that determines how a
Cisco router functions during router initialization. You can configure information in
hardware by using jumpers and in software
by specifying a hexadecimal number in configuration commands.
congestion An excessive amount of traffic on the network, causing messages to be
blocked for long periods of time and adversely affecting network performance.
You may see a very slow response from a
server, or you may see an error message telling you that no ports are available at the
present time for the service or host you are
requesting.
See also Ethernet meltdown.
connectionless A protocol in which the
source and destination addresses are included inside each packet so that a direct
connection between sender and receiver or
an established session between nodes is not
required for communications. In a connectionless service, data packets may not reach
their destination in the same order in which
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connection speed
they were sent. UDP is a connectionless
transport service.
other applications and processes that use
the server connections.
See also connection-oriented; User Datagram Protocol.
connection-oriented A term used to describe a communications model that goes
through three well-defined stages: establishing the connection, transferring the data, and releasing the connection. Analogous
to a voice telephone call. In a connectionoriented service, data packets always reach
their destination in the same order in which
they were sent. TCP is a connection-oriented transport service.
Connectionless Network Protocol
Abbreviated CLNP. An Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) protocol that provides the
OSI Connectionless Network Service for
the delivery of data. It uses datagrams that
include addressing information to route
network messages. CLNP is used for LANs
rather than WANs. CLNP is the OSI equivalent of IP (Internet Protocol).
See also Connection-Oriented Network
Service.
Connectionless Transport Protocol
Abbreviated CLTP. An Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) protocol that provides
end-to-end transport data addressing and
error correction, but does not guarantee delivery or provide any flow control. CLTP is
the OSI equivalent of UDP.
See also Connection-Oriented Network
Service; User Datagram Protocol.
Connection Admission Control Abbreviated CAC. An Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) function that determines
whether a virtual circuit connection request
will be accepted.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
connection number A number assigned
to a workstation that attaches to a server; it
may be a different number each time the
workstation attaches. Connection numbers
are also assigned to print servers, as well as
See also connectionless; Transmission
Control Protocol.
Connection-Oriented Network
Service Abbreviated CONS. A data
transmission service in which data is only
transmitted once a connection has been established. Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) is a connection-oriented service.
See also Connectionless Network Protocol; Connectionless Transport Protocol.
connection speed The speed of a data
communications circuit. Some circuits are
symmetrical and can maintain the same
speed in both directions; others are asymmetrical and use a faster speed in one direction, usually the downstream side. Table C.1
compares the connection speeds available
for several technologies.
See also Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line; cable modem; High-Bit-Rate Digital
Subscriber Line; Integrated Services Digital Network; modem; Single-Line Digital
Subscriber Line; Very-High-Bit-Rate Digital
Subscriber Line.
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connectivity
TABLE C.1 CONNECTION SPEEDS
Technology
Speed
Distance Limitation
Conventional
modem
56Kbps downstream, up to
33.6Kbps upstream
None
ISDN
Up to 128Kbps symmetric
18,000 ft
Cable modem
Up to 30Mbps downstream, to
10Mbps upstream
30 mi
ADSL
1.5 to 8Mbps downstream, to
1.544Mbps upstream
18,000 ft
SDSL
1.544 to 2.048Mbps symmetric
10,000 ft
HDSL
1.544 to 2.048Mbps symmetric
(over 3 phone lines)
15,000 ft
VDSL
13 to 52Mbps downstream, 1.5 to
2.3Mbps upstream
4,500 ft
connectivity The degree to which any
given computer or application can cooperate with other network components purchased from other vendors, in a network
environment in which resources are shared.
connect time The period of time during
which a user is logged on to the network.
Conseil Européen pour la Researche
Nucléaire Abbreviated CERN. The European Laboratory for Particle Physics located in Geneva, Switzerland, where Tim
Berners-Lee and associates created the communications protocols that led to the World
Wide Web.
For more information on CERN, see
ConnectView An application with a
graphical user interface used to manage
NetWare Connect and Novell Internet Access Server (NIAS) communication servers.
CONS See Connection-Oriented Network Service.
cons See console.
www.cern.ch.
console Sometimes abbreviated cons.
The monitor and keyboard from which the
server or host computer activity can be
monitored.
Certain operating system commands and
utilities must be executed from the console
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container administrator
device; they will not operate from a workstation. In some systems, the console is a
virtual device that can be invoked from any
workstation by a network administrator
with the appropriate rights and privileges.
constant angular velocity Abbreviated CAV. An unchanging speed of rotation.
Hard disks use a CAV encoding scheme.
The constant rate of rotation means that
sectors on the disk are at the maximum density along the inside track of the disk. As the
read/write heads move outward, the sectors
must spread out to cover the increased track
circumference, and therefore the datatransfer rate falls off.
See also constant linear velocity.
Constant Bit Rate Abbreviated CBR. A
type of Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) service reserved for voice or video
or other data that must be transmitted at a
constant rate and are intolerant of data loss.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Available Bit Rate; Unspecified Bit Rate;
Variable Bit Rate.
constant linear velocity Abbreviated
CLV. A changing speed of rotation. CDROM disk drives use a CLV encoding
scheme to make sure that the data density
remains constant. Information on a compact disc is stored in a single, spiral track,
divided into many equal-length segments.
To read the data, the CD-ROM disk drive
must increase the rotational speed as the
read head gets closer to the center of the disc
and decrease as the head moves back out.
See also constant angular velocity.
Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy Abbreviated CCITT. An organization based in
Geneva that develops worldwide data communications standards. Three main sets of
standards have been established:
■
■
■
CCITT Groups 1–4 standards apply to
facsimile transmissions.
CCITT V series of standards apply to modems and error detection and correction
methods.
CCITT X series standards apply to LANs.
Recommendations are published every four
years. In 1993, after a reorganization, the
name was changed to International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and even
though ITU now creates recommendations
and standards, you will still hear the CCITT
standards mentioned.
See also International Telecommunication
Union.
container One of the Java programming
language classes that can contain graphical
user interface components. Components in
a container usually appear within the
boundaries of that container. For example,
the classes Dialog, Frame, and Window are
all containers.
See also Java.
container administrator In Novell Directory Services, an administrator who is
granted rights to a container object and all
the objects that the container holds. A container administrator can be exclusive, indicating that no other administrator is
allowed access to that container.
See also container object; leaf object.
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container object
container object In Novell Directory
Services, an object that can contain other
objects and that is used to represent a logical or physical organizational element within a company, such as a department or a
division. The Tree, Country, Organization,
and Organizational Unit objects are all container objects.
See also container administrator; Country
object; leaf object; Organization object; Organizational Unit object; Tree object.
container security equivalence See
implied security equivalence.
contention The competition between
transmitting nodes for access to communications lines or network resources. The first
device to gain access to a channel takes control of the channel. In the event of a collision, when two nodes attempt to transmit
at the same time, some arbitration scheme
must be invoked.
See also Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Detection; token passing.
context In Novell Directory Services, an
object’s location within the Directory tree.
The context is the full path to the container
object in which the object is placed. If an
object is moved from one container to another, it has changed contexts.
See also container object; leaf object.
context switching Switching from one
program to another without ending the first
program. Context switching allows you to
operate several programs at the same time;
but it differs from true multitasking in that
when you are using one program, all the
other programs loaded onto your system
must halt.
control character A nonprinting character with a special meaning.
Control characters, such as Carriage Return, Line Feed, Bell, or Escape, perform a
specific operation on a terminal, printer, or
communications line. They are grouped together as the first 32 characters in the ASCII
character set; see Appendix C for details.
You can type a control character from the
keyboard by pressing and holding the Ctrl
key while you simultaneously press another key. For example, if you press and hold
the Ctrl key and then press C, you generate
Ctrl+C, also known as Break. Control
character sequences are often used inside
application programs as menu command
shortcuts.
See also American Standard Code for
Information Interchange; Extended
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code;
Unicode.
control code A sequence of one or more
characters used for hardware control; also
known as setup strings or escape sequences.
Control codes are used with printers, modems, and displays. Printer control codes
often begin with an escape character, followed by one or more characters that the
printer interprets as commands it must perform rather than as text it must print.
Control Panel In Microsoft Windows, a
special system folder that contains applets
used to look at or change configuration information. Each applet manages a single
task such as adding or removing a program
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cooperative multitasking
from your system, setting up a connection
to the Internet, or changing display settings.
See also Network and Dial-up
Connections.
Controlled Access Unit Abbreviated
CAU. An intelligent Multistation Access
Unit (MAU) or multiport wiring hub for a
token-ring network that allows ports to be
switched on and off.
controllerless modem A modem that
shifts all the protocol management, error detection and correction, and data compression onto software running on the system’s
CPU. This allows the modem manufacturer
to make a much cheaper modem that does
not require the memory or processing power
of a traditional modem. Also known as a soft
modem.
control set That portion of the Microsoft Windows Registry that contains information required to boot the operating system and restore the last known good
configuration.
See also expanded memory; extended
memory; high memory area; memory
management; protected mode.
convergence The synchronization process that a network must go through immediately after a routing change takes place on
the network. Convergence time is the time
required to update all the routers on the network with routing information changes.
See also routing table.
convergence sublayer Abbreviated CS.
One of two sublayers that make up the ATM
Adaptation Layer; the other being the segmentation and reassembly sublayer (SAR).
The convergence sublayer is the upper layer
that provides the interface for the various
ATM services, pads the cells, and adds
headers and trailers before passing the cell
to the SAR.
See also ATM Adaptation Layer; segmentation and reassembly sublayer.
conventional memory The amount of
memory accessible by MS-DOS in PCs using
an Intel processor operating in real mode;
normally the first 640KB.
cookie 1. A block of data sent from a
server to a client in response to a request by
the client.
The designers of the original IBM PC made
640KB available to the operating system
and applications and reserved the remaining space for internal system use, the BIOS,
and video buffers. Although 640KB may
not seem like much memory space now, it
was ten times the amount of memory available in other leading personal computers
available at the time. Since then, applications have increased in size to the point that
640KB is inadequate.
stored by the server on the system running
the browser or client software, which can
be retrieved by the server during a future
session. A cookie contains information that
can identify the user for administrative reasons or to prepare a custom Web page.
2. On the World Wide Web, a block of data
cooperative multitasking A form of
multitasking in which all running applications must work together to share system
resources.
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Copper Distributed Data Interface
The operating system supports cooperative
multitasking by maintaining a list of the active applications and the order in which they
execute. When control is transferred to an
application, the other applications cannot
run until that application returns control
back to the operating system once again.
A cooperative multitasking system differs
from a preemptive multitasking system, in
which the operating system executes each
application in turn for a specific period of
time (depending on priority) before switching to the next application, regardless of
whether the applications themselves return
control to the operating system.
See also context switching; time-slice
multitasking.
Copper Distributed Data Interface
Abbreviated CDDI. A version of the FDDI
standard designed to run on shielded and
unshielded twisted-pair cable rather than
on fiber-optic cable. CDDI is capable of
100Mbps data transfer rates.
See also Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
coprocessor A secondary processor
used to speed up operations by taking over
a specific part of the main processor’s work.
The most common type of coprocessor is
the math, or floating-point, coprocessor,
which is designed to manage arithmetic calculations many times faster than does the
main processor.
copy left The copyright or General Public License of the Free Software Foundation
(FSF), which states that any of the software
developed using free software from the FSF
must be distributed to others without
charge.
See also open source software.
CORBA See Common Object Request
Broker Architecture.
COSE See Common Open Software
Environment.
counter log In Microsoft Windows
2000, a System Monitor log used to monitor data from local or remote computers
about hardware use and system service activity.
See also alert log; System Monitor; trace
log.
Country object In Novell Directory Services, a container object placed directly under the Root object in the Directory tree
that defines the country for a specific part of
your network. Country object names are
defined by the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) and follow a
standard naming convention. You must
specify the Country object if you want to
connect to external networks using X.500
directory services.
CPDA See Certified PowerBuilder Developer Associate.
CPDP See Certified PowerBuilder Developer Professional.
CPE See customer-premises
equipment.
CPI-C See Common Programming Interface for Communications.
cps See characters per second.
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Ctrl+Alt+Del
CPTS See Certified Performance and
Tuning Specialist.
CPU See central processing unit.
cracker An unauthorized person who
breaks into a computer system planning to
do harm or damage or with criminal intent.
The popular press often portrays crackers
as people with exceptional talent for eluding detection, and some of them are, but
most of them use a set of well-worn tricks to
exploit common security weaknesses in the
systems they target.
See also attack; hacker; intruder.
crash An unexpected program halt, sometimes due to a hardware failure but most often due to a software error, from which there
is no recovery. You usually need to reboot
the computer to recover after a crash.
See also blue screen of death.
Windows NT 4 that provides encryption
and decryption functions for application
developers.
CS
See convergence sublayer.
CSE See Certified Solutions Expert.
C shell In Unix, a popular command interpreter; pronounced “sea shell.”
Developed at the University of California at
Berkeley as part of the BSD development as
an alternative to the Bourne shell. In addition to the features found in the Bourne
shell, the C shell adds integer arithmetic, a
history mechanism that can recall past commands in whole or in part, aliasing of frequently used commands, job control, and a
built-in set of operators based on the C programming language used for writing shell
scripts.
See also Bash; Bourne shell; Korn shell;
Linux; Unix shell.
CRC See cyclical redundancy check.
critical error An error in a program that
forces the program to stop until the user
corrects the error condition. Examples of
this kind of error are attempts to write to a
floppy disk when there is no disk in the
drive or to print to a printer that has run out
of paper.
crosstalk In communications, any interference from a physically adjacent channel
that corrupts the signal and causes transmission errors.
See also far-end crosstalk; near-end
crosstalk.
Cryptography API Abbreviated CAPI.
An API first introduced in Microsoft
CSMA/CD See Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection.
CSRG See Computer Systems Research Group.
CSU See Channel Service Unit.
Ctrl+Alt+Del A three-key combination
used to reset the machine and reload the operating system. By pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del,
you initiate a warm boot, which restarts the
computer without going through the power-on self tests (POSTs) normally run when
the computer goes through a cold boot.
In Windows 98 and 2000, the sequence
opens a dialog box from which you can
either end a task or shut down the
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Ctrl+Break
computer. Sometimes called the threefinger salute.
See also warm boot.
Ctrl+Break See Ctrl+C.
Ctrl+C 1. A key combination recognized
by Unix, MS-DOS, and other operating systems as a user-initiated interruption. Pressing Ctrl+C stops a batch file, macro, or
command (for example, a directory listing,
a search, or a sort).
2. A keyboard shortcut recognized by
many programs as the instruction to copy
the selected item.
Ctrl key A key on the keyboard that,
when pressed at the same time as another
key, generates a nonprinting control
character.
On some keyboards, this key is labeled
Control rather than Ctrl, but it produces
the same function.
CTS See Clear to Send.
CUE See Certified Unicenter Engineer.
current directory In many operating
systems, the directory that will be searched
first for any file you request, and the directory in which any new files will be stored
(unless you specifically designate another
directory). The current directory is not the
same as the default directory, which is the
directory that an application uses unless
you specify another.
See also dot; dot dot; period and doubleperiod directories.
current drive In many operating systems, the disk drive that is being used for
reading and writing files. The current drive
is not the same as the default drive, which is
the drive that an application uses unless you
specify another.
See also drive mapping.
cursor A special character displayed on a
monitor to indicate where the next character will appear when it is typed. In text or
character mode, the cursor is usually a
blinking rectangle or underline. In a graphical user interface, the mouse cursor can
take many shapes, depending on the current
operation and its screen location.
cursor-movement keys The keys on
the keyboard that move the cursor; also
called cursor-control keys. These keys include the four labeled with arrows and the
Home, Pg Up, End, and Pg Dn keys.
On full-size keyboards, cursor-movement
keys are often found on the numeric keypad; laptops and notebooks often have separate cursor-movement keys.
CU-SeeMe A popular videoconferencing
and videophone product that works over
the Internet.
CU-SeeMe was originally developed at
Cornell University and is available free for
the PC and the Macintosh. An enhanced
commercial version that adds an electronic
chalkboard is available from White Pine
Software. The software is designed for personal use and for use in instruction and in
business communications.
See also White Pine Software.
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Cyrix
Customer Information Control
System Abbreviated CICS. An IBMmainframe client/server program that manages transaction processing in IBM’s VM
and MVS operating systems and that is scalable to thousands of users. It also provides
password security, transaction logging for
backup and recovery, and an activity log
that can be used to analyze session performance, as well as facilities for creating, using, and maintaining databases.
customer-premises equipment Abbreviated CPE. Communications equipment, either leased or owned, used at a
customer site.
cut through A technique used by some
Ethernet hardware to speed up packet forwarding. Only the first few bytes of the
packet are examined before it is forwarded
or filtered. This process is much faster than
looking at the whole packet, but it does allow some bad packets to be forwarded.
See also store-and-forward.
cut-through switching A type of switching used on a Token Ring network in which
data is forwarded as soon as the first 20 or 30
bytes in a data frame have been read.
After the header information has been read,
the connection is established between input
and output ports, and the transmission begins immediately. Sometimes known as onthe-fly switching.
cyclical redundancy check Abbreviated CRC. A complex calculation method
used to check the accuracy of a digital transmission over a communications link or to
ensure the integrity of a file stored on a hard
disk.
The sending computer uses one of several
formulas to calculate a value from the
information contained in the data, and this
value is appended to the message block before it is sent. The receiving computer performs the same calculation on the same
data and compares this number with the
received CRC. If the two CRCs do not
match, indicating a transmission error, the
receiving computer asks the sending computer to retransmit the data.
This procedure is known as a redundancy
check because each transmission includes
extra or redundant error-checking values as
well as the data itself.
As a security check, a CRC may be used to
compare the current size of an executable
file against the original size to determine if
the file has been tampered with or changed
in some way.
See also checksum; Kermit; Xmodem;
Ymodem; Zmodem.
Cyrix A designer of microprocessors, including clones of popular Intel chips such as
the 6x86MX and the MII (pronounced Mtwo). Cyrix was bought by National Semiconductor in 1998.
For more information about Cyrix, see
See also store-and-forward.
www.cyrix.com.
CxBus
See also Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.;
Pentium; Pentium II; Pentium III.
See Cisco Extended Bus.
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DACL
D
DACL See Discretionary Access Control
List.
personal data on the space shuttle astronauts, or a collection of graphical images
and video clips.
daemon Pronounced “dee-mon.” A
background program that runs unattended
and is usually invisible to the user, providing important system services.
See also database management system;
database model; table.
Daemons manage all sorts of tasks, including e-mail, networking, and Internet
services. Some daemons are triggered automatically by events to perform their
work; others operate at timed intervals.
Because daemons spend so much of their
time idle, waiting for something to happen, they do not consume large amounts of
system resources.
database management system Abbreviated DBMS. Software that controls
the data in a database, including overall organization, storage, retrieval, security, and
data integrity. A DBMS can also format reports for printed output and can import and
export data from other applications using
standard file formats. A data-manipulation
language is usually provided to support
database queries.
DAP
See Directory Access Protocol.
DAS See dual-attached station.
DAT See digital audio tape.
data Information in a form suitable for
processing by a computer, such as the digital representation of text, numbers, graphic
images, or sounds. Strictly speaking, data is
the plural of the Latin word datum, meaning an item of information; but the term is
commonly used in both plural and singular
constructions.
database A collection of related objects,
including tables, forms, reports, queries, and
scripts, created and organized by a database
management system (DBMS). A database
can contain information of almost any type,
such as a list of magazine subscribers,
See also database; database model; query
language.
database model The method used by a
database management system (DBMS) to
organize the structure of the database. The
most common database model is the relational database.
See also relational database.
database server Any database application that follows the client/server architecture model, which divides the application
into two parts: a front-end running on the
user’s workstation and a back-end running
on a server or host computer. The front-end
interacts with the user and collects and displays the data. The back-end performs all
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Data Encryption Standard
the computer-intensive tasks, including
data analysis, storage, and manipulation.
Database Specialist: Informix Dynamic
Server A certification from Informix designed for computer professionals who implement and manage Informix Dynamic
Server databases. The associated exams cover relational database design, Structured
Query Language (SQL), and management
and optimization of Informix Dynamic Server databases.
See also Informix-4GL Certified Professional; system administration.
data bits In asynchronous transmissions, the bits that actually make up the data. Usually, seven or eight data bits are
grouped together. Each group of data bits
in a transmission is preceded by a start bit
and followed by an optional parity bit as
well as one or more stop bits.
See also communications parameters;
parity; start bit; stop bit(s).
Data Carrier Detect Abbreviated DCD.
A hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C
standard that indicates that the device,
usually a modem, is online and ready for
transmission.
data communication The transfer of
information from one computer to another
over a communications link. The transfer
can be occasional, continuous, or a combination of both.
data communications equipment
Abbreviated DCE. In communications, any
device that connects a computer or terminal
to a communications channel or public network; usually a modem.
See also data terminal equipment.
data compression Any method of encoding data so that it occupies less space
than it did in its original form, thus allowing that data to be stored, backed up, retrieved, or transmitted more efficiently.
Data compression is used in fax and many
other forms of data transmission, CDROM publishing, still-image and video-image manipulation, and database management systems.
See also Huffman coding; Joint Photographic Experts Group; lossless compression; lossy compression; Moving Pictures
Experts Group.
data connector (Type 1) A connector
for use with Type 1 cable, designed by IBM
for use in Token Ring network wiring
centers.
data-encoding scheme The method
used by a hard-disk controller to store information onto a hard disk or a floppy disk.
Common encoding schemes include the
run-length limited (RLL) and advanced runlength limited (ARLL) methods.
See also advanced run-length limited encoding; RLL encoding.
Data Encryption Standard Abbreviated DES. A standard method of encrypting
and decrypting data, developed by the U.S.
National Bureau of Standards. DES works
by a combination of transposition and substitution. It is used by the federal government and most banks and money-transfer
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data file
systems to protect all sensitive computer
information.
control (LLC) layer sits above the media access control (MAC) layer.
See also encryption; Pretty Good Privacy.
See also OSI Reference Model.
data file A file that contains information—text, graphics, or numbers—rather
than executable program code.
Data Link Switching Abbreviated
DLSw. A standard for encapsulating or tunneling IBM Systems Network Architecture
(SNA) and NetBIOS applications across IP
networks.
datagram A message unit that contains
source and destination address information, as well as the data itself, which is routed through a packet-switching network.
The data held in the datagram is often referred to as the payload, and the addressing
information is usually contained in the
header. Because the destination address is
contained in all datagrams, they do not
have to arrive in consecutive order. Datagrams are commonly used in connectionless
transmission systems. IP (Internet Protocol)
and IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)
are both datagram services.
See also frame; data packet.
Datagram Delivery Protocol Abbreviated DDP. A routing protocol developed by
Apple Computer as a part of its AppleTalk
network.
See also Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking; Systems Network Architecture.
data mining The process of displaying
historical commercial data in a multidimensional form so that previously hidden relationships are exposed through the use of
advanced statistical tools, making them
easier to group and summarize.
See also data warehousing; online analytical processing; online transaction
processing.
data packet One unit of information
transmitted as a discrete entity from one
node on the network to another. More specifically, a packet is a transmission unit of a
fixed maximum length that contains a
header with the destination address, a set of
data, and error control information.
data-link layer The second of seven layers of the OSI Reference Model for computer-to-computer communications. The datalink layer validates the integrity of the flow
of data from one node to another by synchronizing blocks of data and controlling
the flow of data.
See also frame.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE) has divided the data-link
layer into two other layers—the logical link
data protection Techniques used by
network operating systems to ensure the integrity of data on the network, including
data processing Abbreviated DP. Also
called electronic data processing (EDP). A
term used to describe work done by minicomputers and mainframe computers in a
data center or business environment.
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DB connector
protecting data against surface defects developing on the disk and storing redundant
copies of important system data, such as file
indices and file allocation tables (FATs).
Disk duplexing, disk mirroring, a well
thought out backup scheme, and RAID
techniques all provide different levels of
data protection.
See also diskless workstation; disk striping; disk striping with parity; fault tolerance; Hot Fix; intruder; redundant array of
inexpensive disks; virus.
Data Service Unit Abbreviated DSU. A
device that connects DTE (data terminal
equipment) to digital communications
lines. A DSU formats the data for transmission on the public carrier WANs and ensures that the carrier’s requirements for
data formats are met.
See also Channel Service Unit.
Data Set Ready Abbreviated DSR. A
hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C
standard to indicate that the device is ready
to operate.
See also Clear to Send.
data terminal equipment Abbreviated
DTE. In communications, any device, such
as a terminal or a computer, connected to a
communications device, channel, or public
network.
See also data communications equipment.
Data Terminal Ready Abbreviated
DTR. A hardware signal defined by the
RS-232-C standard sent from a computer
to a modem to indicate that the computer
is ready to receive a transmission.
data-transfer rate 1. The speed at
which a disk drive can transfer information
from the drive to the processor, usually measured in megabits or megabytes per second.
2. The rate of information exchange be-
tween two systems. For example, an Ethernet LAN may achieve 10Mbps, and a Fiber
Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) system
may reach 100Mbps.
See also connection speed.
data warehousing A method of storing
very large amounts of data, usually historical transaction processing data, for later
analysis and reporting.
The data warehouse is accessed by software
capable of extracting trends from the raw
data and creating comparative reports.
See also data mining.
dB See decibel.
DB connector Any of several types of cable connectors used for parallel or serial cables. The number following the letters DB
(for data bus) indicates the number of pins
that the connector usually has; a DB-25
connector can have a maximum of 25 pins,
and a DB-9 connector can have as many as
9. In practice, not all the pins (and not all
the lines in the cable) may be present in the
larger connectors. If your situation demands that all the lines be present, make
sure you buy the right cable. Common DB
connectors include the following:
■
DB-9 Defined by the RS-449 standard
as well as the ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
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DBCS
■
■
DB-25 A standard connector used with
RS-232-C wiring, with 25 pins (13 on the
top row and 12 on the bottom).
DB-37 Defined as the RS-449 primary
channel connector.
DB-15, DB-19, and DB-50 connectors are
also available. The accompanying illustration shows a male and female DB-25
connector.
DB CONNECTOR
DBCS See double-byte character set.
DBMS See database management
system.
DC-2000 A quarter-inch tape minicartridge
used in some tape backup systems. DC-2000
has a capacity of up to 250MB when some
form of data compression is used.
See also quarter-inch cartridge.
DCD See Data Carrier Detect.
DCE See data communications
equipment.
DCE See Distributed Computing
Environment.
D channel The channel in ISDN that is
used for control signals and customer data.
In the Base Rate ISDN (BRI), the D channel
operates at 16Kbps; in the Primary Rate
ISDN (PRI), it operates at 64Kbps.
DCOM See Distributed Component
Object Model.
DCPROMO In Microsoft Windows 2000
Server, the Active Directory Installation
Wizard that promotes a member server or
stand-alone server to a domain controller.
When run on a domain controller, this program can demote the computer to a member server or a stand-alone server.
DDCMP See Digital Data Communications Message Protocol.
DDD See direct distance dialing.
DDE See Dynamic Data Exchange.
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dedicated circuit
DDNS
See Dynamic DNS.
DDP See Datagram Delivery Protocol.
deadlock An error condition or stalemate that occurs when two programs or devices are each waiting for a signal from the
other before they can continue.
DEC See Digital Equipment Corporation.
DEC Alpha Also called the DEC Alpha
AXP or the DECchip 21264. A 64-bit,
RISC (reduced instruction set computing)
microprocessor from Digital Equipment
Corporation (DEC), first introduced in
1992.
The Alpha is a superscalar, superpipelined
design, which allows the processor to execute more than one instruction per clock
cycle; it can execute as many as six instructions per clock cycle and can sustain four
instructions per clock cycle.
It has data and instruction caches, a floating-point processor, 64-bit registers, 64-bit
data and address buses, and a 128-bit data
path between the processor and memory.
The internal architecture is symmetrical
multiprocessing (SMP) compliant, meaning
that it can be used in multiprocessing configurations. The chip is available in several
models with operating frequencies in the
300 to 700MHz range; a 1GHz model is expected by the year 2000.
decapsulation A process used in networking in which the receiving system
looks at the header of an arriving message
to determine if the message contains data. If
the message does contain data, the header is
removed and the data decoded.
See also encapsulation.
decibel Abbreviated dB. One-tenth of a
bel, a unit of measurement common in electronics that quantifies the loudness or
strength of a signal. A decibel is a relative
measurement derived by comparing a measured level against a known reference.
decimal The base-10 numbering system
that uses the familiar numbers 0–9; also
known as the base 10 radix or the decimal
radix.
See also binary; hexadecimal.
decimal radix See decimal.
DECnet A series of communications and
networking products from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). DECnet is compatible with Ethernet, as well as with
WANs using baseband and broadband private and public communications channels.
DECnet is built into the VAX VMS operating system.
See also Digital Network Architecture.
decode 1. To decompress a video file after receipt so that you can view it. Most decoding is done by the client browser.
2. To convert coded data back into its orig-
inal form, usually as readable text.
See also codec; decryption; encode;
uuencode.
decryption The process of converting
encrypted data back into its original form.
See also encryption.
dedicated circuit See dedicated line;
direct connection.
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dedicated line
dedicated line A communications circuit used for one specific purpose and not
used by or shared between other users. You
need only dial a dedicated line to restore
service after an unscheduled interruption.
Also known as a dedicated circuit.
Some operating systems create several default directories when the file system is created. For example, Novell NetWare creates
the following directories when the SYS volume is created:
■
See also leased line.
dedicated router A router that performs
no functions other than routing tasks.
dedicated server A computer on the
network that functions only as a server performing specific networking tasks, such as
storing files, printing, or managing external
communications.
Dedicated Token Ring An IEEE 802.5r
Token Ring specification that allows for
full-duplex connections at a speed of up to
32Mbps. By enabling full-duplex communications, the token-passing mechanism is
not used, and communications can take
place between a device and a switch at any
time.
See also 802.x; token-ring network.
default A standard setting, used until an
alternative is chosen. The default server is
the first server that you log on to. The default drive is the drive that a workstation is
currently using.
A default is usually a relatively safe course
of action to try first; many programs provide defaults you can use until you know
enough about the program to specify your
own settings.
default directory A standard directory
or set of directories used by the operating
system or by an application.
■
■
■
SYS:SYSTEM, for the NetWare operating
system files
SYS:PUBLIC, for utility and user programs
SYS:LOGIN, for programs allowing users
to log in to the server
SYS:MAIL, a directory used by NetWarecompatible electronic-mail applications
default server In Novell NetWare, the
server that responds to the Get Nearest
Server request made as a user starts the
logon process. Novell Directory Services
has replaced the need for the default server
destination with the default context.
See also Context.
default shares In Microsoft Windows
2000, resources shared by default when the
operating system is first installed.
See also common share; hidden share;
share; sharing.
defense in depth A term borrowed
from the military used to describe defensive
measures that reinforce each other, hiding
the defenders activities from view and allowing the defender to respond to an attack
quickly and effectively.
In the network world, defense in depth describes an approach to network security
that uses several forms of defense against an
intruder and that does not rely on one single
defensive mechanism.
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demand paging
defragmentation The process of reorganizing and rewriting files so that they occupy one large area on a hard disk rather than
several smaller areas.
When a file on a hard disk is updated, it may
be written into different areas all over the
disk. This outcome is particularly likely
when the hard disk is continuously updated
over a long period of time. This file fragmentation can lead to significant delays in
loading files, but its effect can be reversed
by defragmentation.
See also disk optimizer.
defragmenter Any utility that rewrites
all the parts of a fragmented file into contiguous areas on a hard disk. A defragmenter
(such as the Microsoft Windows 98 utility
Disk Defragmenter) can restore performance lost because of file fragmentation.
See also defragmentation; disk optimizer.
delay In communications, a pause in activity, representing the time during which
transmission-related resources are unavailable for relaying a message.
See also propagation delay.
delay distortion The distortion of a signal caused by the relative difference in
speed of the various components of that signal; in particular, the distortion of the highfrequency component. Also called envelope
delay.
delete To remove a file from a disk or to
remove an item from a file. Files can be deleted using operating system commands or
directly from within an application.
When a file is deleted from a disk, the file
is not physically removed; although it is
hidden, it is still there on the disk until it is
overwritten. In certain circumstances it is
possible to undelete or recover the original
information with utilities designed for that
purpose. If you find you have deleted an
important file by accident, do not write
any other files to that disk so that you do
not overwrite the deleted file. Some network operating systems use a delete inhibit
attribute to prevent accidental deletions;
other operating systems rely on a readonly attribute.
delimiter 1. Any special character that
separates individual items in a data set or
file. For example, in a comma-delimited
file, the comma is placed between each data
value as the delimiter.
2. In a token-ring network, a delimiter is a
bit pattern that defines the limits of a frame
or token on the network.
Dell Computer Corporation One of the
world’s top five PC manufacturers. Dell pioneered direct sales of the PC using a configure-it-yourself Web site.
Best known for PC and laptop sales, Dell is
also pursuing the server market and has recently expanded into the enterprise storage
market with the PowerVault line of SCSIbased storage subsystems, tape backup systems, and scalable disk subsystems.
For more information on Dell, see
www.dell.com.
demand paging A common form of virtual memory management in which pages
of information are read into memory from
disk only when required by the program.
See also swapping.
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demand priority
demand priority A technique used in
100VG-AnyLAN to arbitrate access to the
network and avoid collisions. Demand priority replaces CSMA/CD, which is used in
slower Ethernet networks.
people working on common tasks; it provides shared local resources, such as printers, data, and applications.
Demand priority can also prioritize specific
network traffic such as video and other
time-critical data, giving it a higher precedence; if multiple requests are received, the
highest priority is always serviced first.
descendant key In Microsoft Windows,
all the subkeys that appear when you expand a key in the Windows Registry.
See also Fast Ethernet.
DeskSet A collection of graphical desktop applications bundled with Sun Microsystem’s Solaris.
demodulation In communications, the
process of retrieving the data from a
modulated carrier signal; the reverse of
modulation.
See also modem.
denial of service attack An attack by
an intruder that prevents a computer system from providing a service.
A denial-of-service attack will typically involve opening and dropping a large number
of TCP/IP connections very quickly so that
the target system spends all its time dealing
with the connection overhead to the point
that it cannot respond to valid user requests. Other attacks may exploit known
software security holes to crash servers.
A denial-of-service attack is much easier to
execute than an attempt at unauthorized
access, because the denial-of-service attack
never actually requires access to the system.
See also brute-force attack; dictionary attack; mail bombing; social engineering;
Trojan Horse.
departmental LAN A local-area network used by a relatively small group of
DES See Data Encryption Standard.
See also key; Registry.
DeskSet includes a file manager with options for copying, moving, renaming, and
deleting files, a terminal emulator, text editor, calculator, clock, and calendar, as well
as special programs and utilities.
See also Solaris.
desktop management The process of
managing desktop workstation hardware
and software components automatically,
often from a central location.
See also total cost of ownership; Zero Administration for Windows.
Desktop Management Interface Abbreviated DMI. A standard API for identifying desktop workstation hardware components automatically, without intervention
from the user.
At a minimum, DMI identifies the manufacturer, component name, version, serial
number (if appropriate), and installation
time and date of any component installed in
a networked workstation. This information
is designed to help network administrators
resolve configuration problems quickly and
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device name
easily and to indicate when and where system upgrades should be applied. PCs, Macintosh computers, and Unix systems are all
covered by DMI.
your terminal, it is actually writing to a special file that represents your terminal.
DMI is backed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Novell, Sun, and more than 300 other vendors.
device dependence The requirement
that a specific hardware component be
present for a program to work. Device-dependent software is often difficult to move
or port to another computer because of its
reliance on specific hardware.
See also Plug and Play; total cost of ownership; Web-based Enterprise Management; Wired for Management; Zero
Administration for Windows.
desktop video The combination of video capture hardware and application software that controls the display of video or
television pictures on a desktop PC.
Desktop video is becoming increasingly important with the sharp increase in videoconferencing applications now available.
destination address The address portion of a packet or datagram that identifies
the intended recipient station.
See also source address.
destination host A computer system on
the network that is the final destination for
a file transfer or for an e-mail message.
device A general term used to describe
any computer peripheral or hardware element that can send or receive data.
Some examples are modems, printers, serial
ports, disk drives, routers, bridges, and concentrators. Some devices require special software, or device drivers, to control or manage
them; others have built-in intelligence.
In Unix and certain other operating systems,
all peripherals are treated as though they
were files. When Unix writes information to
See also device driver.
See also device independence.
device driver A small program that allows a computer to communicate with and
control a device. Each operating system contains a standard set of device drivers for the
keyboard, the monitor, and so on. When you
add specialized peripheral devices, such as a
CD-ROM disk drive or a network interface
card, you must install the appropriate device
driver so that the operating system knows
how to manage the device.
See also Plug and Play.
device independence The ability to
produce similar results in a variety of environments, without requiring the presence
of specific hardware.
The Java programming language and the
PostScript page-description language are
examples of device independence. Java runs
on a wide range of computers, from the PC
to a Cray; PostScript is used by many printer manufacturers.
See also device dependence.
device name The name used by the
operating system to identify a computersystem component. For example, COM1 is
the Windows device name for the first
serial port on the PC.
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device number
device number A unique number assigned to a device so that it can operate on
the network. Devices are identified by three
numbers:
■
■
■
A physical address set by jumpers on the
adapter board
A device code determined by the physical
address
A logical address determined by the order
in which the drivers are loaded and by the
physical address of the adapter
See also Ethernet address; hardware
address.
dial-in/dial-out server See asynchronous communications server.
Dialogic Corp A major manufacturer of
high-performance telephony products, including those used in voice, data, fax,
speech synthesis, ISDN networking, and
call center management applications.
For more information on Dialogic, see
www.dialogic.com.
dialup line A nondedicated communication line in which a connection is established by dialing the destination code and
then broken when the call is complete.
See also dedicated line; leased line.
Dfs
See Distributed file system.
DHCP See Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol.
diagnostic program A program that
tests computer hardware and peripheral devices for correct operation. Some faults,
known as hard faults, are relatively easy to
find, and the diagnostic program will diagnose them correctly every time. Other
faults, called soft faults, can be difficult to
find, because they occur under specific circumstances rather than every time the
memory location is tested.
Most computers run a simple set of system
checks when the computer is first turned
on. The PC tests are stored in ROM and are
known as power-on self tests (POSTs). If a
POST detects an error condition, the computer stops and displays an error message
on the screen.
dialback modem See callback modem.
Dial-Up Networking Software provided
with Microsoft’s Windows products that
allows the clients to dial out and establish
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connections.
dictionary attack An attack by an intruder that checks passwords in a password
file against a list of words likely to be used
as passwords. Some versions of this attack
check the entire language lexicon.
See also brute-force attack; denial of service attack; mail bombing; social engineering; Trojan Horse.
differential backup A backup of a hard
disk that includes only the information that
has changed since the last complete backup.
A differential backup assumes that a full
backup already exists and that in the event
of an accident, this complete backup will
be restored before the differential backup
is reloaded.
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digital signal
differential SCSI A Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI) bus wiring scheme
that uses two wires for each signal on the
bus. One wire carries the signal, while the
other carries its inverse. Differential SCSI
minimizes the effects of external interference and so allows longer SCSI cable
lengths to be used.
See also single-ended SCSI; Small Computer System Interface.
Digital Equipment Corporation Abbreviated DEC. A major manufacturer of
minicomputers and mainframe computers,
founded in 1957, long recognized for its
high-quality computer systems. DEC’s
most popular product line, the VAX series,
ranges from small desktop systems to large
mainframes suitable for scientific and commercial processing. DEC was bought by
Compaq Computer Corporation in 1998.
For more information on DEC, see
digest A collection of Internet mailing
list posts collected together and sent out as
a single large message rather than as a number of smaller messages. Using a digest is a
good way to cut down on the number of
noncritical e-mail messages you receive.
See also LISTSERV; listserver; mailing list.
digital Describes any device that represents values in the form of binary digits or
bits.
See also analog.
digital audio tape Abbreviated DAT. A
method of recording information in digital
form on a small audio tape cassette, originally developed by Sony and Hewlett-Packard. The most common format is a 4millimeter, helical-scan drive, which can
hold more than 3GB of information. DATs
can be used as backup media; however, like
all tape devices, they are relatively slow.
Digital Data Communications Message Protocol Abbreviated DDCMP. A
byte-oriented, link-layer synchronous protocol from Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC), used as the primary data-link component of DECnet.
www.digital.com.
See also DEC Alpha.
Digital Network Architecture Abbreviated DNA. The framework within which
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) designs and develops all its communications
products.
digital service See digital signal.
digital signal Abbreviated DS; also
known as digital service. There are several
levels of common carrier digital transmission service:
■
DS-0 64Kbps.
■
DS-1 1.544Mbps (T1).
■
■
■
■
DS-1C Two DS-1 channels are multiplexed into a single DS-1C 3.152Mbps
channel.
DS-2 Two DS-1C channels are multiplexed into one DS-2 6.312Mbps (T2)
channel.
DS-3 Seven DS-2 channels are multiplexed into a single 44.736Mbps (T3)
channel.
DS-4 Six DS-3 channels are multiplexed
into one 274.176Mbps (T4) DS-4 channel.
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Digital Signal Processing
The higher-capacity channels are constructed by multiplexing the lower-bandwidth
channels together, with some additional
framing and administrative overhead.
DS-0 is also referred to as fractional T1,
because it bridges the gap between 56-Kbps
direct dial service (DDS) and a full T1
implementation.
DIGITAL SIGNAL
Digital Signal Processing Abbreviated
DSP. An integrated circuit used in highspeed data manipulation. You will find DSP
chips integrated into sound cards, modems,
and video-conferencing hardware for use in
communications, image manipulation, and
other data-acquisition applications.
See also codec; desktop video.
digital signature An electronic signature that cannot be forged. A digital signature confirms that the document or e-mail
in question originated from the individual
or company whose name appears on the
document and that the document has not
been altered or tampered with in any way
since it was signed.
See also certificate.
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DIP switch
Digital Subscriber Line Abbreviated
DSL. A high-speed data transmission technology originally developed by Bellcore
that delivers high bandwidth over existing
twisted-pair copper telephone lines.
There are several DSL services, providing
data rates from 16Kbps to 52Mbps. The
services can be symmetrical, with the same
data rate in both upstream and downstream
directions, or asymmetrical, with the downstream capacity greater than the upstream
capacity. Asymmetric services are particularly suitable for Internet users, because
more information is downloaded than is
uploaded.
As DSL data rates increase, the distance
over which the service is provided decreases; certain users who are located too far
from the telephone company’s central office may not be able to obtain the higher
speeds or, in some cases, may not be able to
receive the service at all.
See also Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line; High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line;
Rate-Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line;
Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line; VeryHigh-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line.
digital versatile disc See digital video
disc.
digital video disc Abbreviated DVD;
sometimes called digital versatile disc. A
compact disc format. A standard single-layer single-sided disc can currently store
4.7GB of information; a two-layer standard
increases this to 8.5GB, and eventually double-sided discs are expected to store 17GB
per disc. DVD drives can also read conventional compact discs.
digital video disc-erasable Abbreviated DVD-E. An extension to the digital video
disc format to allow multiple re-recordings.
See also digital video disc-recordable.
digital video disc-recordable Abbreviated DVD-R. An extension to the digital video disc format to allow one-time recording.
See also digital video disc-erasable.
digital video disc-ROM Abbreviated
DVD-ROM. A computer-readable form of
digital video disc with either 4.7 or 8.5GB
of storage per side.
dimmed command In a graphical user
interface, a command that is not currently
available. Also known as a grayed command, because it is often displayed in light
gray rather than the usual black. For example, a command to perform a network action will be dimmed until you log on to the
network.
DIN connector A connector that meets
the specification of the German national
standards body, Deutsche Industrie Norm
(DIN).
Several models of Macintosh computers use
8-pin DIN connectors as the serial port connector. On many IBM-compatible computers, a 5-pin DIN connector connects the
keyboard to the system unit.
DIP See dual in-line package.
DIP switch A small switch used to select
the operating mode of a device, mounted
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direct access
as a dual in-line package. DIP switches can
be either sliding or rocker switches, and
they are often grouped for convenience.
They are used in printed circuit boards,
dot-matrix printers, modems, and many
other peripheral devices.
DIP SWITCH
direct access See random access.
direct line See direct connection.
direct connection A communications
circuit used for one specific purpose and not
used by or shared with other users. Also
known as a dedicated circuit or a direct line.
An ISDN qualifies as a direct connection.
direct manipulation In a graphical user
interface, the process of working with objects using a mouse or other pointing device,
rather than using menu selections to manipulate the objects. Using drag-and-drop to
print a file or using the mouse to adjust the
size of a window are both examples of direct
manipulation.
See also Integrated Services Digital
Network.
direct distance dialing Abbreviated
DDD. Use of the normal long-distance telephone system without the need for the intervention of an operator.
direct distance dial network See public network.
direct memory access Abbreviated
DMA. A method of transferring information directly from a mass-storage device,
such as a hard disk, into memory without
the information passing through the processor. Because the processor is not involved in the transfer, DMA is usually fast.
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Directory replica
Directory 1. In Novell Directory Services (NDS), the Directory database contains
and organizes all the NDS objects.
2. In the Microsoft Active Directory struc-
ture, a Directory contains information
about users, groups of users, computers,
and so on.
See also Active Directory; Directory object; Directory Schema; directory tree;
Novell Directory Services.
directory In a hierarchical file system, a
convenient way of organizing and grouping
files and other directories on a disk. Sometimes called a folder. The beginning directory is known as the root directory, from
which all other directories must branch.
Directories inside another directory are
called subdirectories.
Depending on the operating system, you
can list the files in a directory in a variety of
ways: by name, by creation date and time,
by file size, or by icon if you use a graphical
user interface.
See also current directory; default directory;
directory services; file allocation table; parent directory; period and double-period
directories.
Directory Access Protocol Abbreviated DAP. A mail standard used to access
white page directories containing names,
addresses, e-mail addresses, and telephone
numbers. Because of its complexity, DAP
has been largely replaced by Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).
See also Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol.
directory caching A feature of Novell
NetWare that copies the file allocation
table (FAT) and the directory entry table
into the network server’s memory. When
file requests are made, information is
retrieved from the cache rather than from
the hard disk, thus speeding the retrieval
process significantly. As the directory cache
fills up, the least-used directory entries are
eliminated from the cache.
directory hashing A feature of Novell
NetWare that indexes file locations on disk,
thus speeding file retrieval.
Directory Map object In Novell Directory Services (NDS), a leaf object that refers
to a directory on a volume. The Directory
Map object allows a drive to be mapped to
an application or to a login script without requiring the actual path and volume where
the application is physically located. This is
done so that login scripts don’t have to be rewritten when a drive path changes; you can
simply change the Directory Map object.
See also Novell Directory Services.
Directory object In Novell Directory
Services (NDS), a set of properties stored in
the Directory database. A Directory object
can represent a physical or a logical network resource, but it does not actually contain the resource.
See also Directory; Novell Directory
Services.
directory path See path.
Directory replica In Novell NetWare, a
copy of the NetWare Directory partition
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directory replication
that allows the NetWare Directory Database to be stored on several servers on the
network without having to duplicate the
entire database on each server. Directory
replicas remove a single point of failure
from the network and thereby increase fault
tolerance.
See also NetWare Directory Database.
directory replication A process that
copies a master set of directories from a
server, called an export server, to other
specified servers or workstations, known as
import computers. This process simplifies
the task of maintaining and synchronizing
identical sets of directories and files, because only one master copy of the data is
maintained. A file is replicated when it is
added to an exported directory, as well as
when changes are made to the file.
directory service client Abbreviated
DSCLIENT. In Microsoft Windows 95/98,
an add-on that makes a Windows 95/98 client computer aware of Active Directory.
See also Active Directory.
Directory Service log In Microsoft
Windows 2000 Server, a special log that
records any events associated with running
the Directory Service, any problems connecting to the global catalog, and any
events associated with Active Directory
(AD) on the network.
See also DNS Server log; Event Viewer;
File Replication Service log.
Directory services In the Microsoft Active Directory structure, a directory as well
as the services it provides, such as security
and replication.
See also Active Directory.
Directory Schema In Novell Directory
Services (NDS), a set of rules that defines
how information can be stored in the Directory database. The Schema contains four
major definitions:
■
■
■
■
Attribute information Describes the
kinds of information that can be associated with an object.
Inheritance Defines which objects can
inherit the rights and properties of other
objects.
Naming Determines the structure of the
Directory tree.
Subordination Specifies the location of
objects in the Directory tree.
See also Novell Directory Services.
directory services A listing of all users
and resources on a network, designed to help
clients locate network users and services.
Some examples are the OSI’s X.500, Novell
Directory Services (NDS), Microsoft’s Active Directory, and Banyan’s StreetTalk.
See also domain directory services; global
directory services.
directory structure duplication A
technique that maintains duplicate copies
of the file allocation table (FAT) and directory entry table in separate areas of a hard
disk. If the first copy is damaged or destroyed, the second copy is immediately
available for use.
See also directory verification.
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disk cache
directory tree A method of representing
the hierarchical structure of the directories,
subdirectories, and files on a disk. The term
is often used in graphical user interfaces. In
object-oriented systems, this structure may
also represent a group of objects, as in Novell Directory Services (NDS).
directory verification A process that
performs a consistency check on duplicate
sets of file allocation tables (FATs) and directory entry tables to verify that they are
identical. The verification occurs every time
the server is started.
See also directory structure duplication.
disable To turn a function off or prevent
something from happening. In a graphical
user interface, disabled menu commands
are often shown in gray to indicate that they
are not available.
See also dimmed command; enable.
disaster recovery The process used to
restore services after a major interruption in
computing or in communications. Large
events such as earthquakes or fires can interrupt networked computing activities, but so
can more mundane events such as hard-disk
failure or a construction worker accidentally
cutting through a power or telephone line.
The whole point to disaster recovery is to
plan for it before anything happens and then
follow the plan when restoring services.
See also backup; disk duplexing; disk mirroring; redundant array of inexpensive
disks.
Discretionary Access Control List Abbreviated DACL. In Microsoft Windows
NT, a list of user and group accounts that
have permission to access an object’s services. The DACL has as many Access Control Entries as there are user or group
accounts with access to the object.
disk cache Pronounced “disk cash.” An
area of computer memory where data is temporarily stored on its way to or from a disk.
When an application asks for information
from the hard disk, the cache program first
checks to see if that data is already in the
cache memory. If it is, the disk cache program loads the information from the cache
memory rather than from the hard disk. If
the information is not in memory, the cache
program reads the data from the disk, copies it into the cache memory for future reference, and then passes the data to the
requesting application. This process is
shown in the accompanying illustration.
A disk cache program can significantly speed
most disk operations. Some network operating systems also cache other often accessed
and important information, such as directories and the file allocation table (FAT).
See also directory caching.
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disk controller
DISK CACHE
disk controller The electronic circuitry
that controls and manages the operation of
floppy disks and hard disks.
A single disk controller may manage more
than one hard disk. Many disk controllers
also manage floppy disks and compatible
tape drives. In the Macintosh, the disk controller is built into the system. In the PC, the
disk controller may be a printed circuit
board inserted into the expansion bus, or it
may be part of the hard disk drive itself.
disk coprocessor board See host bus
adapter.
disk drive A peripheral storage device
that reads and writes magnetic or optical
disks. When more than one disk drive is installed on a computer, the operating system
assigns each drive (or logical drive) a unique
name.
Several types of disk drives are in common
use: floppy disk drives, hard disk drives,
compact disc drives, digital video disc drives,
Zip drives, and magneto-optical disc drives.
disk duplexing A fault-tolerant technique that writes the same information simultaneously onto two hard disks.
Each hard disk uses a different disk controller to provide greater redundancy. If one
disk or disk controller fails, information
from the other system can be used to continue operations. Disk duplexing is offered
by most major network operating systems.
It is designed to protect the system against
a single disk failure, not multiple disk failures. Disk duplexing is no substitute for a
well-planned series of disk backups.
See also data protection; disk mirroring;
redundant array of inexpensive disks.
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disk striping with parity
Disk Manager In Microsoft Windows
2000, the administrative tool used to manage hard disks and other storage media.
Disk Manager replaces NT’s Disk Administrator.
See also basic disk; dynamic disk.
disk quotas In Microsoft Windows
2000, a feature that allows an administrator to limit the amount of hard disk space
available to a user. You can set quotas only
on NTFS hard disks.
diskless workstation A networked
computer that does not have any local disk
storage capability. The computer boots and
loads all its programs from the network file
server. Diskless workstations are particularly valuable when sensitive information is
processed; information cannot be copied
from the file server onto a local disk, because the workstation does not have one.
See also dumb terminal; network computer; thin client.
disk mirroring A fault-tolerant technique that writes the same information simultaneously onto two hard disks or two
hard-disk partitions, using the same disk
controller. If one disk or partition fails, information from the other can be used to
continue operations. Disk mirroring is offered by most major network operating systems. It is designed to protect the system
against a single disk failure, not multiple
disk failures. Disk mirroring is no substitute
for a well-planned series of disk backups.
See also data protection; disk duplexing;
redundant array of inexpensive disks.
disk optimizer A utility that rearranges
files and directories on a disk for optimum
performance. By reducing or eliminating
file fragmentation (storage in pieces in different locations on the hard disk), a disk
optimizer can restore the original level of
performance of your disk system. Also, it is
usually easier to undelete, or recover, an
unfragmented file than a fragmented one.
Many disk optimizers will not only rewrite
files as contiguous files, but will also place
specific unchanging files in particular locations on the disk, optimize directories, and
even place specific applications on the disk
so that they load more quickly.
See also defragmentation.
disk striping The technique of combining a set of disk partitions located on different hard disks into a single volume, creating
a virtual “stripe” across the partitions that
the operating system recognizes as a single
drive. Disk striping can occur at the bit level
or at the sector level and allows multiple
concurrent disk accesses that can improve
performance considerably.
See also disk striping with parity; redundant array of inexpensive disks; stripe set.
disk striping with parity The addition
of parity information across a disk stripe so
that if a single disk partition fails, the data
on that disk can be re-created from the information stored across the remaining partitions in the disk stripe.
See also disk striping; redundant array of
inexpensive disks; stripe set.
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dispersion
DISK STRIPING
dispersion The degree of scattering that
takes place as a beam of light travels along
a fiber-optic cable.
See also cladding.
See also Common name; Context; Relative
Distinguished Name.
Distributed Component Object Model
Abbreviated DCOM. A specification from
Microsoft that enables communications between distributed objects.
distance vector algorithm A family of
routing algorithms that calculate the bestpath route to use for data transmission
from information present in adjacent nodes
on the network. Routing information is
broadcast periodically rather than only
when a change occurs, which makes the
method bandwidth intensive. For this reason, distance vector algorithm is best used
in relatively small networks with few interrouter connections.
processing.
Distinguished Name In Novell Directory Services (NDS), the full name of an object, including the object’s Common name
and its context. Sometimes called the Full
Distinguished Name.
Distributed Computing Environment
Abbreviated DCE. The Open Software
Foundation’s (OSF) architecture for developing application software for use on different networks.
DCOM extends the Component Object
Model (COM) so that clients can communicate directly with other processes on different computers on a LAN or on the
Internet.
See also ActiveX; Component Object
Model.
distributed computing See distributed
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DIX connector
DCE hides the differences between products,
technologies, and standards, providing independence from the operating system and underlying network. No particular communications protocol is specified, so the network
can run on IP (Internet Protocol), IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange), or SNA (Systems Network Architecture).
distributed database A database managed as a single system even though it includes many clients and many servers at
both local and remote sites. A distributed
database requires that data redundancy is
managed and controlled.
Distributed Director Web site load-balancing software from Cisco Systems.
A popular Web site can be overwhelmed by
requests from users, and to avoid long wait
times, you can configure additional Web
servers to hold duplicate information. Web
requests are then sent to the Web server best
able to handle the request. Distributed Director runs on Cisco routers and uses a
routing protocol to send user requests to the
server that is closest to them.
Distributed file system Abbreviated
Dfs. In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a
hierarchical file system that combines resources from all over the network into a single logical view.
distributed file system Any file system
in which files and programs are located on
more than one computer or server. Users
can access files and applications as though
they were stored on a single local system.
Distributed System Object Model
Abbreviated DSOM. IBM’s extension to
System Object Model (SOM) that allows
objects to communicate in a distributed
processing environment.
distributed processing A computer
system in which processing is performed by
several separate computers linked by a
communications network.
The term often refers to any computer system supported by a network, but more
properly refers to a system in which each
computer is chosen to handle a specific
workload and the network supports the
system as a whole. Each computer contributes to the completion of a common task by
completing one or more subtasks independently of its peers and then reporting the results from these subtasks. All this is totally
transparent to the users; all they see are the
results of the process.
See also client/server architecture.
distribution groups In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a collection of recipient
e-mail addresses. Distribution groups have
nothing to do with system security. They do
not have security identifiers, and they do
not appear on access control lists.
See also security groups.
distribution medium The type of datastorage device used to distribute original
software or software updates.
Tapes used to be the favorite distribution
medium, but compact discs are rapidly
gaining popularity.
DIX connector See Attachment Unit
Interface.
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DLL
DLL See Dynamic Link Library.
DLSw See Data Link Switching.
DMA See direct memory access.
DMI See Desktop Management
Interface.
DNA See Digital Network Architecture.
DNS See Domain Name Service.
DNS alias A host name that the Domain
Name Service (DNS) server knows points to
another host. Computers always have one
real name, but they can also have several
aliases. A DNS alias is sometimes called a
CNAME or a canonical name.
See also Domain Name Service.
DNS name server A server containing
information that is part of the Domain
Name Service (DNS) distributed database,
which makes computer names available to
client programs querying for name resolution on the Internet.
See also Domain Name Service.
DNS Server log In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a special log that records any
events associated with running the Domain
Name Service (DNS) Server.
See also Directory Service log; Event Viewer; File Replication Service log.
docking station A hardware system into
which a portable computer fits so that it can
be used as a full-fledged desktop computer.
Docking stations vary from simple port replicators that allow you access to parallel
and serial ports and a mouse to complete
systems that give you access to network
connections, CD-ROMs, and even a tape
backup system or PCMCIA ports. The portable computer and docking station are designed as two parts of the same system; you
cannot swap computers and docking stations from different manufacturers or even
from different models.
See also port replicator.
document database A carefully organized collection of related documents; for
example, a set of technical support bulletins.
document instance In Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), the text
component of a document as distinct from
the structure of the document.
See also document type definition; Standard Generalized Markup Language.
document management The cataloging, storage, and retrieval of documents in
a networked environment. In this context, a
document may be text, scanned graphics, a
spreadsheet, a form, a Web page, or any
other unique file.
Each file is tagged with information that includes the name of the original author, document description, creation date, and the
name of the application used to create the
document.
See also groupware; Lotus Notes; workflow software.
document root On a Web server, a directory that contains the files, images, and
data you want to present to all users who
access the server with a browser.
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domain directory services
document type definition Abbreviated DTD. In Standard Generalized Markup
Language (SGML), the structural component of a document as distinct from the actual data or content of the document.
■
See also document instance; Standard
Generalized Markup Language.
documentation The instructions, tutorials, specifications, troubleshooting advice, and reference guides that accompany a
computer program or a piece of hardware.
Documentation can be in printed or online
format. Early system documentation was
often written by programmers and engineers and was usually filled with technical
jargon. Today’s documentation is generally
better written and easier to understand.
domain A description of a single computer, a whole department, or a complete
site, used for naming and administrative
purposes.
Top-level domains must be registered to receive mail from outside the organization;
local domains have meaning only inside
their own enterprise. Depending on the
context, the term can have several slightly
different meanings:
■
■
■
On the Internet, a domain is part of the
Domain Name Service (DNS).
In Novell NetWare, a domain is a special
area of memory where a new NetWare
Loadable Module (NLM) can be tested
without the risk of corrupting the operating system memory.
In IBM’s Systems Network Architecture
(SNA), a domain represents all the terminals
and other network resources controlled by a
single processor or processor group.
■
In Microsoft Windows NT, a group of
computers, users, and network peripherals managed with a single set of account
descriptions and security policies. A user
can log on to the local computer and be
authenticated to access just that one system, or a user can log on to a domain and
be authenticated to access other servers
within that domain.
In Lotus Notes, a domain is one or more
Notes servers that share the same Public
Name and Address Book database. This
database contains information about the
users within the domain, including their email addresses and other information.
See also domain name.
domain component In the Microsoft
Active Directory structure, a portion of a
domain name. For example, in computer
.sybex.com, each element of the name—
computer, sybex, and com—is a domain
component.
See also Active Directory.
domain controller In Microsoft
Windows NT, a server that stores and
shares domain information, including the
central database of users, passwords, and
permissions.
A domain controller can be a primary domain controller, which stores the master
copy of the domain information, or a backup domain controller, which uses a replicated version of this data to verify user logons
and rights.
domain directory services Directory
services that consist of one or more linked
servers. Each domain within a network must
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domain name
be managed and administered separately.
Windows NT Server and IBM’s LAN Server
both use domain directory services.
DOS Acronym for Disk Operating System. An operating system originally developed by Microsoft for the IBM PC.
See also global directory services.
DOS existed in two similar versions:
MS-DOS, developed and marketed by
Microsoft for use with IBM-compatible
computers, and PC-DOS, supported and
sold by IBM for use on computers manufactured by IBM.
domain name In the Domain Name Service (DNS), an easy-to-remember name
that identifies a specific Internet host, as opposed to the hard-to-remember numeric IP
address.
See also MS-DOS.
See also bang path.
Domain Name Service Abbreviated
DNS, sometimes referred to as Domain
Naming System. A distributed addressing
system that resolves the domain name into
the numeric IP address. DNS lets you use
the Internet without having to remember
long lists of cryptic numbers.
The most common high-level domains on
the Internet include:
.com
A commercial organization
.edu
An educational establishment such
as a university
.gov
A branch of the U.S. government
.int
An international treaty
organization
.mil
A branch of the U.S. military
.net
A network provider
.org
A nonprofit organization
Most countries also have unique domains
named after their international abbreviation—for example, .uk for the United Kingdom and .ca for Canada.
See also IP address; name resolution.
DOS client A workstation that boots
MS-DOS and gains access to the network
using either a NetWare shell or the NetWare DOS Requester software.
DOS prompt See MS-DOS prompt.
dot A synonym for the name of the current directory, usually invisible as its name
begins with a period.
In Unix, a file whose name begins with a dot
usually contains configuration information; you can customize your environment
by creating the appropriate dot file in the
current directory or in your home directory.
See also current directory; dot dot; period
and double-period directories.
dot dot A synonym for the name of the
parent directory to the current directory,
usually invisible as its name begins with a
period.
See also current directory; dot; period and
double-period directories.
dotted decimal A method of representing an IP address as four decimal numbers
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drag-and-drop
separated by dots, or periods; for example,
194.65.87.3.
See also IP address.
double-byte character set Abbreviated DBCS. A method that uses two bytes to
hold the definition of the character rather
than the single byte used by the American
Standard Code for Information Interchange
(ASCII) or the Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC).
By utilizing two bytes instead one, the many
international character sets in use these
days can be managed much more easily.
See also ASCII standard character set;
ASCII extended character set; Unicode.
2. To send information, such as font infor-
mation or a PostScript file, from a computer
to a printer.
downsizing The redesign of mainframebased business applications to applications capable of running on smaller, lessexpensive systems, often PC LANs. Client/
server architecture is the model most often
implemented during downsizing.
When applications are moved from large
computer systems to PCs, security, integrity, and overall control may be compromised, and development and training costs
can be high. However, a collection of appropriately configured PCs, networked together, can provide more than ten times the
power for the same cost as a mainframe
computer supporting remote terminals.
double-slash Notation used with a colon to separate the communications protocol from the host computer name in a
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) as in
http://www.sybex.com.
A more accurate term might be rightsizing,
to match the application requirements of
the corporation to the capabilities of the
hardware and software systems available.
See also Uniform Resource Locator.
See also outsourcing.
downlevel trust In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a trust explicitly established
between a Windows 2000 domain and a
Windows NT 4 domain.
downtime The amount of time during
which a computer system is not available to
users, because of a hardware or software
failure.
See also explicit trust; shortcut trust; trust
relationship; two-way transitive trust.
downward compatibility See back-
downlink The transmission of information from a satellite to an earth station.
DP See data processing.
See also uplink.
download 1. In communications, to
transfer a file or files from one computer to
another over a network or using a modem.
ward compatibility.
drag-and-drop In a graphical user interface, to move a selected object onto another
object with the mouse to initiate a process.
For example, if you drag a document icon
and drop it onto a word processor’s icon,
the program will run, and the document
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DRAM
will be opened. To print a file, you can drag
the file to the printer icon using the mouse
and then release the mouse button. You can
also use drag-and-drop to copy a file from
one disk to another or to move a marked
block of text to a new location inside a
word-processed document.
driver Jargon for device driver.
See also device driver.
drop 1. The location in a multidrop line
where a tap is inserted to allow the connection of a new device.
2. To lose part of a signal, usually uninten-
DRAM See dynamic RAM.
tionally, as in dropping bits.
drive array The group of hard disk
drives used in one of the RAID (redundant
array of inexpensive disks) configurations.
drop cable The cable used in thick Ethernet to connect a network device to a Multistation Access Unit (MAU). The maximum
cable length is 50 meters (165 feet). Sometimes called a transceiver cable.
See also redundant array of inexpensive
disks.
DS See digital signal.
drive letter A designation used to specify
a PC disk drive. For example, the first floppy disk drive is usually referred to as drive
A, and the first hard disk drive is usually referred to as drive C.
drive mapping The technique of assigning a drive letter to represent a complete
directory path statement. Novell NetWare
supports four types of drive mapping:
■
■
■
■
Local drive mapping Maps drives to local hard disk and floppy disk drives
Network drive mapping Maps drives to
volumes and directories on the network
Network search drive mapping Maps
drives to directories that should be
searched if an application or file is not
found in the current directory
Directory map object Maps drives to directories that contain frequently used
files, such as applications, without having
to specify the actual physical location of
the file
See also Directory Map object.
DSCLIENT
See directory service client.
DSL See Digital Subscriber Line.
DSOM See Distributed System Object
Model.
DSP See Digital Signal Processing.
DSR See Data Set Ready.
DSU See Data Service Unit.
DTD See document type definition.
DTE See data terminal equipment.
DTR See Data Terminal Ready; Dedicated Token Ring.
dual-attached station Abbreviated
DAS. In the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), a device attached to both of
the dual, counter-rotating rings. Concentrators, bridges, and routers often use DAS
connections to provide fault tolerance. In
contrast, a single attached station (SAS)
connects to only one ring.
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Dynamic Data Exchange
dual-homed host A network server
configured with two network interface
cards, each connected to a different network. Dual-homed hosts are often used
with firewalls to increase network security.
DVD
See also firewall; proxy server.
DVD-ROM
dual homing In Fiber Distributed Data
Interface (FDDI), a method of cabling concentrators and stations in a tree configuration, providing an alternative route to the
FDDI network should the primary connection fail.
dual in-line package Abbreviated DIP.
A standard housing constructed of hard
plastic commonly used to hold an integrated circuit. The circuit’s leads are connected
to two parallel rows of pins designed to fit
snugly into a socket; these pins may also be
soldered directly to a printed circuit board.
See also DIP switch.
dumb terminal A combination of keyboard and screen that has no local computing power, used to input information to a
large, remote computer, often a minicomputer or a mainframe. The remote computer provides all the processing power for the
system.
See also diskless workstation; intelligent
terminal; network computer; thin client.
duplex In asynchronous transmissions,
the ability to transmit and receive on the
same channel at the same time; also referred
to as full duplex. Half-duplex channels can
transmit only or receive only.
See also communications parameters.
See digital video disc.
DVD-E
See digital video disc-erasable.
DVD-R
See digital video discrecordable.
See digital video disc-ROM.
dynamic adaptive routing See dynamic routing.
dynamic bandwidth allocation A
method of bandwidth allocation that subdivides the available bandwidth between
multiple applications almost instantaneously, to provide each application with
just the amount of bandwidth that it currently needs.
Dynamic Data Exchange Abbreviated
DDE. A technique used for application-toapplication communications, available in
several operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, and OS/2.
When two or more programs that support
DDE are running at the same time, they can
exchange data and commands, by means of
conversations. A DDE conversation is a
two-way connection between two applications, used to transmit data by each program alternately.
DDE is used for low-level communications
that do not need user intervention. For example, a communications program might
feed stock market information into a
spreadsheet program, where that data can
be displayed in a meaningful way and recalculated automatically as it changes.
DDE has largely been superseded by Object
Linking and Embedding (OLE).
See also Object Linking and Embedding.
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dynamic disk
dynamic disk In Microsoft Windows
2000, a hard disk that is available only to
Windows 2000 and not available from any
other operating system. A dynamic disk
does not use primary and extended partitions to divide the available space into logical units.
To create a dynamic disk, use the Disk
Management utility to convert a basic disk
into a dynamic disk. Dynamic disks allow
you to create, delete, and extend fault-tolerant and multidisk volumes without restarting the operating system. Windows
2000 RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) services are available only on dynamic disks.
See also basic disk.
Dynamic DNS Abbreviated DDNS. In
Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a mechanism that allows Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Windows 2000
clients to update Domain Name Service
(DNS) records dynamically, rather than by
the traditional method of manually adding
the new records to static DNS zone files.
See also Domain Name Service.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Abbreviated DHCP. A system based on network interface card addresses that is used to
allocate IP addresses and other configuration information automatically for networked systems. DHCP is an update of the
Bootstrap Protocol.
See also Bootstrap Protocol; hardware address; IP address; Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol.
Dynamic Link Library Abbreviated
DLL. A program module that contains executable code and data that can be used by
applications, or even by other DLLs, in performing a specific task.
DLLs are used extensively throughout the
family of Microsoft Windows products.
DLLs may have filename extensions of
.DLL, .DRV, or .FON.
The DLL is linked into the application only
when the program runs, and it is unloaded
again when no longer needed. If two DLL
applications are running at the same time
and both perform a particular function, only
one copy of the code for that function is
loaded, for more efficient use of limited
memory. Another benefit of using dynamic
linking is that the .EXE files are not as large
as they would be, because frequently used
routines can be put into a DLL rather than
repeated in each .EXE file that uses them. A
smaller .EXE file means saved disk space and
faster program loading.
dynamic RAM Abbreviated DRAM,
pronounced “dee-ram.” A common type of
computer memory that uses capacitors and
transistors storing electrical charges to represent memory states. These capacitors lose
their electrical charge, so they need to be refreshed every millisecond, during which
time they cannot be read by the processor.
DRAM chips are small, simple, cheap, easy
to make, and hold approximately four
times as much information as a static RAM
(SRAM) chip of similar complexity. However, they are slower than SRAM.
dynamic routing A routing technique
that allows the route that a message takes to
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DynaText
change, as the message is in transit through
the network, in response to changing network conditions. Conditions forcing a route
change might include unusually heavy traffic
on a particular section of the network or a
cable failure. Also known as dynamic adaptive routing.
dynamic volume In Microsoft Windows 2000, a logical hard disk volume created by Disk Management.
Dynamic volumes can include simple,
striped, spanned, and RAID-5 components
and can exist only on dynamic disks.
See also basic disk; dynamic disk.
DynaText A form of electronic document and viewer used in Novell NetWare
for online manuals. You can use DynaText
directly from the CD, or you can install it on
the server or on a workstation. Replaces
Electrotext.
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E
E
E See exa-.
EB
E1 A point-to-point, dedicated,
2.048Mbps communications circuit capable of supporting thirty-two 64Kbps channels used as 30 voice channels, 1 control
channel, and 1 synchronization and framing channel. The European equivalent of
North America’s T1.
EBCDIC See Extended Binary Coded
Decimal Interchange Code.
E1 circuits carry more channels than the 24
channels used in T1 systems, and repeaters
are required every 6000 feet when copper
wire is used.
E2 A European point-to-point, dedicated, 8.848Mbps communications circuit
equivalent to four E1 circuits. E2 is the European equivalent of North America’s T2
and is rarely used.
E3 A European point-to-point, dedicated,
34.368Mbps communications circuit
equivalent to 16 E1 circuits. The European
equivalent of North America’s T3.
E4 A European point-to-point, dedicated,
139.26Mbps communications circuit
equivalent to 4 E3 or 64 E1 circuits.
E5 A European point-to-point, dedicated,
565.148Mbps communications circuit
equivalent to 4 E4 or 256 E1 circuits.
EAP
See Extensible Authentication
Protocol.
eavesdropping The process of gathering
information about a target network by listening in on transmitted data.
See exabyte.
echo 1. A transmitted signal that is reflected back to the sender strongly enough so
that it can be distinguished from the original
signal; often encountered on long-distance
telephone lines and satellite links.
2. A form of repetition, used as a mecha-
nism in testing network nodes, in which
each receiving station on the network echoes a message back to the main server or
host computer.
echo cancellation A mechanism used to
control echoes on communications links
such as satellite links.
The modem checks for a delayed duplication of the original signal and adds a reversed version of this transmission to the
channel on which it receives information.
This process effectively removes the echo
without affecting the incoming signal.
ECNE See Master Certified Novell
Engineer.
EDI See electronic data interchange.
EDO RAM Abbreviation for extended
data out RAM. A type of RAM that keeps
data available to the processor while the
next memory access is being initialized,
thus speeding overall access times. EDO
RAM is significantly faster than conventional dynamic RAM.
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electromagnetic interference
EDP See data processing.
EEMS See Enhanced Expanded Mem-
■
■
ory Specification.
effective rights In Novell Directory Services (NDS), any rights an object can use to
look at or change a specific directory, file,
or other object.
Effective rights are recalculated every time
an object attempts such an operation and
are controlled by the Inherited Rights Filter,
the trustee assignment, and the specified security restrictions. Effective rights are of
two types:
■
■
Object rights determine what a user can
do with an object.
Property rights control a user’s access to
that object.
See also Inherited Rights Filter; Novell
Directory Services; rights; trustee
assignments.
EFS
Provide a basis for interoperation
between competing products and services
in wiring, design, installation, and
management
Allow for the wiring of a building before
the definition of the products that will use
that wiring, and allow for elegant future
expansion
EIA/TIA 586 applies to all unshielded
twisted-pair wiring that works with Ethernet, Token Ring, ISDN, and other networking systems.
See also cabling standards; Category 1–5.
EIDE See Enhanced IDE.
EIGRP See Enhanced Interior Gateway
Routing Protocol.
EISA See Extended Industry Standard
Architecture.
See Encrypted File System.
EGP See External Gateway Protocol.
EIA See Electronic Industries
Association.
EIA/TIA 586 A standard, jointly defined
by the Electronic Industries Association
and the Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA), for telecommunications wiring used in commercial buildings.
The standard is designed to do the
following:
■
■
Define media types, as well as connections
and terminations
Specify a generic wiring system for all
commercial buildings
electromagnetic interference Abbreviated EMI. Any electromagnetic radiation
released by an electronic device that disrupts the operation or performance of another device.
EMI is produced by many sources commonly found in an office environment, including fluorescent lights, photocopiers,
and motors such as those used in elevators.
EMI is also produced by natural atmospheric or solar activity.
See also Class A certification; Class B certification; Federal Communications Commission; radio frequency interference.
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electronic commerce
electronic commerce The buying and
selling of goods and services over the Internet. Electronic commerce may also involve
business-to-business transactions in the exchange of purchase orders, invoices, and
other electronic documents.
electronic data interchange Abbreviated EDI. A method of electronically exchanging business documents, including
bills of materials, purchase orders, and
invoices.
Customers and suppliers can establish an
EDI network by means of Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) standards or by using proprietary products. Widely accepted
standards include ANSI X.12, ISO 9735,
and CCITT X.435.
uals, to a predefined group, or to all users
on the system. When you receive a message,
you can read, print, forward, answer, or delete it.
An e-mail system may be implemented on a
peer-to-peer network, a client/server architecture, a mainframe computer, or on a
dial-up service, such as America Online. Email is by far the most popular Internet application, with well over 80 percent of Internet users taking advantage of the service.
E-mail has several advantages over conventional mail systems, including:
■
■
electronic data processing See data
processing.
■
Electronic Industries Association Abbreviated EIA. A trade association representing American manufacturers in
standards organizations. The EIA has
published and formalized several important
standards, including RS-232-C, RS-422,
RS-423, RS-449, RS-485, and RS-530.
Standards having to do with communications are produced jointly with the Telecommunications Industry Association.
E-mail is fast—very fast when compared
with conventional mail.
If something exists on your computer as a
file—text, graphical images, even program files and video segments—you can
usually send it as e-mail.
E-mail is very extensive. You can now
send e-mail to well over half the countries
in the world.
The problems associated with e-mail are
similar to those associated with online communications in general, such as security,
privacy (always assume that your e-mail is
not private), and the legal status of documents exchanged via e-mail.
See also mailbox; Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extension; voice mail.
For more information on the EIA, see
www.eia.org.
See also EIA/TIA 586.
electronic mail The use of a network to
transmit text messages, memos, and reports; usually referred to as e-mail. Users
can send a message to one or more individ-
element A unit of structure in HyperText Markup Language (HTML), such as a
title or a list. Some elements have start and
stop tags; others have only a single tag. Certain elements can be nested within other
elements.
See also HyperText Markup Language; tag.
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enable
elevator seeking A technique that allows the server hard disk head to access files
in the direction that the head is already traveling across the disk, rather than in the order in which they were requested. This
feature allows the drive heads to operate
continuously and thus improves disk performance and minimizes disk-head seek
times.
ELF See extremely low-frequency
emission.
EMA
See Enterprise Memory
Architecture.
emacs A popular Unix editor, written by
Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation.
The name emacs is a contraction of “editing
macros,” but it is much more than a simple
text editor and includes extensions for all
sorts of common tasks, ranging from compiling and debugging programs to reading
and sending e-mail. You can even extend
emacs yourself as the editing commands are
written in the Lisp programming language.
See also Free Software Foundation; vi.
e-mail See electronic mail.
e-mail address The addressing information required for an e-mail message to reach
the correct recipient.
See also bang path; Internet address;
mailbox.
Emergency Repair Disk Abbreviated
ERD. In Microsoft Windows 2000, a floppy disk created by the Backup program. An
ERD contains information about the cur-
rent system configuration that can be used
to repair a system that will not restart.
See also Recovery Console; safe mode.
EMI See electromagnetic interference.
EMM See expanded memory manager.
emoticon A collection of text characters
often used in e-mail and posts to newsgroups to signify emotions.
An emoticon can be as simple as including
<g> or <grin> in your text, an indication
that the writer is joking, and as complex as
some of the smiley faces, which are all designed to be read sideways, such as the wink
;-) or the frown :-(.
See also Internet abbreviations.
EMS See Expanded Memory
Specification.
emulator A device built to work exactly
like another device—hardware, software,
or a combination of both.
For example, a terminal emulation program lets a PC pretend to be a terminal attached to a mainframe computer or to an
online service by providing the control
codes that the remote system expects to receive. In printers, some brands emulate
popular models such as Hewlett-Packard’s
LaserJet line.
enable To turn a function on or allow
something to happen. When a function is
enabled, it is available for use. In a graphical user interface, enabled menu commands
are often shown in black type.
See also disable.
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Encapsulated PostScript
Encapsulated PostScript Abbreviated
EPS. The file format of the PostScript pagedescription language.
The EPS standard is device independent, so
images can easily be transferred between
applications, and they can be sized and output to different printers without any loss of
image quality or distortion.
The EPS file contains the PostScript commands needed to recreate the image, but
the image itself cannot be displayed on a
monitor unless the file also contains an optional preview image stored in TIFF or
PICT format.
You can print an EPS file only on a PostScript-compatible laser printer, and the
printer itself determines the final printing
resolution. A laser printer might be capable
of 600 dpi, whereas a Linotronic printer is
capable of 2450 dpi.
encapsulation The process of inserting
the frame header and data from a higherlevel protocol into the data frame of a
lower-level protocol.
See also codec; decode; decryption;
uuencode.
Encrypted File System In Microsoft
Windows 2000, a feature that lets mobile
users, who are concerned with the security
of their files in the case of unauthorized
access to their computers, encrypt designated files and directories using a public key
encryption scheme.
Encrypting File System Abbreviated
EFS. In Microsoft Windows 2000, a file system used to encrypt files and folders on an
NTFS 5 hard disk.
encryption The process of encoding information in an attempt to make it secure
from unauthorized access, particularly during transmission. The reverse of this process
is known as decryption.
Two main encryption schemes are in common use:
■
See also tunneling.
enclosure A term for a file—text, fax, binary, or image—sent as a part of an e-mail
message. Sometimes called an attachment.
Private (Symmetrical) Key An encryption algorithm based on a private encryption key known to both the sender and the
recipient of the information. The encrypted message is unreadable and can be
transmitted over nonsecure systems.
encode 1. To compress a video file using
a codec so that the file can be transmitted in
the shortest possible time.
Public (Asymmetrical) Key An encryption scheme based on using the two halves
of a long bit sequence as encryption keys.
Either half of the bit sequence can be used
to encrypt the data, but the other half is required to decrypt the data.
2. To convert a binary file into a form suit-
See also Data Encryption Standard; Pretty
able for data transmission.
Good Privacy; ROT-13.
■
See also Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extension.
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Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
encryption key A unique and secret
number used to encrypt data to protect it
from unauthorized access.
end-of-file Abbreviated EOF. A special
code placed after the last byte in a file that
indicates to the operating system that no
more data follows.
An end-of-file code is needed because disk
space is assigned to a file in blocks, and the
file may not always terminate at the end of
a block. In the ASCII system, an EOF is represented by the decimal value 26 or by the
Ctrl+Z control character.
end node A networked node such as a
PC that can only send and receive information for its own use; it cannot route or forward information to another node.
end-of-text Abbreviated ETX. A character used in computer communications to indicate the end of a text file.
In the ASCII system, an ETX is represented
by the decimal value 3 or by the Ctrl+C control character. A different symbol, end-oftransmission (EOT, ASCII 4, or Ctrl+D)
is used to indicate the end of a complete
transmission.
end-of-transmission Abbreviated
EOT. A character used in computer communications to indicate the end of a transmission. In the ASCII system, an EOT is
represented by the decimal value 4 or by the
Ctrl+D control character.
end user Often refers to people who use
an application to produce their own results
on their own computer or workstation.
During the mainframe computer era, end
users were people who received output
from the computer and used that output in
their work. They rarely, if ever, actually
saw the computer, much less learned to use
it themselves. Today, end users often write
macros to automate complex or repetitive
tasks and sometimes write procedures using
command languages.
Enhanced Expanded Memory
Specification Abbreviated EEMS. A revised version of the original Lotus-IntelMicrosoft Expanded Memory Specification
(LIM EMS) that lets MS-DOS applications
use more than 640KB memory space.
See also Expanded Memory Specification.
Enhanced IDE An extension to the Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface
standard, which supports hard disks as
large as 8.4GB (IDE supports hard disks of
up to 528MB) and transfer rates of up to
13.3MBps (IDE allows rates of up to
3.3MBps).
See also Integrated Drive Electronics;
Small Computer System Interface.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol Abbreviated EIGRP. A proprietary link-state distance-vector routing protocol from Cisco, first released in 1994.
EIGRP improves performance by using information derived from distance-vector
protocols, but also includes an algorithm
for removing transient loops in possible
routes, which reduces the complexity of the
calculations required.
See also distance vector algorithm; Interior
Gateway Routing Protocol.
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Enhanced Small Device Interface
Enhanced Small Device Interface Abbreviated ESDI. A popular hard disk, floppy disk, and tape drive interface standard,
capable of a data-transfer rate of 10 to
20Mbps. ESDI is most often used with large
hard disks.
See also Integrated Drive Electronics;
Small Computer System Interface.
ENS See Enterprise Network Services.
Enter key Also known as the Return key,
short for carriage return. The key that indicates the end of a command or the end of
user input from the keyboard.
enterprise A term used to encompass an
entire business group, organization, or corporation, including all local, remote, and
satellite offices.
Enterprise CNE See Master Certified
Novell Engineer.
service features to other networks. ENS includes StreetTalk Directory Assistance, the
Banyan Security Service, and Banyan Network Management.
Specific versions of ENS are available for
Novell NetWare, SCO Unix, and HP-UX so
that servers running those operating systems can interoperate and share management in a network with VINES servers.
See also Banyan VINES.
Enterprise Systems Connection Abbreviated ESCON. A set of products and services from IBM that provide direct channelto-channel connections between ES/9000
mainframes and peripheral devices over 10
to 17MBps fiber-optic links.
envelope delay See delay distortion.
environment 1. The complete set of
hardware and software resources made
available to any user of a system.
Enterprise Memory Architecture Abbreviated EMA. In Microsoft Windows
2000, a mechanism that lets applications address as much as 64GB of virtual memory.
2. The operating system that a program
enterprise network A network that
connects every computer in every location
of a business group, organization, or corporation and runs the company’s missioncritical applications.
EOF See end-of-file.
EOT See end-of-transmission.
In many cases, an enterprise network includes several types of computers running
several different operating systems.
equalization The process of balancing a
circuit by reducing frequency and phase
distortion so that it passes all expected frequencies with equal efficiency.
Enterprise Network Services Abbreviated ENS. A software product based on
Banyan Systems’ StreetTalk Directory Service for VINES that brings global directory
needs in order to execute. For example, a
program may be said to be running in the
Unix environment.
EPS See Encapsulated PostScript.
ERD
See Emergency Repair Disk.
error The difference between the expected and the actual.
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escape sequence
In computing, the way that the operating
system reports unexpected, unusual, impossible, or illegal events is by displaying an
error number or error message. Errors
range from trivial, such as an attempt to
write a file to a disk drive that does not contain a disk, to fatal, such as when a serious
operating system bug renders the system
useless.
In communications, errors are often caused
by line noise and signal distortion. Parity or
cyclical redundancy check (CRC) information is often added as overhead to the data
stream, and techniques such as error detection and correction are employed to detect
and correct as many errors as possible.
See also attenuation; crosstalk; error
handling; error message; error rate;
parity error.
error detection and correction A
mechanism used to determine whether
transmission errors have occurred and, if
so, to correct those errors.
Some programs or transmission protocols
simply request a retransmission of the affected block of data if an error is detected.
More complex protocols attempt to both
detect and determine at the receiving end
what the correct transmission should have
been.
See also checksum; cyclical redundancy
check; forward error correction; Hamming
code; parity.
error handling The way that a program
copes with errors or exceptions that occur
as the program is running.
Good error handling manages unexpected
events or wrongly entered data gracefully,
usually by opening a dialog box to prompt
the user to take the appropriate action or to
enter the correct information. Badly written
programs may simply stop running when
the wrong data is entered or when an unanticipated disk error occurs.
error message A message from the program or the operating system that contains
information about a condition that requires
some human intervention to solve.
Error messages can indicate relatively trivial problems, such as a disk drive that does
not contain a disk, as well as fatal problems,
such as when a serious operating system
bug renders the system useless and requires
a system reboot.
error rate In communications, the ratio
between the number of bits received incorrectly and the total number of bits in the
transmission, also known as bit error rate
(BER).
Some methods for determining error rate use
larger or logical units, such as blocks, packets, or frames. In these cases, the measurement of error rate is expressed in terms of the
number of units found to be in error out of
the total number of units transmitted.
escape code See escape sequence.
Escape key The key on the keyboard labeled Esc. The Escape key generates an escape code, ASCII 27. In most applications,
pressing the Escape key cancels the current
command or operation.
escape sequence A sequence of characters, beginning with Escape (ASCII 27) and
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ESCON
followed by one or more other characters,
that performs a specific function. Sometimes called an escape code.
Escape sequences are often used to control
printers or monitors, which treat them as
commands and act upon them rather than
processing them as characters to print or
display.
ESCON
See Enterprise Systems
Connection.
ESDI See Enhanced Small Device
Interface.
Ethernet A popular network protocol
and cabling scheme with a transfer rate of
10Mbps, originally developed at Xerox in
1970 by Dr. Robert Metcalf. Ethernet uses
a bus topology, and network nodes are connected by either thick or thin coaxial cable,
fiber-optic cable, or twisted-pair cable.
Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense
Multiple Access/Collision Detection) to
prevent network failures or collisions when
two devices try to access the network at exactly the same time.
The original DIX (Digital Equipment,
Intel, Xerox), or Blue Book, standard has
evolved into the slightly more complex
IEEE 802.3 standard and the ISO’s 8802.3
specification.
The advantages of Ethernet include:
■
■
■
■
It’s easy to install at a moderate cost.
Technology is available from many sources and is very well known.
It offers a variety of cabling options.
It works very well in networks with only
occasional heavy traffic.
And the disadvantages include:
■
■
■
Heavy traffic can slow down the network.
A break in the main cable can bring down
large parts of the network.
Troubleshooting a bus topology can
prove difficult.
See also 10/100; 100VG-AnyLAN; 10Base2;
10Base5; 10BaseF; 10BaseT; demand priority; Fast Ethernet; Gigabit Ethernet.
Ethernet address The address assigned
to a network interface card by the original
manufacturer or by the network administrator if the card is configurable.
This address identifies the local device address to the rest of the network and allows
messages to reach the correct destination.
Also known as the media access control
(MAC) or hardware address.
Ethernet meltdown An event that causes saturation on an Ethernet-based system,
often the result of illegal or misdirected
packets. An Ethernet meltdown usually
lasts for only a short period of time.
Ethernet packet A variable-length unit
in which information is transmitted on an
Ethernet network.
An Ethernet packet consists of a synchronization preamble, a destination address, a
source address, a field that contains a type
code indicator, a data field that can vary
from 46 to 1500 bytes, and a cyclical redundancy check (CRC) that provides a statistically derived value used to confirm the
accuracy of the data.
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execute
ETHERNET PACKET
EtherTalk An implementation of the
Ethernet LAN developed for Apple computers, designed to work with the AppleShare network operating system.
EtherTalk operates over coaxial cable at the
Ethernet transfer rate of 10Mbps, much
faster than the 230.4Kbps rate available
with AppleTalk. Each networked Macintosh computer must be supplied with a special EtherTalk network interface card.
ETX See end-of-text.
Eudora A popular and widely used
e-mail application originally developed by
Steve Dorner at the University of Illinois
and now available from Qualcomm, Inc.
European Laboratory for Particle
Physics See Conseil Européen pour la
Researche Nucléaire.
even parity See parity.
Event Log service A Microsoft Windows 2000 service that logs important application, security, and system events into
the event log.
Event Viewer In Microsoft Windows
2000, a utility that displays the contents of
the system logs.
See also application log; Directory Service
log; DNS Server log; File Replication Service log; security log; system log.
exa- Abbreviated E. A prefix meaning one
quintillion, or 1018. In computing, the prefix
means 1,152,921,504,606,846,976, or the
power of 2 closest to one quintillion (260).
exabyte Abbreviated EB. 1 quintillion
bytes, or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
bytes.
exclusive container administrator In
Novell NetWare, a special type of container
administrator who is given the rights to a
container and all the objects within that
container. The Inherited Rights Filter prevents other administrators from having
rights in the container.
See also container administrator; Inherited
Rights Filter.
executable file Any file that can be executed by the operating system. Some executable files contain compiler binary
instructions, and others are text files containing commands or shell scripts.
execute 1. To run a program, command, or script.
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execute permission
2. One of the permissions assigned to a file
or directory; you can only execute a file
when the execute permission is enabled.
execute permission An access permission on a file or directory that gives you permission to execute the file or to access the
contents of the directory.
expandability The ability of a system to
accommodate expansion. In hardware, this
may include the addition of more memory,
more or larger disk drives, and new adapters. In software, expandability may include
the ability of a network to add users, nodes,
or connections to other networks.
expanded memory An MS-DOS mechanism by which applications can access
more than the 640KB of memory normally
available to them. The architecture of the
early Intel processors restricted the original
IBM PC to accessing 1MB of memory,
640KB of which was available for applications; the remaining 384KB was reserved
for system use, the BIOS, and the video system. At that time, 640KB was more than ten
times the amount of memory available in
other personal computers. However, as
both applications and MS-DOS grew, they
began to run out of room.
The Expanded Memory Specification LIM
4.0 let programs running on the Intel family
of processors access as much as 32MB of expanded memory. The expanded memory
manager (EMM) creates a block of addresses
into which data (held in memory above the
1MB limit) is swapped in and out as needed
by the program. In other words, a 64KB segment of addressable memory creates a small
window through which segments of expanded memory can be seen, but only one segment
at a time.
expanded memory manager Abbreviated EMM. A device driver that supports
the software portion of the Expanded
Memory Specification (EMS) in an IBMcompatible computer.
Expanded Memory Specification Abbreviated EMS. The original version of the
Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory
Specification (LIM EMS), which let MSDOS applications use more than 640KB of
memory space.
These days Microsoft Windows running in
protected mode on 80386 and later processors is free of this limitation.
expansion board A printed circuit
board that plugs into a computer’s expansion bus to provide added capabilities. Also
called an adapter.
Common expansion boards include video
adapters, joy-stick controllers, and input/
output (I/O) adapters, as well as other devices, such as internal modems, CD-ROMs,
and network interface cards (NICs). One
expansion board can often support several
different devices. Some current PC designs
incorporate many of the functions previously performed by these individual adapters on the motherboard.
expansion bus An extension of the main
computer bus that includes expansion slots
for use by compatible adapters, such as
memory boards, video adapters, hard-disk
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Extended Industry Standard Architecture
controllers, and SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) interface cards.
automatically established if they are in the
same forest
expansion slot One of the connectors
on the expansion bus that gives an adapter
access to the system bus. You can install as
many additional adapters as there are expansion slots inside your computer.
See also downlevel trust; forest; shortcut
trust; trust relationship; two-way transitive
trust.
For portable computers, an expansion slot
is often supplied by a PCMCIA connection
designed to accept a PC Card.
expansion unit An external housing
available with certain portable computers
designed to contain additional expansion
slots and maintain a connection to the main
expansion bus in the computer’s system unit.
See also port replicator.
explicit rights In Novell Directory Services (NDS), any rights granted directly to a
user for a directory or other NDS object.
Explicit rights always override inherited
rights.
See also inherited rights.
explicit security equivalence In Novell Directory Services (NDS), a technique
used to give one trustee the same rights as
another trustee. Explicit security equivalence can be assigned with group membership, an Organizational Role, or the
trustee’s Security Equal To property.
See also implied security equivalence;
security equivalence.
explicit trust In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a trust explicitly established
between two Windows 2000 domains. This
is in addition to the built-in transitive trusts
extended ASCII character set See
ASCII extended character set.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Abbreviated EBCDIC;
pronounced “eb-se-dic.” EBCDIC is the
character set commonly used on large IBM
mainframe computers, most IBM minicomputers, and computers from many other
manufacturers.
It is an 8-bit code, allowing 256 different
characters (see Appendix D). Unlike ASCII,
the placement of the letters of the alphabet
in EBCDIC is discontinuous. Also, there is
no direct character-to-character match
when converting from EBCDIC to ASCII;
some characters exist in one set but not in
the other.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; double-byte character set; ISO 10646; Unicode.
Extended Industry Standard
Architecture Abbreviated EISA, pronounced “ee-sah.” A PC bus standard that
extends the traditional AT-bus to 32 bits
and allows more than one processor to
share the bus.
EISA was developed by the so-called Gang of
Nine (AST Research, Compaq Computer
Corporation, Epson, Hewlett-Packard, NEC,
Olivetti, Tandy, Wyse Technology, and Zenith Data Systems) in reply to IBM’s introduction of its proprietary MCA (Microchannel
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extended LAN
Architecture). EISA maintains compatibility
with the earlier ISA (Industry Standard Architecture), and it also provides for additional
features introduced by IBM in the MCA standard. EISA accepts ISA expansion cards and
so, unlike MCA, is compatible with earlier
systems. EISA has been eclipsed by Peripheral
Control Interconnect-based systems.
See also local bus; PCI local bus; PC Memory Card International Association.
extended LAN A term used to describe a
network that consists of a series of LANs
connected by bridges.
extended memory Memory beyond
1MB on computers using the Intel 80286
and later processors, not configured for expanded memory.
PCs based on the early Intel processors
could access only 1MB of memory, of
which 640KB was available for applications, and the remaining 384KB was reserved for MS-DOS, the BIOS, and video
settings.
Later processors can access more memory,
but it was the 80386 with its ability to address 4GB of memory that really made extended memory usable. Also, Microsoft
Windows and other operating systems running on Intel processors using the protected
mode of the 80386 and later processors can
access all the available system memory in
the same way.
extended memory manager A device
driver that supports the software portion of
the Extended Memory Specification in an
IBM-compatible computer.
Extended Memory Specification Abbreviated XMS. A standard developed by
Microsoft, Intel, Lotus, and AST Research
that became the preferred way of accessing
extended memory in the PC. MS-DOS includes the extended memory device driver
HIMEM.SYS, and this command or an
equivalent must be present in CONFIG.SYS
to allow you to access extended memory.
Extensible Authentication Protocol
Abbreviated EAP. In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a mechanism that allows future authentication schemes to be added to
the operating system quickly and easily.
See also Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol.
Extensible Markup Language Abbreviated XML. A technology, based on Standard Generalized Markup Language
(SGML), that allows the data on a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) page to
be described in terms of the information it
represents.
See also document type definition; HyperText Markup Language.
external command A command that is
a separate program, and not built in to the
operating system. FORMAT, BACKUP,
and FDISK are examples of external
commands.
See also internal command.
External Gateway Protocol Abbreviated EGP. A routing protocol used to exchange network availability information
among organizational networks. EGP indicates whether a given network is reachable,
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extremely low-frequency emission
but it does not evaluate that information or
make routing or priority decisions.
See also Border Gateway Protocol.
external modem A stand-alone modem, separate from the computer and connected to it by a serial cable. LEDs on the
front of the chassis indicate the current modem status. An external modem can be used
with different computers at different times
and also with different types of computers.
external reference In Novell NetWare,
a pointer to a NetWare Directory Services
(NDS) object that is not located on the current server.
of electronic commerce and collaboration.
Those parts of an extranet outside the firewall contain their own set of security safeguards, allowing only limited access for
specific purposes.
See also intranet.
extremely low-frequency emission
Abbreviated ELF. Radiation emitted by a
computer monitor and other common electrical appliances.
extranet Originally coined as a term to
describe any network in which part of the
network was protected behind a firewall
and part of the network was accessible from
the Internet.
ELF emissions fall into the range of 5 to
2000 hertz and decline with the square of
the distance from the source. Emissions are
not constant around a monitor; they are
higher from the sides and rear and weakest
from the front of the screen. Low-emission
models are available, and laptop computers
with an LCD display do not emit any ELF
fields.
In current usage, an extranet describes a
technology that allows different corporate
intranets to communicate for the purposes
See also electromagnetic interference;
radio frequency interference; very lowfrequency emission.
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facsimile
F
facsimile See fax.
fading In both electrical and wireless systems, a decrease in a signal’s strength.
Fading may be due to physical obstructions
of the transmitter or receiver, to distance
from the source of the transmission, or to
some form of external interference from other signals or from atmospheric conditions.
fail-safe system Any computer system
that is designed to keep operating, without
losing data, when part of the system seriously malfunctions or fails completely.
fail-soft system Any computer system
that is designed to fail gracefully, with the
minimum amount of data or program destruction, when part of the system malfunctions. Fail-soft systems close down nonessential functions and operate at a reduced
capacity until the problem is resolved.
fake root A subdirectory that functions
as the root directory.
Fake roots can be useful with network applications that must be installed in the root
directory. You can install the application in
a subdirectory and then map a fake root on
the file server to the subdirectory containing the application. Many Web servers use
a fake root.
far-end crosstalk Abbreviated FEXT.
Interference that occurs when signals on
one twisted-pair are coupled with another
pair as they arrive at the far end of a multipair cable system.
FEXT becomes a problem on short loops
supporting high-bandwidth services such as
Very-High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line
(VDSL) because of the high carrier frequencies used.
See also crosstalk; near-end crosstalk.
Fast Ethernet A term applied to the
IEEE 802.3 Higher Speed Ethernet Study
Group proposals, which were originally developed by Grand Junction Networks,
3Com, SynOptics, Intel, and others. Also
known as 100BaseT.
Fast Ethernet modifies the existing Ethernet
standard to allow speeds of 10Mbps or
100Mbps or both and uses the CSMA/CD
access method.
The official standard defines three physicallayer specifications for different cabling
types:
■
■
■
fall back A technique used by modems to
adjust their data rate in response to changing line conditions.
FAQ See frequently asked questions.
100BaseTX for two-pair Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair
100BaseT4 for four-pair Category 3, 4, or
5 unshielded twisted-pair
100BaseFX for fiber-optic cable
See also 100VG-AnyLAN; demand priority.
Fast IP A technology from 3Com Corporation that gives certain types of network
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fault tolerance
traffic, such as real-time video, a higher priority than other, less urgent network traffic
such as e-mail messages.
3Com achieves this using what it calls policy management. A workstation requests a
certain level of priority, tags the data accordingly, and begins the transmission.
When the transmission is complete, the
workstation indicates that to the network,
and previously reserved resources are freed
up for use.
See also IP over ATM; IP switching; quality
of service.
Fast IR A 4Mbps extension to the Serial
Infrared Data Link Standard that provides
wireless data transmission between IrDAcompliant devices.
See also Infrared Data Association.
Fast SCSI A version of the SCSI-2 interface that can transfer data 8 bits at a time at
data rates of up to 10MBps. The Fast SCSI
connector has 50 pins.
See also Fast/Wide SCSI; SCSI-2; Small
Computer System Interface; Ultra SCSI;
Ultra Wide SCSI; Wide SCSI.
Fast/Wide SCSI A version of the SCSI-2
interface that can transfer data 16 bits at a
time at data rates of up to 20MBps. The
Fast/Wide SCSI connector has 50 pins.
addressing scheme which restricts the
maximum hard-disk size to 2.6GB. Also,
FAT16 is inefficient in disk-space utilization as the default cluster size can be as
large as 32KB.
See also FAT32; file allocation table.
FAT32 In Microsoft Windows 95 (release
2) and later versions of Windows, a file allocation table that uses a 32-bit cluster addressing scheme to support hard disks
larger than 2.6GB, as well as a default cluster size of as small as 4KB. FAT32 can support hard disks of up to 2 terabytes in size.
See also FAT16; file allocation table.
fatal error An operating system or application program error from which there is
no recovery without reloading the program
or rebooting the operating system.
fault management One of the five basic
types of network management defined by
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and CCITT. Fault management is used in detecting, isolating, and
correcting faults on the network.
fault tolerance A design method that ensures continued system operation in the
event of individual failures by providing redundant elements.
FAT See file allocation table.
At the component level, the design includes
redundant chips and circuits and the capability to bypass faults automatically. At the
computer-system level, any elements that
are likely to fail, such as processors and
large disk drives, are replicated.
FAT16 In Microsoft Windows, a file
allocation table that uses a 16-bit cluster
Fault-tolerant operations often require
backup or UPS (uninterruptible power
See also Fast SCSI; SCSI-2; Small Computer System Interface; Ultra SCSI; Ultra Wide
SCSI; Wide SCSI.
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fax
supply) systems in the event of a main
power failure. In some cases, the entire
computer system is duplicated in a remote
location to protect against vandalism, acts
of war, or natural disaster.
See also clustering; data protection; disk
duplexing; disk mirroring; redundant array of inexpensive disks; System Fault
Tolerance.
fax Short for facsimile. The electronic
transmission of copies of documents for reproduction at a remote location. The term
fax can be used as a verb for the process and
as a noun for the machine that does the
work and also for the item that is actually
transmitted.
The sending fax machine scans a paper image and converts the image into a form suitable for transmission over a telephone line.
The receiving fax machine decodes and
prints a copy of the original image. Each fax
machine includes a scanner, modem, and
printer.
Originally, facsimile machines were rotating drums (CCITT Groups 1 and 2); then
came modems (CCITT Group 3), and eventually they will be completely digital
(CCITT Group 4).
See also CCITT Groups 1–4; fax modem.
fax board See fax modem.
fax modem An adapter that fits into a
PC expansion slot providing many of the
capabilities of a full-sized fax machine, but
at a fraction of the cost. Some external modems also have fax capabilities.
The advantages of a fax modem include
ease of use and convenience; the main disadvantage is that the material you want to
fax must be present in digital form in the
computer. Unless you have access to a scanner, you cannot fax handwritten notes, line
art, or certain kinds of graphics. Most faxes
sent directly from a PC using a fax modem
are text files.
fax server A dedicated server that provides fax sending and receiving services to
users on the network.
FCC See Federal Communications
Commission.
FCC certification Approval by the FCC
(Federal Communications Commission)
that a specific computer model meets its
standards for radio frequency interference
(RFI) emissions. There are two levels of
certification:
■
■
Class A certification, which is for computers used in commercial settings, such as
mainframes and minicomputers
The more stringent Class B certification,
which is for computers used in the home
and in home offices, such as PCs, laptops,
and portables
See also extremely low-frequency emission; radio frequency interference; very
low-frequency emission.
FDDI See Fiber Distributed Data
Interface.
FDDI-II A variation of the Fiber Distributed Data Interface standard. The FDDI-II
version is designed for networks transmitting real-time full-motion video (or other
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Fiber Distributed Data Interface
information that cannot tolerate any delays) and requires that all nodes on the network use FDDI-II; otherwise, the network
automatically reverts to FDDI.
FDDI-II divides the bandwidth into 16 dedicated circuits operating at from 6.144Mbps
to a maximum of 99.072Mbps. Each of
these channels can be further subdivided for
a total of 96 separate 64Kbps circuits.
FDDI-II is not widely used because it is incompatible with FDDI and because Fast
Ethernet and Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) both provide better solutions.
FDM See frequency-division
television, all interstate telecommunications services, and all international services that originate inside the United States.
All computer equipment must be certified
by the FCC before it can be offered for sale
in the United States. The certification ensures that the equipment meets the legal
limits for conductive and radio frequency
interference, which could otherwise interfere with commercial broadcasts.
For more information on the FCC, see
www.fcc.gov.
See also FCC certification.
female connector Any cable connector
with receptacles designed to receive the pins
on the male connector.
multiplexing.
FDX See full-duplex.
Federal Communications
Commission Abbreviated FCC. A U.S.
government regulatory body for radio,
See also male connector.
FEMALE CONNECTOR
FEXT See far-end crosstalk.
FF See form feed.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface Abbreviated FDDI. The ANSI X3T9.5 specification for fiber-optic networks transmitting
at a speed of up to 100Mbps over a dual,
counter rotating, token-ring topology.
FDDI’s 100Mbps speed is close to the internal speed of most computers, which makes it
a good choice to serve as a super backbone
for linking two or more LANs or as a fiberoptic bus connecting high-performance
engineering workstations. FDDI is suited to
systems that require the transfer of large
amounts of information, such as medical
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fiber-optic cable
imaging, three-dimensional seismic processing, and oil reservoir simulation. The FDDIII version of the standard is designed for networks transmitting real-time full-motion video (or other information that cannot tolerate
any delays) and requires that all nodes on the
network use FDDI-II; otherwise, the network
automatically reverts to FDDI.
tions up to 2 kilometers (1.25 miles) apart;
with single-mode fiber, run length increases
up to 60 kilometers (37.2 miles) between
stations. This type of network can also run
over shielded and unshielded twisted-pair
cabling (when it is known as CDDI, or Copper Distributed Data Interface) for shorter
distances.
A FDDI network using multimode fiberoptic cable can include as many as 500 sta-
See also FDDI-II.
FIBER DISTRIBUTED DATA INTERFACE
fiber-optic cable A transmission technology that sends pulses of light along specially manufactured optical fibers.
Each fiber consists of a core, thinner than a
human hair, surrounded by a sheath with a
much lower refractive index. Light signals
introduced at one end of the cable are conducted along the cable as the signals are reflected from the sheath.
to electrical interference, offers better security, and has better signal-transmitting
qualities. However, it is more expensive
than traditional cables and is more difficult to repair. Fiber-optic cable is often
used for high-speed backbones, but as
prices drop, we may even see fiber-optic
cable running to the desktop.
See also multimode fiber; single-mode
fiber.
Fiber-optic cable is lighter and smaller
than traditional copper cable, is immune
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file allocation table
FIBER-OPTIC CABLE
Fibre Channel An interconnection standard designed to connect peripherals, mass
storage systems, archiving and imaging systems, and engineering workstations.
Fibre Channel provides bandwidth from
100Mbps to 800Mbps over a variety of cable types, including multimode fiber, coaxial cable, and shielded twisted-pair.
The Fibre Channel Interconnect Standard was developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3T9
committee.
file A named collection of information
that appears to the user as a single entity
and is stored on disk.
A file can contain a program or part of a
program, just data, or a user-created document. Files may actually be fragmented or
stored in many different places across the
disk. The operating system manages the
task of locating all the pieces when a request
is made to read the file.
file allocation table Abbreviated FAT,
pronounced “fat.” A table, maintained by
the operating systems, that lists all the
blocks of disk space available on a disk.
The FAT includes the location of each
block, as well as whether it is in use, available for use, or damaged in some way and
therefore unavailable. Because files are not
necessarily stored in consecutive blocks on
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file compression
a disk, the FAT also keeps track of which
pieces belong to which file.
Norton Utilities from Symantec, also contain file-compression programs.
See also FAT16; FAT32; file fragmentation.
file-conversion program An application that converts a file from one format to
another without altering the contents of the
file.
file compression A technique that
shrinks program or data files so that they
occupy less disk space. The file must then be
extracted or decompressed before use.
Some types of files, such as word processor
documents, can be compressed by 50 percent or more. Recompressing an already
compressed file usually makes the file
slightly larger because of the compression
overhead.
File compression can be automatic and
performed by the operating system, or it
can be manual and performed by a filecompression program.
See also file-compression program.
file-compression program An application that compresses files so that they take
up less space on the disk. Some file-compression programs are individual, standalone applications; others are built into the
operating system.
Individual file-compression programs can
compress one or more files at a time. The
utilities PKZIP and WinZip (for Microsoft
Windows) and StuffIt (for the Macintosh)
operate that way. When compression is
built into the operating system, it usually
compresses all the files on a specific disk,
disk partition, or volume.
Many of the stand-alone file-compression
programs, such as PKZIP, LHArc, and
StuffIt, are available as shareware, and
many popular utility packages, such as the
The conversion may be between the formats
of two applications that use the same operating system (such as between two different
Microsoft Windows word processors) or between the formats of applications from different operating systems. Applications are
also available that convert a graphical image
from one file format to another.
Many of the applications that change a
Macintosh file into a PC-compatible file, or
vice versa, consist of two programs running
simultaneously on two physically connected computers. MacLink Plus from Data Viz
and LapLink Mac from Traveling Software
are two examples of this type of file-conversion program.
file format A file structure that defines
the way information is stored in the file and
how the file appears on the screen or on the
printer.
The simplest file format is a plain ASCII file.
Some of the more complex formats are
DCA (Document Content Architecture)
and RTF (Rich Text Format), which include control information for use by a
printer; TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
and EPS (Encapsulated PostScript), which
hold graphics information; and DBF
(Xbase database file) and DB (Paradox file),
which are database formats. Word processing programs, such as Microsoft Word, also
create files in special formats.
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file permissions
file fragmentation Storage of files in
pieces scattered on a disk. As files grow on
a hard disk, they can be divided into several small pieces. By fragmenting files, the
operating system makes reasonable use of
the disk space available. The problem with
file fragmentation is that the disk heads
must move to different locations on the
disk to read or write to a fragmented file.
This process takes more time than reading
the file as a single piece. To speed up file
operations, you can use a disk optimizer or
defragmenter.
See also FAT16; FAT32; defragmenter.
file indexing A technique used in Novell
NetWare to speed up accesses to large files
by indexing file allocation table (FAT)
entries.
file-infecting virus Any virus that infects files on disk, usually executable files
with filename extensions of .COM, .EXE,
and .OVL. An unexpected change in the file
size may indicate an infection. In certain
cases, the original program is replaced with
a new file containing an infected program.
See also antivirus program; boot sector virus; infection; macro virus; multipart virus;
polymorphic virus; stealth virus; Trojan
Horse; vaccine; virus.
In MS-DOS, file and directory names have
two parts. They can have up to eight characters in the name and up to three characters in the optional filename extension,
separated from the name by a period. Many
applications take over the extension part of
the filename, using specific groups of characters to designate a particular file type.
In the Macintosh operating system, filenames
can be up to 32 characters and can contain
any character except a colon (:), which is used
to separate elements of a path name.
Microsoft Windows allows 255-character
filenames including spaces, but the name
cannot include any of the following characters: \ / : * ? ” < > |.
filename extension In the MS-DOS file
allocation table (FAT) file system, an optional three-character suffix added to the
end of a filename and separated from the
name by a period.
file permissions A set of permissions associated with a file (or a directory) that
specifies who can access the file and in what
way. There are three basic permissions:
■
■
■
Read permission lets you read files.
Write permission lets you write (or overwrite) files.
Execute permission lets you execute files.
file locking See file and record locking.
filename The name of a file on a disk
used so that both you and the operating system can find the file again. Every file in a directory must have a unique name, but files
in different directories can share the same
name.
Additional file permissions vary according
to the operating system in use and the security system in place. For example, Novell
NetWare has the following file permissions:
Access Control, Create, Erase, File Scan,
Modify, Read, Supervisor, and Write. Microsoft Windows 2000 has Add and Read,
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File and Print Services for NetWare
Change Permissions, Delete, Full Control,
No Access, and Take Ownership.
See also rights.
File and Print Services for NetWare
An add-on product for Microsoft Windows
2000 that allows Novell NetWare clients to
access Windows servers as though they
were NetWare servers.
FILER A Novell NetWare workstation
utility used to manage the NetWare file system. Almost any task related to the file system can be performed using FILER. Administrators can view information about files,
directories, and volumes; modify and view
attributes, rights, and trustee assignments
for files and directories; search for files and
directories; copy files; and recover and purge
deleted files. In NetWare 3.x, these last two
functions are found in the SALVAGE and
PURGE commands.
file and record locking A method of
controlling file access in a multiuser environment, where there is always a possibility
that two users will attempt to update the
same file at the same time but with different
information. The first user to access the file
locks out all the other users, preventing
them from opening the file. After the file is
updated and closed again, the next user can
gain access.
File locking is a simple way to prevent simultaneous updates, but it can seriously degrade
system performance if many users attempt to
access the same files time after time. To prevent this slowdown, many database management systems use record locking instead.
Record locking limits access to individual
records within the database file.
file recovery The process of recovering
deleted or damaged files from a disk. A file
can be deleted accidentally or can become
inaccessible when part of the file’s control
information is lost. In many operating systems, a deleted file still exists on disk until
the space it occupies is overwritten with
something else or until the file is purged.
See also undelete.
File Replication Service In Microsoft
Windows 2000 Server, the replacement for
Windows NT Directory Replication.
File Replication Service log In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a special log
that records any events associated with domain controller updates.
See also Directory Service log; DNS Server
log; Event Viewer; File Replication Service.
file server A networked computer used
to store files for access by other client computers on the network.
On larger networks, the file server runs a
special network operating system. On
smaller installations, the file server may run
a PC operating system supplemented by
peer-to-peer networking software.
See also client; server.
file sharing The sharing of files over a
network or between several applications
running on the same workstation.
Shared files can be read, reviewed, and updated by more than one individual. Access to
the file or files is often regulated by password
protection, account or security clearance, or
file locking to prevent simultaneous changes
by multiple users.
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finger
See also file and record locking.
filespec A contraction of file specification, commonly used to denote the complete drive letter, path name, directory
name, and filename needed to access a specific file.
file system In an operating system, the
structure by which files are organized,
stored, and named.
Some file systems are built-in components of
the operating system; others are installable.
For example, OS/2, Unix, and Microsoft
Windows are all capable of supporting several different file systems at the same time.
Other, installable file systems provide support for specific devices such as CD-ROM or
DVD.
File Transfer Access and Management Abbreviated FTAM. The Open
Systems Interconnect (OSI) protocol for
transferring and remotely accessing files on
different makes and models of computers
that are also using FTAM.
file-transfer program An application
used to move a file from a computer of one
type to a computer of another type. The file
format itself may also be changed during
this transfer.
Many of the applications that change a
Macintosh file into a PC-compatible file, or
vice versa, consist of two programs running
simultaneously on two physically connected computers. MacLink Plus from Data Viz
and LapLink Mac from Traveling Software
are two file-transfer programs that also offer a wide variety of popular file-format
conversions.
See also file-conversion program; File
Transfer Protocol; Kermit; Xmodem; Ymodem; Zmodem.
File Transfer Protocol Abbreviated
FTP. The TCP/IP Internet protocol used
when transferring single or multiple files
from one computer system to another.
FTP uses a client/server model, in which a
small client program runs on your computer and accesses a larger FTP server running
on an Internet host. FTP provides all the
tools needed to look at directories and
files, change to other directories, and
transfer text and binary files from one system to another.
See also anonymous FTP; ftp; Telnet.
FILTCFG A Novell NetWare 4.x NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that allows
you to set up and configure filters for Internetwork Packet eXchange (IPX), TCP/IP,
and AppleTalk protocols. Filters help to
control the type and amount of information
sent to and received by a router, to limit
traffic to certain segments of the network,
and to provide security.
filtering 1. The mechanism that prevents
certain source and destination addresses
from crossing a bridge or router onto another part of the network.
2. The process of automatically selecting
specific frequencies and discarding others.
finger A utility found on many Internet
systems that displays information about a
specific user, including full name, logon
time, and location. Originated in the Unix
world.
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The finger utility may also display the contents of the user’s .plan or .profile file, and
there are those who exploit this in novel
ways to display such varied information as
instructions for using a university’s Cokevending machine, posting sports scores,
and listing earthquake activity.
FIRE PHASERS A Novell NetWare login
script command that makes a noise using
the workstation’s speaker.
The sound is supposed to resemble the
phasers on the USS Enterprise. With fire
phasers, you can have the computer emit up
to nine sounds or blasts.
firewall A barrier established in hardware or in software, or sometimes in both,
that monitors and controls the flow of traffic between two networks, usually a private
LAN and the Internet.
A firewall provides a single point of entry
where security can be concentrated. It allows access to the Internet from within the
organization and provides tightly controlled access from the Internet to resources
on the organization’s internal network.
See also application-level filter; dualhomed host; Intrusion Detection System;
packet-level filter; proxy server; stateless
filter.
FireWire See 1394.
firmware Any software stored in a form
of read-only memory (ROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM),
or electrically erasable programmable readonly memory (EEPROM) that maintains its
contents when power is removed.
first-layer domain In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a Windows 2000 domain whose parent domain is the root
domain.
See also domain; parent domain.
flame A deliberately insulting e-mail
message or post to a Usenet newsgroup, often containing a personal attack on the
writer of an earlier post.
See also flame bait; flame war.
flame bait An insulting or outrageous
e-mail post to a Usenet newsgroup specifically
designed to provoke other users into flaming
the originator.
See also flame; flame war.
flame war In a Usenet newsgroup, a prolonged series of flames, which may have begun as a creative exchange of views but
which quickly descended into personal attacks and crude name-calling.
See also flame bait.
flash memory A special form of ROM
that can be erased at signal levels commonly
found inside the PC.
This ability allows the contents to be reprogrammed without removing the chips from
the computer. Also, once flash memory has
been programmed, you can remove the expansion board it is mounted on and plug it
into another computer without loss of the
new information.
See also PC Card.
flavor A slang expression meaning type
or kind, as in “Unix comes in a variety of
flavors.”
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forest
floating-point processor A specialpurpose, secondary processor designed to
perform floating-point calculations much
faster than the main processor.
Many processors, such as the Intel 80386,
had matched companion floating-point
processors. However, the current trend in
processor design is to integrate the floatingpoint unit into the main processor, as in the
Intel Pentium.
flooding A denial of service attack in
which a huge number of nuisance connection attempts are made in order to consume
all the available processing time.
See also brute-force attack; denial of service attack; dictionary attack; social engineering; Trojan Horse.
flow control 1. In communications,
control of the rate at which information is
exchanged between two computers over a
transmission channel. Flow control is needed when one of the devices cannot receive
the information at the same rate as it can be
sent, usually because some processing is required on the receiving end before the next
transmission unit can be accepted. Flow
control can be implemented either in hardware or in software.
2. In networking, control of the flow of
data throughout the network, ensuring that
network segments are not congested. A
router controls data flow by routing around
any trouble spots.
that other readers are reminded of the discussion so far, and this quoted part of the
post is usually indicated by greater than
symbols (>). If you do quote from a previous post, only quote the minimum amount
to get your point across; never quote the
whole message as this is considered a waste
of time and resources.
See also thread.
footprint The amount of desktop space
or floor space occupied by a computer,
printer, or monitor.
forced perfect termination A technique used to terminate a Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI). Forced perfect termination actively monitors the bus to ensure that no signal reflection occurs.
See also active termination; passive
termination.
foreground In an operating system, a
process that runs in the foreground is running at a higher level of priority than is a
background task.
Only multitasking operating systems
support true foreground and background
processing; however, some application
programs can mimic it. For example, many
word processors will print a document
while still accepting input from the
keyboard.
See also background.
See also handshaking.
followup A reply to a post in a Usenet
newsgroup or to an e-mail message. A followup post may quote the original post so
forest In Microsoft Windows 2000, a
collection of Active Directory trees that do
not share a contiguous namespace, but do
share a common schema and global catalog.
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formatting
For example, if acme.com and widget.com
were linked via a trust relationship but
shared a common schema and global catalog, they would be considered a forest; in
other words, a forest is a group of trees that
trust each other.
See also Active Directory; Global Catalog;
schema; tree.
formatting The process of initializing a
new, blank floppy disk or hard disk so that
it can be used to store information.
form feed Abbreviated FF. A printer
command that advances the paper in the
printer to the top of the next page. The
Form Feed button on the printer also performs this same function. An application
can also issue the command. In the ASCII
character set, a form feed has the decimal
value of 12.
forward error correction A technique
used to control errors that insert extra or redundant bits into the data stream. The receiving device uses the redundant bits to
detect and, if possible, correct the errors in
the data.
See also error detection and correction.
forwarding The process of passing data
on to an intermediate or final destination.
Forwarding takes place in network bridges,
routers, and gateways.
four-wire circuit A transmission system
in which two half-duplex circuits, consisting of two wires each, are combined to create one full-duplex circuit.
fps See frames per second.
FQDN See fully qualified domain name.
fractional T1 One portion of a T1 circuit.
A T1 circuit has a capacity of 1.544Mbps,
the equivalent of twenty-four 64Kbps channels. Customers can lease as many of these
64Kbps channels as they need; they are not
required to lease the entire 1.544Mbps
circuit.
fragmentation See file fragmentation.
frame 1. A block of data suitable for
transmission as a single unit; also referred
to as a packet or a block. Some media can
support multiple frame formats.
2. In digital video, one screen of informa-
tion, including both text and graphics.
See also frames per second.
frame relay A CCITT standard for a
packet-switching protocol, running at
speeds of up to 2Mbps, that also provides
for bandwidth on demand. Frame relay is
less robust than X.25 but provides better efficiency and higher throughput.
Frame relay is available from many companies, including AT&T, CompuServe,
Sprint, WilTel, and the Bell companies.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
frames per second Abbreviated fps.
The number of video frames displayed each
second. Although 24fps is considered the
slowest frame rate that provides convincing
motion to the human eye, most Internet video runs at between 5 and 15fps. To maintain a 15fps rate, you need a fast Pentiumbased system with a 56Kbps modem.
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frequency-division multiplexing
framing The process of dividing data for
transmission into groups of bits and adding
a header as well as a checksum to form a
frame. In asynchronous communications,
framing is the process of inserting start bits
and stop bits before and after the data to be
transmitted.
FreeBSD A free implementation of Unix
for the Intel family of processors, derived
from the 4.4BSD Lite releases.
The distribution is free, but there may be a
small charge to cover the distribution media
and packaging. FreeBSD also includes
XFree86, a port of the X Window system to
the Intel processors.
Most of FreeBSD is covered by a license
that allows redistribution as long as the
code acknowledges the copyright of the
Regents of the University of California and
the FreeBSD Project. Those parts of FreeBSD that include GNU software are covered separately by the Free Software Foundation license.
See also copy left; Free Software Foundation; freeware; GNU; Linux; open source
software.
free memory Any area of memory not
currently in use. Often refers to the memory
space remaining for applications to use after the operating system and the system device drivers have been loaded.
Free Software Foundation Abbreviated FSF. An organization founded by Richard Stallman that develops the freely
available GNU software.
The FSF philosophy is that all software
should be free for everyone to use and that
source code should always accompany the
software. The theory being, that if you
make a modification or fix an error, the
change can be sent out to all the other users,
saving time and preventing duplication of
effort.
Also, any software developed under the FSF
General Public License (GPL) must also be
covered by the same terms of the GPL; in
other words, you cannot use the free software to develop a commercial product for
sale.
For more information on the Free Software
Foundation, see www.gnu.org/fsf.
See also copy left; FreeBSD; freeware;
GNU; open source software.
freeware A form of software distribution in which the author retains copyright
to the software, but makes the program
available to others at no cost. The program
cannot be resold by a third party for profit.
See also copy left; Free Software Foundation; GNU; open source software.
frequency-division multiplexing Abbreviated FDM. A method of sharing a
transmission channel by dividing the bandwidth into several parallel paths, defined
and separated by guard bands of different
frequencies designed to minimize interference. All signals are carried simultaneously.
FDM is used in analog transmissions, such
as in communications over a telephone line.
See also inverse multiplexing; statistical
multiplexing; time-division multiplexing;
wavelength division multiplexing.
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frequently asked questions
frequently asked questions Abbreviated FAQ, pronounced “fack.” A document that contains answers to questions
that new users often ask when they first
subscribe to a newsgroup or first access a
Web site.
Frye Utilities A package of network management utilities from Frye Computer Systems that includes hardware and software
inventory, NetWare server monitoring, traffic monitoring, application metering, and
software distribution.
The FAQ contains answers to common
questions that the seasoned users have
grown tired of answering. New users
should look for and read the FAQ before
posting their question, just in case the FAQ
contains the answer.
FSF See Free Software Foundation.
fried A slang expression for burned-out
hardware, especially hardware that has suffered from a power surge. Also applied to
people, as in “My brain is fried; I haven’t
slept since last weekend.”
front-end application An application
running on a networked workstation that
works in conjunction with a back-end system running on the server. Examples are email and database programs.
See also client/server architecture.
front-end processor A specialized processor that manipulates data before passing
it on to the main processor.
In large computer-to-computer communications systems, a front-end processor is
often used to manage all aspects of communications, leaving the main computer
free to handle the data processing.
FTAM See File Transfer Access and
Management.
FTP See File Transfer Protocol.
ftp A command used to transfer files to
and from remote computers using the File
Transfer Protocol. You can use ftp to log on
to an Internet computer and transfer text
and binary files.
When you use ftp, you start a client program on your computer that connects to a
server program on the Internet computer.
The commands that you give to ftp are
translated into instructions that the server
program executes for you.
The original ftp program started life as a
Unix utility, but versions are now available
for all popular operating systems; ftp is also
built into all the major Web browsers.
See also anonymous ftp; File Transfer
Protocol.
See also back-end processor.
full backup A backup that includes all
files on a hard disk or set of hard disks. A
network administrator must decide how often to perform a full backup, balancing the
need for security against the time taken for
the backup.
FRS See File Replication Service.
See also differential backup; incremental
backup.
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function keys
full-duplex Abbreviated FDX. The capability for simultaneous transmission in two
directions so that devices can be sending
and receiving data at the same time.
the fully qualified domain name becomes
wallaby.my-company.com.
See also four-wire circuit; half-duplex.
function keys The set of programmable
keys on the keyboard that can perform
special tasks assigned by the current
application.
full-page display Any monitor capable
of displaying a whole page of text. Fullpage displays are useful for graphical art
and desktop publishing applications, as
well as medical applications.
fully qualified domain name A host
name with the appropriate domain name appended. For example, on a host with the host
name wallaby and the Domain Name Service (DNS) domain name my-company.com,
See also Domain Name Service.
Most keyboards have 10 or 12 function
keys (F1 to F10 or F1 to F12), some of
which are used by an application as shortcut keys. For example, many programs use
F1 to gain access to the Help system. In
some programs, the use of function keys is
so complex that special plastic key overlays
are provided as guides for users.
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G
G
G Abbreviation for giga-, meaning 1 billion, or 109.
See also gigabyte.
Gartner Group, Inc. An independent
research organization for the computer
hardware, software, communications, and
related industries.
Gartner Group first developed the concept
of total cost of ownership (TCO) and now
provides TCO software tools since the acquisition of Interpose. Gartner Group also
owns Datapro Information Services and the
market analysis company Dataquest.
For more information on Gartner Group,
see www.gartner.com.
See also total cost of ownership.
gate array See application-specific
integrated circuit.
gateway A shared connection between a
LAN and a larger system, such as a mainframe computer or a large packet-switching
network, whose communications protocols
are different. Usually slower than a bridge
or router, a gateway is a combination of
hardware and software with its own processor and memory used to perform protocol conversions.
See also bridge; brouter; router.
Gateway, Inc. A leading direct-marketer
of PCs, servers, and related peripherals,
originally known as Gateway 2000. Also
an ISP offering Internet access through
gateway.net.
For more information on Gateway, Inc., see
www.gateway.com.
gateway server A communications
server that provides access between networks that use different access protocols.
Gateway Services for NetWare A Microsoft Windows NT Server service that allows an NT server to act as a gateway to a
NetWare network. NT clients can access a
NetWare server using the same methods
used to access an NT server.
gauge A measurement of the physical
size of a cable. Under the American Wire
Gauge (AWG) standards, higher numbers
indicate thinner cable.
See also cabling standards.
GB See gigabyte.
Gb See gigabit.
Gbit See gigabit.
GDS See Global Directory Service.
gender changer A special intermediary
connector for use with two cables that both
have only male connectors or only female
connectors.
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global account
GENDER CHANGER
geostationary Also known as geosynchronous. The type of orbit required to
keep a communications satellite in a fixed
position relative to the earth.
The satellite's angular rate and direction of
rotation are matched to those of the earth,
and the satellite orbits the earth every 24
hours at about 36,000 kilometers (22,350
miles). Three satellites in geostationary orbit can cover 95 percent of the earth's surface (the remaining 5 percent is above the
Arctic Circle).
geosynchronous See geostationary.
GIF See Graphics Interchange Format.
giga- A prefix meaning 1 billion, or 109.
See also gigabyte.
gigabit Abbreviated Gbit and Gb. Usually 1,073,824 binary digits or bits of data.
Sometimes used as equivalent to one billion bits.
See also kilobit; megabit.
Gigabit Ethernet A 1Gbps (1,000Mbps)
extension of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard, known as 1000Base-X.
This standard has been developed by the
IEEE 802.3z Task Group and a number of
interested companies collectively known as
the Gigabit Ethernet Alliance. Gigabit
Ethernet runs over multimode fiber-optic
cable and is intended for use as a backbone
and a way to connect high-speed routers,
switches, and hubs.
See also Ethernet; Fast Ethernet.
gigabyte Abbreviated GB. Strictly
speaking, one billion bytes; however, in
computing, in which bytes are most often
counted in powers of 2, a gigabyte becomes
230, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
global account In Microsoft Windows
NT Server, a user or group account defined
on a primary domain controller that can be
used from all the computers in the domain.
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Global Catalog
Global Catalog In Microsoft Active Directory, the storage of selected properties
for all the objects in the Active Directory.
The Global Catalog allows users in an organization with multiple sites to locate resources quickly, without having to cross
WAN links. In this way, users can examine
a local source to find the location of a network resource.
global login A mechanism that permits
users to log on to the network, rather than
repeatedly logging on to individual servers.
A global logon can provide access to all network resources.
globally unique identifier Abbreviated
GUID. In Microsoft Active Directory, a
unique 128-bit number that identifies an
Active Directory object.
See also Active Directory; forest; tree.
See also Active Directory.
Global Directory Service Abbreviated
GDS. An implementation of the X.500 directory service for managing remote users
and addresses.
global network An international network that spans all departments, offices,
and subsidiaries of the corporation.
See also X.500.
global directory services Directory
services that view the entire network as a
single entity. A global directory system allows the network administrator to define
all network resources—users, printers, and
servers—at one time.
Banyan's StreetTalk and Novell's NetWare
Directory Services (NDS) are examples of
global directory services.
See also domain directory services.
global group In Microsoft Windows NT
Server, user accounts granted server and
workstation rights in their own and other
domains whose security systems allow access. Global groups are a means of providing rights and permissions to resources
inside and outside the domain to a group of
users within a single domain.
See also local group.
Global networks bring their own set of
problems, including those of different time
zones, languages, established standards,
and PTT (Postal Telephone and Telegraph)
companies.
GNU Pronounced “ga-noo.” A Free Software Foundation (FSF) project devoted to
developing a complete, freely available
Unix system that contains no AT&T code.
The name GNU is a recursive acronym for
“GNU’s not Unix!”
Many of the tools and utilities developed
for this project have been released and are
very popular with users of 4.4BSD, FreeBSD, and Linux.
For more information on GNU, see
www.gnu.org.
See also 4.4BSD Lite; FreeBSD; Hurd;
Linux; open source software.
Gopher A client/server application that
presents Internet text resources as a series
of menus, shielding the user from the
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graphics accelerator board
underlying mechanical details of IP
addresses and different access methods.
changing it. You can set the number of
grace logons a user is allowed.
Gopher menus may contain documents you
can view or download, searches you can
perform, or additional menu selections.
When you choose one of these items, Gopher does whatever is necessary to obtain
the resource you requested, either by downloading a document or by jumping to the selected Gopher server and presenting its toplevel menu.
graphical user interface Abbreviated
GUI, pronounced “gooey.” A graphicsbased user interface that allows users to select files, programs, and commands by
pointing to pictorial representations on the
screen rather than by typing long, complex
commands from a command prompt.
Gopher clients are available for most popular operating systems, including the Macintosh, MS-DOS, Windows, and Unix.
See also Gopherspace; World Wide Web.
Gopherspace A collective term used to
describe all the Internet resources accessible
using Gopher. Gopher is so good at hiding
the mechanical details of the Internet that
this term was coined to represent all the resources reachable using Gopher.
GOSIP Acronym formed from Government Open System Interconnection Profile.
A suite of standards intended for use in government projects and based on the Open
Systems Interconnect (OSI) reference model. Some measure of GOSIP compliance is
required for government networking purchases. GOSIPs exist in many countries,
including the United States, Canada,
France, Germany, Australia, and the United Kingdom.
GPO See group policy object.
grace login Allows a user to finish logging on using an expired password without
Applications execute in windows, using a
consistent set of drop-down menus, dialog
boxes, and other graphical elements, such
as scroll bars and icons. This consistency
among interface elements is a major benefit
for the user, because as soon as you learn
how to use the interface in one program,
you can use it in all other programs running
in the same environment.
The use of graphical elements in a user interface was pioneered at Xerox Corporation's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in
the early 1970s. Unfortunately, at that time
the hardware needed to support such a user
interface was well beyond the reach of most
users. In 1979, Steve Jobs of Apple Computer visited PARC and recognized the importance of the user-interface work being
done; this visit led to the development of the
interface for the ill-fated Apple Lisa computer, and eventually to the Apple Macintosh series of computers. Since then, GUIs
have been developed for most computing
environments.
graphics accelerator board A specialized expansion board containing a graphics
coprocessor as well as all the other circuitry
found on a video adapter. Sometimes called
a video accelerator board.
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graphics coprocessor
Transferring most of the graphics processing tasks from the main processor to the
graphics accelerator board improves system performance considerably, particularly
for Microsoft Windows users.
graphics coprocessor A fixed-function
graphics chip, designed to speed up the
processing and display of high-resolution
images. Popular coprocessors include S3
Inc’s 86C911 and Weitek’s W5086 and
W5186.
Graphics Interchange Format Abbreviated GIF; pronounced “gif.” A graphics
file format, originating on CompuServe,
that results in relatively small graphics files.
An image may contain as many as 256 colors, including a transparent color, and a
lossless compression method reduces the
size of the file. A graphic in this format can
be used as an inline image on a Web page.
A revision of this format, known as
GIF89a, adds animation features, transparent backgrounds, and image interleaving.
See also lossless compression; Joint
Photographic Experts Group.
graphics mode A video adapter mode in
which everything displayed on the screen is
created pixel by pixel. Text mode, by contrast, uses ready-made characters from a
built-in character set.
grayed command See dimmed com-
group account An account containing
other member accounts. All the rights and
permissions accorded to the group are also
granted to the group members, making
group accounts a convenient way to provide a common set of capabilities to collections of user accounts.
group identifiers Security identifiers
containing the set of permissions granted to
the group. If a user account is part of a
group, the group identifier is appended to
that user’s security identifier, granting the
user all the permissions granted to that
group.
See also security identifier.
Group object In Novell NetWare Directory Services (NDS), an object that contains
a list of user object names.
See also leaf object; NetWare Directory
Services.
group policy In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a central point of administration, allowing administrators to install software and apply standard settings to
multiple users and computers throughout
an organization.
group policy object Abbreviated GPO.
In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a collection of group policy settings defined at
the local machine, site, domain, or organizational unit level.
mand.
group A collection of network users
who all have the same level of security and
can all be managed collectively.
groupware Network software designed
for use by a group of people all working on
the same project or who need access to the
same data.
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guru
See also Lotus Notes; workflow software;
workgroup.
Allowing people to use the guest account
may breach company security policies.
guard band A small-frequency band
used to separate multiple bands in a broadband transmission and prevent interference
between the communications channels.
GUI See graphical user interface.
guest account In Microsoft Windows
2000, a built-in account available to users
who do not have an account on the system.
GUID
See globally unique identifier.
guru An operating system expert with a
reputation for being helpful to other, less
knowledgeable users.
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H.323
H
H.323 A videoconferencing standard developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) that defines videoconferencing from the desktop over LANs,
intranets, and the Internet.
H.323 specifies techniques for compressing
and transmitting real-time voice, video, and
data between a pair of videoconferencing
workstations. It also describes signaling
protocols for managing audio and video
streams, as well as procedures for breaking
data into packets and synchronizing transmissions across communications channels.
See also Real-time Transport Protocol;
T.120.
hack Originally, an expedient, although
short-term, solution to a programming
problem. This solution often bypassed
some of the more traditional softwaredevelopment processes. Now the word
hack is often used to describe a well-crafted piece of work that produces just what is
needed; it does not imply malicious intent
to break into other people’s systems for
gain.
See also hacker; kluge.
hacker In the programming community,
where the term originated, this term describes a person who pursues knowledge of
computer systems for its own sake—someone willing to “hack through” the steps of
putting together a working program.
More recently, in popular culture at large,
the term has come to mean a person who
breaks into other people’s computers with
malicious intent (what programmers call a
“cracker”). Many countries now treat convicted crackers in the same way that they
treat conventional breaking-and-entering
criminals.
See also intruder.
HAL See Hardware Abstraction Layer.
half-duplex Abbreviated HDX. In asynchronous transmissions, the ability to
transmit on the same channel in two directions, but only in one direction at a time.
See also communications parameters; duplex; full-duplex.
Hamming code A forward-error correction technique used to detect and correct
single-bit errors during transmission.
The Hamming code adds three verification
bits to the end of each four bits of data. The
receiving device performs a similar process
to ensure that the four data bits were received correctly and to detect any missing
bits.
See also error detection and correction.
hand-held computer A portable computer that is small enough to be held in one
hand, such as the enormously popular
PalmPilot from 3Com Corporation.
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hard disk drive
handshaking The exchange of control
codes or particular characters to maintain
and coordinate data flow between two
devices so that data is only transmitted
when the receiving device is ready to
accept the data.
Handshaking can be implemented in either
hardware or software, and it occurs between a variety of devices. For example, the
data flow might be from one computer to
another computer or from a computer to a
peripheral device, such as a modem or a
printer.
See also flow control; XON/XOFF.
hang 1. When a program waits for an
event that never occurs, as in “the program
hangs waiting for a character from the
keyboard.”
2. A slang expression used when attaching
a new piece of hardware to a system, usually an external device attached by one or
more cables, as in “I’m going to hang a new
tape drive on the server this afternoon.”
See also deadlock.
hard-coded A description of software
written in a way that does not allow for
flexibility or future expansion. For example, when program variables are placed directly in the code rather than supplied as
input from the user, the entire program
must be recompiled to change the value, an
obvious waste of resources.
See also hard-wired.
hard disk The part of a hard disk drive
that stores data, rather than the mechanism
for reading and writing to it. Sometimes
called a platter.
hard-disk controller An expansion
board that contains the necessary circuitry
to control and coordinate a hard disk drive.
Many hard-disk controllers can manage
more than one hard disk, as well as floppy
disks and tape drives. On some PCs, the
hard-disk controller is built into the motherboard, and in the case of an Integrated Drive
Electronics hard disk, the controlling circuitry is mounted on the drive itself, eliminating
the need for a separate controller.
hard disk drive A storage device that
uses a set of rotating, magnetically coated
disks called platters to store data or programs. In everyday use, the terms hard disk,
hard disk drive, and hard drive are used interchangeably, because the disk and the
drive mechanism are a single unit.
A typical hard-disk platter rotates at several
thousand revolutions per minute, and the
read/write heads float on a cushion of air
from 10 to 25 millionths of an inch thick so
that the heads never come into contact with
the recording surface. The whole unit is hermetically sealed to prevent airborne contaminants from entering and interfering
with these close tolerances.
Hard disks range in storage capacity from a
few tens of megabytes to several terabytes.
The more storage space on the disk, the
more important your backup strategy becomes. Hard disks are reliable, but they do
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hard-disk interface
fail, and usually at the most inconvenient
moment.
boards, displays, and printers. If you can
stub your toe on it, it must be hardware.
See also high-capacity storage system;
mini-hard disk; redundant array of inexpensive disks; single large expensive disk.
See also firmware; liveware; software.
hard-disk interface A standard way of
accessing the data stored on a hard disk. Several hard-disk interface standards have
evolved over time, including the ST506 Interface, the Enhanced Small Device Interface
(ESDI), the Integrated Drive Electronics Interface (IDE), and the SCSI (Small Computer
System Interface).
See also PC Memory Card International
Association.
hard-disk type A number stored in a
personal computer’s CMOS random access
memory area that defines certain hard-disk
characteristics, such as the number of read/
write heads and the number of cylinders on
the disk. This number is not directly accessible from the operating system. Some PCs
require a special configuration program to
access the hard-disk type; others permit access via the computer’s built-in ROM BIOS
setup program.
hard reset A system reset made by pressing the computer’s Reset button or by turning the power off and then on again. A hard
reset is used only when the system has
crashed so badly that pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del
to reboot does not work.
Hardware Abstraction Layer Abbreviated HAL. The lowest level of the Microsoft
Windows NT operating system, which is
specifically tailored to the type of hardware
used in the server. If the hardware changes,
changes also have to be made to the HAL.
hardware address The address assigned to a network interface card (NIC) by
the original manufacturer or by the network administrator if the interface card is
configurable.
This address identifies the local device address to the rest of the network and allows
messages to find the correct destination.
Also known as the physical address, media
access control (MAC) address, or Ethernet
address.
Hardware Compatibility List Abbreviated HCL. A list of all the hardware devices supported by Microsoft Windows NT
and Windows 2000. Items on this list have
actually been tested and verified to work
properly with
Windows.
hardware dependent The requirement
that a specific hardware component be
present for a program to work. Hardwaredependent software is often difficult to
move or port to another computer.
See also hang; deadlock.
See also hardware independent.
hardware All the physical electronic
components of a computer system, including peripheral devices, printed-circuit
hardware independent The ability to
produce similar results in a wide variety
of environments, without requiring the
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presence of specific hardware. The Java
programming language and the PostScript
page-description language are both examples of hardware independence. Java runs
on a wide range of computers, from the PC
to a mainframe; PostScript is used by
many printer manufacturers.
See also hardware dependent.
hardware interrupt An interrupt or request for service generated by a hardware
device, such as a keystroke or a tick from
the clock. Because the processor may receive several such signals simultaneously,
hardware interrupts are usually assigned a
priority level and processed according to
that priority.
See also interrupt request; software
interrupt.
hard-wired Describes a system designed
in a way that does not allow for flexibility
or future expansion. May also refer to a device that is connected directly to the network, such as a printer.
See also hard-coded.
hash function A function that maps a
data item to a numeric value by use of a
transformation. A hash function can convert a number that has meaning to a user,
such as a key or other identifier, into a value
for the location of that data in a structure
such as a table.
See also hashing; hash table.
hashing The process of creating or recreating a hash table by recalculating the
search index code assigned to each piece of
data in the table.
See also hash function; hash table.
hash table A method of representing
data so that it can be found again very
quickly.
A hash table assigns a special index code to
each piece of data, and specially designed
software uses this code to locate the data,
rather than repeating what might be a very
lengthy search each time the data is
requested.
See also hash function; hashing.
Hayes-compatible modem Any modem that recognizes the commands in the
industry-standard AT command set, originally defined by Hayes Microcomputer
Products, Inc.
HBA See host bus adapter.
H-channel A set of ISDN Primary Rate
Interface (PRI) services with predefined
speeds, designed to carry videoconferencing data streams.
H-channel services are created from multiple 64Kbps B channels. Three service levels
are commonly available:
■
H0 operating at 384Kbps
■
H11 operating at 1,536Kbps
■
H12 operating at 1,920Kbps
See also Integrated Services Digital Network; Primary Rate ISDN.
HCL See Hardware Compatibility List.
HCSS See high-capacity storage
system.
HDLC See High-level Data Link Control.
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HDSL
HDSL
See High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line.
HDX See half-duplex.
header Information placed at the beginning of a file, a data transmission, or an
archive.
In an e-mail message, the header contains
information about the message, including
sender and recipient information, and information about the route the message took
as it was being delivered.
In a data transmission, the header may contain source and destination address information, as well as other control data.
In an archive, the header is a block that contains information describing the contents of
the archive.
Header Error Control In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cell header, an
8-bit field used for detecting errors and correcting single-bit errors.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
headless server A server computer with
no monitor attached.
heartbeat An Ethernet signal quality test
function. This signal proves that a component is working and can detect collisions.
Also known as signal quality error (SQE).
HEC
helper A program launched or used by a
Web browser to process a file type that the
browser cannot handle. Sometimes called a
plug-in.
A helper may view an image, play a sound
file, or expand a compressed file. A helper
that deals with video, graphics, or animation is called a viewer; a helper that deals
with sound files is called a player.
See also player; viewer; Web browser.
hertz Abbreviated Hz. A unit of frequency measurement; 1 hertz equals one cycle
per second.
See also megahertz.
heterogeneous network A network
that consists of workstations, servers, network interface cards, operating systems, and
applications from many vendors, all working together as a single unit. The network
may also use different media and different
protocols over different network links.
See also enterprise network; homogeneous network.
Hewlett-Packard Company Abbreviated HP. A major manufacturer of hand-held
calculators, personal computers, servers,
minicomputers, mainframes, scientific and
medical equipment, test and measurement
equipment, laser and ink jet printers, plotters, and software.
See Header Error Control.
Hello protocol In Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), a link state protocol used
by nodes to determine who and where their
neighbors are.
Founded by William Hewlett and David
Packard in 1939 in a garage, the company
is now headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP has a widely diversified product line
of more than 10,000 items, and it has a
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High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line
well-earned reputation for building rugged
and reliable equipment.
For more information on Hewlett-Packard,
see www.hp.com.
hex See hexadecimal.
hexadecimal Abbreviated hex. The
base-16 numbering system that uses the
digits 0 through 9, followed by the letters A
through F, which are equivalent to the decimal numbers 10 through 15.
Hex is a convenient way to represent the binary numbers that computers use internally
because it fits neatly into the 8-bit byte. All
the 16 hex digits 0 through F can be represented in 4 bits, and 2 hex digits (1 digit for
each set of 4 bits) can be stored in a single
byte. This means that 1 byte can contain
any one of 256 different hex numbers, from
0 through FF.
See also binary; decimal.
HFS See Hierarchical File System.
hidden file In many operating systems,
any file that has the hidden attribute set,
which indicates to the operating system that
information about the file should not appear in normal directory listings. There may
also be further restrictions on a hidden file,
and users may not be able to delete, copy, or
display the contents of such a file.
hidden share In Microsoft Windows
2000, a share whose name contains a dollar
sign as the last character. The names of hidden shares are not displayed under normal
circumstances, although they are always
visible in Computer Management.
See also common share; default shares;
share; sharing.
Hierarchical File System Abbreviated
HFS. A tree-structured file system used on
the Macintosh; designed for use with hard
disks.
Hierarchical Storage Management
Abbreviated HSM. A combination of several types of file-storage systems, managed
by intelligent software.
In HSM, data is moved from one type of
storage to another depending on how frequently the data is accessed. Active data is
held on hard disks, less frequently used data
is held in near-line storage such as an optical disk system, and data used only infrequently is stored in a tape backup.
See also archive; high-capacity storage
system; jukebox.
High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line
Abbreviated HDSL. A high-speed data
transmission technology originally developed by Bellcore that delivers high bandwidth over existing twisted-pair copper
telephone lines.
HDSL is the most common Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service and provides T1
data rates of 1.544Mbps over lines of up to
3.6 kilometers, or 12,000 feet, in length.
HDSL is symmetric, providing the same
data rate in each direction.
The service is not intended for residential
purposes, but is used in the telephone company’s own private data networks, Internet
servers, and interexchange connections.
See also Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line; Digital Subscriber Line; RateAdaptive Digital Subscriber Line; SingleLine Digital Subscriber Line; Very-HighBit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line.
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high-capacity storage system
high-capacity storage system Abbreviated HCSS. A data-storage system that
extends the storage capacity of a Novell
NetWare server by integrating an opticaldisk library, or jukebox, into the NetWare
file system.
Network users and applications can access
files and directories on the jukebox with the
same NetWare commands and function
calls used to access files from a hard disk.
The most frequently used HCSS files may
be cached temporarily on the server hard
disk to speed up access times. HCSS can
also access a magnetic tape system.
See also archive.
them to concentrate on the logic of the
problem at hand.
See also low-level language.
high memory area Abbreviated HMA.
In a computer running MS-DOS, the first
64KB of extended memory above the 1MB
limit of 8086 and 8088 addresses.
Programs that conform to the Extended
Memory Specification (EMS) can use this
memory as an extension of conventional
memory. However, only one program can
use or control HMA at a time. If MS-DOS
is loaded into the HMA, approximately
50KB more conventional memory becomes
available for use by applications.
high-end An expensive, full-featured product from the top of a company’s product list.
See also expanded memory; extended
memory; memory management.
See also low-end.
High-Performance File System Abbreviated HPFS. A file system available in
OS/2 and Microsoft Windows NT that supports the following:
High-level Data Link Control Abbreviated HDLC. An international protocol defined by the ISO (International Organization
for Standardization), included in CCITT
X.25 packet-switching networks. HDLC is a
bit-oriented, synchronous protocol that provides error correction at the data-link layer.
In HDLC, messages are transmitted in variable-length units known as frames.
■
■
■
See also Synchronous Data Link Control.
■
high-level language Any machineindependent programming language that
uses English-like syntax in which each
statement corresponds to many assembly
language instructions. High-level languages
free programmers from dealing with the underlying machine architecture and allow
■
Long, mixed-case filenames of up to 255
characters
As much as 64KB of extended attributes
per file
Faster disk access with an advanced disk
cache for caching files and directory
information
Highly contiguous file allocation that
eliminates file fragmentation
Hard disks of up to 64GB in size
MS-DOS does not recognize the HPFS file
structure, it cannot be used on a floppy disk,
and it is not supported in Windows NT 4 or
later.
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hive
HIGH-LEVEL DATA LINK CONTROL FRAME
High-Performance Parallel Interface
Abbreviated HPPI. A parallel interface
standard from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) known as X3T9.3,
originally developed as an interface between supercomputers and fast peripherals
such as disk arrays and frame buffers.
Recently, HPPI has been extended for use in
networked computers and high-end workstations. It provides a data rate of 800Mbps
over 32-pair twisted-pair copper wire,
known as single HPPI, and 1,600Mbps over
64 pairs, known as double HPPI. Connection length is limited to 25 meters (82 feet).
High-Performance Routing Abbreviated HPR. An internetworking protocol from
IBM, intended as an upgrade to its Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking (APPN)
package. HPR provides internetworking
capabilities similar to those of TCP/IP.
See also Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking; Data Link Switching.
High Sierra specification A specification for CD-ROM data that served as the
basis for the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 9660 standard. It
is called High Sierra because it was defined
at a meeting held near Lake Tahoe in November 1985.
High Speed Serial Interface Abbreviated HSSI. A serial data communications
interface optimized for speeds of up to
52Mbps. Often used for connecting an
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
switch to a T3 Data Service Unit.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Data Service Unit; T3.
hijacking An attack on a computer system in which an established TCP/IP session
is redirected in mid-session to an unauthorized host system.
See also spoofing.
hit On the World Wide Web, a request
from a browser for a file on the server. A hit
on a Web page occurs whenever any file is
accessed, whether it is a text document, a
graphic, a script, or an audio or video clip.
If you access three files on a Web page, you
generate three hits, so a hit is a poor measure of the number of people visiting a Web
site, as it simply reflects the number of file
requests made.
hive A major logical division within the
Microsoft Windows Registry. The Registry
is divided into several hives:
■
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT contains information about file associations.
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HMA
■
■
■
■
■
HKEY_CURENT_USER contains information about the currently logged on
user.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE contains information about the computer running
Windows, including details of applications, device drivers, and hardware.
HKEY_USERS contains information
about each active user with a user profile.
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG contains
details about the current system
configuration.
HKEY_DYN_DATA contains information about plug-and-play devices on the
system.
You can view and edit the Registry using
the regedit.exe program.
See also key; sub-key.
HMA See high memory area.
holy wars A fundamentally unresolvable computer-related argument, in which
the participants spend most of their time
trying to establish often wildly personal
choices as carefully thought out and deeply
considered technical evaluations. Topics
might include any version of Unix versus
any other version of Unix, the C programming language versus C++ (or any other
programming language), big endian systems versus little endian systems, and so on.
home directory In Unix, a directory that
contains the files for a specific user. The
name of your home directory is kept in the
password file, and when you log in, your
current directory is always set to be your
home directory.
home page On the World Wide Web, an
initial starting page. A home page may be
prepared by an individual or by a corporation and is a convenient jumping-off point
to other Web pages or Internet resources.
See also portal.
homogeneous network A network
that consists of one type of workstation,
server, network interface card, and operating system, with a limited number of applications, all purchased from a single vendor.
All nodes use the same protocol and the
same control procedures.
See also enterprise network; heterogeneous network.
hooked vector An intercepted interrupt
vector that now points to a replacement interrupt service routine (ISR) rather than to
the original service routine.
hop A single link between two computer
systems that an e-mail message must cross
on its way to its destination. A message may
have to pass over many hops to reach its ultimate destination; if it must pass between
five computers, it is said to have taken four
hops to reach its destination.
See also hop count.
hop count In routing, the number of
links that must be crossed to get from any
given source node to any given destination
node. Hop count is often used as a metric
for evaluating a route for a least-cost routing algorithm.
horizontal application Any application
software that is broad in scope and not designed for use in one specific industry or
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HSSI
setting. Word-processing software falls
into this category, but software specifically designed to manage a medical practice
does not.
See also vertical application.
host The central or controlling computer
in a networked or distributed processing
environment which provides services that
other computers or terminals can access via
the network.
host bus adapter Abbreviated HBA. A
board acting as an interface between the
processor and the hard-disk controller in a
network server, used by Novell NetWare to
relieve the main processor of data-storage
and retrieval tasks. Also known as a disk
coprocessor board (DCB).
The HBA and its disk subsystems make up
a disk channel. NetWare can access five
disk channels, with four controllers on each
channel, and eight hard-disk drives attached to each controller.
Hot Fix A Novell NetWare feature that
marks defective disk blocks dynamically so
that the operating system will not use them.
Data is redirected from any faulty blocks to
a small portion of disk space set aside as the
Hot Fix redirection area. Hot Fix then
marks the defective area as bad, and the
server will not attempt to store data there
again. By default, 2 percent of a disk partition is set aside as the Hot Fix redirection
area.
See also fault tolerance.
HotJava A highly interactive Web
browser from Sun Microsystems that is
written in the Java programming language.
HP See Hewlett-Packard Company.
HPFS See High-Performance File
System.
HP OpenView Certified Consultant A
certification from Hewlett-Packard that
recognizes technical competency to both
sell and support HP OvenView, a network
management system used to monitor and
manage networks consisting of equipment
and software from multiple vendors.
Three specializations are available:
■
Unix
■
Windows NT
■
Unix and Windows NT combined
HPR
See High-Performance Routing.
HP-UX A version of Unix that runs on
Hewlett-Packard computers. HP-UX includes BSD extensions, including the network commands, the Korn shell, and a
version of emacs. Visual User Environment
(VUE) is HP’s graphical user interface, with
workspaces for different tasks, drag-anddrop functions, a text editor, a color icon
editor, and other productivity tools.
HP-UX also includes System Administration Manager (SAM) for common administrative tasks, such as adding new users,
installing and configuring peripherals,
managing processes, and scheduling jobs.
HSM See Hierarchical Storage
Management.
HSSI
See High Speed Serial Interface.
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HTML
HTML See HyperText Markup
Language.
HTTP See Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
hub A device used to extend a network so
that additional workstations can be attached. There are two main types of hubs:
■
■
Active hubs amplify transmission signals
to extend cable length and ports.
Passive hubs split the transmission signal,
allowing additional workstations to be
added, usually at a loss of distance.
In some star networks, a hub is the central
controlling device.
Huffman coding In data compression, a
method of encoding data on the basis of the
relative frequency of the individual elements.
Huffman coding is often used with text files;
the coding is based on how frequently each
letter occurs, because it is a lossless compression method. Huffman coding is used in fax
transmissions.
See also data compression; lossless compression; lossy compression.
Hurd A project from the Free Software
Foundation (FSF) to develop and distribute
a free version of the Unix operating system
for many different hardware platforms.
Hurd (or sometimes HURD) is considered a
collection of all the GNU software, compilers, editors, and utilities, as well as the operating system.
See also Free Software Foundation; GNU.
hybrid network A network that uses a
collection of different technologies, such as
frame relay, leased lines, and X.25.
See also homogeneous network; heterogeneous network.
hybrid organization In Novell Directory Services (NDS), an organizational strategy that combines two or more of the
methods—locational, divisional, and
workgroup. A hybrid organization makes
most sense in a large organization.
hypermedia A term used to describe
nonsequential applications that have interactive, hypertext links between different
multimedia elements— graphics, sound,
text, animation, and video.
If an application relies heavily on textbased information, it is known as
hypertext; however, if full-motion video,
animation, graphics, and sound are used,
the application is considered hypermedia.
hypertext A method of presenting information so that it can be viewed by the user
in a nonsequential way, regardless of how
the topics were originally organized.
Hypertext was designed to make a computer respond to the nonlinear way that humans think and access information—by
association, rather than according to the
linear organization of film, books, and
speech.
In a hypertext application, you can browse
through the information with considerable
flexibility, choosing to follow a new path
each time you access the information. When
you click a highlighted word, you activate a
link to another hypertext document, which
may be on the same Internet host or on a
completely different system thousands of
miles away. These links depend on the care
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Hz
that the document originator used when assembling the document; unfortunately,
many links turn into dead-ends.
See also link rot.
HyperText Markup Language Abbreviated HTML. A standard document formatting language used to create Web pages
and other hypertext documents. HTML is a
subset of Standardized General Markup
Language (SGML).
HTML defines the appearance and placement on the page of elements such as fonts,
graphics, text, links to other Web sites, and
so on; it has nothing to do with the actual
material presented. Hypertext documents
often have the filename extension .htm or
.html.
The published HTML standards have been
revised several times. HTML version 2 was
the first version widely used on the World
Wide Web and supported by the popular
Web browsers of the day. Subsequent revisions to the standard have added new
HTML elements such as tables, text flow
around images, frames, applets, and style
sheets.
Future HTML revisions will be developed
by the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C), at least in theory; the manufacturers of the most popular browsers have driven this process in the past by creating their
own non-standard HTML elements.
HTML has been vital in the development of
the World Wide Web; however, the functions that it performs via the Web browser
are becoming restrictive. In part, this has
led to the development of other technologies, such as Java, Virtual Reality Modeling
Language (VRML), and Extensible Markup Language (XML).
See also Extensible Markup Language;
Java; Secure HTTP; Virtual Reality
Modeling Language.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Abbreviated HTTP. The command and control protocol used to manage communications
between a Web browser and a Web server.
When you access a Web page, you see a
mixture of text, graphics, and links to other
documents or other Internet resources.
HTTP is the mechanism that opens the related document when you select a link, no
matter where that document is located.
Hz See hertz.
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I2O
I
I2O
See Intelligent Input/Output.
IAB See Internet Architecture Board.
IBM Certified Specialist One of the
many certifications from IBM, available in
a range of specializations, including:
IAC See Inter-Application
Communication.
■
AIX System Administration
■
AIX Support
IANA See Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority.
■
AS/400 Associate System Operator
■
AS/400 Professional System Operator
■
AS/400 Associate System Administrator
■
AS/400 Professional System Administrator
■
OS/2 Warp Server Administration
■
LAN Server 4 Administration
IBM See International Business Machines Corporation.
IBM 3270 A general name for a family of
IBM system components—printers, terminals, and terminal cluster controllers—that
can be used with a mainframe computer by
an SNA (Systems Network Architecture)
link.
Software that emulates a 3270 terminal is
available for all major operating systems.
IBM cabling systems See Type 1-9
cable.
IBM Certified Advanced Technical
Expert One of the many certifications
from IBM, available in many specializations, including RS/6000 AIX.
IBM Certified AIX User One of the
many certifications from IBM. This one is
available to the AIX user.
IBM Certified Expert One of the many
certifications from IBM, available in a
range of specializations, including OS/2
Warp Server and OS/2 LAN Server.
IBM Certified Systems Expert One of
the many certifications from IBM, available
in a range of specializations, including
OS/2 Warp and OS/2 Warp 4.
IBM RS/6000 A set of seven or nine separate 32-bit chips used in IBM’s line of reduced instruction set computing (RISC)
workstations.
With as many as 7.4 million transistors, the
RS/6000 uses a superscalar design with four
separate 16KB data-cache units and an 8KB
instruction cache. The joint venture announced between IBM, Apple, and Motorola in late 1991 specified the development
of a single-chip version of the RS/6000 architecture called the PowerPC.
IBM Suite for Windows NT A software
suite from IBM for Microsoft Windows NT
that includes five major modules:
■
Intel’s LANDesk Manager
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IEEE standards
■
Lotus Domino
■
IBM’s DB2 Universal Database (UDB)
■
IBM’s eNetwork Communications Server
■
IBM’s ADSTAR Distributed Storage
Manager (ADSM)
The suite is available in both department
and enterprise versions.
IBM ThinkPad A series of innovative and
popular notebook computers from IBM.
The ThinkPad first introduced the touchsensitive dual-button pointing stick (called
a TrackPoint), the pencil-eraser–like device, found between the G, H, and B keys.
It is now included on many portable computers and replaces the mouse.
The top-of-the-line ThinkPad 770 runs a
300MHz Pentium II processor, an 8.1GB
hard disk, a 56K modem, a 14.1-inch
SVGA screen with resolutions up to 1280 ×
1024, and as much as 320MB of memory.
IC See integrated circuit.
ICA See Independent Computing
Architecture.
ICMP See Internet Control Message
Protocol.
ICP See Internet Content Provider.
Icon A general-purpose high-level programming language with a large number of
string-processing functions, developed by
Ralph Griswold at the University of Arizona. Icon has a C-like syntax and is available
both as a compiler and as an interpreter.
icon In a graphical user interface, a small
screen image representing a specific element
that the user can manipulate in some way,
selected by moving a mouse or another
pointing device.
An icon can represent an application, a
document, embedded and linked objects, a
hard disk drive, or several programs collected in a group.
IDE See Integrated Drive Electronics.
identity In Microsoft Outlook Express, a
feature that allows you to create multiple
accounts so that you can keep business and
personal e-mail associated with different
identities.
idle cell In Asynchronous Transfer
Mode, a cell transmitted purely to keep network traffic at a specific level.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
IDS See Intrusion Detection System.
IDT See Integrated Device Technology,
Inc.
IE See Internet Explorer.
IEC See Interexchange Carrier.
IEEE See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
IEEE standards The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), acting
as a coordinating body, has established a
number of telecommunications standards,
including Group 802 as follows:
■
■
802.1D An access-control standard for
bridges linking 802.3, 802.4, and 802.5
networks.
802.2 A standard that specifies the Data
Link layer for use with 802.3, 802.4, and
802.5 networks.
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IETF
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
802.3 1Base5 A standard matching the
AT&T StarLAN product with a 1Mbps
data transfer rate and a maximum cablesegment length of 500 meters (1640 feet).
802.3 10Base2 An implementation of the
Ethernet standard on thin Ethernet cable
with a data transfer rate of 10Mbps, and a
maximum cable-segment length of 185
meters (600 feet).
802.3 10Base-T A standard for Ethernet over unshielded twisted-pair wiring,
the same wiring and RJ45 connectors
used with telephone systems. The standard is based on a star topology, in which
each node connects to a central wiring
center, with a cable-length limitation of
100 meters (325 feet).
802.3 10Broad36 A standard for longdistance Ethernet with a 10Mbps data
rate and a maximum cable-segment
length of 3600 meters (11,800 feet).
802.4 A standard for bus topology networks that use token passing to control
access and network traffic, running at
10Mbps. Not widely implemented.
802.5 A standard for ring networks that
use token passing to control access and
network traffic, running at 4Mbps or
16Mbps. It is used by IBM’s Token Ring
network.
802.6 An emerging standard for metropolitan area networks (MANs) transmitting voice, video, and data over two
parallel fiber-optic cables, using signaling
rates of up to 155Mbps.
802.7 The Broadband Technical Advisory Committee provides advice on
broadband techniques to other IEEE
subcommittees.
■
■
■
■
■
■
802.8 The Fiber-Optic Technical
Advisory Committee provides advice on
fiber-optic technology to other IEEE
subcommittees.
802.9 The Integrated Data and Voice
(IDV) Networks group is currently working to integrate data, voice, and video to
802 LANs and ISDN. Now more commonly referred to as Iso-Ethernet.
802.10 The Network Security Technical Advisory Group is developing a standard definition of a network security
model.
802.11 The Wireless Networking group
is developing standards for wireless
networks.
802.12 The Demand Priority group is
working on standards for the 100Mbps
Ethernet standard.
802.14 The Cable Modems group is defining standards for data transport over
traditional cable TV networks.
You will also see many of these standards
referred to by their ISO reference numbers.
IEEE standards 802.1 through 802.11 are
also known as ISO standards 8802.1
through 8802.11.
For more information, see the entries on
the individual standards.
IETF See Internet Engineering Task
Force.
IFS See installable file system.
IGMP See Internet Group Management
Protocol.
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Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
IGP See Interior Gateway Protocol.
IGRP See Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol.
IIOP See Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.
IKE Abbreviation for Internet Key
Exchange.
See ISAKMP/Oakley.
ILEC See Incumbent Local Exchange
Carrier.
IMA See Inverse Multiplexing over ATM.
image map A graphical inline image on
a Web page that contains more than one
link. Each region of the image map is linked
to a different Web resource; you can click a
part of the image to retrieve the appropriate
resource.
See also inline image.
imaging The process of capturing, storing, cataloging, displaying, and printing
graphical information, as well as scanning
paper documents for archival storage.
Network users can store and then retrieve
imaged documents from large, centralized
image-storage systems, using applications
such as Lotus Notes or other groupware.
See also document management; highcapacity storage system; optical character
recognition.
IMAP See Internet Mail Access
Protocol.
(the ability to store energy in the form of a
magnetic field), and resistance (the ability
to impede or resist the flow of electric current), measured in ohms.
Impedance can be described as the apparent
resistance to the flow of alternating current
at a given frequency. Mismatches in impedance along a cable cause distortions and reflections. Each transmission protocol and
network topology specifies its own standards for impedance.
impersonation attack An attack in
which a hostile computer system masquerades as a trusted computer.
See also brute-force attack; dictionary
attack; social engineering
implied security equivalence In Novell Directory Services, when an object receives the rights of the object’s parent, it is
said to be security equivalent. Also known
as container security equivalence. The Inherited Rights Filter does not affect this.
See also explicit security equivalence; Inherited Rights Filter; Novell Directory Services; security equivalence.
I-Mux See inverse multiplexing.
incremental backup A backup of a hard
disk that consists of only those files created
or modified since the last backup.
See also differential backup; full backup.
Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
impedance An electrical property of a
cable that combines capacitance (the ability
to store an electrical charge), inductance
Abbreviated ILEC. A term coined from the
Telecommunications Act of 1996 to describe
the incumbent local telephone company,
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Independent Computing Architecture
providing local transmission and switching
services.
viruses are triggered by particular dates,
others by specific events on the system.
See also Competitive Local Exchange
Carrier.
See also antivirus program; boot sector virus; file-infecting virus; inoculate; macro
virus; multipart virus; polymorphic virus;
stealth virus; Trojan Horse; vaccine; virus.
Independent Computing Architecture
Abbreviated ICA. A presentation service
protocol developed by Citrix that transports
mouse clicks, keystrokes, and screen updates
between a thin client and the server. ICA
works with Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, and Unix clients and runs on top of
TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and NetBIOS.
See also thin client.
Independent Software Vendor Abbreviated ISV. A company that develops
and sells computer software but is completely independent of the makers of the
hardware upon which the software runs.
Industry Standard Architecture Abbreviated ISA. The 16-bit bus design first
used in IBM’s PC/AT computer in 1984.
ISA has a bus speed of 8MHz and a maximum throughput of 8MBps. EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) is a 32bit extension to this bus.
INETCFG A Novell NetWare 4 NLM
used to set up and configure AppleTalk, Internet Protocol (IP) and Internetworking
Packet eXchange (IPX) protocols on the
server.
infection The presence of a virus or a
Trojan Horse within a computer system;
the virus may be active in memory or
present on the hard disk.
The infection may remain hidden from the
user for a considerable length of time. Some
information node Abbreviated i-node,
sometimes written inode, pronounced
“eye-node.” In Unix, a data structure on
disk that describes a file.
Each directory entry associates a filename
with an i-node; although a single file may
have several filenames, one for each link , a
file has only one i-node. Within a filesystem, the number of i-nodes, and therefore
the number of files, is defined when the system is first initialized.
An i-node contains all the information Unix
needs to be able to access the file, including
the file’s length, the times that the file was
last accessed or modified, owner and group
ID information, access permissions, the
number of links to the file, and the disk address of the data blocks that contain the file
itself.
See also i-node table.
information warehouse A central
repository containing a company’s current
and historical data in a form that can be
accessed quickly and easily by users to aid
in their business decision making. IBM has
a large number of products for building
fully automated enterprise-wide data
warehouses.
Informix-4GL Certified Professional
A professional certification from Informix
Software aimed at developers proficient in
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initialize
creating custom database applications using Informix-4GL.
of portable devices is implementing infrared
communications at some level.
Informix Software, Inc. A major supplier of object-oriented and relational database products, based in Menlo Park,
California.
See also Infrared Data Association; mobile
computing; wireless communications.
For more information on Informix Software, Inc., see www.informix.com.
Infrared Data Association Abbreviated IrDA. A trade association of more than
150 computer and telecommunications
hardware and software suppliers, including
Hewlett-Packard, Apple Computer, AST,
Compaq, Dell, IBM, Intel, Motorola, Novell, and others.
IrDA is concerned with defining standards for products that use wireless
communications.
For more information on IrDA, see www
.irda.org.
infrared transmission A method of
wireless transmission that uses part of the
infrared spectrum to transmit and receive
signals.
Infrared transmissions take advantage of a
frequency range just below that of visible
light, and they usually require a line-ofsight connection between transmitter and
receiver.
Infrared transmission can be used to send
documents from portable computers to
printers, to transmit data between portable
computers, to exchange information between computers and cellular telephones
and faxes, and to connect to home entertainment systems. Almost every manufacturer
inherited rights Rights (in Novell NetWare) or permissions (in Microsoft Windows 2000) received by an object from its
parent object. In Novell NetWare, inherited
rights can be blocked by the Inherited
Rights Filter or by an explicit assignment.
See also Inherited Rights Filter.
Inherited Rights Filter Abbreviated
IRF. In Novell Directory Services (NDS),
the mechanism that controls the rights a
trustee can inherit from parent directories
or container objects.
Inheritance allows an assignment applied at
one point to apply to everything below that
point in the file and directory structure. The
IRF for any file, directory, or object is a part
of NetWare’s access control information.
In NetWare 3, the IRF was known as the Inherited Rights Mask and applied only to the
file system.
See also Inherited Rights Mask; NETADMIN; trustee; trustee assignment.
Inherited Rights Mask Abbreviated
IRM. In NetWare 3, the mechanism that
controls the rights a trustee can inherit. By
default, IRM allows all rights to be inherited. Both files and directories have individual IRM controls.
See also Inherited Rights Filter; trustee;
trustee assignment.
initialize 1. To start up a computer.
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inline image
2. In the Macintosh, the process of prepar-
ing a new, blank floppy or hard disk for use.
Initializing completely obliterates any information previously stored on the disk.
3. To assign a beginning value to a variable.
See also formatting.
inline image On a Web page, an image
displayed along with accompanying text.
The process of placing the image on the
page is known as inlining.
inoculate To protect a file against attack
from a virus by recording characteristic information about it and then monitoring any
changes.
See also antivirus program; boot sector virus; file-infecting virus; infection; macro virus; multipart virus; polymorphic virus;
stealth virus; Trojan Horse; vaccine; virus.
changed its name in 1988. Well known for
its dBASE database products, the company
also markets Delphi Client/Server Suite, a
visual rapid applications development environment, and JBuilder, a set of Java programming language development tools.
For more information on Inprise Corporation, see www.inprise.com.
input/output Abbreviated I/O. The
transfer of data between the computer and
its peripheral devices, disk drives, terminals, and printers.
input/output bound Abbreviated I/O
bound. A condition in which the speed of
operation of the input/output port limits
the speed of program execution. Getting the
data into and out of the computer is more
time-consuming than actually processing
that same data.
i-node See information node.
See also computation bound.
i-node table In Unix, a list of all the
i-nodes in a filesystem. Within the i-node
table, each i-node is known by a number—
the i-number, or index number. If a file is
defined by i-node #300, it is said to have an
i-number of 300.
INSTALL A Novell NetWare server console NetWare Loadable Module (NLM)
used for managing, maintaining, and updating NetWare servers. INSTALL can be
used for the following tasks:
See also information node.
in-place migration In Novell NetWare,
a method of upgrading an existing NetWare server to NetWare 4, which includes
converting the file system and updating the
network operating system.
■
■
■
See also across-the-wire migration.
Inprise Corporation Originally known
as Borland International, the company
■
Creating, deleting, and managing harddisk partitions and NetWare volumes on
the server
Installing NetWare and other additional
products and updating the license or registration disk
Adding, removing, checking, and unmirroring hard disks
Changing server startup and configuration files
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Integrated Device Technology, Inc.
install To configure and prepare hardware or software for operation.
Many application packages have their own
installation programs, which copy all the
required files from the original distribution
disks into appropriate directories on your
hard disk and then help to configure the
program to your own operating requirements. Microsoft Windows programs are
installed by a program called Setup.
installable file system Abbreviated
IFS. A file system that is loaded dynamically
by the operating system when it is needed.
Different file systems can be installed to
support specific needs, in just the same way
as device drivers are loaded to support specific hardware.
installation program A program whose
sole function is to install (and sometimes
configure) another program.
The program guides the user through what
might otherwise be a rather complex set of
choices, copying the correct files into the
right directories, decompressing them if
necessary, and asking for the next disk
when appropriate. An installation program
may also ask for a person’s name and a
company name so that the startup screen
can be customized. Microsoft Windows
programs are installed by a program called
Setup.
Installer service In Microsoft Windows
2000, a service that manages all aspects of
application installation, removal, and the
separate configuration of components of
large packages such as Office 2000.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers Abbreviated IEEE, pronounced “eye-triple-ee.” A membership organization, founded in 1963, including
engineers, students, and scientists. IEEE
also acts as a coordinating body for computing and communications standards.
For more information in IEEE, see
www.ieee.org.
See also IEEE standards.
instruction set The set of machine-language instructions that a processor recognizes and can execute.
An instruction set for reduced instruction
set computing (RISC) may only contain a
few instructions; a computer that uses
complex instruction set computing (CISC)
may be able to recognize several hundred
instructions.
INT 14 See Interrupt 14.
integrated circuit Abbreviated IC, also
known as a chip. A small semiconductor
circuit that contains many electronic
components.
Integrated Device Technology, Inc.
Abbreviated IDT. An established manufacturer of SRAM, specialty memory, and embedded microprocessors, who has recently
moved into producing clones of Intel microprocessors. IDT’s first WinChip, originally
known as the C6, shipped in limited quantities in 1997 and 1998, and the company
recently announced the WinChip 2 and
WinChip 2+.
For more information on Integrated Device
Technology, see www.idt.com.
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Integrated Drive Electronics
Integrated Drive Electronics Abbreviated IDE. A popular hard-disk interface
standard, used for disks in the range of
40MB to 1.2GB, requiring medium to fast
data-transfer rates. The electronic control
circuitry is located on the drive itself, thus
eliminating the need for a separate harddisk controller card.
this problem, ISA suggests that routers be
able to reserve resources for specific data
streams called flows. A flow might be video
data from a source to a destination or from
a source to multiple destinations.
See also Enhanced Small Device Interface;
Small Computer System Interface; ST506
Interface.
Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated On-Demand Network
Abbreviated ION. A new high-capacity
residential and business service from
Sprint that allows customers to simultaneously make a phone call, send/receive a
fax, and access the Internet using a single
connection.
The service is based on a mixture of broadband technology, such as Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM) and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). Deployment of the network is based on a partnership with three
other companies—Cisco Systems, Bellcore,
and Radio Shack.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Digital Subscriber Line.
Integrated Services Architecture Abbreviated ISA. A proposed extension to the
Internet standards that would provide integrated services in support of real-time applications over the Internet.
Using current standards, real-time applications do not work well over the Internet
because of variable and unpredictable
queuing delays and other losses. To solve
See also IP over ATM; IP switching; quality
of service.
Abbreviated ISDN. A standard for a worldwide digital communications network originally designed to replace all current systems
with a completely digital, synchronous, fullduplex transmission system.
Computers and other devices connect to
ISDN via simple, standardized interfaces.
They can transmit voice, video, and data,
all on the same line.
See also Basic Rate ISDN; Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network; Primary
Rate ISDN.
integrated software Application software that combines the functions of several
major applications, such as a spreadsheet, a
database, a word processor, and a communications program, into a single package.
Microsoft Works is an example of integrated software.
Integrated software provides a consistent
user interface in all the modules and allows
the user to transfer data from one part of
the system to another quickly and easily. It
is also usually inexpensive. Unfortunately,
integrated software packages do not typically offer all the complex features available
with their stand-alone counterparts.
See also software suite.
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Intel Corporation
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK
Integrated-Private Network-toNetwork Interface Abbreviated I-PNNI.
A routing protocol based on the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Forum’s Private
Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI)
standard that allows ATM switches to
communicate.
See also Private Network-to-Network
Interface.
Intel Corporation The world’s largest
manufacturer of microprocessors, supplying
the processors used in more than 80 percent
of the world’s personal computers.
Intel has developed a wide range of processors and board-level products that are
used in applications as varied as personal
computers, automobiles, robots, and
supercomputers, as well as the multibus
architecture that is used in many industrial and proprietary applications. Intel also
manufactures modems, fax modems,
memory chips, flash memory products,
and other peripheral devices. The name
Intel is a contraction of Integrated
Electronics.
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Intelligent Input/Output
For more information on Intel Corporation, see www.intel.com.
Intelligent Input/Output Abbreviated
I2O; pronounced “eye-two-oh.” A specification from Intel Corporation that divides
the traditional device driver into two parts;
■
■
The part concerned with managing the
device
See also Solaris.
Inter-Application Communication
Abbreviated IAC. In the Macintosh operating system, a feature of the System software
that allows independent applications to
share and exchange information. IAC takes
two main forms:
■
The part concerned with interfacing to the
operating system
By making this distinction, that part of the
driver concerned with managing the device
now becomes portable across operating
systems.
I2O is also designed to work with intelligent
input/output subsystems, with support for
message passing between multiple independent processors, so that the host system can
be relieved of all the interrupt-intensive tasks
associated with servicing device drivers.
Several operating system vendors, including SCO, Microsoft, and Novell, have announced support for I2O in future
products.
intelligent hub See smart hub.
intelligent terminal A terminal connected to a large computer, often a mainframe,
that has some level of local computing power
and can perform certain operations independently from the remote computer, but does
not usually have any local disk-storage
capacity.
See also dumb terminal.
Interactive Unix A version of Unix from
Sun Microsystems based on AT&T’s System V Release 3.2 kernel.
■
Publish-and-subscribe, which allows users to create documents made of components created by multiple applications.
Apple events, which let one application
control another. For example, two programs can share common data, and one
program can request that the other perform some action.
IAC is often referred to as program linking
in the System manuals.
Interexchange Carrier Abbreviated
IXC; sometimes abbreviated IEC. A term
coined from the Telecommunications Act
of 1996 to describe voice and data longdistance telephone companies, including
AT&T, MCI, Sprint, and Worldcom.
See also Competitive Local Exchange Carrier; Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier;
Local Exchange Carrier.
interface The point at which a connection
is made between two hardware devices, between a user and a program or operating system, or between two applications.
In hardware, an interface describes the
logical and physical connections, as in
RS-232-C, and is often considered synonymous with the term port.
A user interface consists of the means by
which a program communicates with the us-
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International Business Machines Corporation
er, including a command line, menus, dialog
boxes, online help systems, and so on. User
interfaces can be classified as characterbased, menu-driven, or graphical.
Software interfaces are application programming interfaces (APIs) and consist of
the codes and messages used by programs
to communicate behind the scenes.
See also graphical user interface.
interface standard Any standard way
of connecting two devices or elements that
have different functions.
Personal computers use many different interface standards. These include Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI), Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE), and the Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI) for
hard disks; RS-232-C and the Centronics
parallel interface for serial devices and parallel printers; and the OSI Reference Model
for LAN communications over a network.
Interior Gateway Protocol Abbreviated IGP. The protocol used on the Internet
to exchange routing information between
routers within the same domain.
See also Border Gateway Protocol; External Gateway Protocol.
DRAM requires that its contents be updated at least every thousandth of a second,
and while this update is taking place, it cannot be read by the processor. Interleaved
memory divides available memory into
banks so that the processor can read from
one bank while the other is cycling and so
does not have to wait. Because interleaved
memory does not require special hardware,
it is one of the most cost-effective ways of
speeding up system operation.
See also wait state.
internal command Any operating system command that is not a separate program and is always available to the user. In
MS-DOS, DIR, COPY, and TYPE are examples of internal commands.
See also external command.
internal modem A modem that plugs
into the expansion bus of a personal computer or into the PCMCIA connector of a
laptop computer.
See also external modem.
internal security Security measures taken to prevent unauthorized computer access from within an organization.
See also Intrusion Detection System.
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
Abbreviated IGRP. A distance-vector routing protocol from Cisco Systems for use in
large heterogeneous networks.
See also heterogeneous network.
interleaved memory A method of
speeding up access by dividing dynamic
RAM (DRAM) into two (or more) separate
banks.
International Business Machines
Corporation Abbreviated IBM, also
known as “Big Blue.” Known originally for
its huge range of mainframe computers,
IBM introduced the IBM PC, which quickly
emerged as an industry standard. Since its
introduction in 1981, the PC has seen many
changes, and an enormous number of companies worldwide now manufacture or
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International Organization for Standardization
market hardware, software, and peripheral
devices for IBM-compatible computers.
IBM also has a huge research effort, owns
thousands of patents, and has introduced
many innovative products, including the
small, touch-sensitive TrackPoint, which
replaces the mouse on many portable computers, a 1000MHz chip, and a 3.5-inch
hard disk drive capable of storing up to
17GB of information.
For more information on IBM, see
www.ibm.com.
See also Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications; Advanced Peer-toPeer Networking; Advanced Interactive
Executive; AS/400; Systems Network
Architecture.
International Organization for Standardization Sometimes mistakenly referred to as the International Standards
Organization, and commonly referred to as
ISO, which is not an abbreviation but a derivation of the Greek word isos, which
means equal and which is a term that was
adopted by the International Organization
for Standardization. An international standards-making body, based in Geneva, with
representatives from more than 100 countries. The ISO establishes global standards
for communications and information exchange. ANSI is the U.S. member of the
ISO.
The seven-layer OSI Reference Model for
computer-to-computer communications is
one of the ISO’s most widely accepted recommendations in the area of networking.
For more information on ISO, see
www.iso.ch.
See also OSI Reference Model.
International Telecommunication
Union Abbreviated ITU. The U.N. umbrella organization that develops and standardizes telecommunications worldwide.
The ITU also contains the CCITT, the International Frequency Registration Board
(IFRB), and the Consultative Committee
on International Radio (CCIR). In popular
usage, CCITT standards are being referred
to as ITU standards.
For more information on ITU, see
www.itu.ch.
Internet The world’s largest computer
network, consisting of millions of computers supporting tens of millions of users in
hundreds of countries. The Internet is
growing at such a phenomenal rate that any
size estimates are quickly out of date.
The Internet was originally established to
meet the research needs of the U.S. defense
industry, but it has grown into a huge global network serving universities, academic
researchers, commercial interests, government agencies, and private individuals,
both in the United States and overseas.
The Internet uses TCP/IP protocols, and Internet computers run many different operating systems, including VMS, Microsoft
Windows 2000, and many variations of
Unix.
No government agency, single person, or
corporate entity controls the Internet; there
is no Internet Corporation working behind
the scenes. All decisions on methods and
standards are made by committees based on
input from users.
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Internet abbreviations
Internet use falls into several major areas,
including:
■
■
■
■
■
E-mail Electronic mail. Well over 80
percent of the people who use the Internet
regularly use it for e-mail. You can send
e-mail to recipients in more than 150
countries, as well as to subscribers of commercial online services, such as America
Online, CompuServe, Delphi, Genie, and
Prodigy.
IRC chat A service that connects large
numbers of users in real-time group
discussions.
Mailing lists Private discussion groups
accessed by e-mail.
Usenet newsgroups Larger public discussion groups that focus on a specific
subject. Posts and threads in newsgroups
are accessed using a newsreader.
World Wide Web Hypertext-based system for finding and accessing Internet resources; the World Wide Web is one of the
fastest growing and most exciting of all
Internet applications.
Other Internet applications such as Gopher, FTP and anonymous ftp, and Telnet
have either been overshadowed by the
growth of the World Wide Web or have
seen their function absorbed into the popular Web browsers.
The sheer volume of information available
through the Internet is staggering; however,
because the Internet is a casual grouping of
many networks, there is often no easy way
to determine the location of specific information. This has led to the emergence of
several prominent portal sites and a number
of popular search engines.
Internet access can be via a permanent network connection or by dial-up through one
of the many Internet Service Providers (ISP).
See also Internet address; Internet Architecture Board; Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority; Internet Engineering Task
Force; Internet Research Task Force; Internet Society; portal; Request for Comment;
search engine; Usenet; World Wide Web;
World Wide Web Consortium.
internet See internetwork.
Internet abbreviations Like any culture, the Internet world has developed a
whole language of abbreviations, acronyms, and slang expressions. The following
list describes some of the common terms
you are likely to encounter in Usenet newsgroups or in your e-mail.
See also emoticon; smiley.
Abbreviation
Description
aTdHvAaNnKcSe
Thanks in advance
AWTTW
A word to the wise
BRB
Be right back
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Internet abbreviations
Abbreviation
Description
BTW
By the way
CU
See you
FAQ
Frequently asked question
FAQL
Frequently asked question list
FOAF
Friend of a friend
F2F
Face to face
FWIW
For what it’s worth
GR&D
Grinning, running, and ducking
IMHO
In my (sometimes not very) humble opinion
IWBNI
It would be nice if
IYFEG
Insert your favorite ethnic group
LOL
Laughing out loud
MEGO
My eyes glaze over
MOTAS
Member of the appropriate sex
MOTOS
Member of the opposite sex
MOSS
Member of the same sex
Ob-
Obligatory, as in ob-joke
OTOH
On the other hand
PD
Public domain
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Internet Architecture Board
Abbreviation
Description
PITA
Pain in the ass
PMFJI
Pardon me for jumping in
RL
Real life
ROTFL
Rolling on the floor laughing
RTFM
Read the (expletive deleted) manual
SO
Significant other
TIA
Thanks in advance
TTFN
Ta ta for now
WRT
With respect to
YMMV
Your mileage may vary
$0.02
My two cents worth
Internet address A location on the Internet. An Internet address takes the form
someone@abc.def.xyz, in which someone is
a user’s name or part of a user’s name, @abc
is the network computer of the user, and
def is the name of the host organization.
The last three letters denote the kind of institution the user belongs to:
net for Internet administrative
organizations
See also bang path; IP address.
gov for government
Internet Architecture Board Abbreviated IAB. A technical advisory group of the
Internet Society (ISOC). The IAB manages
the editing and publication of Request for
Comments (RFCs), serves as an appeals
board, and provides other services to the
ISOC.
mil for the military
For more information on the IAB, see
org for non-profit organizations
www.iab.org/iab.
edu for educational
com for commercial
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Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority Abbreviated IANA. A central
clearinghouse for the assignment and coordination of Internet protocol parameters,
such as Internet addresses, protocol variables and numbers, and domain names.
For more information on the IANA, see
www.isi.edu/iana.
Internet Connection Sharing In Microsoft Windows 98 and Windows 2000, a
mechanism that allows networked computers to share a single connection to the
Internet.
Internet Connection Sharing works with
any kind of Internet connection, including
modems, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), cable modem, or Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
Internet Content Provider Abbreviated ICP. A company that will design and deliver content for your Web site.
See also Internet Service Provider.
Internet Control Message Protocol
Abbreviated ICMP. An error-reporting protocol that works with Internet Protocol (IP)
and provides the functions used for networklayer management and control.
Routers send ICMP messages to respond to
undeliverable datagrams by placing an ICMP
TABLE I.1
message in an IP datagram and then sending
the datagram back to the original source.
ICMP is also used by the Ping command.
See also Ping.
Internet Engineering Task Force Abbreviated IETF. Provides technical and development services for the Internet and
creates, tests, and implements Internet standards that are then approved and published
by the Internet Society (ISOC). The technical work is done within the IETF working
groups.
For more information on IETF, see
www.ietf.org.
Internet Explorer Abbreviated IE. In
Microsoft Windows, a Web browser used
to display Internet resources.
See also security zone.
Internet file types The Internet offers
many opportunities for downloading files
from a huge number of Internet hosts.
These files may have been generated on different computer systems, so before you
spend time downloading a file, it is important to understand the type of file you are
dealing with. Table I.1 lists many of the
common file types you may encounter.
INTERNET FILE TYPES
Filename Extension
Description
tar
A tape archive created by the tar utility.
Z
A file created by the compress utility. You must use uncompress
to restore the file before you can use it.
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Internet file types
TABLE I.1
INTERNET FILE TYPES (CONTINUED)
tar.z
A compressed tape archive file.
z
A file created by the pack utility. You must use unpack to restore
the file before you can use it.
zip
A file created by PKZIP or WinZip. You must unzip the file before
you can use it.
gz
A file created by the GNU gzip utility. You must decompress the
file before you can use it.
hqx
A compressed Macintosh file.
sit
A Macintosh file compressed by StuffIt.
tif/tiff
A graphics file in TIF format.
gif
A graphics file in GIF format.
htm/html
A Web page in HyperText Markup Language.
jpg/jpeg
A graphics file in JPEG format.
mpg/mpeg
A video file in MPEG format.
txt
A text file.
1
An nroff source file.
ps
A PostScript file ready for printing.
uue
A uuencoded file. You must use uudecode before you can use
the file.
uue.z
A compressed uuencoded file.
shar
A Usenet newsgroup archive file created by the shar utility.
shar.z
A compressed shar file.
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Internet Group Management Protocol
Internet Group Management Protocol Abbreviated IGMP. An Internet
protocol used in multicasting.
IGMP allows hosts to add or remove
themselves from a multicast group. A multicast group is a collection of computers receiving packets from a host that is transmitting multicast packets with IP Class D
addresses. Group members can join the
group and leave the group; when there are
no more members, the group simply ceases
to exist.
See also Class D network; IP Multicast;
multicasting.
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol Abbreviated IIOP. That part of the Common Object
Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
that allows CORBA-based interaction over
TCP/IP networks (including the Internet)
by replacing Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP).
See also Common Object Request Broker
Architecture.
Internet Key Exchange See ISAKMP/
Oakley.
IMAP allows users to download mail selectively, to look at a message header, to
download only part of a message, to store
messages on the server in a hierarchical
structure, and to link to documents and
Usenet newsgroups. IMAP also has strong
authentication features and supports Kerberos. Search commands are also available
so that users can locate messages based on
their subject or header or based on content .
See also Kerberos; Post Office Protocol;
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Internet Network File System Abbreviated Internet NFS. A TCP/IP-based protocol from Sun Microsystems used for
sharing and accessing files remotely over
the Internet.
See also Network File System.
Internet Network Information Center
Abbreviated InterNIC. A cooperative venture between AT&T, the National Science
Foundation, and Network Solutions, Inc.,
that provides domain name registration and
assigns IP addresses for use on the Internet.
For more information on InterNIC, see
Internet Mail Access Protocol Abbreviated IMAP. A protocol that defines how
users can access and store incoming e-mail
messages.
www.internic.net.
Internet mail servers use Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to move e-mail
from one server to another and then use
either IMAP or Post Office Protocol (POP)
to manage the e-mail and store messages in
the appropriate mailboxes.
Internet Protocol Abbreviated IP, IP
version 4, and IPv4. The session-layer protocol that regulates packet forwarding by
tracking addresses, routing outgoing messages, and recognizing incoming messages
in TCP/IP networks and the Internet.
Internet NFS See Internet Network File
System.
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Internet Relay Chat
The IP packet header contains the following
fields:
■
A value of 6 indicates Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and a value of 17 indicates User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
Version Version number of the protocol.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
IHL (Internet header length) Length of
the header information. The header length
can vary; the default header is five 32-bit
words, and a sixth word is optional.
TOS (Type of Service) Various levels or
types of service.
Total length Length of the datagram in
bytes, which can be a minimum of 576
bytes to a maximum of 65,535 bytes.
Identification Information that the receiving system can use to reassemble fragmented datagrams.
Flags The first flag bit (DF) specifies that
the datagram should not be fragmented
and must therefore travel over networks
that can handle the size without fragmenting it. The second flag bit (MF) indicates
whether this is the last fragment.
■
■
■
Header checksum Checksum for the
header.
Source address IP address of the sender.
Destination address IP address of the
recipient.
Options/padding Optional information
and padding.
See also IP multicast; IPv6; Transmission
Control Protocol; Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol.
Internet Relay Chat Abbreviated IRC.
An Internet client/server application that allows large groups of people to communicate interactively; developed by Jarkko
Oikarinen in Finland.
Fragment Offset An indication of where
this datagram belongs in the set of fragments; is used during reassembly.
Specific channels are devoted to a particular
subject, from the sacred to the profane, and
channels come and go regularly as interest
levels change. Each channel has its own
name, usually prefaced by the pound sign
(#), as in #hottub.
Time-to-Live (TTL) Originally, the
time in seconds that the datagram could
be in transit; if this time was exceeded,
the datagram was considered lost. Now
interpreted as a hop count and usually set
to the default value 32 (for 32 hops), this
value is decremented by each router
through which the packet passes. Once it
reaches zero, the datagram is discarded.
When you join a channel, you can see what
others have already typed; when you type a
line and press Enter, everyone else sees your
text. Most, but not all, of the conversations
are in English. If someone asks you for a
password during an IRC session, don’t be
tempted to give it; someone is trying to trick
you into divulging important information
about your system.
Protocol Identifies the transport-layer
process intended to receive the datagram.
See also listserver; mailing list; newsgroup; Usenet.
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Internet Research Task Force
INTERNET PROTOCOL FIELDS
Internet Research Task Force Abbreviated IRTF. An Internet organization that
creates long- and short-term research
groups concentrating on protocols, architecture, and technology issues.
For more information on IRTF, see
www.irtf.org.
Internet Service Provider Abbreviated
ISP. A company that provides commercial or
residential customers access to the Internet
via dedicated or dial-up connections. An ISP
will normally have several servers and a
high-speed connection to an Internet backbone. Some ISPs also offer Web site hosting
services and free e-mail to their subscribers.
See also Internet Content Provider
Internet Society Abbreviated ISOC. An
international organization that promotes
cooperation and coordination for the Inter-
net, Internet applications, and internetworking technologies.
ISOC also coordinates the activities of
many other Internet groups, including the
Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA), and the Internet Research Task
Force (IRTF).
For more information on ISOC, see
www.isoc.org.
internetwork Abbreviated internet.
Two or more networks using different
networking protocols, connected by means
of a router. Users on an internetwork can
access the resources of all connected
networks.
Internetwork Operating System See
Internetworking Operating System.
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Internetwork Packet eXchange
Internetworking Operating System
Abbreviated IOS; sometimes referred to as
Internetwork Operating System Proprietary operating system software that runs
on the Cisco family of routers.
IOS is stored in flash memory or in RAM in
the router and supports remote access and
protocol translation services, with connectivity provided by terminals, modems, computers, printers, or workstations. LAN
terminal support includes Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/
IP) for telnet and rlogin connections to IP
hosts, tn3270 for connections to IBM hosts,
and LAT (Local Area Transport) for connections to DEC hosts.
For WANs, IOS supports connections over
a dial-up line supporting AppleTalk Remote Access, Serial Line Internet protocol
(SLIP), Compressed SLIP (CSLIP), and
Point-to-Point protocol (PPP) and supports
asynchronous terminal connections using
terminal emulation software providing telnet, rlogin, or IBM 3270 protocols.
Internetwork Packet eXchange Abbreviated IPX. Part of Novell NetWare’s
native protocol stack, used to transfer data
between the server and workstations on the
network. IPX packets are encapsulated and
carried by the packets used in Ethernet and
the frames used in Token Ring networks.
IPX packets consist of a 30-byte header
which includes the network, node, and
socket addresses for the source and the destination, followed by the data area, which
can be from 30 bytes (only the header) to
65,535 bytes in length. Most networks impose a more realistic maximum packet size
of about 1500 bytes.
The IPX packet header contains the following fields:
■
■
■
■
■
IOS also supports Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Common Management Information Protocol/Common
Management Information Services (CMIP/
CMIS) and IBM’s Network Management
Vector Transport (NMVP) network management systems.
You can configure IOS to control which
networking protocols are routed, which
protocols are used to do the actual routing,
which interfaces on the router are used for
specific routed protocols, and which processes will execute on the router.
■
■
■
■
■
Checksum For data integrity checking..
Packet length Length of the packet in
bytes
Transport control Number of routers a
packet can cross before being discarded
Packet type The service that created the
packet
Destination network Network address
of the destination network
Destination node Media access control
(MAC) address of the destination node
Destination socket Address of the process running on the destination node
Source network Network address of the
source network
Source node Media access control
(MAC) address of the source node
Source socket Address of the process
running on the source node
See also Sequenced Packet Exchange.
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Internetwork Packet Exchange Open Data-Link Interface
Internetwork Packet Exchange Open
Data-Link Interface Abbreviated
IPXODI. In Novell NetWare, the client
software that accepts data from the DOS
Requester, adds header and address information to each data packet, and transmits
the data packet as a datagram.
InterNIC See Internet Network Information Center.
interoperability The ability to run application programs from different vendors
across LANs, WANs, and MANs, giving
users access to data and applications across
heterogeneous networks. A network user
need not know anything about the operating system or the configuration of the network hardware to access data from the file
server.
Interoperability is boosted by the increasing
availability of products that conform to
open standards rather than to specific proprietary protocols. The products work in
accordance with national and internationally accepted standards.
interpreter A programming language
translator that converts high-level program
source code into machine language statements one line at a time.
Unlike a compiler, which must translate the
whole program before execution can begin,
an interpreter translates and then executes
each line one at a time; this usually means
that an interpreted program runs more
slowly than a compiled program.
Java is an interpreted language, BASIC was
often interpreted, although recent releases
have used a compiler instead, and C and
C++ are always compiled.
See also compiler; Java; just-in-time
compiler.
interprocess communication Abbreviated IPC. A term that describes all the
methods used to pass information between
two programs running on the same computer in a multitasking operating system or
between two programs running on a network, including pipes, shared memory,
message queues, sockets, semaphores, and
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).
See also Inter-Application Communication.
Interrupt 14 Abbreviated INT 14. The
PC interrupt used to reroute messages from
the serial port to the network interface card
(NIC); used by some terminal-emulation
programs.
interrupt A signal to the processor generated by a device under its control, such as
the system clock, that interrupts normal
processing.
An interrupt indicates that an event requiring the processor’s attention has occurred,
causing the processor to suspend and save
its current activity and then branch to an interrupt service routine (ISR).
In the PC, interrupts are often divided into
three classes:
■
Internal hardware
■
External hardware
■
Software
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Intrusion Detection System
The Intel family of processors supports 256
prioritized interrupts, of which the first 64
are reserved for use by the system hardware
or by the operating system.
attention. The interrupt may come from the
keyboard, the network interface card
(NIC), or the system’s disk drives.
See also interrupt controller.
See also interrupt request.
interrupt service routine See interinterrupt controller A chip used to process and prioritize hardware interrupts. In
the PC, a programmable interrupt controller responds to each hardware interrupt, assigns a priority, and forwards it to the main
processor.
See also interrupt request.
interrupt handler Special software located in the operating-system kernel that
manages and processes system interrupts.
Also known as an interrupt service routine
(ISR).
When an interrupt occurs, the processor
suspends and saves its current activity and
then branches to the interrupt handler. This
routine processes the interrupt, whether it
was generated by the system clock, a keystroke, or a mouse click. When the ISR is
complete, it returns control to the suspended process.
Each type of interrupt is processed by its
own specific interrupt handler. A table,
called the interrupt vector table, maintains
a list of addresses for these specific interrupt
handlers.
See also hooked vector.
interrupt request Abbreviated IRQ.
Hardware lines that carry a signal from a
device to the processor.
A hardware interrupt signals that an event
has taken place that requires the processor’s
rupt handler.
interrupt vector table A list of addresses,
maintained by the operating-system kernel,
for specific software routines known as interrupt handlers.
See also interrupt handler.
intranet A private corporate network
that uses Internet software and TCP/IP networking protocol standards.
Many companies use intranets for tasks as
simple as distributing a company newsletter
and for tasks as complex as posting and updating technical support bulletins to service
personnel worldwide. An intranet does not
always include a permanent connection to
the Internet.
See also extranet; Internet; internet.
intruder An unauthorized user of a computer system, usually a person with malicious intent.
See also cracker; firewall; hacker; Intrusion
Detection System.
Intrusion Detection System Abbreviated IDS. A software package designed to
detect specific actions on a network that are
typical of an intruder or that might indicate
an act of corporate espionage.
An IDS package monitors the network or
the server for specific “attack signatures”
that might indicate an active intruder is
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inverse multiplexing
attempting to gain access to the network;
such actions are carefully documented by
the system.
with a leased line that may not be fully utilized at all times and to take advantage of
low-cost low-speed lines.
Specific actions, such as opening or renaming certain important files, opening specific
applications, downloading large amounts of
data from key documents, or sending classified documents out as e-mail attachments,
are also monitored by the IDS software.
See also multiplexing.
See also firewall.
inverse multiplexing Abbreviated IMux. In communications, a technique that
splits a high-speed data stream into two or
more parts for transmission over multiple
lower-speed channels. Once at the receiving
end of the circuit, the data streams are combined into a single stream.
Inverse multiplexing provides bandwidth on
demand, to avoid the high costs associated
Inverse Multiplexing over ATM Abbreviated IMA. A specification defined by
the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Forum that defines a method of inverse
multiplexing ATM over two or more T1
circuits.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
inverse multiplexing.
inverted backbone A network architecture in which the wiring hub and routers become the center of the network; all the
network segments attach to this hub.
See also backbone.
INVERSE MULTIPLEXING
I/O See input/output.
I/O bound See input/output bound.
Iomega Corporation A major manufacturer of removable storage media, best
known for its popular Zip drive, which has
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IP over ATM
shipped more than 12 million units worldwide. Iomega also makes the higher-capacity
Jaz drives, the Ditto line of tape-backup
products, and Clik! storage devices for digital cameras and hand-held computers.
For more information on Iomega Corporation, see www.iomega.com.
ION
See Integrated On-Demand
Network.
IOS See Internetworking Operating
System.
IP See Internet Protocol.
IP address The unique 32-bit number
that identifies a computer on the Internet or
some other Internet Protocol network.
An IP address is usually written (in decimal)
as four numbers separated by dots or periods and can be divided into two parts. The
network address is made up from the highorder bits in the address, and the host address comprises the rest. In addition, the
host part of the address can be further subdivided to allow for a subnet address.
These numbers are very difficult for most
people to remember, so humans tend to
refer to computers by their domain names
instead.
See also address classes; domain name;
dotted decimal; Internet address; subnet.
IPC See interprocess communication.
ipconfig A utility program used to list
various Internet Protocol configuration information, including host address, subnet
mask, and gateway addresses.
See also IP address; netstat; Ping; subnet
mask; tracert.
IP datagram See Internet Protocol.
IP Multicast An Internet standard that
allows a single host to distribute data to
multiple recipients.
IP multicasting can deliver audio and video
content in real time so that the person using
the system can interact with the data
stream. A multicast group is created, and
every member of the group receives every
datagram. Membership is dynamic; when
you join a group, you start to receive the
datastream, and when you leave the group,
you no longer receive the datastream.
See also Internet Group Management Protocol; multicast backbone; multicasting;
streaming.
IPng See IPv6.
I-PNNI See Integrated-Private Networkto-Network Interface.
IP over ATM A set of proposals that define general methods of integrating Internet
Protocol over an Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) network, while preserving
the best features of the connectionless IP
and connection-oriented ATM.
These proposals have a variety of names, including layer 3 switching, high-speed routing, short-cut routing, and multilayer
switching, and come from a variety of
sources, including the ATM Forum, the Internet Engineering Task Force, and a vendor collective known as Layer 3 Switching/
Routing Advocates.
See also IP switching.
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IPSec
IPSec A suite of protocols under development by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) designed to add security provisions to the Internet Protocol (IP). Also
known as IP Security.
The Authentication Header (AH) ensures
that the datagram has not been tampered
with during transmission, and the Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) defines encryption methods for IP data.
IPSec operates in two modes:
■
■
Transport mode AH or ESP is placed
immediately after the original IP datagram header and provides security between two end systems such as a server
and a workstation.
Tunnel mode The original IP datagram
is placed inside a new datagram, and AH
and ESP are inserted between the IP header
of the new packet and the original IP datagram. The new header points to the tunnel endpoint, and the original header
points to the final destination of the datagram. Tunnel mode is best suited to Virtual Private Network (VPN) use, securing
remote access to your corporate network
through the Internet.
See also encapsulation; Internet Protocol;
ISAKMP/Oakley; tunneling; Virtual Private
Network.
IP security See IPSec.
IP switching 1. A switch, developed by
Ipsilon Networks, that combines intelligent
Internet Protocol (IP) routing with highspeed Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
switching hardware. The IP protocol stack is
implemented on ATM hardware, allowing
the system to adapt dynamically to the flow
requirements of the network traffic as defined in the packet header.
2. A technique that uses network-layer pro-
tocols which provide routing services to add
capabilities to layer 2 switching. IP switching
locates paths in a network by using routing
protocols and then forwards packets along
that route at layer 2. IP switching is designed
for networks that use switches rather than
networks built around repeater hubs and
routers.
See also IP over ATM.
IPv4 See Internet Protocol.
IPv6 The next version of the Internet Protocol, also called IP version 6 or IPng for IP
next generation.
The most striking feature of IPv6 is that it
uses a 128-bit address space rather than the
32-bit system in use today. This provides
for a truly astronomical number of possible
addresses. The address format consists of 8
sections separated by colons. Each section
contains 16 bits expressed as 4 hexadecimal
numbers. An address might look like this:
1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0:1234:5678:9ABC
:DEF0
In any address, one set of leading zeros can
be replaced by two colons.
In addition to the 128-bit address space,
IPv6 designates a 128-bit hierarchical address for point-to-point communication
called an Aggregatable Global Unicast Address Format (AGUAF). In this format, a
top level aggregator (TLA) is assigned a
block of addresses by bodies such as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
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IPX internal network number
(IANA). In turn, the TLA assigns addresses
to a next level aggregator (NLA), which in
turn assigns addresses to the site level aggregator (SLA). In turn, the SLA assigns
blocks of contiguous addresses to its subscribers. The last level is the host interface
ID, which identifies a single host interface.
Companies assign host interface IDs by using a unique number on the subnet.
An address can be multicast, unicast, or
anycast, which is a special case of multicast.
IPv6 assigns addresses to interfaces, and because a node can have multiple interfaces, it
can also have multiple IP addresses. A single
interface can also have multiple addresses.
See also Internet Protocol; IPSec.
The IP datagram header has been simplified, by dropping some fields and making
others optional. IPv6 also allows for several
types of optional header extensions, some
of which might be used for specialized handling instructions. In addition, IPv6 includes the IPSec security extensions.
IP version 4 See Internet Protocol.
IP version 6 See IPv6.
IPv6
IPX See Internetwork Packet eXchange.
IPX address In Novell NetWare, a network address. Also known as an IPX internetwork address.
The IPX address includes a 4-byte network
number assigned to every segment on a LAN
(the IPX external network number), a 6byte node number that identifies a specific
system and is usually derived from the interface card address originally assigned by the
manufacturer, and a 2-byte socket number.
See also IPX external network number.
IPX external network number In Novell NetWare, a hexadecimal number that
identifies a network cable segment, assigned when the NetWare Internetwork
Packet eXchange (IPX) protocol is bound
to a network interface board in the server.
An IPX external network number can have
from one to eight digits (1 to FFFFFFFE).
IPX internal network number In Novell NetWare, a hexadecimal number that
identifies a NetWare server. Each server on
the network must have a unique Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) internal
network number. The number can have
from one to eight digits (1 to FFFFFFFE)
and is assigned to the server during NetWare installation.
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IPX internetwork address
IPX internetwork address See IPX
ISO See International Organization for
address.
Standardization.
IPXODI See Internetwork Packet Ex-
ISOC See Internet Society.
change Open Data-Link Interface.
IRC See Internet Relay Chat.
IrDA See Infrared Data Association.
IRF See Inherited Rights Filter.
IRM See Inherited Rights Mask.
IRQ See interrupt request.
IRTF See Internet Research Task Force.
ISA See Industry Standard Architecture;
Integrated Services Architecture.
ISAKMP/Oakley Abbreviation for Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol/Oakley security key management protocol. Also known as the
Internet Key Exchange (IKE).
A security protocol that automatically
manages the exchange of secret symmetric
keys between sender and receiver.
See also IPSec.
ISDN See Integrated Services Digital
Network.
ISO 10646 A 4-byte character encoding
scheme that includes all the world’s national
standard character encodings, defined by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The 2-byte Unicode characters
set maps into a part of ISO 10646.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; double-byte character set; Unicode.
isochronous service A method of transmitting real-time data using preallocated
bandwidth on a communications link, allowing time-synchronized transmissions
with very little delay. Isochronous service is
required for real-time data such as synchronized voice and video, in which delays in
packet delivery would be unacceptable.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) can
provide isochronous service because its cells
are always the same size, so it is possible to
guarantee accurate and timely delivery of
packets. Other networks can provide isochronous service by using a priority scheme to
dedicate bandwidth to video traffic.
Iso-Ethernet The IEEE standard 802.9a,
which describes a combination of Ethernet
and Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) on the same cable.
As well as providing standard 10Mbps
Ethernet connections over Category 3 or
Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair wiring,
Iso-Ethernet also provides up to 96 ISDN
Basic Rate B channels running at 64Kbps
connected to internal or external users or
systems. One D channel is used for control
and signaling information.
The ISDN channels can be accessed over the
network via a single point of connection,
which in turn is connected to the ISDN service; this removes the need for each workstation to have its own ISDN hardware.
See also Integrated Services Digital
Network.
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IXC
ISO/OSI model See OSI Reference
See interrupt handler.
Model.
ISV
See Independent Software Vendor.
ISP See Internet Service Provider.
ISR Abbreviation for interrupt service
routine.
ITU See International Telecommunication Union.
IXC See Interexchange Carrier.
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jabber
J
jabber A continuous and meaningless
transmission generated by a network device, usually the result of a user error or a
hardware malfunction.
Java A programming language and development environment created by Sun
Microsystems, designed to create distributed executable applications for use with a
Web browser containing a Java runtime
environment.
Java technology has been licensed by literally hundreds of companies, including IBM,
Microsoft, Oracle, Hewlett-Packard, and
others interested in developing Web-based
and platform-independent applications.
The Java programming language is a portable, object-oriented language, loosely modeled after C++, with some of the more
troubling C++ constructs such as pointers
removed. This similarity to C and C++ is no
accident; it means that the huge population
of professional programmers can quickly
apply their previous C experience to writing
code in Java.
Java is designed to support networking and
networking operations right from the start
and begins with the assumption that it can
trust no one, implementing several important security mechanisms.
Java is architecturally neutral, does not care
about the underlying operating system, and
is portable because it makes no assumptions about the size of data types and explicitly defines arithmetic behavior. Java is
also multithreaded to support different
threads of execution and can adapt to a
changing environment by loading classes as
they are needed, even across a network.
Rather than writing code targeted at a specific hardware and operating-system platform, Java developers compile their source
code into an intermediate form of bytecode
that can be processed by any computer system with a Java runtime environment. The
Java class loader transfers the bytecode to
the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which interprets the bytecode for that specific platform. Java class libraries, those files that
make up the standard application programming interface (API), are also loaded dynamically. The runtime environment then
executes the application, which can run
within a Web browser or as a stand-alone
application.
See also bytecode; interpreter; Java applet; Java Developer’s Kit; Java Virtual Machine; just-in-time compiler; sandbox.
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Java Database Connectivity
JAVA
Java applet A small program written in
the Java programming language designed
to add a specific capability to a Web page.
The applet is stored on the Web server and
is downloaded to and executes within the
browser.
Java applets are inserted into a Web page
using the <APPLET> tag, which indicates the
initial window size for the applet, various
parameters for the applet, and the location
from which the browser can download the
bytecode file.
Stand-alone programs written in the Java
programming language that can execute
without needing the browser are known as
Java applications.
See also bytecode; Java; Java Developer’s
Kit; Java Virtual Machine; just-in-time
compiler; sandbox.
Java Database Connectivity Abbreviated JDBC. An application programming
interface (API) that allows developers to
write Java applications that can access a
database.
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Java Developer’s Kit
See also Open Database Connectivity.
Java Developer’s Kit Abbreviated
JDK. A collection of software-development tools provided by Sun Microsystems
for writing Java applications. This kit, distributed free, contains a Java compiler, an
interpreter, a debugger, an applet viewer,
and documentation.
JavaScript A simple scripting language
created by Netscape Communications and
Sun Microsystems that allows developers to
add a specific capability to a Web page.
JavaScript is relatively easy to write when
compared with the Java programming
language, but it is slower in execution and
has far fewer application programming
interface (API) functions available. A
JavaScript-compliant Web browser, such
as Netscape Navigator, is necessary to run
the JavaScript code.
See also Java; script.
JavaSoft A subsidiary of Sun Microsystems responsible for developing and
promoting the Java programming language and related products.
For more information on JavaSoft, see
www.javasoft.com.
Java Virtual Machine The runtime environment for Java applets and applications; sometimes abbreviated JVM.
The Java Virtual Machine creates a simulated environment that provides the same
interface to applications, no matter what
hardware and operating system combination is in use.
The Java Virtual Machine consists of two
layers:
■
■
The top layer is compatible with all Java
applications.
The bottom layer is compatible with a
specific computing platform, such as the
Intel family of processors.
See also Java.
JDBC
See Java Database Connectivity.
JDK See Java Developer’s Kit.
Jini A technology from Sun Microsystems that is based on Java concepts and that
allows spontaneous networking of a large
variety of network devices.
Jini creates a federation of Java Virtual Machines on a network and allows users, devices, data, and applications to connect
dynamically to share information and to
perform tasks without prior knowledge of
one another’s capabilities.
See also Java.
JIT compiler See just-in-time compiler.
jitter A type of distortion found on analog communications lines that results in
data-transmission errors.
job A unit of work done by a computer,
usually in a mainframe environment. A job
can be the one-time execution of a single file
or the execution of a whole series of programs to accomplish a complex task.
See also job control.
job control A mechanism used to manage jobs, allowing them to be started,
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JVM
stopped, and moved between the background and the foreground.
from a bay and loads them into the drives as
they are needed.
Joint Photographic Experts Group
Abbreviated JPEG; also sometimes abbreviated JPG. An image-compression standard and file format that defines a set of
compression methods for high-quality images such as photographs, single video
frames, or scanned pictures. JPEG does not
work very well when compressing text, line
art, or vector graphics.
See also high-capacity storage system.
JPEG uses lossy compression methods that
result in some loss of the original data.
When you decompress the original image,
you don’t get exactly the same image that
you started with, although JPEG was specifically designed to discard information
not easily detected by the human eye.
JPEG can store 24-bit color images in as
many as 16 million colors; files in Graphics
Interchange Format (GIF) form can only
store 256 colors.
See also Graphics Interchange Format;
lossy compression.
JPEG See Joint Photographic Experts
Group.
JPG See Joint Photographic Experts
Group.
jukebox A high-capacity storage device
that uses an autochanger mechanism to
mount or dismount disks automatically. A
jukebox typically contains as many as 50
disks and a mechanism that picks up disks
Julian date A method of representing
the date that is often used in computer systems. The first digit represents the year, and
the remaining digits represent the day of the
year, counting from January 1.
See also Y2K problem.
jumper A small plastic and metal connector that completes a circuit, usually to select
one option from a set of several user-definable options. Jumpers are often used to select one particular hardware configuration
from a choice of configurations.
junction point In Microsoft Windows
2000, a drive or disk partition attached to
an empty folder on an NTFS volume. Using
junction points allows you to mount more
than 26 (A–Z) storage volumes.
See also mounted drive.
just-in-time compiler Sometimes abbreviated JIT compiler. A compiler that receives the bytecode of a Java application
and compiles the bytecode on the fly.
Java bytecode processed by a just-in-time
compiler executes faster than the same
bytecode processed by a Java Virtual
Machine.
See also Java; Java Virtual Machine.
JVM See Java Virtual Machine.
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K
K
K See kilo-.
Kerberos takes the following precautions:
K56Flex A modem technology from
Rockwell Semiconductor Systems and Lucent Technologies that provides up to
56Kbps downstream and up to 40Kbps upstream. Replaced by the V.90 standard.
■
■
See also V.90; X2.
Kb See kilobit.
■
KB See kilobyte.
Kbit See kilobit.
Kbps See kilobits per second.
Kbyte See kilobyte.
KCC See Knowledge Consistency
Checker.
keep-alive signal A signal transmitted
to maintain a communications circuit during periods of idleness and to prevent the
circuit from timing out and terminating the
connection.
Kerberos A network security system developed as a part of Project Athena at MIT.
Kerberos is used to authenticate a user who
is asking for permission to use a particular
network service.
Kerberos can be used to control the initial
connection to a server or to authenticate every single request between a client and the
server. It grants tickets to a client to allow
the use of a specific service and is secure
even on a nonsecure network.
Passwords are never sent over the network
unencrypted, making it impossible for network snoopers to capture passwords.
All Kerberos messages are timestamped so
that they cannot be captured and then replayed at a later time; Kerberos does not
accept old messages.
When you request access to a service, to
access a file server, for example, Kerberos
gives you a “ticket” that is valid for access
to the file server but not valid for any other service. When you try to connect to the
server, you send your ticket with the request. Once the server knows who you
are, the server decides whether to grant
you access. Tickets also expire, and if your
session lasts longer than the predefined
limit, you will have to reauthenticate
yourself to Kerberos to get a new ticket.
Kerberos is named after the three-headed
dog Cerberus, who guards the gates of the
underworld in Greek mythology.
See also authentication; certificate; digital
signature.
Kerberos Distribution Center Abbreviated KDC. In Microsoft Windows 2000
Server, a Kerberos function that runs on every domain controller and controls the distribution of Kerberos keys and tickets.
See also Kerberos.
KDC
See Kerberos Distribution Center.
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kilo-
Kermit A file-transfer protocol developed at Columbia University and placed in
the public domain that is used to transfer
files between PCs and mainframe computers over standard telephone lines.
Data is transmitted in variable-length blocks
up to 96 characters in length, and each block
is checked for transmission errors. Kermit
detects transmission errors and initiates repeat transmissions automatically.
See also Xmodem; Ymodem; Zmodem.
kernel The fundamental part of an operating system. The kernel stays resident in
memory at all times, often hidden from the
user, and manages system memory, the file
system, and disk operations.
The kernel also runs processes and provides
interprocess communications between
those processes, including synchronizing
events, scheduling, passing messages, managing input and output routines, and managing memory.
See also Linux; Mach, microkernel, shell.
buffer. Some utilities or shells let you collect
a number of keystrokes or commands and
edit or reissue them.
keyboard template A plastic card that
fits over certain keys (usually the function
keys) on the keyboard as a reminder of how
to use them. These templates are specific to
an application, and they can be a useful reminder for new or occasional users.
key combination In menu-driven and
graphical user interfaces, some menu commands can be executed by certain combinations of keystrokes, also known as shortcut
keystrokes. By using key combinations, users can bypass the menus and so speed up
operations.
keypass attack See brute-force attack.
keyspace attack See brute-force
attack.
key redefinition The ability of an application to assign different functions to specific keys.
key 1. An entry in the Microsoft Windows Registry that contains an element of
configuration information. A key may also
be empty and have no value set.
keystroke The action of pressing and
then releasing a key on the keyboard to initiate some action or enter a character.
2. In encryption, a mechanism used to en-
keyword Any of the words, sometimes
known as reserved words, that make up the
vocabulary of a particular programming
language or set of operating system commands and utilities.
code a message.
3. In a database system, a unique value
used to identify data records. Also known
as a primary key.
See also public key encryption; sub-key.
keyboard buffer A small amount of system memory used to store the most recently
typed keys, also known as the type-ahead
kilo- A prefix indicating 1000 in the metric system. Because computing is based on
powers of 2, kilo usually means 210, or
1024. To differentiate between these two
uses, a lowercase k is used to indicate 1000
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kilobaud
(as in kHz), and an uppercase K is used to
indicate 1024 (as in KB).
connection objects between domain controllers.
See also mega-.
Korn shell An upward-compatible extension to the original Unix shell, written
by David Korn and released as part of System V.
kilobaud One thousand baud. A unit of
measurement of the transmission capacity
of a communications channel.
See also baud.
kilobit Abbreviated Kb or Kbit. 1024 bits
(binary digits).
See also gigabit; megabit.
kilobits per second Abbreviated Kbps.
The number of bits, or binary digits, transmitted every second, measured in multiples
of 1024 bits per second. Used as an indicator of communications transmission rates.
The Korn shell is now the default shell on
many Unix systems, particularly those
based on System V, including UnixWare
and many others.
Because the Korn shell is an extension of the
Bourne shell, everything that works in
the Bourne shell also works in the Korn shell.
The Korn shell also adds the following:
■
■
See also megabits per second.
kilobyte Abbreviated K, KB, or Kbyte.
1024 bytes.
See also exabyte; gigabyte; megabyte;
petabyte; terabyte.
kluge Pronounced “klooj.” A program
that doesn’t work as well as it should, is not
carefully designed, and is not well written.
A kluge may also be a program that works,
but for all the wrong reasons, or only under
very specific, highly unrealistic conditions.
See also hack.
■
Abbreviated KCC. In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, an Active Directory function
that monitors and configures replication
Better function definitions providing local
variables and the ability to create recursive functions
Extensive pattern matching for filenames,
similar to regular expressions
Several features were adapted from the C
shell, including:
■
■
■
Knowledge Consistency Checker
Interactive editing of the command line
with either vi or emacs
■
Command history allowing retrieval and
reuse of previous commands
Job control and the mechanism for moving jobs between the background and the
foreground
Aliases for abbreviated command names
The tilde (~) used as a shorthand for the
name of the home directory
See also Bash shell; Bourne shell; C shell;
Unix shell.
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LAN Emulation
L
L2 Cache See secondary cache.
L2TP See Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol.
LAN See local-area network.
LANalyzer for Windows A Microsoft
Windows-based software product from
Novell used to troubleshoot and monitor
network performance and activity.
The LANalyzer main screen is a dashboard
of gauges displaying real-time statistics, including LAN utilization, packets per second, and errors per second. User-specified
alarms can also be set on these gauges, and
detailed statistics screens plot frame rate,
utilization, and error rate over time.
LAN-aware An application that contains mechanisms for file and record locking to prevent multiple simultaneous
access when used on a network. The term
is often applied in a broader sense to any
application capable of running in a networked environment.
LANDesk Management Suite A package of network management utilities from
Intel Corporation that includes hardware
and software inventory, server monitoring,
client monitoring and control, network
traffic monitoring, virus protection, remote
access, remote control, and print-queue
management.
LANDesk also includes a Desktop Management Interface (DMI) remote management
console and DMI desktop agents or service
layers for MS-DOS and Windows clients.
See also Desktop Management Interface.
LAN Distance A hardware/software
combination product from Network Communications Corp. used to troubleshoot
and monitor performance and activity on
Ethernet and token-ring LANs.
The LAN Distance hardware includes an onboard processor and a large buffer for packet
capturing. The package can decode most
LAN protocols in common use, including
NetWare, TCP/IP, DECnet, Banyan, Network File System (NFS), AppleTalk Filing
Protocol (AFP), Open Systems Interconnect
(OSI), Systems Network Architecture
(SNA), NetBEUI, Xerox Network Services
(XNS), and Server Message Block (SMB).
LANE See LAN Emulation.
LAN Emulation Abbreviated LANE. An
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) specification that defines ways of connecting
legacy local-area networks such as Ethernet
and token ring to an ATM backbone, allowing ATM to replace older and slower
backbone circuits.
LANE provides the translation services
needed between the two types of networks
and is totally transparent to the high-level
protocols. LANE consists of four major
components:
■
Broadcast and unknown server (BUS),
which manages address resolution.
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LANRover
■
■
■
LAN Emulation Client (LEC), which runs
on all nodes connected to the ATM network, initiates data transfers between
other clients, and makes mapping requests between MAC (media access control) addresses and ATM addresses.
LAN Emulation Configuration Server
(LECS), which provides configuration
information and tracks on which virtual
LAN each LAN Emulation Client
operates.
LAN Emulation Server (LES), which provides address mapping between MAC addresses and ATM addresses and usually
runs on the same node as the BUS.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode; Integrated-Private Network-to-Network Interface; IP over ATM; IP switching.
LANRover A remote access package
from Shiva Corporation that lets network
users log in from their PC or portable computer when away from the office.
LAN Server An IBM network operating
system, based on a version of OS/2, that
runs on Intel processors as well as on the
PowerPC.
LAN Server supports Microsoft Windows,
MS-DOS, OS/2, and Macintosh clients as
well as AppleTalk, IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, and
NetBIOS protocols. LAN Server supports
domain directory services and encrypted
passwords, but does not include C-2 level
certification.
LANtastic A popular peer-to-peer network operating system, from Artisoft, Inc.,
that runs with MS-DOS, OS/2, or Microsoft
Windows and supports Microsoft Windows, MS-DOS, OS/2, Macintosh, and Unix
clients.
The network can be run with all stations
sharing files with all other stations or, for
enhanced performance, with one PC acting
as a dedicated file server. LANtastic supports an unlimited number of users, includes built-in CD-ROM, network e-mail,
and network fax support, scheduling and
network management, file-level security,
and Internet access and can connect easily
into the NetWare environment.
LAN WorkGroup Novell’s connectivity
package that is located and managed centrally from the NetWare file server.
The system includes transparent file sharing,
terminal emulation, remote command execution, and printer-redirection features for
both MS-DOS and Windows clients. The
LAN WorkGroup differs from its standalone counterpart, LAN WorkPlace, in that
it can be managed from the file server.
See also LAN WorkPlace.
LAN WorkPlace Novell’s connectivity
software for MS-DOS and Windows clients. Features include terminal emulation,
transparent Network File System (NFS) file
sharing, and a Web browser.
See also LAN WorkGroup.
LAP See Link Access Procedure.
LAP-B See Link Access ProcedureBalanced.
LapLink A popular communications
package from Traveling Software, used to
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Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
transfer and synchronize files between a
laptop computer and a desktop or networked computer.
LAPM See Link Access Procedure for
Modems.
laptop computer A small, portable
computer that is light enough to carry comfortably, with a flat screen and keyboard
that fold together.
Advances in battery technology allow laptop computers to run for many hours between charges. Laptop computers often
have a thin, backlit or sidelit liquid-crystal
display (LCD) or a plasma screen. Some
models can mate with a docking station to
perform as a full-sized desktop system back
at the office, and many new laptop computers allow direct connection to the network
with PCMCIA network interface cards. In
some laptop computers, a set of business
applications is built in to ROM.
See also hand-held computer; mobile
computing; notebook computer; PC Memory Card International Association; port
replicator; wireless communications.
Large Internet Packet Abbreviated
LIP. A mechanism that allows the Novell
NetWare internetwork packet size to be increased from the default 576 bytes, thus increasing throughput over bridges and
routers.
LIP allows workstations to determine the
packet size based on the largest packet supported by the router; the larger packet size
is also supported by Ethernet and tokenring networks.
last known good configuration In Microsoft Windows NT, the last configuration
that was used to boot the computer successfully. Windows NT saves this configuration
and offers it as a startup option during the
boot process.
last mile A term, not to be taken too literally, that describes the link between a customer site and the telephone company’s
central office. This link is often the most expensive and least efficient connection in the
telephone company’s system and is often a
barrier to high-speed services.
latency The time delay involved in moving data traffic through a network. Latency
can arise from several sources:
■
■
■
Propagation delay, which is the time it
takes the data to travel the length of the
line.
Transmission delay, which is the time it
takes to move the data across the network
media.
Processing delay, which is the time it takes
to establish the route, encapsulate the data,
and take care of other switching tasks.
See also propagation delay.
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Abbreviated L2TP. A proposed standard for a
secure, high-priority, temporary communications path through the Internet.
L2TP is based on Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) protocol and includes features
from Microsoft’s Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol (PPTP). A tunnel is established
from an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to a
corporate site, and information is transmitted through the tunnel. Once L2TP is set up,
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LCD
the user communicates with the corporate
system through what seems to be a direct
dial-up connection; the ISP is effectively removed from the picture.
Wide Area Networks, Internetworking, PC
Service and Support, and Unix Systems.
See also tunneling.
leased line A communications circuit or
telephone line reserved for the permanent
use of a specific customer; also called a private line.
LCD See liquid-crystal display.
LCD monitor A monitor that uses liquid-crystal display (LCD) technology.
Many laptop and notebook computers use
LCD monitors because of their low power
requirements.
See also Learning Tree International.
See also dedicated line.
LEC
See Local Exchange Carrier.
LDAP
legacy application An application designed to run on what has now become a
legacy system and that continues to be used.
leaf object In Novell NetWare Directory
Services (NDS), an object that cannot contain any other objects; also known as a noncontainer object. Leaf objects can be printers, servers, print queues, or even users.
A legacy application may perform admirably and provide little reason to upgrade to
a more up-to-date system, or it may be inefficient, perform poorly, and continue in
use because replacing it is simply too
expensive.
See Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol.
See also container object.
Learning Tree International A major
provider of training classes and computertechnology certifications. Learning Tree International offers more than 150 networking and computer-related training classes in
the United States, Europe, and Asia, as well
as 27 professional certification programs.
For more information about Learning Tree
International, see www.learningtree.com.
Learning Tree International Certified
Professional A professional certification
from Learning Tree International, available
with a large number of subject specializations, including Local Area Networks,
See also legacy system; legacy wiring.
legacy system A computer system, developed to solve a particular business need,
which, due to the passage of time, has become obsolete.
Legacy systems do not conform to the technical standards or performance standards
of up-to-date systems. There is usually a requirement to maintain backward compatibility with or connections to legacy systems.
legacy wiring Preinstalled wiring that
may or may not be suitable for use with a
network.
See also legacy system.
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line adapter
Lempel-Ziv-Welch Abbreviated LZW,
an algorithm used in data compression,
developed by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv,
and Terry Welch.
LZW is a general-purpose compression algorithm suitable for use on almost any type
of data. It is fast in both compressing and
decompressing data and does not require
the use of floating-point operations.
LZW is a lossless compression method and
is used in several image formats such as
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) and
Tag Image File Format (TIFF), as well as a
part of the V.32 bis modem compression
standard and PostScript Level 2.
The patent for LZW compression is held by
Unisys, which levies a fee on any application
that uses the LZW compression algorithm.
See also lossless compression; lossy
compression.
level 2 cache A secondary static RAM
cache located between the primary cache
and the rest of the system. A level 2 cache is
often larger than the primary cache, and it
is usually slower. In Intel’s Pentium II processor, the level 2 cache is implemented as a
part of the package that holds the CPU.
See also cache; memory cache.
Lexmark International, Inc. A major
manufacturer of printers, based in Lexington, Kentucky; spun off from IBM in 1991.
Lexmark markets laser and ink jet printers
for both home and office use, as well as laserprinter management software for servers.
For more information on Lexmark International, Inc., see www.lexmark.com
LF See line feed.
light-wave communications Usually
refers to communications using fiber-optic
cables and light generated by light-emitting
diodes (LEDs) or lasers.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Abbreviated LDAP. A directory
services specification that has recently
gained wide acceptance.
A directory service provides “white page”
service for an organization to help people
find other people and network services and
can also be used over the Internet. A directory service is a database that can be manipulated in a variety of ways to provide
this information.
LDAP can be used as a directory service by
itself, or it can be used for “lightweight” access to an X.500-compliant directory service. LDAP is a subset of X.500 that runs
over TCP/IP; X.500 runs on OSI-compliant
systems. Many companies have announced
their intention to support LDAP in upcoming products.
See also Active Directory; Novell Directory
Services; X.500.
LIM EMS See Expanded Memory
Specification.
limited-distance modem See line
driver.
line adapter In communications, a
device that converts a signal into a form
suitable for transmission over a communications channel.
A modem is a specific type of line adapter
used to convert the computer’s digital
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line analyzer
signals into analog form so that they can be
transmitted over a telephone line.
line analyzer Any device that monitors
and displays information about a transmission on a communications channel. A line
analyzer is used for troubleshooting and
load monitoring.
line-of-business application See
mission-critical application.
line driver In communications, a hardware device used to extend the transmission
distance between computers that are connected using a serial interface based on the
RS-232 standard. A line driver is required
at each end of the line. Also known as a
baseband modem, limited-distance modem, or short-haul modem.
See also short-haul modem.
line feed Abbreviated LF. A printer command that advances the paper in the printer
by one line, leaving the print head in the
same position. In the ASCII character set, a
line feed has a decimal value of 10.
See also American Standard Code for
Information Interchange; carriage return;
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
line printer Any high-volume printer that
prints a complete line at a time, rather than
printing one character at a time (as a dot-matrix printer or a daisy-wheel printer does) or
one page at a time (as a laser printer does).
Line printers are very high-speed printers and are common in mainframe
environments.
line-sharing device A small electronic
mechanism that allows a fax machine and a
telephone answering machine to share the
same phone line. The device answers the
call and listens for the characteristic highpitched fax carrier signal. If this signal is
detected, the call is routed to the fax machine; if it is not present, the call is sent to
a telephone or answering machine.
line-of-sight An unobstructed path between the transmitter and receiver. Laser,
microwave, and infrared transmissions
usually require a clear line-of-sight.
See also wireless communications.
line speed In communications, the
transmission speed that a line will reliably
support for any given grade of service.
See also connection speed; data-transfer
rate.
link On a Web page or a hypertext document, a connection between one element
and another in the same or in a different
document.
Link Access Procedure Abbreviated
LAP. The link-level protocol specified by
the CCITT X.1 recommendation used for
communications between DCE (data communications equipment) and DTE (data
terminal equipment).
See also Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy; Link
Access Procedure-Balanced.
Link Access Procedure-Balanced Abbreviated LAP-B. A common CCITT bitoriented, data-link layer protocol used to
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Linux
link terminals and computers to packetswitched networks. It is equivalent to the
HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)
asynchronous balanced mode, in which a
station can start a transmission without receiving permission from a control station.
Link Access Procedure for Modems
Abbreviated LAPM. The data-link protocol
used by V.32 error-correcting modems.
When two LAPM modems connect, they
transmit data in frames using bit-oriented
synchronous techniques, even though the
attached computer communicates with the
modem as a standard asynchronous device.
See also Link Access Procedure.
link level Part of the CCITT’s X.25 standard that defines the link protocol. LAP
(Link Access Procedure) and LAP-B (Link
Access Procedure-Balanced) are the link access protocols recommended by CCITT.
See also Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy.
link rot A slang expression used to describe an out-of-date URL on a Web page.
Link rot occurs when the page indicated by
the link is moved or erased.
See also link; Uniform Resource Locator.
link-state routing algorithm A routing algorithm in which each router broadcasts information about the state of the
links to all other nodes on the internetwork.
This algorithm reduces routing loops but
has greater memory requirements than the
distance vector algorithm.
See also distance vector algorithm; Open
Shortest Path First.
link-support layer Abbreviated LSL.
An implementation of the Open Datalink
Interface (ODI) that works between the
NetWare server’s LAN drivers and communications protocols, such as IPX (Internet Packet eXchange) or TCP/IP, allowing
network interface cards to service one or
more protocol stacks. LSL is also used on
workstations.
See also multiple-link interface driver;
Open Data-link Interface/Network Driver
Interface Specification Support.
Linux A free, Unix-compatible, 32-bit
operating system developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds while at the University of Helsinki in Finland.
Strictly speaking, Linux is the name of the
operating system kernel, the central part of
the operating system that manages system
services, but many people use the name to
refer to the complete operating system
package, including utilities, editors and
compilers, games, and networking components. Many of these important elements
are actually part of the Free Software Foundation’s GNU Project, and others have been
written and released by volunteers.
Linux is supported and distributed by companies such as Red Hat Software, Caldera
Software, Workgroup Solutions, Walnut
Creek Software, and S.u.S.E. of Germany.
With the increasing use of Linux in the corporate world, several major companies
have announced some level of support for
the operating system, including HewlettPackard, Silicon Graphics, Sun Microsystems, and Intel, and several major applications packages have been ported to Linux,
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LIP
including Oracle’s Oracle8, Adaptive Server Enterprise from Sybase, and IBM’s DB2.
obscure types of bagpipes, rather than to
general interest communications.
See also Free Software Foundation; open
source software.
See also LISTSERV; mailing list; newsgroup; Usenet.
LIP See Large Internet Packet.
little endian A computer architecture in
which the least significant byte has the lowest address and so is stored little end first.
liquid-crystal display Abbreviated
LCD. A display technology common in portable computers that uses electric current to
align crystals in a special liquid.
The rod-shaped crystals are contained
between two parallel, transparent electrodes. When current is applied, the electrodes change their orientation, creating a
dark area. Many LCD screens are also
backlit or sidelit to increase visibility and
reduce eyestrain.
LISTSERV A mailing list product available from L-Soft International, Inc. LISTSERV runs on Unix, Microsoft Windows,
and several other operating systems.
See also listserver; mailing list.
listserver An automatic mailing system
available on the Internet.
Rather than sending e-mail on a particular
topic to a long list of people, you send it to
a special e-mail address, where a program
automatically distributes the e-mail to all
the people who subscribe to the mailing list.
Several programs have been written to automate a mailing list; the most common is
called LISTSERV, but you may also encounter mailserv, majordomo, or almanac.
Mailing lists are usually devoted to a specific
subject, such as training dogs or playing
Many processors, including those from Intel, the PDP-11, and the VAX family of
computers, are all little endian. The term
comes from Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, in
which wars were fought over whether
boiled eggs should be opened at the big end
or the little end.
See also big endian; holy wars.
liveware A slang term for the people who
use computers, as distinct from hardware,
firmware, or software.
LLC See logical link control.
loadable module In Novell NetWare, a
program that can be loaded and unloaded
from the server or workstation while the
operating system is running.
Two common types of loadable modules
are NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs),
which are run on the server, and Virtual
Loadable Modules (VLMs), which run on a
workstation.
See also NetWare Loadable Module; Virtual Loadable Module.
load average One measure of how much
work the CPU is doing; defined as the
average number of jobs in the run queue
plus the number of jobs that are blocked
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Local Procedure Call
while waiting for a disk access. This measurement is usually taken at 1-, 5-, and 15minute intervals during a 24-hour period to
give useful information.
See also uptime.
or MCA (Microchannel Architecture)based computer into a local-bus system.
local disk In networking, a disk drive on
your workstation or PC, rather than a drive
available to you over the network.
load balancing A technique that distributes network traffic along parallel
paths to make the most efficient use of the
available bandwidth while also providing
redundancy. Load balancing will automatically move a user’s job from a heavily
loaded network resource to a less-loaded
resource.
See also network drive.
See also clustering.
See also Competitive Local Exchange Carrier; Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier.
load sharing The ability of two or more
remote bridges to share their load in a parallel configuration. If a bridge fails, traffic is
routed to the next parallel bridge.
local-area network Abbreviated LAN.
A group of computers and associated peripheral devices connected by a communications channel, capable of sharing files and
other resources among several users.
See also file server; metropolitan-area network; peer-to-peer network; wide-area network; zero-slot LAN.
local bus A PC bus specification that allows peripheral devices to exchange data at
a rate faster than the 8MBps allowed by the
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) definition and the 32MBps allowed by the EISA
(Extended Industry Standard Architecture)
definition.
Local bus capability must be built into the
system’s motherboard right from the start;
it is not possible to convert an ISA-, EISA-,
local drive See local disk.
Local Exchange Carrier Abbreviated
LEC. A term coined from the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to describe the local
telephone company that provides local
transmission and switching services.
local group In Microsoft Windows NT
Server, a group granted rights and permissions to only the resources on the servers of
its own domain.
See also global group.
local loop That part of a communications circuit that connects subscriber equipment to equipment in a local telephone
exchange. This link is often the most expensive and least efficient connection in the
telephone company’s system and is often a
barrier to high-speed services.
See also last mile.
local printer In networking, a printer attached to a workstation or a PC, rather than
to the file server or a print server.
Local Procedure Call Abbreviated LPC.
An interprocess communications method
used in multitasking operating systems that
allows tasks running concurrently to talk to
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local security authority
each other. LPCs allow tasks to share memory space, synchronize tasks, and pass messages to one another.
See also interprocess communication;
pipe; Remote Procedure Call; socket.
local security authority In Microsoft
Windows NT, a security subsystem that
manages the security policy on the local
computer and provides user authentication
services to other operating system components that need access to that information.
LocalTalk The shielded twisted-pair (STP)
wiring and connectors available from Apple
for connecting Macintosh computers using
the built-in AppleTalk network hardware.
See also AppleTalk.
local user profile A user profile that is
specific to the computer upon which it was
created; a local user profile does not follow
the user if he or she logs on to a different
computer.
single physical drive may be organized into
several logical drives for convenience, with
each one appearing to the user as a separate drive.
logical link control Abbreviated LLC.
The upper component of the data-link layer
that provides data repackaging functions
for operations between different network
types.
The media access control is the lower component that gives access to the transmission
medium itself.
See also data-link layer; media access
control.
logical unit Abbreviated LU. A suite of
protocols developed by IBM to control
communications in an SNA (Systems Network Architecture) network, as follows:
■
■
See also mandatory user profile; roaming
user profile.
locational organization A way of organizing the Novell Directory Services (NDS)
Directory tree that divides it into Organizational Units for each geographical location
in a company.
■
■
See also Organizational Unit.
locked file A file that you can open and
read, but not write to, delete, move, rename, or change in any way.
logical drive The internal division of
a large hard disk into smaller units. One
■
LU type 0 Uses SNA transmission control and flow-control layers.
LU type 1, LU type 2, and LU type 3
Control host sessions for IBM 3270 terminals and printers.
LU type 4 Supports peer-to-peer and
host-to-device communications between
peripheral nodes.
LU type 6.1 Supports a communications session for IBM databases and transaction management systems.
LU type 6.2 The peer-to-peer protocol
of Advanced Program-to-Program Communications. It also features comprehensive end-to-end error processing and a
generalized application program interface
(API).
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long filename
■
LU type 7 Data Stream terminals used
on AS/400 systems.
See also Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications; physical unit.
logical unit number Abbreviated LUN.
The logical address of a Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI) device when several
devices are attached to a single SCSI device
ID. The LUN is usually set to zero unless the
SCSI adapter supports multiple LUNs on a
single SCSI device ID.
See also Small Computer System
Interface.
logic bomb A sabotage attack on a system timed to go off at some time in the future; essentially a Trojan Horse with a fuse.
A logic bomb goes off at a certain time or
when triggered by a certain event and then
performs some operation. It might release a
virus, delete files, or send comments to a
terminal. An unhappy programmer may
plant a logic bomb on a system and time it
to go off long after she has left the company
so as to avoid suspicion.
See also boot sector virus; file-infecting
virus; macro virus; multipart virus; polymorphic virus; stealth virus; Trojan Horse;
vaccine.
login script A small file or macro that
executes the same set of instructions every
time a user logs on to a computer system or
network. Sometimes called a logon script.
Login scripts can map drives, display messages, set environment variables, and run
programs and are critical for proper configuration of each user’s network environment.
A communications script may send the
user-identification information to an online
information service each time a subscriber
dials up the service.
See also script.
log off To terminate a session and sign
off a computer system by sending an ending
message. Also known as logoff and log out.
The computer may respond with its own
message, indicating the resources consumed
during the session or the period between log
on and log off. Logging off is not the same as
shutting down or turning off the computer.
See also log on.
log on To establish a connection to a
computer system or online information service; also known as logon and log in. Many
systems require the entry of an identification number or a password before the system can be accessed.
See also log off; password protection.
log in See log on.
LOGIN directory In Novell NetWare,
the SYS:LOGIN directory, created during
the network installation, that contains the
LOGIN and NLIST utilities used to support
users who are not yet authenticated.
logon script See login script.
log out See log off.
long filename Any filename longer than
the eight-character plus three-character
filename extension allowed by MS-DOS.
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long-haul modem
In many of today’s operating systems, including Unix, Microsoft Windows, and the
Macintosh, filenames can be more than 200
characters and can include upper- and lowercase letters and spaces.
long-haul modem A modem or other
communications device that can transmit
information over long distances.
See also line driver; short-haul modem.
loopback A troubleshooting test in
which a signal is transmitted from a source
to a destination and then back to the source
again so that the signal can be measured
and evaluated or so that the data contained
in the signal can be examined for accuracy
and completeness.
lossless compression Any data-compression method that compresses a file by
rearranging or recoding the data that it contains in a more compact fashion.
With lossless compression, no original data
is lost when the file is decompressed. Lossless compression methods are used on program files and on images such as medical X
rays, when data loss cannot be tolerated,
and can typically reduce a file to 40 percent
of its original size.
Many lossless compression programs use a
method known as the Lempel-Ziv-Welch
(LZW) algorithm, which searches a file for
redundant strings of data and converts
them to smaller tokens. When the compressed file is decompressed, this process is
reversed.
See also Lempel-Ziv-Welch; lossy
compression.
lossy compression Any data-compression method that compresses a file by discarding any data that the compression
mechanism decides is not needed.
Original data is lost when the file is decompressed. Lossy compression methods may
be used for shrinking audio or image files
when absolute accuracy is not required
and the loss of data will not be noticed;
however, this technique is unsuitable for
more critical applications in which data
loss cannot be tolerated, such as with medical images or program files. Lossy compression can typically reduce a file to as
little as 5 percent of its original size.
See also Joint Photographic Experts
Group; lossless compression; Moving Pictures Experts Group.
Lotus cc:Mail An e-mail and messaging
package originally developed by Lotus Development Corporation and now supported by IBM.
cc:Mail works with MS-DOS, Macintosh,
Microsoft Windows, Unix, and OS/2 networks and includes built-in discussion
groups and connections to the Internet.
Lotus Domino A server technology from
Lotus Development Corporation that turns
the popular Lotus Notes groupware product into an Internet application server.
With Lotus Domino, users can access the
Notes environment, including dynamic
data and applications on Notes servers, and
use a Web browser. Application developers
can use the Notes environment to develop
Web-based applications.
See also Lotus Notes.
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LUN
Lotus Notes A popular groupware
product originally developed by Lotus Development Corporation and now supported by IBM.
Lotus Notes is the defining force behind the
entire groupware market and is the target toward which all other developers aim. Notes
includes a flexible database that can contain
a variety of data types with none of the restrictions that normally apply, such as fixed
field lengths. A Notes field can contain text,
scanned images, OLE embedded objects,
and even hypertext links to other Notes
documents.
This database is closely linked with an
e-mail system that allows users to forward
any document in any Notes database to any
other Notes database; a user can send email to the database, and an application can
even send e-mail to an individual user.
Notes can also maintain multiple copies of
the database, perhaps on the LAN or on remote workstations, and can synchronize
these copies using background dial-up modem connections, IPX/SPX, or TCP/IP.
SmartSuite is also available in a version
called NotesSuite, which is integrated with
Lotus Notes for groupware applications.
low-end Describes any inexpensive
product, from the bottom of a company’s
product list, that includes a reduced set of
capabilities.
See also high-end.
low-level language A hardware-specific programming language close to machine
language. All assembly languages are considered low-level languages.
See also high-level language.
LPC
See Local Procedure Call.
LPT ports In MS-DOS, the device name
used to denote a parallel communications
port, often used with a printer.
LSL See link-support layer.
LU6.2 See logical unit.
LU See logical unit.
Notes is supported by a large number of
networks, including AppleTalk, Banyan
VINES, IBM APPC, Novell NetWare,
TCP/IP, and X.25.
Lucent Technologies, Inc. A major
manufacturer of networking switches and
routing products, spun off from AT&T in
1996.
See also Lotus Domino; workflow software.
Lucent Technologies provides products for
the wired, wireless, and voice/data/video
markets, as well as voice and fax messaging
systems, Gigabit Ethernet, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) products. In
1999, Lucent bought Ascend Communications, Inc.
Lotus SmartSuite A popular software
suite originally developed by Lotus Development Corporation and now supported
by IBM.
SmartSuite consists of the 1-2-3 spreadsheet, WordPro word processor (previously
known as Ami Pro), Approach database,
Freelance Graphics, and the Organizer personal information manager.
For more information on Lucent Technologies Inc, see www.lucent.com
LUN
See logical unit number.
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lurking
lurking The practice of reading an Internet mailing list or Usenet newsgroup without posting anything yourself. In the online
world, lurking is not considered particularly antisocial; in fact, it is a good idea to lurk
for a while when you first subscribe so that
you can get a feel for the tone of the discussions in the group and come up to speed on
recent history.
LZW See Lempel-Ziv-Welch.
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Macintosh
M
M See mega-.
m See milli-.
MAC See media access control.
Mac See Macintosh.
MacBinary In the Macintosh, a file transfer protocol that ensures a proper transfer
of Macintosh files and related data over a
modem, including the file itself, the file’s resource fork, data fork, and Finder information block.
Most Macintosh communications programs support sending and receiving files in
MacBinary, but the protocol is not often
supported in other environments.
Mach An operating system created from
scratch at Carnegie-Mellon University, designed to support advanced features such as
multiprocessing and multitasking.
Mach has its roots in the Unix world and
was originally based on BSD 4.4; however,
its most notable feature is that it employs a
relatively small microkernel rather than a
conventional monolithic kernel.
The microkernel is designed to manage only
the most fundamental operations, including interrupts, task scheduling, messaging,
and virtual memory; other modules can be
added as necessary for file management,
network support, and other tasks.
See also microkernel.
machine code See machine language.
machine collating sequence The sequence in which the computer orders characters. Because most systems use ASCII,
except the large IBM systems that use
EBCEDIC, the machine collating sequence
is usually based on the ordering of characters in the ASCII character set; see Appendix C for details.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; Extended Binary
Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
machine language The native binary
language used internally by the computer;
also known as machine code.
Machine language is difficult for humans
to read and understand. Programmers create applications using high-level languages, which are translated into a form that
the computer can understand by an assembler, a compiler, or an interpreter. Whichever method is used, the result is machine
language.
See also assembly language; compiler; interpreter; microcode.
Macintosh Abbreviated Mac. A range of
personal computers first introduced in
1984 by Apple Computer, Inc., featuring a
popular and easy-to-use graphical user interface. The computer was based on the
Motorola 68000 series of microprocessors
and used a proprietary operating system to
simulate the user’s desktop on the screen.
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Macintosh client
The original Mac was a portable, selfcontained unit with a small monochrome
screen, 128KB of memory, two serial
ports, extended sound capabilities, and a
single 400KB, 3.5-inch floppy disk. The
computer was an instant success, and users
quickly began to demand more power and
additional features.
Apple released many new models over the
years, expanding the range to include Macs
based on the 68020, 68030, and 68040
processors and adding color, more memory, a built-in SCSI interface, built-in networking, a 32-bit bus, and larger and faster
hard disks.
Introduced in 1991, the PowerBook series
of notebook computers offered both power
and convenience in a very small package,
posing a real challenge to the MS-DOS–
based laptops.
During the 1990s, the Mac lost overall market share, but remained popular in the desktop-publishing, music, and graphics-related
fields.
The iMac, introduced in 1998, was an instant success with its sleek new shape and
bold color schemes; the one criticism was
that it lacked a floppy disk drive.
Macintosh client Any Macintosh computer attached to a network. A Macintosh
client can store and retrieve information
from a NetWare server running NetWare
for Macintosh modules and can run executable Macintosh network files.
Macintosh File System Abbreviated
MFS. In the Macintosh, an older system
that stored files in a flat structure rather
than the hierarchical system used in more
recent versions. All current Macintosh
models can read disks created using MFS.
See also Hierarchical File System.
MacOS The operating system that runs
on Macintosh computers. MacOS contains
the famous Mac graphical user interface, it
is multithreaded to allow execution of multiple concurrent tasks, and it includes Internet access in the form of TCP/IP and a Web
browser.
MacOS 8.5 requires a PowerPC processor
and so will not run on Macs based on earlier
Motorola 680x0 processors; you will also
need 16MB of physical RAM and virtual
memory set to at least 24MB.
macro A stored group of keystrokes or
instructions that can automate a complex
or repetitive sequence of application
commands.
Many of the major spreadsheet, wordprocessing, and database programs let users
create and edit macros to speed up operations. Some macros can incorporate control
structures, such as DO/WHILE loops and
IF/THEN branching statements.
See also login script; script.
macro virus An executable program
that attaches itself to a document created in
Microsoft Word or Excel. When you open
the document and execute the macro, the
virus runs and does whatever damage it was
programmed to do.
See also boot sector virus; file-infecting
virus; multipart virus; polymorphic virus;
stealth virus; vaccine; virus.
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MAIL directory
magic A substance that is sprinkled or a
phrase that is chanted by a guru to make
something work.
A magic character is one with special, often
hard to understand capabilities, used at every opportunity by gurus wanting to demonstrate their powers.
A magic number is one that represents a particular condition, but whose value is unusual, given the conditions, and which would
certainly never be guessed by anyone who is
not a guru.
See also guru.
Magneto-optical storage Abbreviated
MO. A high-capacity network storage device capable of storing 5.2GB on a 5.25inch removable cartridge.
gories all use e-mail to interconnect users
and help with the flow of information.
This integration of e-mail is made possible
in part by APIs such as Microsoft’s
Messaging API and Novell’s Message
Handling Service.
Sometimes known as a message-enabled
application.
See also groupware; Lotus Notes; workflow software.
mail bombing To send a huge number
of long e-mail messages to the same e-mail
address, effectively bringing the e-mail server to a halt. A variation on the denial of service attack, but one that can be aimed at a
specific person.
The data on the cartridge is highly stable,
and so MO storage is suitable for use as
backup and archival storage. MO offers
access speeds of 35ms, compared with
CD-RW and DVD-R, which offer speeds
of between 100 and 200ms.
This kind of attack is relatively easy to carry
out and does not require actual access to the
server. A malicious person can easily write
a program to send a huge e-mail message to
the same address a few hundred thousand
times, overwhelming the server and annoying the recipient.
See also CD ReWritable; digital video discrecordable.
See also denial of service attack.
mail In the networking world, e-mail,
rather than the postal service.
See also electronic mail.
mail-aware application Any application with the ability to send and receive
e-mail. Applications in the document management, groupware, and workflow cate-
mailbox In e-mail systems, an area of
hard-disk space used to store e-mail messages until users can access them. An onscreen or audio message often tells users
that they have mail.
MAIL directory In Novell NetWare, a
default directory created during installation
for the use of e-mail applications.
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mail-enabled application
mail-enabled application Any application that includes an e-mail function but that
also provides additional services, such as
contact-management software, intelligent
mail handling, and workflow automation.
Also known as message-enabled application.
manages all mailslot access and connections. Mailslots are used for browse requests and logon authentication.
See also groupware; Lotus Notes; mailaware application; workflow software.
mailto An HTML attribute that creates a
link to an e-mail address. If a user clicks on
the mailto link, the browser opens a window for composing an e-mail message to
this address.
mailer A program used for sending and
receiving e-mail.
mailing list On the Internet, a group of
people who share a common interest and
who automatically receive all the e-mail
posted to the listserver or mailing-list manager program.
Contributions are sent as e-mail to the listserver and then distributed to all subscribers. Mailing lists are private or by invitation
only; Usenet newsgroups, by contrast, are
open to everyone.
See also LISTSERV; listserver; newsgroup;
Usenet.
mail reflector On the Internet, a program that manages a mailing list.
See also LISTSERV; listserver; newsgroup;
Usenet.
mailslots In Microsoft Windows NT, a
connectionless interprocess communications mechanism that provides one-tomany and many-to-one communications,
suitable for broadcasting a message to
multiple processes.
In Windows NT, mailslots are implemented via the Mailslot File System, which
See also named pipe; pipe; semaphore;
shared memory; socket.
See also HyperText Markup Language.
mail transport agent A program that
manages the transportation and delivery of
e-mail. The mail transport agent accepts the
message from a mail user agent or client,
performs any translations required, and
then routes the message.
See also mail user agent; Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol.
mail user agent A client program that
provides a user interface for sending and receiving e-mail, as well as all the other features required by any e-mail application,
including creating, reading, forwarding,
and deleting messages.
mainframe computer A large, fast,
multiuser computer system, often utilizing
multiple processors, designed to manage
huge amounts of data and complex computing tasks.
Mainframes are normally found in large corporations, universities, or military installations and can support thousands of users.
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Manchester encoding
The feature that distinguishes mainframe
computers from other types is that they perform all processing at one central location;
the terminals accessed by users have no local computing power of their own.
See also dumb terminal; minicomputer;
network computer; thin client.
maintenance release A software upgrade that corrects minor bugs or adds a
few small features. This type of release is
usually distinguished from a major release
by an increase in only the decimal portion
of the version number; for example, from
3.1 to 3.11 rather than from 3.1 to 4.0.
See also service pack.
male connector Any cable connector
with pins designed to engage the sockets on
the female connector.
See also female connector.
MALE CONNECTOR
MAN See metropolitan-area network.
Management Information Base Abbreviated MIB. A database of network configuration information used by Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
and Common Management Information
Protocol (CMIP) to monitor or change network settings. MIB provides a logical naming of all resources on the network related
to the network’s management.
See also Common Management Information Protocol; MIB variables; Simple Network Management Protocol.
Management Information System
Abbreviated MIS. A computer-based information system that integrates data from all
the departments that it serves, to provide
company management with the information it needs to make timely decisions, track
progress, and solve problems.
Manchester encoding In communications, a method used to encode data and
timing signals in the same transmitted data
stream. The signal state during the first half
of the bit period indicates its data value (1
is high; 0 is low). A transition to the opposite state in the middle of the bit period acts
as the timing signal.
See also 4B/5B encoding.
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mandatory user profile
mandatory user profile In Microsoft
Windows NT, a user profile created and
managed by the Administrator and stored
on the server and downloaded to the workstation when the user attempts to log on to
the network.
The profile is saved with a special extension
(.man) so that the user cannot change or alter the profile in any way. Mandatory user
profiles can be assigned to a single user or to
a group of users.
See also local user profile; roaming user
profile.
man pages Short for manual pages. In
Unix, the online documentation.
2. An expression of the structure of an ob-
ject. For example, a memory map describes
the use and layout of physical memory.
MAP See Manufacturing Automation
Protocol.
MAPI See Messaging API.
mapped drive Any network hard disk
that has been assigned to a drive letter on a
client computer.
Marimba, Inc. A company founded by
four of the original Sun Microsystems Java
team to develop products for the creation
and deployment of network-managed applications across the Internet and across
corporate intranets.
Each man page treats a single topic; some
are short, and others are quite long. They
are all organized in a standard format using
these headings: Name, Synopsis, Description, Files, See Also, Diagnostics, and Bugs.
For more information on Marimba, Inc, see
See also permuted index.
marquee A scrolling banner on a Web
page, usually containing advertising
material.
Manufacturing Automation Protocol
Abbreviated MAP. A protocol that was
originally developed by General Motors
and was designed for use in a manufacturing environment.
See also Technical and Office Protocol.
map 1. To direct a request for a file or a
service to an alternative resource. For example, in a virtual memory system, an operating system can translate or map a
virtual memory address into a physical address; in a network, drive letters are assigned to specific volumes and directories.
www.marimba.com.
See also Castanet.
mark parity See parity.
mask A binary number that is used to remove bits from another binary number by
use of one of the logical operators (AND,
OR, NOT, XOR) to combine the binary
number and the mask. Masks are used in IP
addresses and file permissions.
See also IP address; subnet mask.
master browser In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a computer that maintains a list
of computers and services available on the
network and makes this information available to other computers on the network.
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MCA
The master browser provides this list, and
the backup browser distributes it to a workgroup or domain.
See also backup browser; browser.
Master Business Continuity
Professional Abbreviated MBCP. A certification from Disaster Recovery Institute
International (DRII) that covers advanced
information on business continuity planning, disaster recovery, and associated
work experience and board certification.
See also Associate Business Continuity
Professional; Certified Business Continuity
Professional.
Master Certified Novell Engineer Abbreviated Master CNE. A Novell certification program for CNEs who want to focus
on the support of enterprise-wide networks.
Previously known as Enterprise CNE.
Many consider the Master CNE program
the advanced degree of NetWare certification, because candidates must demonstrate
proficiency in specialized networking technologies, as well as an in-depth knowledge
of the NetWare operating system.
Specializations are available in the general
categories of Management, Connectivity,
Messaging, and Internet/Intranet Solutions
and in the client categories of AS/400 Integration, Unix Integration, and Windows
NT Integration.
to teach Novell courses. An MCNI must
have at least two years of teaching experience and be certified as a Master CNE; in
addition, an MCNI must also complete an
Annual Update Requirement to keep their
skills up-to-date.
See also Certified Novell Instructor.
Master CNE See Master Certified Novell Engineer.
master file table Abbreviated MFT. In
Microsoft Windows 2000, a system file that
contains entries for every file and folder on
an NTFS volume. The MFT is always the
first file on the volume, and for backup purposes, two copies are maintained on each
volume.
master replica In Novell NetWare, the
main replica for a partition. The master
replica must be available during major
changes such as partition splitting or merging. Another replica can be assigned as the
master replica if the original is lost or
damaged.
MAU See medium attachment unit;
Multi-station Access Unit.
MB See megabyte.
Mb See megabit.
MBCP See Master Business Continuity
Professional.
Mbone See multicast backbone.
See also Certified Novell Engineer.
MBps See megabytes per second.
Master Certified Novell Instructor
Abbreviated MCNI. An advanced Novell
certification program for trainers who want
Mbps See megabits per second.
MCA See Microchannel Architecture.
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McAfee Associates, Inc.
McAfee Associates, Inc. A major provider of antivirus, help desk, security, and
encryption software. Merged with Network
General Corporation to form Network Associates in 1997.
mean time to repair Abbreviated
MTTR. The statistically derived average
length of time, expressed in hours, that it
takes to make a system-level repair.
See also mean time between failures.
See also Network Associates, Inc.
MCI See Media Control Interface.
MCNE See Master Certified Novell
Engineer.
MCNI See Master Certified Novell
Instructor.
MCP See Microsoft Certified
media access control protocol See
Professional.
MCR See Minimum Cell Rate.
MCSD See Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer.
MCSE See Microsoft Certified Systems
Engineer.
MCT See Microsoft Certified Trainer.
MDHCP
MDI
media access control Abbreviated
MAC. The lower component of the datalink layer that governs access to the transmission medium. The logical link control
layer is the upper component of the datalink layer. MAC is used in CSMA/CD and
token-ring LANs as well as in other types of
networks.
See Multicast DHCP.
See multiple document interface.
mean time between failures Abbreviated MTBF. The statistically derived average length of time for which a system
component operates before failing. MTBF
is expressed in thousands or tens of thousands of hours, also called power-on hours,
or POH.
access control list.
Media Control Interface Abbreviated
MCI. A standard interface used for controlling multimedia files and devices. Each device has its own device driver that
implements a standard set of MCI functions, such as stop, play, and record.
media filter A device used to convert the
output signal from a token-ring adapter
board to work with a specific type of wiring. For example, a media filter can link
16Mbps token-ring network interface
cards with unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
wiring, thus saving the expense of additional cable runs.
See also mean time to repair.
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megahertz
THE MAC SUBLAYER
medium attachment unit Abbreviated
MAU. A transceiver that attaches to the
AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) port on an
Ethernet adapter and provides electrical
and mechanical attachments to fiber-optic
cable, twisted-pair cable (TP), or other media types.
meg A common abbreviation for
megabyte.
mega- Abbreviated M. A prefix meaning
one million in the metric system. Because
computing is based on powers of 2, mega
usually means 220, or 1,048,576; the power
of 2 closest to one million.
megabit Abbreviated Mbit. Usually
1,048,576 binary digits or bits of data. Often used as equivalent to 1 million bits.
See also bit; megabits per second.
megabits per second Abbreviated
Mbps. A measurement of the amount of in-
formation moving across a network or
communications link in one second, measured in multiples of 1,048,576 bits.
megabyte Abbreviated MB. Usually
1,048,576 bytes. Megabytes are a common
unit of measurement for computer memory
or hard-disk capacity.
megabytes per second Abbreviated
MBps. A measurement of the amount of information moving across a network or
communications link in one second, measured in multiples of 1,048,576 bytes.
megahertz Abbreviated MHz. One million cycles per second. A processor’s clock
speed is often expressed in megahertz.
The original IBM PC operated an Intel
8088 processor running at 4.77 MHz; today’s Pentium processor runs at 450 MHz;
and IBM has announced an experimental
processor capable of speeds of 1000 MHz.
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member server
member server In Microsoft Windows
NT, a server that participates in a security
domain, but that does not act as a domain
controller and does not store domain user
accounts.
The Intel 82385 cache controller chip was
used with fast static RAM on some systems
to increase performance, but more up-todate processors include cache-management
functions on the main processor.
A member server can be used to store
shared data, but a user must be authenticated by a primary or a backup domain controller before gaining access to the member
server.
The Intel Pentium contains two separate
512KB caches, one each for data and instructions.
memory The primary physical RAM installed in the computer. The operating system copies applications from disk into
memory, where all program execution and
data processing take place, and then writes
the results back to disk. The amount of
memory installed in the computer can determine the size and number of programs
that it can run, as well as the size of the largest data file.
See also dynamic RAM; static RAM; swapping; virtual memory.
memory address The exact location in
memory that stores a particular data item
or program instruction.
memory board A printed circuit board
containing memory chips. When all the
sockets on a memory board are filled and
the board contains the maximum amount
of memory that it can manage, it is said to
be “fully populated.”
memory cache An area of high-speed
memory on the processor that stores commonly used code or data obtained from
slower memory, eliminating the need to
access the system’s main memory to fetch
instructions.
See also cache; level 2 cache.
memory chip A chip that holds data or
program instructions. A memory chip may
hold its contents temporarily, as in the case
of RAM, or permanently, as in the case of
ROM.
memory leak A programming error that
causes a program to request new areas of
computer memory rather than reusing the
memory already assigned to it. This causes
the amount of memory in use by the program to increase as time goes on. In a worst
case, the application may consume all available memory and stop the computer.
memory management The way in
which the operating system handles the use
of memory, usually as a combination of
physical memory and virtual memory.
When applications are loaded, they are assigned space in which to run and store data.
As they are removed, the memory space
they occupied is released for use by the next
program to run.
See also memory leak.
memory management unit Abbreviated MMU. The part of the processor that
manages the mapping of virtual memory
addresses to actual physical addresses.
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message-enabled application
In some systems, such as those based on early Intel or Motorola processors, the MMU
was a separate chip; however, in most of today’s systems, the MMU is integrated into
the processor itself.
memory map The organization and allocation of memory in a computer. A memory map indicates the amount of memory
used by the operating system, as well as the
amount remaining for use by applications.
memory-resident Always located in the
computer’s memory and available for use;
not swapped out.
Merge An MS-DOS emulator from Locus Computing that runs MS-DOS and
Windows applications under Unix.
Merge provides a complete MS-DOS environment and acts as though your system is
running only MS-DOS. Merge is available
for UnixWare, SCO, and other systems.
mesh network A network topology in
which every device is connected by a cable
to every other device on the network. Multiple links to each device are used to provide
network link redundancy.
MESH NETWORK
message channel A form of interprocess communication found in multitasking
operating systems. Interprocess communications allow two programs running in the
same computer to share information.
See also pipe; queue; semaphore.
message-enabled application See
mail-aware application.
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Message Handling Service
Message Handling Service Abbreviated MHS. A protocol for e-mail storage,
management, and exchange, originally created by Action Technologies and then licensed by Novell. MHS can collect, route,
and deliver e-mail and other files by using
store-and-forward technology.
Message Handling System The
CCITT X.400 standard protocol for global
store-and-forward messaging. The X.400
standard specifies everything from the type
of data that a message can contain to rules
for converting between different message
types, such as from fax to text or vice versa.
See also Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy;
X.500.
message switching A routing method
that uses store-and-forward techniques.
Each message contains a destination address and is passed from source to destination through a series of intermediate nodes.
At each intermediate node, the message is
stored briefly, reviewed, and then forwarded to the next node. Message switching allows a network operating system to
regulate traffic and to use the available
communications links effectively.
Messaging API Abbreviated MAPI. An
interface used to add messaging capabilities
to any Microsoft Windows application.
MAPI handles the details of message storage and forwarding and directory services.
Originally developed by Microsoft, MAPI
has become a widely supported industry
standard.
MAPI Version 3.2 provides for cross-platform messaging independent from the operating system.
See also mail-aware application; Vendor
Independent Messaging.
Messenger service In Microsoft Windows NT, a service that sends and receives
messages sent by the system administrator
or by the Alerter service.
See also Alerter service; service.
metafile A file that contains both data
and output control information. For example, a graphics metafile contains not only a
graphical image of some kind, but also information on how the image is to be displayed. Use of a metafile allows one single
version of the image to be output to a variety of display devices.
metering The process of tracking application software use and availability across a
network to ensure that the terms of the license are being met. Metering can also be
used to predict when a license will expire
and require renewal.
metropolitan-area network Abbreviated MAN. A public, high-speed network,
capable of voice and data transmission over
a distance of up to 80 kilometers (50 miles).
A MAN is smaller than a wide-area network (WAN) but larger than a local-area
network (LAN).
MFS See Macintosh File System.
MFT
See master file table.
MHS See Message Handling Service.
MHz See megahertz.
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Microcom Networking Protocol
MIB See Management Information
See also machine language.
Base.
MIB variables The information stored in
a Management Information Base (MIB) database, which can be accessed and managed
by network management protocols such as
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP).
See also Management Information Base;
Simple Network Management Protocol.
Microchannel Architecture Abbreviated MCA. A 32-bit, proprietary expansion
bus, first introduced by IBM in 1987 for the
IBM PS/2 range of computers and also used
in the IBM RS/6000 series.
MCA was designed for multiprocessing. It
allows expansion boards to identify themselves, thus eliminating many of the conflicts that arose through the use of manual
settings in the original bus. The MCA bus
can also be driven independently by multiple bus master processors.
MCA is physically and electronically incompatible with expansion boards that follow the earlier 16-bit AT bus standard; the
boards are about 50 percent smaller, and
the bus depends on proprietary integrated
circuits.
See also Extended Industry Standard Architecture; Industry Standard Architecture;
local bus; Peripheral Component Interconnect local bus.
microcode Low-level instructions that
define how a particular microprocessor
works by specifying what the processor
does when it executes a machine-language
instruction.
Microcom Networking Protocol Abbreviated MNP. A set of communications
protocols from Microcom, Inc., that has become the standard for data compression and
error detection and correction, as follows:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
MNP 1 to 4define hardware error control.
MNP 5 describes a method of data compression that achieves a 2-to-1 compression ratio.
MNP 6 describes a communication protocol that begins with V.22 bis modulation and then switches to V.29 when
possible.
MNP 7describes a method of data compression that achieves a 3-to-1 compression ratio.
MNP 8 is based on MNP 7 and adds a
V.29 technique that lets half-duplex devices operate as full-duplex.
MNP 9 contains a proprietary technique
that provides good performance over a
wide variety of link types.
MNP 10 describes an extremely rigorous
error control protocol that is well suited
for use on extremely noisy links. MNP 10
has been adopted for use in cellular
modems.
These days the CCITT V standards are implemented in modems due to their worldwide acceptance; however, some modem
manufacturers offer both.
For more information on Microcom, Inc.,
see www.microcom.com
See also Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy.
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microcomputer
microcomputer Any computer based on
a single-chip processor. Many of today’s
microcomputers are as powerful as mainframe models designed just a few years ago;
they are also smaller and cheaper.
See also workstation.
microkernel An alternative operatingsystem kernel design developed by researchers at Carnegie-Mellon University
and implemented in the Mach operating
system.
Traditionally, the kernel has been a monolithic piece of the operating system, resident
in memory at all times. It takes care of operations as varied as virtual memory management, network support, file input/
output, and task scheduling.
The microkernel is a stripped-down kernel
that is only concerned with loading, running, and scheduling tasks. All other operating system functions (virtual memory
management, disk input/output, and so on)
are implemented and managed as tasks running on top of the microkernel.
micron A unit of measurement. One millionth of a meter, corresponding to approximately 1/25,000 of an inch. The core
diameter of fiber-optic cable for networks is
often specified in terms of microns; 62.5 microns is a common size.
Micron Technology, Inc. A major manufacturer of DRAM (dynamic RAM) components, flash memory, synchronous
SRAM (static RAM), and graphics DRAM.
Micron Technology also owns a majority
interest in Micron Electronics, a manufacturer of direct-sales PCs and servers for the
consumer, government, business, and education markets.
For more information on Micron Technology, see www.micronpc.com.
microprocessor A central processor
unit on a single chip, often referred to as the
processor.
The first microprocessor was developed by
Intel in 1969. The microprocessors most
often used in Apple Macintosh computers
are manufactured by Motorola, and Intel
microprocessors are commonly used in
the PC.
microsegmentation The division of a
network into smaller segments, usually
with the aim of increasing bandwidth.
Microsoft Access A popular relational
database program from Microsoft.
Microsoft BackOffice A network software suite from Microsoft that runs on
Windows NT Server and consists of Microsoft Exchange Server, Microsoft SQL
Server, Microsoft Site Server, Microsoft
SNA Server, Microsoft Proxy Server, and
Microsoft System Management Server.
See also Microsoft Office.
Microsoft Certified Product
Specialist See Microsoft Certified
Professional.
Microsoft Certified Professional Abbreviated MCP. A basic certification from
Microsoft designed to establish expertise
with at least one Microsoft operating system. Previously known as the Microsoft
Certified Product Specialist.
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Microsoft Corporation
An MCP+Internet certification is also available and covers the use of Internet Explorer,
designing and building a Web site, and configuring and troubleshooting Microsoft’s
implementation of TCP/IP.
Microsoft Certified Solutions
Developer Abbreviated MCSD. An advanced certification from Microsoft for
computer professionals who develop custom applications using Microsoft products
and computer programming language
packages. Three core exams focus on operating system architecture, and two elective
exams concentrate on programming and
database concepts and skills.
Microsoft Certified Systems
Engineer Abbreviated MCSE. An advanced certification from Microsoft that
requires passing four core and two elective
exams. The core exams cover the basic
concepts and skills involved in installing,
using, maintaining, and troubleshooting a
Windows NT Server network, and the
elective exams cover other server topics
and advanced networking concepts.
An MCSE+Internet certification is also
available and covers the use of Internet Explorer, designing and building a Web site
using Internet Information Server, and configuring and troubleshooting Microsoft’s
implementation of TCP/IP.
Microsoft Certified Trainer Abbreviated MCT. A certification from Microsoft for
technical trainers. An MCT certification is
required before you can teach Microsoft
Official Curriculum courses at Microsoft
Authorized Technical Education Centers.
Microsoft Corporation The world’s
largest and most successful software company, founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and
Paul Allen.
Microsoft’s great initial success was in supplying IBM with the PC-DOS operating system for the IBM PC and then providing
versions of MS-DOS to the clone manufacturers. Microsoft released Windows 3 in
May 1990 and continued to upgrade Windows regularly. The release of Windows NT
during 1993 consolidated Microsoft’s position as a leading developer of operating systems, and Windows 2000 will continue this
trend.
In addition to operating systems and its extensive computer language products, Microsoft markets a wide range of applications,
including Microsoft Word, a word processor; Microsoft Excel, a spreadsheet; Microsoft Access, a database program;
Microsoft Publisher, a desktop publishing
program; and Microsoft Office, an integrated software suite. Microsoft also provides an
extensive set of Internet-related products, including Internet Explorer, FrontPage, and
Internet Information Server.
The Microsoft consumer division now has
more than 50 products, including popular
multimedia titles such as Encarta and Cinemania, an interactive movie guide. Microsoft Press publishes and distributes
computer-related books and CD-ROM
products to bookstores.
For more information on Microsoft, see
www.microsoft.com.
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Microsoft Disk Operating System
Microsoft Disk Operating System
Abbreviated MS-DOS. A single-user, single-tasking operating system, with either a
command-line or shell interface, for use on
Intel processors, first introduced in 1981.
Microsoft Excel A popular spreadsheet
program from Microsoft.
Microsoft Exchange Server A client/
server message-management system from
Microsoft. Exchange Server provides enterprise-wide message exchange by integrating
e-mail, scheduling, document sharing, and
electronic forms and also connects to the
Internet and other networks outside the enterprise allowing global messaging. Exchange uses Microsoft Outlook as the client.
Exchange Server is a component of Microsoft BackOffice.
Microsoft FrontPage An HTML editor
from Microsoft that combines Web-page
creation with graphical Web site publication and management.
Microsoft Internet Explorer A popular
Web browser from Microsoft, which is also
integrated into Windows 98.
Microsoft Internet Information
Server A powerful and capable Web
server package from Microsoft that runs on
Windows NT Server.
See also Microsoft Site Server.
Additional components called snap-ins
provide the management functions.
See also Computer Management; snap-in.
Microsoft LAN Manager A network
operating system, developed by Microsoft
and 3Com, based on a version of OS/2;
client PCs can run OS/2, MS-DOS, Unix, or
Macintosh. Disk mirroring, disk duplexing,
and UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
monitoring functions are available. The
network operating system supports IPX/
SPX, TCP/IP, and NetBEUI. LAN Manager
interoperates with, and has largely been
superseded by, Windows NT Server.
Microsoft NetMeeting An Internetbased audio- and video-conferencing application from Microsoft.
Microsoft NetShow A client/server
streaming audio and video application
from Microsoft. The NetShow server runs
on Windows NT and streams audio, video,
and animation to the client, a multimedia
player.
Microsoft Office A popular business
software suite from Microsoft that runs on
Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh
and includes Microsoft Word, Microsoft
Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft
Outlook, Microsoft Access, Microsoft Publisher, Microsoft FrontPage, and Microsoft
PhotoDraw.
See also Microsoft BackOffice.
Microsoft Management Console
Abbreviated MMC. In Microsoft Windows
2000, a framework for Microsoft and
third-party management applications that
provides a consistent user interface.
Microsoft Office Expert Abbreviated
MOE. An advanced certification from Microsoft that demonstrates complete familiarity with the Microsoft Office suite of
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Microsoft Transaction Server
applications, both individually and as a
group.
See also Microsoft Internet Information
Server.
Microsoft Office Expert Specialist
Abbreviated MOES. A middle-level certification from Microsoft that demonstrates
familiarity with more complex tasks in the
Microsoft Office suite of applications.
Microsoft SNA Server A server component from Microsoft that provides Windows, Macintosh, MS-DOS, and OS/2
clients with access to IBM’s AS/400 and
mainframe systems using System Network
Architecture (SNA).
Microsoft Office Proficient Specialist
Abbreviated MOPS. A basic certification
from Microsoft that demonstrates familiarity with basic tasks in Microsoft Word or
Microsoft Excel.
Microsoft Outlook A popular e-mail application from Microsoft, which also includes scheduling and calendar functions, a
contact-management module, and a simple
project-management tool.
Microsoft Outlook Express An easyto-use e-mail application, distributed with
Internet Explorer; both are available from
Microsoft.
Microsoft Services for Macintosh
Software that allows a Macintosh client to
share files on a Windows NT server.
Microsoft Services for NetWare Software for NetWare servers that allows NetWare clients to access Windows NT
services.
Microsoft Site Server A Microsoft
package of tools for creating and managing
Internet or intranet Web sites.
Site Server includes Site Analyst, Usage Analyst, Personalization System, Commerce
Server, Publishing Solution, Knowledge
Management Solution, and the Analysis
Solution.
Microsoft SQL Server A Windows NT
Server–based relational database management system from Microsoft that also includes development tools, system management tools, data replication processes, and
an open development environment.
Microsoft Systems Management
Server A set of network management
tools from Microsoft, designed to provide a
single point for managing network and client
hardware and software (SMS hardware and
software inventory functions track more
than 200 properties for each desktop),
software distribution, application metering
and licensing, and troubleshooting.
Microsoft Terminal Server A software
package that provides clients with access to
Windows-based applications running on
the server rather than on the local system.
The server receives and processes all keystrokes and mouse clicks sent from the
client and sends the output back to the
appropriate client. The server manages all
resources for each connected client and
provides each logged-in user with his or
her own environment.
Microsoft Transaction Server Often
abbreviated MTS. A package from
Microsoft for developing and deploying
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Microsoft Visual Basic
distributed transaction-processing
applications.
See also online transaction processing.
Microsoft Visual Basic Often abbreviated VB. A version of the BASIC programming
language that allows developers to create
Windows applications quickly and easily.
Microsoft Windows A general name for
the family of operating systems available
from Microsoft that includes Windows CE,
Windows 95/98, and Windows 2000.
Microsoft Windows 2000 A family of
powerful operating systems from Microsoft, based on Windows NT, including
Windows 2000 Professional for workstation users, Windows 2000 Server, and Windows 2000 Advanced Server. Windows
2000 Datacenter Server is a 64-bit version
capable of addressing 64GB of physical
RAM and managing 16 processors.
Microsoft Windows 3.1 A 16-bit graphical operating environment that runs on
top of MS-DOS on Intel-based PCs, featuring overlapping windowed areas, dropdown menus, and mouse support. The three
main elements of Windows 3.1 are the File
Manager (used to manage files, directories,
and disks), the Program Manager (which
manages applications), and the Print
Manager (which coordinates printers and
printing).
Microsoft Windows 95 A 32-bit, multitasking, multithreaded desktop operating
system capable of running MS-DOS, Windows 3.1, and Windows 95 applications. It
supports Plug and Play (on the appropriate
hardware) and adds an enhanced FAT file
system in the Virtual FAT, which allows
filenames of up to 255 characters while also
supporting the MS-DOS 8.3 filenaming
conventions.
Applets include WordPad (a word processor), Paint, and WinPad (a personal information manager), as well as system tools
such as Backup, ScanDisk, Disk Defragmenter, and DriveSpace. The Start button
and desktop Taskbar make application
management easy and straightforward.
Windows 95 supports TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
NetBEUI, NDIS, FTP, SLIP, and PPP communications and networking protocols.
See also protocol.
Microsoft Windows 98 An evolutionary upgrade to Windows 95; includes an integrated Web browser, several other Webbased tools for conferencing, e-mail, Web
page creation, and Web publishing.
Windows 98 also includes a complete set of
capable and easy-to-use tools for tasks such
as defragmenting hard disks, compressing
files, testing disks, and monitoring the system and supports new multimedia hardware and entertainment technologies.
You can choose between the classic Windows interface familiar to Windows 95 users and the Active Desktop.
Microsoft Windows CE A small, 32-bit
operating system for hand-held portable
computers and other specialized devices
such as telephones, cable decoder boxes,
and television sets.
Microsoft Windows NT Server Microsoft’s flagship 32-bit network operating
system, which provides high levels of security,
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middleware
manageability, reliability, and performance.
Runs on servers based on Intel, Alpha, and
MIPS processors, includes preemptive multitasking and multiple threads of execution,
and supports all major networking protocols.
NT Server supports fault tolerance with
disk mirroring, disk duplexing, RAID
(redundant array of inexpensive disks),
and UPS (uninterruptible power supply)
monitoring.
The user interface is similar to those available in other members of the Windows family. The latest version of NT Server includes
Internet Information Server (a Web server),
DNS Server, and multiprotocol router support. All popular interprocess communications protocols for distributed computing
are available, including Windows Sockets
and Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs).
See also Microsoft Windows 2000.
Microsoft Windows NT Services for
Unix A package from Microsoft Corporation that provides Unix services on a Windows NT system, including several popular
command-line utilities, the Perl programming language, and a variety of Unix scripting tools.
Microsoft Windows NT Workstation
Microsoft’s high-end 32-bit operating system, which provides high levels of security,
manageability, reliability, networking, and
performance. Runs on workstations based
on Intel, Alpha, and MIPS processors and
supports preemptive multitasking and multiple threads of execution. The user interface is similar to those available in other
members of the Windows family.
See also Microsoft Windows 2000.
Microsoft Word A popular and fully
featured word processor from Microsoft.
Wizards help users with tasks such as mail
merge and formatting, and you can customize the various toolbars and menu bars to
suit your individual needs. Word also supports a powerful macro language
micro-to-mainframe Any form of connection that attaches a PC to a mainframebased network. Often used to describe software (called terminal-emulation software)
that allows the microcomputer to access
data and applications on the mainframe
system.
See also terminal emulation.
microwave A method of radio transmission that uses high-frequency waves (in the
range of 1 to 30 gigahertz) for line-of-sight
broadband communications. It requires a
repeater station every 20 miles or so because
of the curvature of the earth. Microwaves
are used for satellite communications, for
communications between two buildings in a
metropolitan area, and across large open areas such as lakes and rivers where laying a
cable may be impractical.
See also broadband network; repeater.
middleware A category of software that
shields an application from the underlying
mechanics of a network so that the developers of an application do not have to know
in advance which network and communications protocols will be used.
Middleware is often implemented in a client/
server environment in which it allows systems to exchange information or connect,
even though they use different interfaces.
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midsplit
midsplit A special type of broadband
cable system that divides the available frequencies into two groups: one for transmission and the other for reception.
See also broadband network.
migration In Novell NetWare, the process of upgrading bindery and other information to a newer version of the network
operating system.
millisecond Abbreviated ms or msec.
A unit of measurement equal to onethousandth of a second. In computing,
hard disk and CD-ROM drive access times
are often described in milliseconds; the
higher the number, the slower the disk
system.
millivolt Abbreviated mv. A unit of measurement equal to one-thousandth of a volt.
MIME See Multipurpose Internet Mail
See also bindery.
Extension.
Migration Tool for NetWare A Microsoft Windows NT utility loaded with the
Gateway Service for NetWare that duplicates user account and group and security
information from a NetWare server onto a
Windows NT server, allowing a migration
from NetWare to NT.
MIME Content Type Information contained in a Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) message header indicates the
content type of the data contained in the next
part of the message. Table M.1 lists the seven
major content types as well as the subtypes.
See also Secure MIME.
milli- Abbreviated m. A prefix meaning
one-thousandth in the metric system, often
expressed as 10-3.
TABLE M.1 MIME CONTENT TYPES
Content Type
Subtype
Description
Text
Plain
Unformatted text.
Rich Text
Formatted text.
Mixed
Multiple parts of different types.
Alternative
Multiple parts containing the same data in different formats.
Digest
Message digest with multiple parts all in the same
format.
Multipart
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Minimum Cell Rate
TABLE M.1 MIME CONTENT TYPES (CONTINUED)
Content Type
Subtype
Description
Parallel
Multiple parts to be viewed simultaneously, such
as audio and video data.
RFC822
E-mail message.
Partial
Message was fragmented for transmission as the
original was larger than 64Kb.
External-body
External data should be referenced, such as data at
an ftp site.
Octet-stream
Binary data associated with no known application.
PostScript
PostScript document ready for printing.
SGML
SGML data.
JPEG
JPEG image data.
GIF
GIF image data.
Audio
Basic
Audio data.
Video
MPEG
MPEG video data.
Message
Application
Image
minicomputer A medium-sized computer running a multitasking operating system
capable of managing more than 100 users
simultaneously, suitable for use in a small
company or a single corporate or government department.
See also mainframe computer;
workstation.
mini-hard disk A hard disk mounted on
a Type III PC Card.
See also PC Memory Card International
Association.
Minimum Cell Rate Abbreviated MCR.
In Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),
the minimum cell rate that must be provided for a connection to conform to a specific
quality of service (QoS) class.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Available Cell Rate; Peak Cell Rate; Sustainable Cell Rate.
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MIPS
MIPS Acronym for millions of instructions per second. A measure of the processing speed of a computer’s CPU.
MLID See multiple-link interface driver.
MMC See Microsoft Management Console.
See also benchmark program.
MMJ See modified modular jack.
mirroring The process of duplicating
stored information in real time to protect vital data from unexpected hardware failures.
See also clustering; disk duplexing; disk
mirroring; fault tolerance; redundant array
of inexpensive disks.
mirror site 1. A duplicate Web site. A
mirror site contains the same information
as the original Web site and reduces traffic
on that site by providing a local or regional
alternative.
2. A duplicate data center. Large compa-
nies running mission-critical applications
often mirror their entire data center so that
the company can continue to function if the
main center is hit by a natural disaster.
MIS See Management Information
System.
mission-critical application A computer application whose function is vital to the
operation of the corporation using it; also
called line-of-business application.
mixed mode In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a domain that contains at least
one Windows NT domain controller. As a
safety precaution, all Windows 2000 domains start up in mixed mode and must be
converted to native mode manually.
See also native mode.
MJ See modular jack.
MMU See memory management unit.
mnemonic Pronounced “nee-monic.” A
name or abbreviation used to help you remember a long or complex instruction. Programming languages use many mnemonics
to represent complex instructions.
MNP See Microcom Networking
Protocol.
MO See Magneto-optical storage.
mobile computing 1. The daily use of a
portable or laptop computer as a normal
part of the workday.
2. Techniques used to establish links to a
network by employees who move from one
remote location to another, such as members of a sales staff or telecommuters who
work from home. Once the connection is
made, users log in and access network resources as easily as if they were working
from a computer in the corporate office.
See also docking station; laptop computer;
portable computer; port replicator; wireless communications.
mobile IP A mechanism that allows mobility on the Internet by allowing a computer to use the same IP address as it moves
from one location to another. Mobile IP
also allows a user to change from one medium, such as Ethernet, to another, perhaps
a wireless connection.
See also Ethernet; Internet Protocol.
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modulation
modem Contraction of modulator/
demodulator; a device that allows a computer to transmit information over a telephone line.
The modem translates between the digital signals that the computer uses and
analog signals suitable for transmission
over telephone lines. When transmitting,
the modem modulates the digital data onto
a carrier signal on the telephone line.
When receiving, the modem performs the
reverse process to demodulate the data
from the carrier signal.
Modems usually operate at speeds up to
56Kbps over standard telephone lines and
at higher rates over leased lines.
See also baud rate; external modem; internal modem.
modem eliminator A device that allows
two computers to be linked without using
modems. In an asynchronous system, in
which the serial ports of two PCs are connected, the modem eliminator is a null-modem
cable. In synchronous systems, a modem
eliminator must also provide timing functions to synchronize communications.
modem server A LAN server that allows a network user to dial out of the network into the Public Switched Telephone
System or to access leased lines for asynchronous communications. Also called an
asynchronous communications server or a
dial-in/dial-out server.
moderated newsgroup On the Internet, a Usenet newsgroup or mailing list that
is managed by one or more people in an attempt to maintain standards.
All posts to the newsgroup are reviewed by
the moderator to make sure they meet the
standards the group has set for subject matter and commercial content before being
passed on to the whole group. Moderation
is not censorship but an attempt to avoid
some of the more extreme antics of those
who enjoy flame wars.
See also flame war; listserver; mailing list;
moderator.
moderator A person or small group of
people who review the contents of all posts
to a Usenet newsgroup or Internet mailing
list to ensure that the postings meet the
standards set by the group. Moderators are
almost always volunteers, so be nice to
them.
See also moderated newsgroup.
modified modular jack Abbreviated
MMJ. A six-pin connector developed by
Digital Equipment Corporation used to
connect serial lines to terminal devices.
MMJ jacks have a side-locking tab and so
can be distinguished from RJ-11 jacks,
which have a center-mounted tab.
See also modular jack; RJ-11.
modular jack Abbreviated MJ. The jack
used to connect telephone cables to a wallmounted face plate.
See also modified modular jack; RJ-11.
modulation In communications, the process used by a modem to add the digital signal onto the carrier signal so that the signal
can be transmitted over a telephone line. The
frequency, amplitude, or phase of a signal
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module
may be modulated to represent a digital or
an analog signal.
for Intel’s Gordon Moore, who first made
this statement in 1965.
See also carrier signal; demodulation.
MOPS See Microsoft Office Proficient
Specialist.
module In programming, a self-contained
portion of a larger program written, tested,
and compiled separately. Normally, a module performs only one specific operation.
See also NetWare Loadable Module;
Virtual Loadable Module.
MOE See Microsoft Office Expert.
MOES See Microsoft Office Expert
Specialist.
MONITOR A Novell NetWare server
utility that displays information about the
server, including the time elapsed since the
server was booted, percent utilization of the
server’s processor, number of disk blocks
available, the number of blocks waiting to
be written to disk, the number of connections to the server, and the number of files
being accessed. It also provides information
about server disks, LAN drivers, and other
attached mass-storage devices.
See also SERVMAN; SET.
Monitrix for NetWare A package of
network management utilities from Cheyenne Software, Inc., that includes hardware
and software inventory, server monitoring,
traffic monitoring, and virus protection.
The package also includes automatic taskscheduling and reporting functions.
Moore’s Law States that the number of
transistors on a chip of a given size doubles
approximately every 18 months. Named
Mosaic A Web browser, released on the
Internet in 1993 by the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at
the University of Illinois, and placed in the
public domain.
Although Mosaic was one of the first
graphical Web browsers and was available
free for most computing platforms, it has
been overtaken by Netscape Navigator and
Microsoft Internet Explorer.
motherboard The main printed circuit
board in a computer, containing the central
processing unit, appropriate coprocessor
and support chips, device controllers, and
memory. It may also include expansion slots
to give access to the computer’s internal bus.
Motorola, Inc. A major manufacturer of
microprocessors, including those used in
Macintosh computers, founded in 1928 in
Chicago. Motorola is also extensively involved in radio and data communications
and in automotive and industrial products.
For more information on Motorola, see
www.motorola.com.
mount 1. The method by which nodes
access network resources in the Network
File System (NFS) and other networks.
2. To load a disk volume or tape archive
so that users can access files and other
resources.
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multicast
mounted drive In Microsoft Windows
2000, a drive or disk partition attached to a
junction point on an NTFS volume.
Mounted drives work just like other drives,
but have a label or a name rather than a single drive letter.
MPEG-2 covered HDTV. This standard is
no longer used.
■
MPEG-4 A standard designed for video
phones and multimedia applications, with
a bandwidth of up to 64Kbps.
See also lossy compression.
See also junction point.
MPEG See Moving Pictures Experts
mouse A small input device with one or
more buttons used with graphical user interfaces. As the mouse moves, an on-screen
mouse cursor follows; all movements are relative. Once the pointer is in the correct position on the screen, you press one of the mouse
buttons to initiate an action or operation.
See also trackball.
Moving Pictures Experts Group Abbreviated MPEG. A set of image-compression
standards and file formats that defines a compression method for desktop audio, animation, and video.
MPEG is a lossy compression method that
results in some data loss when a video clip
is compressed. The following standards are
available:
■
■
■
MPEG-1 The original MPEG standard,
designed for CD-ROM use, with a bandwidth of 1.5Mbps, two audio channels,
and non-interlaced video.
MPEG-2 An extension to MPEG-1, designed for broadcast television, including
HDTV (High-Definition Television), with
a bandwidth of up to 40Mbps, five audio
channels, interlaced video, and a wider
range of frame sizes.
MPEG-3 A standard designed for
HDTV until it was discovered that
Group.
MPOA See Multiprotocol over ATM.
MPPP See PPP Multilink.
ms See millisecond.
MSAU See Multi-station Access Unit.
MS-DOS See Microsoft Disk Operating
System.
MS-DOS prompt A visual confirmation
that MS-DOS is ready to receive input
from the keyboard. The default prompt includes the current drive letter followed by
a colon and a greater-than symbol, as in
C:>. You can customize the MS-DOS
prompt by using the PROMPT command.
See also command line; command prompt.
msec See millisecond.
MTBF See mean time between failures.
MTTR See mean time to repair.
multicast 1. A special form of broadcast
in which copies of a message are delivered
to multiple stations but not to all possible
stations.
2. A data stream from a server from which
multiple viewers can simultaneously watch
a video.
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multicast backbone
See also broadcast; multicasting; unicast.
multicast backbone Abbreviated
Mbone. A method of transmitting digital
video over the Internet in real time.
The TCP/IP protocols used for Internet
transmissions are unsuitable for real-time
audio or video; they were designed to deliver text and other files reliably, but with
some delay. MBONE requires the creation
of another backbone service with special
hardware and software to accommodate
video and audio transmissions; the existing
Internet hardware cannot manage timecritical transmissions.
See also IP Multicast; multicasting; Realtime Transport Protocol; Resource Reservation Protocol; unicast.
Multicast DHCP Abbreviated MDHCP.
In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, an extension of Dynamic Host Control Protocol
(DHCP) that distributes multicast address
configurations to network clients automatically.
multicasting An Internet standard that
allows a single host to distribute data to
multiple recipients.
Multicasting can deliver audio and video
content in real time so that the person using
the system can interact with the data stream.
A multicast group is created, and every member of the group receives every datagram.
Membership is dynamic; when you join a
group, you start to receive the datastream,
and when you leave the group, you no longer
receive the datastream.
See also broadcast; IP Multicast; unicast.
multidrop line A circuit connecting several stations or nodes on a single logical
link; also called a multipoint line.
A multidrop line is often used in IBM’s SNA
(Systems Network Architecture). It is controlled by a primary station, and the other
nodes are considered secondary.
multihomed computer Any computer
system that contains multiple network interface cards and is attached to several physically
separate networks; also know as a multihomed host. The term can also be applied to
a computer configured with multiple IP addresses for a single network interface card.
multihomed host See multihomed
computer.
multilayer A printed circuit board that
contains several layers of circuitry. The layers are laminated together to make a single
board, onto which the other discrete components are added.
multilink In Microsoft Windows NT
Server Remote Access Server, the ability to
combine several slower data streams into
one network connection. For example, you
can use two 28.8Kbps modems to form a
single 57.6Kbps connection.
Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol See
PPP Multilink.
Multimaster Replication In Microsoft
Active Directory, the process by which Active Directory domains replicate and resolve conflicting updates as peers.
All Active Directory domain controllers
maintain a writable copy of the domain database, and updating any record on any domain
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multiplexing
controller will ensure that all other domain
controllers are eventually updated.
sending and receiving of packets to and
from the physical network medium.
See also Active Directory.
See also link-support layer; Open Data-link
Interface/Network Driver Interface Specification Support.
multimedia A computer technology that
displays information using a combination
of full-motion video, animation, sound,
graphics, and text, with a high degree of
user interaction.
multimode fiber A fiber-optic cable
with a wide core that provides multiple
routes for light waves to travel.
Its wider diameter of between 25 to 200 microns prevents multimode fiber from carrying signals as far as single-mode fiber due to
modal dispersion.
See also single-mode fiber.
multipart virus A form of virus that infects both the boot sector of a hard disk and
executable files. Multipart viruses are difficult to locate because they use stealth and
polymorphic techniques to avoid detection.
See also boot sector virus; file-infecting virus; macro virus; polymorphic virus;
stealth virus; vaccine; virus.
multiple document interface Abbreviated MDI. In Microsoft Management
Console, an interface that allows more than
one independently-running snap-in to be
loaded into the management window at the
same time.
See also Microsoft Management Console;
snap-in.
multiple-link interface driver Abbreviated MLID. A Novell Open Datalink Interface (ODI) device driver that manages the
multiple provider router In Microsoft
Windows 2000, a function that allows two
or more Win32 network application program interface (API) providers to exist at
the same time.
Multiple Universal Naming Convention Provider Abbreviated MUP. In Microsoft Windows 2000, a function that allows two or more Universal Naming
Convention (UNC) providers to exist at the
same time.
MUP decides which UNC provider should
handle the UNC request and forwards the
request to that provider automatically.
Multiple Virtual Storage Abbreviated
MVS. IBM’s standard operating system for
large mainframe computers.
See also virtual machine.
multiplexer Often abbreviated mux. A
device that merges several lower-speed transmission channels into one high-speed channel
at one end of the link. Another multiplexer
reverses this process at the other end of the
link to reproduce the low-speed channels.
See also frequency-division multiplexing;
inverse multiplexing; statistical multiplexing; time-division multiplexing.
multiplexing A technique that transmits
several signals over a single communications channel. Frequency-division multiplexing separates the signals by modulating
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multipoint line
the data into different carrier frequencies.
Time-division multiplexing divides the
available time among the various signals.
Statistical multiplexing uses statistical techniques to dynamically allocate transmission
space depending on the traffic pattern.
See also inverse multiplexing.
multipoint line See multidrop line.
multiprocessing The ability of an operating system to use more than one processor
in a single computer.
Symmetrical multiprocessing refers to the
operating system’s ability to assign tasks
dynamically to the next available processor. Asymmetrical multiprocessing requires
that the original program designer choose
the processor to use for a given task when
writing the program.
Multiprotocol over ATM Abbreviated
MPOA. A proposal to allow layer three network routing protocols over an Asynchronous Transfer Mode Switched network.
Multiprotocol over ATM allows corporations to take advantage of ATM’s benefits
while still maintaining legacy LANs.
See also Integrated-Private Network-toNetwork Interface; IP over ATM; LAN
Emulation.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
Abbreviated MIME. An Internet specification that allows users to send multiple-part
and multimedia messages, rather than simple text messages. A MIME-enabled e-mail
application can send PostScript images, binary files, audio messages, and digital video
over the Internet.
See also MIME Content Type; Secure
MIME; uudecode; uuencode.
MULTIPLEXER
multiserver network A network that
uses two or more file servers.
Multi-station Access Unit Abbreviated MAU; sometimes abbreviated MSAU. A
multiport wiring hub for token-ring networks that can connect as many as eight
lobes to a ring network. IBM refers to an
MAU that can be managed remotely as a
Controlled Access Unit.
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MVS
multitasking The simultaneous execution of two or more programs in one
computer.
multithreading The concurrent processing of several tasks or threads inside the
same program. Because several threads can
be processed in parallel, one thread does
not need to wait for another to finish before
starting.
multiuser Describes an operating system
that supports more than one simultaneous
user. MS-DOS and Windows are singleuser operating systems. Unix and its derivatives and networking operating systems
are multiuser systems.
multiuser Windows See Terminal services.
MUP
See Multiple Universal Naming
Convention Provider.
mutual authentication A feature of authentication schemes such as Kerberos that
requires both the client and the server to
prove their identity to each other before authentication can proceed.
See also Kerberos.
mux See multiplexer.
mv See millivolt.
MVS See Multiple Virtual Storage.
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n
N
n See nano-.
NAEC See Novell Authorized Education
Center.
NAK See negative acknowledgment.
named pipe A communications API
used by applications running on a network.
Named pipes provide connection-oriented
messaging between a client and a server using routines similar to those used in normal
operations for opening, reading, and writing to files.
See also mailslots; pipe; semaphore;
shared memory; socket.
parent, for example, accounting.sybex
.com as a subdomain of sybex.com. In a
disjointed namespace, a child domain does
not share its parent’s name, as in
sybex.com and sybexnet.com.
name space In Novell NetWare, the
ability of a NetWare volume to support files
from non–MS-DOS clients.
Each client sees files on the server in its own
format; a Macintosh client sees files as Macintosh files, and a Unix client sees files as
Unix files. Name space support is enabled
per NetWare volume.
See also name-space NLM.
name resolution The process of translating the appropriate numerical IP address,
which is required by a computer, into a
name that is more easily understood and remembered by a person.
In the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) environment,
names such as www.sybex.com are translated into their IP equivalents by the Domain
Name Service (DNS). In a Microsoft Windows environment, NetBIOS names are resolved into IP addresses by Windows
Internet Naming Service (WINS).
namespace In Microsoft Active Directory, a collection of unique domain names.
A namespace can be contiguous or disjointed. In a contiguous namespace, a child
domain always contains the name of the
name-space NLM A specific type of
NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that
allows non–MS-DOS filenaming conventions, such as those used in OS/2, Unix, or
the Macintosh system, to be stored in NetWare’s directory and filenaming systems.
NAMPS See Narrowband Advanced
Mobile Phone Service.
nano- Abbreviated n. A prefix meaning
one-billionth in the American numbering
scheme, and one thousand millionth in the
British system.
nanosecond Abbreviated ns. One-billionth of a second. The speed of computer
memory and logic chips is measured in
nanoseconds.
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NCP
narrowband In communications, a
voice-grade transmission channel of 2400
bits per second or less.
Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone
Service Abbreviated NAMPS. A proposed standard from Motorola that combines the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone
Service) cellular standard with digital signaling information. NAMPS is designed to
provide a higher level of performance, reduce the number and incidence of dropped
calls, and greatly increase communications
capabilities.
See also Advanced Mobile Phone Service;
Code Division Multiple Access; Time Division Multiple Access.
Narrow SCSI A Small Computer System
Interface (SCSI) or SCSI-2 interface capable
of transferring only 8 bits of data at a time
See also Fast SCSI; Fast/Wide SCSI; Wide
SCSI.
several levels of increasingly complex security measures.
See also C2; Orange Book.
National Information Infrastructure
Abbreviated NII. A planned, high-speed,
public-access information service, designed
to reach millions of schools, homes, and
businesses throughout the United States.
National Semiconductor Corp. A major manufacturer of semiconductor products based in Santa Clara, California. In
1997, National spun off its Fairchild Semiconductor division, and in 1998 acquired
Mediamatics, a manufacturer of audio/video decoders, as well as chip maker Cyrix.
For more information on National Semiconductor, see www.national.com.
native mode In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a domain that contains only
Windows 2000 domain controllers.
See also mixed mode.
NAS See network attached storage.
NAT See network address translation.
National Center for Supercomputing
Applications Abbreviated NCSA. At the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, NCSA is credited with the creation
of Mosaic, the first ever graphical Web
browser.
National Computer Security Center
Abbreviated NCSC. A branch of the U.S.
National Security Agency that defines
security for computer products. The Department of Defense Standard 5200.28,
also known as the Orange Book, specifies
nbtstat A utility program used to show
active TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) connections and
statistics for NetBIOS over TCP/IP.
See also ipconfig; netstat; Ping; subnet
mask; tracert.
NC See network computer.
NCB See Network Control Block.
NCIP See Novell Certified Internet
Professional.
NCP See NetWare Core Protocol;
network control program.
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NCP
NCP
See Network Control Protocol.
NCP packet signature In Novell NetWare, a security feature that allows each
workstation to add a special signature to
each NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) packet
going to the server. This signature changes
dynamically for each packet, protecting
both the server and the workstation against
unauthorized access or any attempt to
use unauthorized network privileges.
See also NetWare Core Protocol.
NCSA See National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
NCSC See National Computer Security
NEAP See Novell Education Academic
Partner.
near-end crosstalk Abbreviated NEXT.
Any interference that occurs close to a
connector at either end of a cable. NEXT is
usually measured near the source of the test
signal.
See also crosstalk; far-end crosstalk.
NEC Corporation Major manufacturer
of a wide range of electronic products, including semiconductors, communications
equipment, the MultiSynch line of monitors, LCD flat-panel monitors, plasma displays, and PCs.
Center.
For more information on NEC Corporation, see www.nec.com.
NDD See NetWare Directory Database.
See also Packard Bell NEC.
NDIS See Network Driver Interface
negative acknowledgment Abbreviated NAK. In communications, a control
code, ASCII 21, sent by the receiving computer to indicate that the data was not properly received and should be sent again.
Specification.
NDPS See Novell Distributed Print
Services.
NDS See Novell Directory Services.
See also acknowledgment.
NDS for NT An add-on product from
Novell that allows the management and integration of Windows NT domains from
within NetWare Administrator.
nested groups In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, a group placed inside another
group.
NDS tree In Novell Directory Services
(NDS) , the container objects and all the leaf
objects that make up the hierarchical structure of the NDS database. Also known as
the Directory Tree.
NETADMIN A Novell NetWare 4 utility
used to manage NetWare Directory Services (NDS) objects. This utility has many of
the same features and controls many of the
same functions as the Windows-based program NWADMIN.
See also container object; leaf object;
Novell Directory Services.
NETADMIN replaces the functions found
in several NetWare 3.x utilities, including
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netiquette
DSPACE, SECURITY, SYSCON, and
USERDEF, and has itself been replaced in
NetWare 5 by NetWare Administrator.
See also NetWare Administrator.
NetBEUI See NetBIOS Extended User
Interface.
NETBIOS A Novell NetWare 3.x workstation utility used to determine if the client
software NETBIOS.EXE is loaded and, if
so, which interrupts it is using.
NetBIOS See network basic input/
output system.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface.
Abbreviated NetBEUI, pronounced “netboo-ee.” A network device driver for the
transport layer supplied with Microsoft’s
LAN Manager, Windows for Workgroups,
and Windows NT. NetBEUI communicates
with the network interface card via the NDIS
(Network Driver Interface Specification).
NetBEUI is a small protocol with no networking layer and therefore no routing
capability. It is suitable only for small networks; you cannot build internetworks using NetBEUI, and so it is often replaced
with TCP/IP.
Microsoft has added extensions to NetBEUI in Windows NT to remove the limitation of 254 sessions per node and calls
this extended NetBEUI the NetBIOS Frame
(NBF).
See also network basic input/output
system; Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol.
NetBSD An implementation of Unix
derived from the BSD series of releases;
designed to run on Intel processors. The distribution is usually free, although there may
be a small charge to cover the distribution
media and packaging.
NetBSD emphasizes multiple platform support and so has been ported to several nonIntel systems.
See also FreeBSD; Linux.
netcasting A method used to deliver Web
content automatically to the desktop. Netcasting is referred to as push technology because content is pushed from a Web site to
those users who requested receipt of the content. Content can include weather forecasts,
stock market quotes, or software updates.
See also Castanet; Marimba, Inc.; PointCast, Inc.; server push.
NET.CFG A Novell NetWare workstation configuration file that contains information used to configure the client software
on the workstation. The file is read once,
during startup of the network files.
For normal network use, the default values
established in this file usually work. In some
cases, the NET.CFG values must be adjusted to work with particular applications or
in certain configurations.
NetDDE See Network Dynamic Data
Exchange.
netiquette A contraction of network etiquette. The set of unwritten rules governing the use of e-mail and other computer
and network services.
Like any culture, the online world has its
own rules and conventions, and if you understand and observe these conventions, you
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NetPC
can take your place in the online community
without problems. Here are a few tips:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Remember that the people reading your
post are human; if you wouldn’t say it to
their face, don’t post it in your e-mail.
Lurk before you leap. Spend a few days
reading the posts in a newsgroup or mailing list before you post anything of your
own.
If you use a signature file to close your email, remember to keep it short; people
don’t want to read lots of cute stuff every
time you post.
Don’t post messages in uppercase as it is
the e-mail equivalent of YELLING; to add
emphasis, place an asterisk before and after a word.
Don’t flame or mount personal attacks on
other users.
Check your grammar and spelling before
you post.
Don’t be shy; if you are an expert, share
your knowledge with others.
NetPC An initiative from Compaq, Dell,
Hewlett-Packard, Intel, and Microsoft describing a networked PC designed to give
system administrators greater control and
security than a traditional PC.
NetPC is based on a minimum configuration
of a 133MHz Pentium with at least 16MB of
memory, running a Windows operating system, with a hard disk and the capability to
run applications locally. The computer case
is sealed and lockable, and floppy disks and
CD-ROM drives are optional. All software
distribution is centralized.
See also network computer; thin client; total cost of ownership; Zero Administration
for Windows.
Netscape Catalog Server A server for
Microsoft Windows NT and Unix systems
that allows the publication of complex, hierarchically organized documents stored on
the Internet or on a corporate intranet;
based on the popular freeware application
Harvest.
Netscape Certificate Management
System A server for Microsoft Windows
NT and Unix systems that manages digital
certificates and allows the server to become
a certificate authority.
See also certificate authority.
Netscape Collabra Server A Network
News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) server for
Microsoft Windows NT and Unix systems
that allows the creation and management of
private and secure newsgroups.
Netscape Commerce Server A server
for Microsoft Windows NT and Unix systems that manages electronic commerce on
the Internet.
Netscape Communications Corporation A major publisher of software development tools, Web browsers, and Webserver software; based in Menlo Park, California, and founded in 1994 by Jim Clark
and Marc Andreessen. Its Web browser,
Netscape Navigator, was initially very
popular, but later lost market share to
Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.
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Netscape SuiteSpot
In 1998, America Online bought Netscape
Communications and spun off the serverbased products to Sun Microsystems.
For more information on Netscape Communications, see www.netscape.com.
Netscape Communicator A package
that includes the Netscape Navigator Web
browser, e-mail support, a newsreader, and
Netscape Page composer, an HTML editor.
Netscape Communicator is available for
Microsoft Windows, the Macintosh, and
Unix.
Netscape Directory Server A generalpurpose Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LADP) directory server that stores,
publishes, and manages user, group, and
other information in one location on a network and makes this information available
to the Netscape SuiteSpot servers.
See also Netscape SuiteSpot.
Netscape Enterprise Server A highperformance and very popular Web server
for Microsoft Windows NT, Novell NetWare, and Unix systems that is specifically
designed to support large Web sites on the
Internet or on a corporate intranet.
Enterprise Server supports standard CGI
(Common Gateway Interface), and for application creation, also offers Netscape
Server API (NSAPI) for in-process server
applications. The LiveWire runtime environment supports server-side JavaScript
applications, and for Java developers, the
Sun Java Servlet API is also available.
Enterprise Server is administered using a
Web-based application called Server Manager, giving access to server settings such as
security, users, and groups, as well as Web
site content management.
Netscape FastTrack Server A Web
server for Microsoft Windows NT and
Unix systems. Designed for non-programmers, it lets users establish a Web presence
or an intranet quickly and easily.
Netscape Messaging Server An email server for Microsoft Windows NT and
Unix systems that supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LADP), Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), as well as
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) and Internet
Mail Access Protocol (IMAP).
Netscape Navigator A popular Web
browser that runs under Windows and
Unix and on the Macintosh. Netscape is
distributed free by Netscape Communications Corporation, and in an unusual move
for a commercial software developer,
Netscape has made the source code to Navigator available on the Internet.
Netscape SuiteSpot A popular package
of integrated server components designed to
provide groupware services, document publishing and management, messaging and email, directory services, and security for corporate intranets. SuiteSpot is available in a
Standard Edition and a Professional Edition.
The Standard Edition includes Communicator, Enterprise Server, Messaging Server,
Calendar Server, Collabra Server, and Directory Server. The Professional Edition includes all the components found in the
Standard Edition and adds Compass Server, Certificate Server, Proxy Server, and
Netscape Mission Control Desktop for centralized network management.
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netstat
netstat A utility program used to show
server connections running over TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) and statistics, including current
connections, failed connection attempts, reset connections, segments received, segments sent, and segments retransmitted.
See also ipconfig.
NETSYNC In Novell NetWare, two utility programs for NetWare 3 (NETSYNC3)
and NetWare 4 (NETSYNC4) servers that
allow NetWare 3 servers to be managed by
Novell Directory Services (NDS).
See also Novell Directory Services.
NETUSER In Novell NetWare 4.x, a
workstation utility that offers a menu system
for performing simple user tasks, including
managing print jobs, sending messages to
other users, mapping network drives, capturing ports to printers or print queues, and
changing the login script and password.
NETUSER replaces the NetWare 3.x utility
SESSION and can be invoked from either
the workstation or the server.
This utility has many of the same features
and controls many of the same functions as
the Windows-based program NWUSER.
NetVIEW IBM SNA (Systems Network
Architecture) management software that
provides monitoring and control functions
for SNA and non-SNA devices. This system
relies heavily on mainframe data-collection
programs, but it also incorporates Token
Ring networks, Rolm CBXs, non-IBM modems, and PC-level products.
NetWare See Novell NetWare.
NetWare Administrator In Novell NetWare, the main utility used for performing
NetWare 4 and higher supervisory and administrative tasks. A graphical application,
NetWare Administrator can be run from
within Windows or OS/2.
NetWare Client32 A set of 32-bit client
software packages released with Novell Netware 5. Client32 software is available for
Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 98,
and Windows NT.
See also NetWare DOS Requester;
NETx.COM.
NetWare Client for DOS and MS
Windows Client software that allows
MS-DOS and Windows workstations to
connect to a Novell NetWare server and access network resources.
See also NetWare Client32; NetWare DOS
Requester; NETx.COM.
NetWare Client for OS/2 Client software that allows OS/2 workstations to connect to a Novell NetWare server and access
network resources.
NetWare command files Text files created by the network administrator containing a series of Novell NetWare commands
and the appropriate modifying parameters.
NetWare command files execute just as
though you typed the commands at the
NetWare console, and they have the
filename extension .NCF. For example,
AUTOEXEC.NCF contains server
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NetWare/IP
configuration information used by
SERVER.EXE when starting the server.
Bindery emulation provides compatibility
with previous versions of NetWare.
NetWare Connect See NetWare Inter-
NDS is based on the 1988 CCITT X.500
standard.
net Access Server.
NetWare Core Protocol Abbreviated
NCP. In Novell NetWare, a presentationlayer procedure used by a server when responding to workstation requests. It includes routines for manipulating directories
and files, opening semaphores, printing, and
creating and destroying service connections.
NetWare Directory Database Abbreviated NDD. In Novell NetWare, a system
database that holds the information on all
the objects in a Novell Directory Services
(NDS) tree. Often referred to as the Directory or the Directory tree.
NetWare Directory Services Abbreviated NDS. In Novell NetWare, a global
naming service that maintains information
on, and provides access to, every resource
on the network, including users, groups,
printers, volumes, and servers.
NDS manages all network resources as objects in the NetWare Directory Database
(NDD), independent of their actual physical location, and presents them in a hierarchical tree structure. NDS is global to the
network, and information is replicated so
that a local failure cannot bring down the
whole system.
NDD replaces the bindery, the system database for earlier releases of NetWare. The
bindery managed the operation of a single
NetWare server; NDS supports the whole
network, including multiserver networks.
See also Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy.
NetWare DOS Requester A group of
Virtual Loadable Modules (VLMs) that
provide NetWare 3.x and 4.x support for
MS-DOS and Windows workstations. The
Requester replaces the NetWare shell used
by earlier versions of NetWare.
NetWare Hub Services A software
package from Novell that supports the
management of any hub card that complies
with the NetWare Hub Management Interface (HMI) standard.
NetWare Internet Access Server Abbreviated NIAS. In Novell NetWare, the
server software that translates data requests
from a client using Internetwork Packet
eXchange (IPX) into TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) for connection to the Internet or other TCP/IP host.
Previously known as NetWare Connect.
NetWare/IP A set of NetWare Loadable
Modules (NLMs) that provide IP support
for NetWare 3.x and 4.x servers by encapsulating the IPX information inside an IP
datagram. Native TCP/IP support is available in Novell NetWare 5.x, so this capability is not needed in a pure NetWare 5
environment. NetWare/IP allows a Novell
NetWare server to act as a gateway between NetWare and a TCP/IP network.
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NetWare Licensing Services
See also Internet Protocol; Internetwork
Packet eXchange; Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol.
NetWare Licensing Services Abbreviated NLS. In Novell NetWare, a service that
allows system administrators to monitor
and manage the execution of licensed application software.
NetWare Link Services Protocol Abbreviated NLSP. The Novell NetWare IPX
(Internetwork Packet eXchange) link-state
protocol used by IPX routers to share information about their routes with other
devices on the network.
Once the network map is built, information
is transferred between routers only when
the network changes. NLSP allows large or
small internetworks to be connected without causing routing inefficiencies.
See also Routing Information Protocol.
NetWare Loadable Module Abbreviated NLM. Server management programs
and LAN drivers that run on a server under
Novell NetWare’s network operating system. NLMs can be loaded and unloaded dynamically, without interrupting the server,
and provide better service than applications
that run outside the core operating system.
Several kinds of NLMs are available:
■
■
■
■
Disk drivers give access to hard disks; they
have the .DSK filename extension.
LAN drivers control communications between the network operating system and
the network interface cards; they have a
.LAN filename extension.
See also NetWare Peripheral Architecture;
Virtual Loadable Module.
NetWare for Macintosh A set of NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs) used to
provide file handling, printing, and AppleTalk routing for Macintosh clients on a
NetWare network.
See also AppleTalk.
NetWare Management System A network management system for Novell NetWare servers that has been replaced by
ManageWise.
See also Novell ManageWise.
NetWare Mobile Services In Novell
NetWare, a dial-in remote access client for
Windows 3.x and Windows 95.
Utilities and application modules allow
you to look at or change various configuration options. These NLMs have the
.NLM filename extension.
NetWare Multiprotocol Router PCbased software from Novell that allows
network administrators to connect LANs
using IPX, TCP/IP, or AppleTalk Filing
Protocol (AFP) over a wide range of LANs
and WANs. The NetWare Multiprotocol
Router supports Ethernet, Fast Ethernet,
token ring, FDDI, and ARCnet network
architectures.
Name-space modules allow non-DOS
filenaming conventions to be used when
storing files. These NLMs have the .NAM
filename extension.
See also Fiber Distributed Data Interface;
Internetwork Packet eXchange; PC-based
router; Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol.
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NetWare Runtime
be one HAM for each adapter on the
server.
NetWare Multiprotocol Router Plus
PC-based software from Novell that provides wide-area connectivity for dispersed
heterogeneous networks over T1, fractional T1, X.25, and low-speed synchronous
leased lines. NetWare Multiprotocol
Router Plus replaces three earlier products: NetWare Link/64, NetWare Link/
T1, and NetWare Link/X.25.
■
■
See also PC-based router.
NetWare NFS A Novell NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that adds NFS (Network File System) server capability to an
existing NetWare file server. Once loaded,
Unix NFS clients see the NetWare server as
another NFS server.
See also Network File System.
NetWare NFS Gateway A Novell NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) that lets a
NetWare server mount a Unix file system as
a NetWare volume. Complete NetWare security is maintained, and access to the Unix
system is based on the NetWare client’s
privileges.
NetWare Peripheral Architecture Abbreviated NPA or NWPA. A feature of NetWare that allows developers to add and
support new storage devices and their associated controllers. NPA consists of the following components:
■
Host Adapter Module (HAM) The
adapter-specific driver that controls the
interaction between the operating system
and the hardware; provided by Novell or
by the manufacturer of the adapter, with
the filename extension .HAM. There will
■
Host Adapter Interface (HAI) An API
within NPA for communication between
the HAM and the NetWare database that
tracks the storage devices and media
available on the server.
Custom Device Module (CDM) The
software that controls the devices attached to the adapter, usually provided by
the manufacturer, with the filename extension .CDM. There may be multiple
CDMs for a single adapter as each device
connected to the adapter needs its own
CDM.
Custom Device Interface (CDI) An API
within NPA for communication between
the CDM and the NetWare database that
tracks the storage devices and media
available on the server.
The NPA replaces many of the functions
found in the NetWare Loadable Module
drivers used to control hard disks; the
.DSK drivers controlled the hard-disk controller and all the devices attached to that
controller.
See also NetWare Loadable Module; Virtual Loadable Module.
NetWare Requester for OS/2 A group
of Virtual Loadable Modules (VLMs) that
provide NetWare 4.x support for OS/2based workstations.
NetWare Runtime A single-user version
of Novell NetWare, often used as a communications server or applications server that
provide its own authentication.
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NetWare shell
NetWare shell The Novell NetWare
program loaded into each workstation’s
memory that allows the workstation to access the network.
NetWare Users International Abbreviated NUI. An organization created to support distributed NetWare user groups, first
formed in the mid-1980s.
The shell captures the workstation’s network requests and forwards them to a
NetWare server. In earlier versions of NetWare, the shell program was specific to the
version of MS-DOS or Windows in use.
The term shell is not used in recent versions
of NetWare.
NUI now has 150 regional chapters and
more than 140,000 members worldwide.
Users can present a united voice to Novell,
giving feedback on new products and how
to support and improve existing products.
Although supported by Novell, NUI is completely independent from the company.
See also NetWare Client32; NetWare DOS
Requester; NetWare Requester for OS/2;
NETx.COM.
NetWire Novell’s online information
service accessed through the commercial
service CompuServe. It provides product
information, press releases, technical support, downloadable patches, upgrades, and
utilities. All the material available through
NetWire on CompuServe is also available
on the Novell ftp site at ftp.novell.com
and on the Web at www.novell.com.
NetWare for SNA A set of NetWare
Loadable Modules (NLMs) used to provide
connectivity to an IBM Systems Network
Architecture (SNA) network. With the right
access permissions, MS-DOS, Macintosh,
Unix, and Windows clients can run applications on the IBM mainframe.
NetWare System Fault Tolerance
See System Fault Tolerance.
NetWare Tools Novell NetWare utilities that allow users to perform a variety of
network tasks, such as accessing network
resources, mapping drives, managing printing, and sending messages to other network
users.
NetWare Tools programs are installed separately from the server installation program, and they are available for MS-DOS,
Windows, and OS/2 workstations.
NetWare for Unix A software package
that allows Unix clients to access a Novell
NetWare server.
network A group of computers and associated peripheral devices connected by a
communications channel capable of sharing files and other resources among several
users.
A network can range from a peer-to-peer
network connecting a small number of users in an office or department, to a LAN
connecting many users over permanently
installed cables and dial-up lines, to a MAN
or WAN connecting users on several networks spread over a wide geographic area.
network adapter See network interface card.
network address translation Abbreviated NAT. A term used to describe the process of converting between IP addresses on
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network attached storage
an intranet or other private network and Internet IP addresses.
See also name resolution.
replaces the Windows NT 4 Dial-up Connections and the Network applet in Control
Panel.
See also Control Panel.
network administrator The person responsible for the day-to-day operation and
management of a network; also known as a
system administrator. Duties of the network
administrator can include the following:
■
■
■
■
Planning for future expansion
Installing new workstations and network
peripheral devices
Adding and removing authorized users
Backing up the system and archiving important files
■
Assigning and changing passwords
■
Troubleshooting network problems
■
Monitoring system performance
■
Evaluating new products
■
Installing hardware and software updates
■
Training users
See also configuration management.
network analyzer Any device that decodes and analyzes data transmitted over
the network. A network analyzer may be
hardware, software, or a combination of
the two. Some analyzers troubleshoot network problems by decoding packets; others
create and transmit their own packets.
See also protocol analyzer; sniffer.
Network and Dial-up Connections In
Microsoft Windows 2000, a special folder
containing icons used to configure and manage local area network and other connections. Network and Dial-Up Connections
network architecture The design of a
network, including the hardware, software,
access methods, and the protocols in use.
Several well-accepted network architectures have been defined by standards committees and major vendors. For example,
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the seven-layer OSI Reference Model for computer-tocomputer communications, and IBM designed SNA (Systems Network Architecture). Both architectures organize network
functions into layers of hardware and software, with each layer building on the functions provided by the previous layer.
The ultimate goal is to allow different computers to exchange information freely in as
transparent a fashion as possible.
Network Associates, Inc. Formed in
1997 by the merger of Network General and
McAfee Associates, Network Associates
provides virus detection and protection software, encryption software, help desk systems, and network management products.
For more information on Network Associates, see www.networkassociates.com.
network attached storage Abbreviated
NAS. A collection of mass-storage devices
contained in a single chassis with a built-in
operating system.
Ethernet connectors allow the NAS to connect directly to the network. A NAS might
contain a large hard disk as well as a set of
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network backbone
SCSI connectors to attach additional disks,
CD-ROM drives, tape drives, or Iomega
Zip and Jaz drives. Because the NAS is managed by its own embedded operating system, adding one to a network adds little in
the way of overhead.
network computer Abbreviated NC.
An initiative from Apple, IBM, Netscape,
Oracle, and Sun Microsystems describing a
networked computer designed to give system administrators greater control and security than a traditional PC provides.
See also storage area network.
The network computer is based on a minimum configuration of a 25MHz Intel i960
with at least 32MB of memory, running a
Java Virtual Machine, and downloads applications from the server and runs them locally. Hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM
drives and expansion slots are not required.
network backbone See backbone.
network basic input/output system
Abbreviated NetBIOS, pronounced “netbye-os.” A session-layer network protocol,
originally developed in 1984 by IBM and
Sytek to manage data exchange and network access.
NetBIOS provides an API (application programming interface) with a consistent set of
commands for requesting lower-level network services to transmit information from
node to node, thus separating applications
from the underlying network operating system. Many vendors provide either their
own version of NetBIOS or an emulation of
its communications services in their own
products.
The initiative fizzled out, in part at least
because conventional PCs can do the same
job, but also due to Compaq (and other
manufacturers) creating the sub-$1,000 PC.
See also NetPC; thin client; total cost of
ownership; Zero Administration for
Windows.
Network Control Block Abbreviated
NCB. The packet structure used by the NetBIOS transport protocol.
card.
network control program Abbreviated NCP. In an IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA) environment, performs
the routing, error control, testing, and addressing of SNA devices.
network-centric An imprecise term often used to describe an approach to software
design and development that includes a
strong client/server component.
Network Control Protocol Abbreviated NCP. A protocol that mediates between
network-layer protocols and the underlying
data link protocols.
Network+ certification A certification
program from the CompTIA (Computer
Technology Industry Association) designed
to measure competence in basic networking
concepts; aimed at the computer technician.
network device driver Software that
controls the physical function of a network
interface card, coordinating between the
card and the other workstation hardware
and software.
See also WinSock.
network board See network interface
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network interface card
See also Network Driver Interface
Specification.
network directory A directory located
on a computer other than the one currently
being used. Depending on access privileges,
the rest of the disk may or may not be available to the user. On the Macintosh, a network directory is often referred to as a
shared folder.
See also network drive; shared folder.
network drive A drive located on a computer other than the one currently being used
and that is available to users on the network.
See also local disk; network directory.
Network Driver Interface Specification Abbreviated NDIS. A device driver
specification, originally developed by Microsoft and 3Com in 1990, that is independent of both the underlying network
interface card hardware and the protocol
being used. NDIS also allows multiple protocol stacks to be used at the same time in
the same computer.
Windows NT includes the latest version,
NDIS 3, which is backward-compatible
with the original NDIS and NDIS 2.
See also Open Data-link Interface; Open
Data-link Interface/Network Driver Interface Specification Support.
Network Dynamic Data Exchange
Abbreviated NetDDE. A version of Microsoft’s DDE that uses NetBIOS to extend
DDE features over a network.
Using NetDDE, two or more applications
running on networked workstations can
dynamically share data.
See also Component Object Model; Distributed Component Object Model; Dynamic Data Exchange; Object Linking and
Embedding.
Network File System Abbreviated
NFS. A distributed file-sharing system developed well over a decade ago by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
NFS allows a computer on a network to use
the files and peripheral devices of another
networked computer as if they were local,
subject to certain security restrictions. Using NFS, you can share files on your system
with other computers running MS-DOS,
MacOS, Unix, Novell NetWare, VMS, and
many other operating systems, in both local
and global environments.
NFS is platform-independent and runs on
mainframes, minicomputers, RISC-based
workstations, diskless workstations, and
personal computers. NFS has been licensed
and implemented by more than 300 vendors.
See also Andrews File System; Common
Internet File System; WebNFS.
Network Information Service Abbreviated NIS. A recent name for the security
and file-access databases on Unix systems,
previously known as the Yellow Pages.
The NIS for most Unix systems comprises
the Unix host files /etc/hosts, /etc/passwd,
and /etc/group.
network interface card Abbreviated
NIC. In networking, the PC expansion
board that plugs into a personal computer
or server and works with the network operating system and the appropriate device
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network layer
drivers to control the flow of information
over the network.
The network interface card is connected to
the network media (twisted pair, coaxial, or
fiber-optic cable) and is designed for a specific type of network such as Ethernet, token ring, FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data
Interface), or ARCnet.
Novell NetWare documentation uses the
term network board rather than the more
common term network interface card.
Network support is built in to Macintosh
computers and does not require an additional expansion board.
network layer The third of seven layers
of the OSI Reference Model for computerto-computer communications. The network layer defines protocols for data routing to ensure that the information arrives at
the correct destination node and manages
communications errors.
Network Monitor In Microsoft Windows NT Server, a graphical utility program
used to monitor and troubleshoot networkrelated problems.
Network Monitor tracks information up to
the network layer, filters packets according
to the protocol or the source or the destination machine, and performs packet analysis.
A more capable version of Network Monitor is available as part of Microsoft’s Systems Management Server package.
Network News Transfer Protocol Abbreviated NNTP. An Internet protocol used
for posting, retrieving, and managing posts
to newsgroups.
Network Management Protocol Abbreviated NMP. A set of protocols developed by AT&T, designed to control certain
network devices, such as modems and T1
multiplexers.
network operating system Abbreviated NOS. In typical client/server architecture
LANs, the NOS consists of two parts. The
largest and most complex part is the system
software running on the file server. This
system software coordinates many functions, including user accounts and network
access information, security, resource sharing, administration, UPS and power monitoring, data protection, and error detection
and control. A much smaller component of
the NOS runs on each of the networked PCs
or workstations attached to the network.
Network Management Vector
Transport Abbreviated NMVT. A network management protocol from IBM
that provides problem-determination statistics and other network management
data within Systems Network Architecture
(SNA) services.
Network operating systems are available
from Banyan (VINES), IBM (OS/2 Warp
Server), Microsoft (Windows NT Server and
Windows 2000), Novell (IntraNetWare and
NetWare), and Sun Microsystems (Solaris),
and, of course, many versions of Unix are
available.
See also OSI Reference Model.
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newsgroup
In peer-to-peer networks, a part of the NOS
is installed on each PC or workstation attached to the network and runs on top of
the PC operating system. In some cases, the
NOS may be installed on one PC designated
as a file server, but this PC is not dedicated
to the file-server function; it is also available
to run applications.
network printer A printer attached to
and accessible from the network. A network printer may be attached to a file server
or a printer server, or it may have its own direct connection to the network.
newsgroup A Usenet e-mail discussion
group devoted to a single topic. Subscribers
to a newsgroup post articles that can be
read by all the other subscribers.
Newsgroup names fit into a formal structure in which each component of the name
is separated from the next by a period. The
leftmost portion of the name represents the
category of the newsgroup, and the name
gets more specific from left to right.
The major top-level newsgroup categories
are:
■
See also local printer.
■
Network Service Access Point Abbreviated NSAP. A 20-octet addressing scheme
used in Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) networks for private network
addresses.
■
network topology See topology.
NETx.COM The workstation shell software used in Novell NetWare 2.x and 3.x
networks. This program is loaded into
memory on the workstation and begins
transmission when the workstation requests network resources.
In earlier versions of NetWare, NETx.COM
was specific to the version of MS-DOS running on the workstation. The only way to
unload NETx.COM from memory is to reboot the workstation.
See also NetWare Client32; NetWare DOS
Requester.
■
■
■
■
■
alt Newsgroups outside the main structure outlined below
comp Computer science and related
topics, including information about operating systems and hardware, as well as
more advanced topics such as graphics
and robotics
misc Anything that does not fit into any
of the other categories
news Information on Usenet and
newsgroups
rec Recreational activities, such as hobbies, the arts, movies, and books
sci Discussion groups on scientific topics, including math, physics, and biology
soc Groups that address social and cultural issues
talk Groups that concentrate on controversial subjects
Private newsgroups are often available on
corporate intranets, where organization,
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newsreader
structure, and subject matter are decided by
the system administrator.
See also newsreader; Usenet.
NHRP See Next Hop Resolution
Protocol.
NIAS See NetWare Internet Access
Server.
newsreader An application used to read
articles posted to Usenet newsgroups.
Newsreaders are of two kinds:
■
■
Threaded newsreaders group the posts
into threads of related articles.
Unthreaded newsreaders present articles
in their original order of posting without
regard for the subject.
Of the two, threaded newsreaders are
much easier to use.
NIC See network interface card.
NII See National Information
Infrastructure.
NIS
See Network Information Service.
NLM See NetWare Loadable Module.
NLS See NetWare Licensing Services.
NLSP See NetWare Link Services
Protocol.
See also newsgroup; thread; Usenet.
NMP See Network Management
New Technology File System Abbreviated NTFS; sometimes NT File System.
The native file system used by Microsoft
Windows NT, which supports long filenames, reduced file fragmentation, improved fault tolerance, increased system
security, and much better recovery after a
system crash.
NEXT See near-end crosstalk.
Next Hop Resolution Protocol Abbreviated NHRP. An Internet name resolution
protocol designed to route IP datagrams
across nonbroadcast multiple access networks such as Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM), frame relay, Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), and X.25.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode ; IP
over ATM; IP switching.
NFS See Network File System.
Protocol.
NMVT See Network Management Vector Transport.
NNTP See Network News Transfer
Protocol.
node Any device attached to the network
capable of communicating with other network devices. In Novell NetWare documentation, a workstation is often called a
node.
node number The number that uniquely
identifies a network interface card and distinguishes it from all others.
Node numbers can be assigned in different
ways. Ethernet node numbers are factoryset, so no two Ethernet boards have the
same number. On other network interface
cards, node numbers are set by jumpers or
switches.
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Novell Application Launcher
noise In communications, extraneous
signals on a transmission channel that degrade the quality or performance of the
channel. Noise is often caused by interference from nearby power lines, electrical
equipment, or spikes in the AC line voltage.
See also crosstalk; far-end crosstalk; nearend crosstalk.
nominal velocity of propagation The
speed at which a signal moves through a
cable, expressed as a percentage or fraction
of the speed of light in a vacuum. Some
cable testers use this speed, along with the
time it takes for a signal to return to the testing device, to calculate cable lengths.
nondedicated server A server upon
which applications are available, while network management software runs in the
background. Nondedicated servers are
common in peer-to-peer networks.
non-preemptive multitasking Any
form of multitasking in which the operating
system cannot preempt a running task and
move to the next task in the queue.
Programs are easy to write for this environment; however, a single badly written program can take over the whole system. By
refusing to relinquish the processor, such a
program can cause serious problems for
other programs running at the same time.
Poorly written non-preemptive multitasking can produce a kind of stuttering effect
on running applications, depending on how
the programs behave.
See also preemptive multitasking; timeslice multitasking.
nonvolatile memory Any form of memory that holds its contents when the power
is removed. ROM (read-only memory),
EPROM (erasable programmable readonly memory), and EEPROM (electrically
erasable programmable read-only memory)
are all forms of nonvolatile memory.
no parity See parity.
NOS See network operating system.
notebook computer A small, portable
computer, about the size of a computer
book, with a flat screen and a keyboard that
fold together.
A notebook computer is lighter and smaller
than a laptop computer. Recent advances in
battery technology allow them to run for
many hours between charges. Some models
use flash memory rather than conventional
hard disks for program and data storage;
other models offer a range of business applications in ROM . Many offer PCMCIA
expansion connections for additional
peripheral devices, such as modems, fax
modems, and network connections.
See also laptop computer; PC Memory
Card International Association.
Novell Application Launcher In Novell NetWare, a utility used with applications for NetWare clients.
The NetWare administrator decides which
applications are appropriate and creates an
icon group for the users; additional startup
and shutdown scripts can be used to add
more application control. Novell Application Launcher uses the Universal Naming
Convention (UNC) for ease and clarity.
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Novell Authorized Education Center
See also Universal Naming Convention.
Novell Authorized Education Center
Abbreviated NAEC. A private organization
that provides Novell-approved training
courses.
See also NEAP.
Novell BorderManager A network protection package from Novell that provides a
firewall, circuit-level gateways, proxy services, and Internet access.
Novell Certified Internet Professional
Abbreviated NCIP. A certification system
from Novell structured for professionals
who design, build, and maintain Web sites.
The following specializations are available:
Internet Business Strategist, Web Designer,
Intranet Manager, Internet Architect, and
Web Developer.
Novell Connect An add-on product
from Novell that allows remote users to dial
in and access network resources.
See also Novell Connect Services,
other platforms, including Microsoft Windows NT.
NDS uses a distributed database known as
the NetWare Directory Database (NDD) to
keep track of all network objects, including
servers, users, groups, printers, and other
networked resources. This information is
presented to the user as a collection of containers, arranged in a hierarchical structure
according to the organization or corporation structure, and is known as the Directory Tree or simply as the Directory.
Users no longer log in to a single server; they
are authenticated by the network through
NDS.
See also container object; leaf object; Root
object.
Novell Distributed Print Services Abbreviated NDPS. A set of printer services
available for Novell NetWare that standardizes and centralizes use and management of printers and printing on a network.
Novell Directory Services Abbreviated
NDS. A distributed directory system from
Novell, similar in scope and concept to the
X.500 directory services specification.
NDPS was developed jointly by Novell, Xerox, and Hewlett-Packard and allows bidirectional communications with newer
printers, supports drag-and-drop printing
for text and PostScript files without opening the creating application, and supports
ISO 10175 Document Printing Architecture, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Management Information
Base (MIB), and automatically downloadable printer drivers.
Originally designed for use with Novell
NetWare, NDS is now available for several
Networked printers are administered using
the NetWare Administrator program.
Novell Connect Services A collection
of network products from Novell that are
designed to simplify WAN administration;
includes Novell NetWare, Novell Directory
Services, ManageWise, Novell Connect,
and NetWare Multiprotocol Router.
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Novell NetWare 3.x
Novell Education Academic Partner
Abbreviated NEAP. A college or university
that provides Novell-approved training
courses as a part of its standard curriculum.
See also Novell Authorized Education
Center.
Novell GroupWise A groupware software package from Novell that includes email, group scheduling, task management,
personal calendaring, document management, workflow routing, and support for
threaded discussions.
GroupWise also includes Internet Mail
Access Protocol (IMAP), Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), and Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol (LDAP) support.
Novell, Inc. A leading developer of network operating system software, groupware, network management tools, Internet
and intranet tools, and security products,
based in Orem, Utah.
Best known for its Novell NetWare network operating systems, Novell is moving
toward more open systems, the Internet,
and corporate intranets and sees Novell
Directory Services (NDS) as a significant
advance in this direction.
For more information on Novell, see
www.novell.com.
Novell IntraNetWare An intranet software package from Novell that includes the
NetWare operating system, the Netscape
Navigator Web browser, the NetWare Web
server, the Multiprotocol Router (MPR),
Novell Directory Services (NDS), and the
IPX/IP Gateway—also known as Novell
Internet Access Server (NAIS).
Novell LANalizer A network monitoring and analysis package from Novell used
for troubleshooting Ethernet and tokenring networks.
Novell ManageWise A software package from Novell for managing NetWare
and Microsoft Windows NT servers.
ManageWise includes server and desktop management, network analysis, software management, virus protection, and
automatic network inventory. ManageWise replaces NetWare Management System on Novell servers.
See also Novell Z.E.N.works.
Novell NDS for NT An add-on product
for Microsoft Windows NT Server from
Novell that allows the integration of Windows NT domains with Novell Directory
Services (NDS) and their joint management
from within NetWare Administrator.
Novell NetWare A general term for the
family of network operating systems available from Novell.
Novell NetWare 3.x A 32-bit network
operating system that is designed to take
advantage of the features of the Intel 80386
(and later) processors and is suitable for
larger, multisegment networks, with up to
250 nodes per server.
NetWare 3.x provides enhanced security,
performance, and flexibility and can access up to 4GB of RAM and up to 32TB of
storage. A maximum of 100,000 files can
be open concurrently on the file server, and
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Novell NetWare 4.x
the maximum file size is 4GB. Disk mirroring, disk duplexing, support for optical
disks, and UPS-monitoring functions are
all available.
Novell NetWare 4.x A 32-bit network
operating system from Novell announced
in 1993 that builds on the successes of Novell NetWare 3.x.
Its most significant feature was the inclusion
of Novell Directory Services (NDS), which
allowed system administrators to organize
users and network resources such as printers
and servers the way people naturally access
them. NDS is based on the CCITT X.500 directory standard and replaces the bindery
database in earlier versions of NetWare.
NetWare 4.x also adds support for optical
disks, CD-ROMs, data compression, and
improved login security mechanisms. NetWare 4.1 is the first version of NetWare to
integrate Message Handling Service with
the directory, and it also adds System Fault
Tolerance. NetWare 4.x is suitable for larger, multisegment internetworks, supporting
up to 1000 nodes per server. It includes a set
of user and administrator utilities featuring
a graphical user interface, and it is available
in several languages.
Novell NetWare 4.x SFT III A network
software package from Novell that provides fault tolerance and protects against
downtime by integrating two physically
separate servers; if one of the servers fails
for whatever reason, the other takes over
and continues to support users.
Novell NetWare 5 A 32-bit network operating system from Novell. NetWare 5
continues Novell’s transition into open systems, with native TCP/IP support, a Java
Virtual Machine that runs on the server,
and an enhanced file system.
Improvements have been made to Novell
Directory Services (NDS), including the addition of Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LADP), as well as to the Remote
Access Services for dial-in users. NetWare 5
also includes WAN Traffic Manager, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Novell’s Public
Key Infrastructure Services, Storage Management Services, Netscape’s FastTrack
Web server, DNS/DHCP services, and a
Z.E.N.works starter pack.
Novell NetWare Connect See NetWare Internet Access Server.
Novell NetWare Navigator An automated software distribution package from
Novell.
Novell Support Connection A technical information service available by subscription from Novell.
Two update CDs in a searchable format
are issued periodically, containing all the
latest files, patches, device drivers, and
technical information, including product
documentation, Novell Appnotes, Novell
Developer Notes, and Novell Labs Certification Bulletins.
Novell Z.E.N.works A software management package from Novell that provides
desktop management, including hardware
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NWLink NetBIOS
inventory, and adds flexibility to the desktop policy capabilities built into Microsoft
Windows. Z.E.N.works can also control
the applications a client can run and can operate the client remotely.
Z.E.N.works maintains a hardware inventory for each client, which is updated each
time the client logs on to the network, and
includes the desktop operating system, the
amount of RAM in the workstation, the capacity of the local hard disk, and any connected peripherals.
Z.E.N.works also removes the need to log
on twice—once to the operating system and
once to the network—under Windows.
See also Novell ManageWise.
NPA See NetWare Peripheral
Architecture.
ns See nanosecond.
NSAP See Network Service Access
Point.
NTFS See New Technology File System.
NT File System See New Technology
File System.
NUI See NetWare Users International.
null A character that has all the binary
digits set to zero (ASCII 0) and therefore has
no value.
In programming, a null character is used for
several special purposes, including padding
fields or serving as a delimiter character. In
the C programming language, for example,
a null character indicates the end of a character string.
null modem A short serial cable that
connects two personal computers so that
they can communicate without the use of
modems.
The cable connects the two computers’ serial ports, and certain lines in the cable are
crossed over so that the wires used for sending by one computer are used for receiving
data by the other computer.
See also modem eliminator.
NWADMIN A Novell NetWare workstation utility that provides most of the functions needed to administer a Novell
NetWare network.
Referred to as the Network Administrator
in the Novell documentation, NWADMIN
allows you to create users and groups, create, move, delete, and rename Novell Directory Services (NDS) objects, and manage
NDS partitions and volumes.
NWLink IPX/SPX In Microsoft Windows NT, a protocol that implements
Novell’s IPX/SPX protocol.
See also Internetwork Packet eXchange;
Sequenced Packet Exchange.
NWLink NetBIOS In Microsoft Windows NT, a protocol that enables Novell
NetBIOS packets to be sent between a Novell server running NetBIOS and a Windows NT computer.
See also network basic input/output
system.
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NWPA
NULL MODEM
NWPA See NetWare Peripheral
Architecture.
NWUSER A Novell NetWare workstation utility that lets users display or modify
their workstation’s drive mappings, server
attachments, and print queues using a simple graphical user interface.
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Object Linking and Embedding
O
Object 1. In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), a representation of a logical or
physical network resource, including users,
computers, and printers. An Object has
both properties and values and may be a
Root, leaf, or container object.
2. In Microsoft’s Active Directory, a rep-
resentation of a network resource, including users, computers, and printers. Objects
contain properties for definition and
configuration.
See also Active Directory; container object;
leaf object; Organizational Unit; Root object; Schema.
object 1. Any distinct entity. Program
objects can represent applications such as
word processors, spreadsheets, and so on.
Folder objects can represent a directory and
contain a group of files, a group of programs, or a group of other folders. Data-file
objects can include information such as text,
memos, letters, spreadsheets, video, and
sound. Device objects can be printers, fax
modems, plotters, servers, and CD-ROMS.
2. In Object Linking and Embedding
(OLE), an object can be any user-selected
group of data, such as a block of text, a set
of spreadsheet cells, a chart, a sound, or a
graphical image. This data can be embedded in or linked to another document created by a different OLE application.
3. In object-oriented programming, a
program consists of a set of related but
self-contained objects that can contain
both code and data.
See also container object; leaf object; NetWare Directory Services.
object counters In Microsoft Windows
2000, a container built into each service object that counts the number of times an
object performs its designated task.
Object Linking and Embedding Abbreviated OLE, pronounced “oh-lay.” A
Microsoft protocol for application-to-application exchange and communications using
data objects. From a user standpoint, the
main benefit to OLE is that it allows any
OLE-compliant application to display information created in a different application.
Data objects can be either embedded or
linked. If the source data in its original form
is actually stored inside the other application program’s data file, the data is embedded. In this case, there are two separate
copies of the data: the original data and the
embedded copy. Any changes made to the
original document will not be made in the
compound document unless the embedded
object is updated.
If the data still exists in a separate file and
a set of pointers to this data is stored in the
other application program’s data file, the
data is linked. In this case, only one copy of
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object-oriented
the data exists; any changes made in the
original document will be made automatically in the compound document.
To determine whether an application supports OLE, check the Edit menu for commands such as Paste Link, Paste Special,
and Insert Object. If these commands are
present, the application supports OLE.
See also OpenDoc.
object-oriented An over-used term that
can be applied to any computer system, operating system, programming language, application, or graphical user interface that
supports the use of objects.
These objects interact with other objects
by passing messages. Object-oriented
programming also lets you create procedures that work with objects whose exact
type may not be known until the program
actually runs.
In object-oriented programming, each object
contains both data and code and is completely self-contained. The program incorporates
an object by making it part of a layered hierarchy. Object-oriented programming is
the result of many years of theoretical development, and many consider it the current extension of the theory behind modular
programming, in which code is combined
into reusable modules.
See also object-oriented programming.
object-oriented graphics Graphics
that are constructed from individual components, such as lines, arcs, circles, and
squares.
The image is defined mathematically rather
than as a set of dots, as in a bitmapped graphic. Object-oriented graphics are used in illustration, drawing, and CAD (computer-aided
design) programs and are also known as vector graphics or structured graphics.
Object-oriented graphics allow the user to
manipulate a part of an image without redrawing. Unlike bitmapped graphics, all or
parts of object-oriented graphics can be resized or rotated without introducing any
distortion.
object-oriented programming Abbreviated OOP. A programming model that
views a program as a set of self-contained
objects.
Object Request Broker Abbreviated
ORB. A communications mechanism used
in an object-oriented distributed computing environment in which program modules can be written in any programming
language and still provide services to other
applications.
An object makes a request and sends it to
the ORB. The ORB locates the requested
object and establishes communications between client and server. The receiving object then responds to the request and sends
a response to the ORB, which, in turn,
sends the response to the original requester.
The physical location of the object that provides the response is unimportant, and to the
user, the application appears seamless, even
though the various services may be coming
from several different parts of the network.
The ORB standard is defined by the Object
Management Group, an industry consortium
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offline reader
developing middleware standards based on
distributed-object architecture.
See also Common Object Request Broker
Architecture; Distributed Component Object Model; middleware.
object rights In Novell Directory Services (NDS), rights granted to a trustee over an
object. For example, the Create object right
for a container object allows a trustee to
create new objects in that container.
See also Object.
ODINSUP See Open Data-link Interface/
Network Driver Interface Specification
Support.
ODSI See Open Directory Services
Interface.
OE See Outlook Express.
OEM See original equipment
manufacturer.
offline Describes any device that is not in
ready mode and is therefore unavailable for
use.
OC See Optical Carrier.
See also online.
occupant In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), a user who has been assigned to an
Organizational Role object. Each Organizational Role object can have multiple
occupants.
offline files In Microsoft Windows
2000, a mechanism that caches frequently
used network files on the client; also known
as client-side caching.
OCR See optical character recognition.
octet The Internet’s own term for a unit
of data containing exactly eight bits. Some
of the computer systems attached to the Internet use bytes with more than eight bits;
hence, the need for this term.
See also byte.
ODBC See Open Database Connectivity.
odd parity See parity.
ODI See Open Data-link Interface.
ODI/NDIS Support See Open Data-link
Interface/Network Driver Interface Specification Support.
Offline files makes the network seem to respond more quickly to file requests, allows
users to ignore minor network outages, and
provides a way for mobile users to synchronize laptop and server versions of the same
file.
offline reader An application that lets
you read postings to Usenet newsgroups
without having to stay connected to the
Internet.
The program downloads all the newsgroup
postings you have not read and disconnects
from your Internet Service Provider. You
can then read the postings at your convenience without incurring online charges or
tying up your telephone line. If you reply to
any of these postings, the program will automatically upload them to the correct
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OLAP
newsgroup the next time you connect to
your service provider.
various services. Online services fall into
these main groups:
See also newsgroup; newsreader; Usenet.
■
OLAP See online analytical processing.
OLE See Object Linking and
Embedding.
■
OLTP See online transaction
processing.
online 1. Most broadly, any work done
on a computer instead of by more traditional manual means.
2. Any function available directly on a com-
puter, such as an application’s help system.
3. Describes a peripheral device, such as a
printer or a modem, when it is directly connected to a computer and ready to operate.
4. In communications, describes a comput-
er connected to a remote computer over a
network or a modem link.
See also offline.
online analytical processing Abbreviated OLAP. A category of software used to
analyze historical business data to find
previously hidden patterns.
Analysts use OLAP software to view data in
a multidimensional form, rather than in the
more usual two-dimensional row and column format. In a multidimensional format,
the intersection of important data is much
more obvious, and data is easier to group
and categorize.
See also data mining; data warehousing.
online service A service that provides an
online connection via modem for access to
■
Commercial services Services such as
America Online charge a monthly membership fee for access to online forums,
e-mail services, software libraries, and online conferences.
Internet The Internet is a worldwide
network of computer systems and is not
always easy to use, but the wealth of information available is staggering. The
main problem for casual users is that there
is no central listing of everything that is
available.
Specialist databases Specific databases
aimed at researchers can be accessed
through online services such as Dow Jones
News/Retrieval for business news and
Lexis and Nexis for legal information and
news archives.
online transaction processing Abbreviated OLTP. A business system that operates in real time, collecting and posting
transaction-related data and making
changes to shared databases.
A transaction is a single, discrete unit of
work, which is normally part of a business
process. Examples of OLTP systems include
airline and hotel reservation systems, inventory control systems, and banking systems.
See also transaction processing.
OOP See object-oriented programming.
open architecture A vendor-independent design that is publicly available and
well understood within the industry.
See also closed architecture.
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Open Data-link Interface/Network Driver Interface Specification
Open Database Connectivity Abbreviated ODBC. An application program interface (API) from Microsoft that allows a
single application to access many types of
database and file formats.
■
■
ODBC uses Structured Query Language
(SQL) for operations that access a database,
and the client does not need to know the location of the database or its type or the
method used to access the data; all these details are managed by ODBC. Data sources
can range from a simple spreadsheet all the
way up to very large relational databases.
Open Data-link Interface Abbreviated
ODI. A Novell specification, released in
1989, that allows multiple network interface card device drivers and protocols to
share a single network interface card without conflict.
ODI defines an interface that separates device drivers from protocol stacks and lets
multiple protocol stacks share the same
network hardware. Here are the main
components:
■
■
■
The multiple-link interface driver (MLID)
manages the sending and receiving of
packets to and from the network.
The link-support layer (LSL) is the interface layer between the device driver and
the protocol stacks. Any ODI LAN driver
can communicate with any ODI protocol
stack via the LSL.
The MLI (Multiple-Link Interface) communicates with the network interface
cards through an MLID and consists of
three main components:
■
The media-support module (MSM),
which manages the details of interfacing
ODI MLIDs to the LSL and to the operating system.
The hardware-specific module (HSM),
which is specific to a particular network
interface card. It handles adapter initialization, reset, shutdown, packet reception, timeout detection, and multicast
addressing.
The topology-specific module (TSM),
which manages operations that are specific to a particular media type, such as
Ethernet or token ring.
See also Network Driver Interface Specification; Open Data-link Interface/Network
Driver Interface Specification Support.
Open Data-link Interface/Network
Driver Interface Specification Support
Abbreviated ODINSUP; also written as
ODI/NDIS Support. A Novell interface that
allows the coexistence of two network driver interfaces:
■
■
Microsoft’s NDIS (Network Driver Interface Specification)
Novell’s ODI (Open Data-link Interface)
ODINSUP allows an MS- DOS or Microsoft Windows workstation to connect to
dissimilar networks through a single network interface card and to use them as if
they were a single network.
ODINSUP also allows NDIS protocol
stacks to communicate through the ODI’s
link-support layer (LSL) and multiple-link
interface driver (MLID) so that ODI and
NDIS protocol stacks can coexist in the
same system, using a single ODI MLID.
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Open Desktop
OPEN DATA-LINK INTERFACE
Open Desktop A graphical user interface
from SCO that provides access to files and
system utility functions on the desktop. Files,
directories, and applications are represented
by icons and displayed in windows.
See also OpenServer; Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.; UnixWare.
Open Directory Services Interface
Abbreviated ODSI. A standard from Microsoft that enables client software to query
Internet directories by providing a common
API for naming.
OpenDoc A specification for creating
compound documents, from Apple, IBM,
Borland, and Novell. OpenDoc manages
text, spreadsheets, graphics, sound, and
video as objects that can be created in one
application and then inserted into another.
OpenDoc is similar in many respects to
Microsoft’s Object Linking and Embedding
(OLE) specification, but OpenDoc provides
for greater network support and also
includes a certification process to ensure
that applications work together.
OpenGL See Open Graphics Library.
Open Graphics Library Abbreviated
OpenGL. A set of graphics libraries originally developed by Silicon Graphics and
now supported by IBM, Intel, Microsoft,
and many other companies.
OpenGL lets developers create 3-D graphical applications for workstations running
the Programmers Hierarchical Interactive
Graphics System (PHiGS) extensions to the
X Window system.
See also X Window.
Open Group An international consortium of vendors, educational institutions,
and government agencies that develops
standards for open systems. Formed in
1996 as an umbrella organization to bring
together the Open Software Foundation
(OSF) and X/Open Company Limited.
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Optical Carrier
For more information on Open Group, see
www.opengroup.com.
OpenServer A scalable set of Unixbased products from SCO, including the
Desktop System, Host System, and Enterprise System, based on SVR2 but containing many significant SVR4 enhancements.
The Desktop System is a single-user, multitasking system with MS-DOS and Windows emulations, TCP/IP, and Internet
connectivity.
The Host and Enterprise systems provide
high-performance scalable servers for Intelbased platforms, supporting more than
8,000 applications, and with extensive networking support, UPS (uninterruptible
power supply), and advanced power management support.
See also Open Desktop.
Open Shortest Path First Abbreviated
OSPF. A routing protocol used on TCP/IP
networks that takes into account network
loading and bandwidth when routing information over the network. Routers maintain
a map of the network and swap information on the current status of each network
link. OSPF incorporates least-cost routing,
equal-cost routing, and load balancing.
See also Routing Information Protocol.
open source software Any software
package that includes the original source
code from which the product was originally
created.
Open source software allows knowledgeable users to make changes to the way the
software actually works, unlike products
from mainstream software developers
which never include the source code. And
while this mainstream software is certainly
configurable, it is basically a take-it-orleave-it package.
See also Free Software Foundation; Linux.
Open Systems Interconnect See OSI
Reference Model.
OpenView A popular network management package from Hewlett-Packard that
includes Network Node Manager, Event
Correlation Services, a Java-based Web
user interface, Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) integration, and other support
services. OpenView is available on HPUX, a Unix variant, and on Microsoft
Windows NT.
operating system Abbreviated OS. The
software responsible for allocating system
resources, including memory, processor
time, disk space, and peripheral devices
such as printers, modems, and monitors.
All applications use the operating system to
gain access to these resources as necessary.
The operating system is the first program
loaded into the computer as it boots, and it
remains in memory throughout the session.
See also kernel; microkernel; network
operating system.
Optical Carrier Abbreviated OC. A set
of Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
hierarchies that define how digital signals
are multiplexed over fiber-optic cable.
SONET is the physical-layer standard used
by telephone carriers to connect longdistance services. Table O.1 lists the OC
levels and related data rates.
See also digital signal; Synchronous
Optical Network; Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy.
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optical character recognition
TABLE O.1 OC LEVELS
OC Level
Data Rate (Mbps)
OC-1
51.84
OC-3
155.52
OC-6
311.04
OC-9
466.56
OC-12
622.08
OC-18
933.12
OC-24
1244.16
OC-36
1866.24
OC-48
2488.32
OC-96
4976.00
OC-192
9952.00
optical character recognition Abbreviated OCR. The computer recognition of
printed or typed characters. OCR is usually
performed using a standard optical scanner
and special software, although some systems use special readers. The text is reproduced just as though it had been typed.
Certain advanced systems can even resolve
neatly handwritten characters.
optical drive A high-capacity disk-storage device that uses a laser to read and
write information.
See also document management.
jukebox; Magneto-optical storage.
Because optical drives are relatively slow,
they are used for archiving information and
for other applications for which high access
speed is not critical.
See also high-capacity storage system;
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Organizational Unit
Oracle Corporation A major developer
of powerful relational database software,
client/server development tools, and other
related products for multiuser enterprise
computing.
For more information on Oracle, see
www.oracle.com.
Oracle NCA See Oracle Network Computing Architecture.
Oracle Network Computing
Architecture Abbreviated Oracle NCA.
A set of technologies from Oracle Corporation designed to allow clients to access information from Web servers, database
servers, and other systems. NCA includes
open Internet standards and special components called cartridges that provide a connection between proprietary applications.
Orange Book Lay term for the National
Security Agency document called “Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria,” or
TCSEC, which specifies security levels that
vendors must comply with to achieve
Department of Defense security standards;
so called because of the color of its cover.
This publication details standards for security levels used to control access to computer
systems from Class A1, the highest verifiable
security level, to Class D, the lowest, which
has no security.
Class C2 is the security level most appropriate to the business world; higher levels of security tend to intrude too much into normal
commercial working patterns. C2 security
requires that the operating system provide
individual logins with separate accounts and
a verifiable audit trail, that resources have
owners, and that files and other system resources be protected from other processes
that might corrupt them.
According to the standard, a C2 compliant
workstation cannot be connected to a network. Secure networking is defined in
“Trusted Network Interpretation,” which
is known as the Red Book.
See also security.
ORB See Object Request Broker.
Organization object In Novell Directory Services (NDS), a container object below
the Country object and above the Organizational Unit object that helps to organize
other objects in the tree. You must have at
least one Organization object, usually the
name of your company or department, and
you can use multiple Organization objects
if you wish.
See also leaf object; Novell Directory
Services.
Organizational Role object In Novell
Directory Services (NDS), a container object
used to specify a role within an organization
such as Workgroup Leader or Department
Manager who has access to certain NDS objects or files. The Organizational Role object
is often used for container administrators.
See also occupant.
Organizational Unit In Microsoft’s Active Directory, an object that can contain
other objects, such as other Organizational
Units, users, groups, or Distributed File System (DFS) shares.
See also Active Directory.
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Organizational Unit object
Organizational Unit object In Novell
Directory Services (NDS), a container object below the Organization object. The Organizational Unit object can contain other
Organizational Unit objects or leaf objects.
This container is not a required container,
but its use allows better management of
workgroups or project teams.
original equipment manufacturer
Abbreviated OEM. The original manufacturer of a hardware subsystem or component. For example, Canon makes the print
engine used in many laser printers, including those from Hewlett-Packard (HP); in
this case, Canon is the OEM, and HP is a
value-added reseller (VAR).
OS See operating system.
OS/2 A 32-bit multitasking operating system from IBM that runs on Intel processors.
OS/2 was developed jointly by Microsoft
and IBM as the successor to MS-DOS,
with Windows as a stop-gap measure until
OS/2 was ready. When Microsoft chose to
back Windows, placing considerable resources behind the breakthrough release
of Windows 3, IBM took control of OS/2
development.
The current version of OS/2 Warp includes
voice-recognition software, Internet access,
and peer-to-peer networking. It supports
Novell Directory Services (NDS) and includes IBM Personal Communications/
3270, a package used to communicate with
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) systems over TCP/IP networks.
IBM’s server for network environments is
OS/2 Warp Server.
OS/2 client Any computer running OS/2
that connects to a network server. OS/2 client workstations support TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
NetBIOS, and named pipes.
OS/2 Warp Server A network operating system, based on LAN Server 4, from
IBM. It provides network services, system
management services, remote access, standard file-sharing and network print services, support for up to 1,000 users, and secure
Internet access.
As an application server, OS/2 Warp Server
supports Microsoft Windows and Windows
NT applications and can support OS/2,
MS-DOS, Windows, Windows NT, AIX,
and Macintosh clients. All the important
network protocols are available, including
TCP/IP, NetBIOS, and IPX.
OSF Abbreviation for Open Software
Foundation. See Open Group.
OSI Reference Model A networking reference model defined by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
that divides computer-to-computer communications into seven connected layers. Such
layers are known as a protocol stack.
Each successively higher layer builds on the
functions of the layers below, as follows:
■
■
Application layer 7 The highest level of
the model. It defines the manner in which
applications interact with the network, including database management, e-mail,
and terminal-emulation programs.
Presentation layer 6 Defines the way in
which data is formatted, presented, converted, and encoded.
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OSx
■
■
■
Session layer 5 Coordinates communications and maintains the session for as
long as it is needed, performing security,
logging, and administrative functions.
■
■
Data-link layer 2 Validates the integrity
of the flow of data from one node to another by synchronizing blocks of data and
controlling the flow of data.
Physical layer 1 Defines the mechanism
for communicating with the transmission
medium and interface hardware.
Transport layer 4 Defines protocols for
structuring messages and supervises the
validity of the transmission by performing
some error checking.
OSPF See Open Shortest Path First.
Network layer 3 Defines protocols for
data routing to ensure that the information
arrives at the correct destination node.
OSx A version of Unix from Pyramid
Technology that includes elements of both
AT&T and BSD systems.
THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL
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out-of-band signaling
out-of-band signaling The transmission of control information on frequencies
outside the bandwidth available for a voice
or data transfer. The separation is usually
accomplished by means of a filter.
Outlook Express Abbreviated OE. In
Microsoft Windows, an application used to
create, manage, send, and receive e-mail.
Outlook Express can also access Internet
newsgroups.
output Computer-generated information that is displayed on the screen, printed,
written to disk or tape, or sent over a communications link to another computer.
See also input/output.
outsourcing To subcontract a company’s data processing operations to outside
contractors rather than maintain corporate
hardware, software, and staff. Outsourcing
is often used as a cost-cutting mechanism,
although the cost savings can be difficult to
quantify.
See also downsizing.
oversampling A time-division multiplexing (TDM) technique in which each bit
from each channel is sampled more than
once.
See also time-division multiplexing.
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packet filtering
P
P See peta-.
PABX See private automatic branch
exchange.
PACE See Priority Access Control
Enabled.
Packard Bell NEC Major manufacturer
of PCs and servers; manages all NEC Corporation’s computer manufacturing outside
Japan. Packard Bell has recently established
a configure-it-yourself direct sales promotion known as NEC Now.
For more information on Packard-Bell, see
www.packardbell.com.
See also NEC Corporation.
packet Any block of data sent over a network or communications link.
Each packet may contain sender, receiver,
and error-control information, in addition
to the actual message, which may be data,
connection management controls, or a request for a service. Packets may be fixed- or
variable-length, and they will be reassembled if necessary when they reach their destination. The actual format of a packet
depends on the protocol that creates the
packet; some protocols use special packets
to control communications functions in addition to data packets.
See also datagram; frame; packet
switching.
packet assembler/disassembler Abbreviated PAD. A device that is connected
to a packet-switched network and that converts a serial data stream from a characteroriented device, such as a bridge or a router,
into packets suitable for transmission. It
also disassembles packets back into characters for transmission to the character device. PADs are often used to connect a
terminal or computer to an X.25 packetswitched network.
Packet Burst Protocol Abbreviated
PBP. A Novell NetWare protocol built on
top of IPX that speeds up the transfer of
multipacket NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)
data transfers between a workstation and a
server by removing the need to sequence
and acknowledge every packet. Using PBP,
a workstation or server can transmit a burst
of packets before requiring an acknowledgment, thus reducing network traffic.
See also Internetwork Packet eXchange.
packet filtering A process used by bridges
to limit protocol-specific traffic to one segment of the network, to isolate e-mail domains, and to perform other traffic-control
functions. The network administrator sets the
packet-filtering specifications for each bridge.
If a packet matches the specifications, the
bridge can either accept it or reject it.
See also application-level filter; firewall.
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packet-level filter
packet-level filter A category of firewall
that provides a high degree of convenience,
but a relatively low level of security.
many different possible connections and
routes that a packet might take to reach its
destination.
A packet-level filter blocks or forwards a
packet solely on its merits, without taking
into account past history; the filter may also
look at the source and destination address
information contained in the packet.
The term often refers to networks using the
international standard X.25.
This kind of filter is easy to implement, has
little effect on network operations, but can
be bypassed by encapsulating a blocked
protocol within an allowed protocol.
See also application-level filter; firewall.
Packet-level Procedure Abbreviated
PAP. An X.25 full-duplex protocol for the
transfer of packets between a computer and
a modem.
packet signature
See NCP packet
signature.
packet sniffer A program used by an intruder to monitor a data stream for a pattern such as a password or credit card
number.
Packet sniffers also have a more salutary purpose when used for network analysis and
troubleshooting by the system administrator.
See also network analyzer; protocol
analyzer.
packet-switched network A network
that consists of a series of interconnected
circuits that route individual packets of
data over one of several routes, offering
flexibility and high reliability.
A packet-switched network may also be
called connectionless because it contains
See also packet switching.
packet switching A data-transmission
method that simultaneously routes and
transmits data packets from many customers over a communications channel or telephone line, thus optimizing use of the line.
An addressed packet is routed from node to
node until it reaches its destination, although related packets may not all follow
the same route to that destination. Because
long messages may be divided into several
packets, packet sequence numbers are used
to reassemble the original message at the
destination node.
The standard for packet-switching networks is defined in CCITT recommendation X.25. The Internet is an example of a
packet-switching network.
See also Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy; packet-switched network.
PAD See packet assembler/disassembler.
page A single document available on the
World Wide Web or on a corporate intranet. A page can contain any combination of
text, graphics, animated graphics, audio,
and video and can be static or dynamic.
See also HyperText Markup Language.
page fault In Microsoft Windows, the
fault that occurs when Windows attempts
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parallel processing
to read to or write from a virtual memory
location that is designated not present.
In Microsoft Windows Task Manager, the
number of times information is read from
disk because it was not present in memory.
page-mode RAM A memory-management technique used to speed up the performance of dynamic RAM (DRAM).
In a page-mode memory system, the memory is divided into pages by specialized
DRAM chips. Consecutive accesses to
memory addresses in the same page result in
a page-mode cycle that takes about half the
time of a regular DRAM cycle.
PAP See Packet-level Procedure; Password Authentication Protocol; Printer Access Protocol.
parallel communications The transmission of information from computer to
computer or from computer to peripheral
device, in which all the bits that make up the
character are transmitted at the same time
over a multiline cable.
See also serial communications.
parallel port An input/output (I/O) port
that manages information eight bits at a
time; often used to connect a parallel printer.
See also parallel communications; RS-232C; serial communications; serial port.
paged memory management unit
See also virtual memory.
parallel processing A computing method that can be performed by systems containing two or more processors operating
simultaneously. In parallel processing, all
processors work on different aspects of the
same program at the same time, in order to
share the computational load.
paging file In Microsoft Windows 2000,
a hidden file used to hold programs and
data files that will not currently fit into
memory. The paging file, along with an
area of physical memory, make up the virtual memory system. In most other operating systems, the paging file is known as the
swap file.
Parallel-processing computers can achieve
incredible speeds. The Cray X-MP48 peaks
at 1000 million floating-point operations
per second (1000 MFLOP) using four extremely powerful processors, and parallelhypercube systems, first marketed by Intel,
can exceed 65,536 processors with speeds
of up to 262 billion floating-point operations per second (262 GFLOP).
Abbreviated PMMU. A specialized chip designed to manage virtual memory. High-end
processors, such as the Motorola 68040 and
the Intel Pentium, have all the functions of a
PMMU built into the chip itself.
PalmPilot The hand-held computer from
3Com Corporation, which has proved to be
extremely popular, with more than 1 million units sold to date.
See also 3Com Corporation.
In all but the most trivial parallel-processing
applications, the programmer or the operating system must assign approximate processor loads; otherwise, it is possible for nonoptimized systems to fail to take advantage
of the power available and, in the worst case,
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parent directory
bit is set to zero; if it is even, the parity bit
is set to one.
run more slowly than on single-processor
systems.
All this speed is used for applications such
as weather forecasting, in which the predictive programs can take as long to run as the
weather actually takes to arrive, 3-D seismic modeling, groundwater and toxic flow
studies, and the modeling of full-motion
dinosaur images used in movies.
See also asymmetrical multiprocessing;
symmetrical multiprocessing.
parent directory In a hierarchical directory system, such as that used by MS-DOS,
OS/2, Windows, and Unix, the directory
immediately above the current directory.
The special symbol .. is shorthand for the
name of the parent directory.
See also period and double-period
directories.
parent domain In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, any domain that has another
domain subordinate to it.
See also domain; first-layer domain.
parent object In Novell Directory Services (NDS), an object that contains another object. This term is relative, because any
particular parent object also has parent objects of its own and can be considered a
child object from a certain perspective.
parity In communications, a simple form
of error checking that uses an extra or redundant bit after the data bits but before the stop
bit or bits. Parity may be set as follows:
■
Odd Indicates that the sum of all the 1
bits in the byte plus the parity bit must be
odd. If the total is already odd, the parity
■
■
■
■
Even If the sum of all the 1 bits is even,
the parity bit must be set to zero; if it is
odd, the parity bit must be set to one.
Mark The parity bit is always set to one
and is used as the eighth bit.
Space The parity bit is set to zero and is
used as the eighth bit.
None If parity is set to none, there is
no parity bit, and no parity checking is
performed.
The parity settings used by both communicating computers must match. Most online
services, such as CompuServe or America
Online, use no parity and an 8-bit data word.
See also asynchronous transmission;
parity checking; parity error.
parity bit An extra or redundant bit used
to detect data transmission errors.
See also parity.
parity checking A check mechanism applied to a character or a series of characters
that uses the addition of extra or redundant
parity bits.
Parity checking is useful for a variety of purposes, including asynchronous communications and computer memory coordination.
See also parity.
parity error A mismatch in parity bits
that indicates an error in transmitted data.
See also parity.
partition 1. A portion of a hard disk that
the operating system treats as if it were a
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password
separate drive. In Windows, a hard disk can
be divided into several partitions. A primary partition, generally assigned the drive letter C, might contain files that start the
computer. You could also create a nonWindows partition and use it for a different
operating system. In Novell NetWare, a
server must have a NetWare partition defined in order to function as a part of the
NetWare file system. Other partitions can
manage file systems used by other operating
systems.
2. In Novell NetWare, a grouping or col-
lection of objects in the Novell Directory
Services (NDS) database. Each partition
consists of a container object, all the objects in it, and data about all those objects.
Partitions do not include any information
about the file system or the directories or
files contained there. The data in a partition is also known as a replica.
See also disk mirroring; leaf object; replica;
replication; Root object; volume.
partition table 1. An area of storage on
a hard disk that contains information
about the partitions the disk contains. This
information is usually recorded during the
initial preparation of the hard disk before
it is formatted.
2. In Novell Directory Services (NDS), a
list on each server containing the NDS replicas. For each replica on the server, the partition table contains the partition name,
type, time stamp, and partition state.
the network, sometimes at the expense of
distance.
See also active hub.
passive termination A method used to
terminate a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) chain of devices. Passive termination is a simple termination method that
works best with four or fewer devices on a
SCSI daisy chain.
See also active termination; forced perfect
termination; Small Computer System
Interface.
pass-through authentication In Microsoft Windows NT, an authentication
method used when the user account must be
authenticated, but the computer used for the
logon is neither the domain controller for
the account nor the computer on which the
user account is defined. In such a case, the
computer used for the logon passes the
logon information through to the domain
controller where the user account is defined.
See also domain; domain controller; user
account.
password A security method that identifies a specific, authorized user of a computer system, a network, or a resource by a
unique string of characters.
In general, passwords should be a mixture
of upper- and lowercase letters and numbers and should be more than six characters. Here are some general guidelines:
■
passive hub A device used in some
networks to split a transmission signal,
allowing additional hubs to be added to
Passwords should be kept secret and
changed frequently. The worst passwords
are the obvious ones: people’s names or
initials, place names, phone numbers,
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Password Authentication Protocol
birth dates, and anything to do with computers or Star Trek. There are a limited
number of words in the English language,
and it is easy for a computer to try them all
relatively quickly.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Change all passwords every 90 days, and
change those associated with high-security privileges every month. Some network
operating systems require that passwords
expire even more frequently. For example, in NetWare 5, passwords expire after
40 days by default.
Some systems provide default passwords, such as MANAGER, SERVICE,
or GUEST, as part of the installation process. These default passwords should be
changed immediately.
Limit concurrent sessions to one per
system.
Do not allow more than two or three
invalid password attempts before
disconnecting.
Do not allow generic accounts.
Promptly remove the accounts of transferred or terminated people, as well as all
unused accounts.
Review the security log files periodically.
See also authentication; ChallengeHandshake Authentication Protocol;
Password Authentication Protocol.
Password Authentication Protocol
Abbreviated PAP. A security protocol that
requires a user to enter a user name and
password before gaining access to a secure
server.
See also Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol.
password encryption In certain operating systems, the password you enter to gain
access to the system is not stored as ordinary
text, but is encrypted, and this encrypted
form is compared against the encrypted
password stored on the server. If the two
match, the logon continues; if not, the logon
attempt is rejected.
See also Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol; Password Authentication
Protocol.
password protection The use of one or
more passwords to prevent unauthorized
access to computer systems.
patch panel A panel, usually located in a
wiring closet, that contains rows of telephone-type modular jacks. A patch panel
allows the network administrator to connect, disconnect, move, and test network
devices by changing these connections.
path The complete location of a directory
or a file in the file system. Also called pathname or directory path.
See also Universal Naming Convention.
pathname See path.
Payload Type Identifier Abbreviated
PTI. In an Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) cell, a field contained in the 5-byte
cell header that defines the type of information in the payload area, including user, network, and management information.
See also Cell Loss Priority; Header Error
Control; Virtual Channel Identifier; Virtual
Path Identifier.
PB See petabyte.
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PC-DOS
PBP See Packet Burst Protocol.
■
PBX See private branch exchange.
PC98 A personal computer design guide
for 1998–99 from Intel, Microsoft, and
others, covering the PC system, bus, and devices, including guidelines for various types
of mobile PCs.
■
Type II A card used for modems or network interface cards, 5 millimeters (0.2
inch) thick; may also hold a Type I card.
Type III A 10.5 millimeter (0.4 inch)
card, used for mini-hard disks and other
devices that need more space, including
wireless network interface cards; may also
hold two Type I or Type II cards.
PC98 also describes requirements for manageability, remote boot support, and specifications for 1394. The basic PC98 should
have no ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) devices; PC99 is expected to do away
with ISA slots as well.
In theory, each PC Card adapter can support
16 PC Card sockets (if there is enough space),
and as many as 255 adapters can be installed
in a PC that follows the PCMCIA standard;
in other words, PCMCIA allows a maximum
of 4080 PC Cards on one computer.
See also Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface; Web-Based Enterprise
Management; Wired for Management;
Zero Administration for Windows.
Most PC Card devices are modems, Ethernet
and token-ring network adapters, dynamic
RAM, and flash memory cards, although
mini-hard disks, wireless LAN adapters, and
SCSI adapters are also available.
PC-based router A router, such as the
NetWare Multiprotocol Router or Multiprotocol Router Plus, that operates on a
standard Intel-based personal computer.
PC Card A term that describes plug-in
cards that conform to the PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) standard. A PC Card is
about the size of a credit card and uses a 68pin connector with longer power and
ground pins that will always engage before
the signal pins engage.
Several versions of the standard have been
approved by PCMCIA:
■
Type I The thinnest PC Card, only 3.3
millimeters (0.13 inch) thick, used for
memory enhancements, including dynamic RAM, static RAM, and flash memory.
See also PC Memory Card International
Association.
PC Card slot An opening in the case of a
portable computer, intended to receive a PC
Card; also known as a PCMCIA slot.
PC Connection, Inc. A direct marketer
of PCs, peripherals, accessories, and networking products to the home, government, business, and educational markets.
PC Connection was one of the first companies to provide overnight delivery of products and toll-free technical support.
For more information on PC Connection,
see www.pcconnection.com.
PC-DOS See Personal Computer Disk
Operating System.
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PCI local bus
PCI local bus See Peripheral Component Interconnect local bus.
PCI-X A revision to the PCI standard proposed by IBM, Hewlett-Packard, and Compaq that increases the bus width to 64 bits,
the bus speed to 133MHz, and the maximum throughput to 1GB per second. This
revision is aimed at future workstation and
server design.
PC Service and Support Certified Professional A certification from Learning
Tree designed for the technician. Courses
and exams cover basic PC assembly and
troubleshooting, installation and configuration of operating systems and peripherals, and optimization of networks.
PDA See personal digital assistant.
PDF See Portable Document Format.
Several vendors also offer hot-plug PCI
slots that allow you to replace a failed component without a system reboot.
PDN See private data network; public
data network.
See also 1394; local bus; Peripheral Component Interconnect local bus; Plug and
Play; Universal Serial Bus.
Peak Cell Rate Abbreviated PCR. In
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), the
maximum cell rate that a specific data
source on the network can sustain.
PCMCIA See PC Memory Card International Association.
PCMCIA slot See PC Card slot.
PC Memory Card International
Association Abbreviated PCMCIA. A
nonprofit association, formed in 1989, with
more than 320 members in the computer
and electronics industries, that developed a
standard for credit-card-sized, plug-in
adapters designed for portable computers.
PCONSOLE A Novell NetWare workstation utility used to set up and manage print
queues and print servers on the network.
See also NetWare Administrator.
PCR
See Peak Cell Rate.
PCS See Personal Communications
Services.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Available Cell Rate; Minimum Cell Rate;
Sustainable Cell Rate.
peer-to-peer architecture A network
architecture in which two or more nodes
can communicate with each other directly,
without the need for any intermediary devices. In a peer-to-peer system, a node can
be both a client and a server.
See also peer-to-peer network.
peer-to-peer network A LAN in which
drives, files, and printers on each PC can be
available to every other PC on the network,
eliminating the need for a dedicated file server. Each PC can still run local applications.
Peer-to-peer networks introduce their own
system management problems, including
administration and responsibility for system backup, reliability, and security. Peerto-peer systems are often used in relatively
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Pentium Pro
small networks, with two to ten users, and
can be based on MS-DOS, Windows, or
Unix. Performance is not usually as good on
a peer-to-peer network as under the client/
server model, especially under heavy traffic
loads.
to execute more than one instruction per
clock cycle.
See also client/server architecture.
Available in a range of clock speeds, from
233MHz all the way up to 450MHz, the
Pentium II can use a 100MHz system bus
and is equivalent to 7.5 million transistors,
more than twice that of the Pentium.
PEM See Privacy Enhanced Mail.
See also Intel Corporation; Pentium;
Pentium Pro.
Pentium A family of microprocessors introduced by Intel in 1993. The Pentium represents the continuing evolution of the
80486 family of microprocessors and adds
several notable features, including instruction code and data caches and a built-in
floating-point processor and memory management unit. It also has a superscalar design and dual pipelining, which allow the
Pentium to execute more than one instruction per clock cycle, a 32-bit address bus,
and a 64-bit data bus.
Available in a range of clock speeds, from
60MHz all the way up to 233MHz, the Pentium is equivalent to 3.1 million transistors,
more than twice that of the 80486.
See also Intel Corporation; Pentium II;
Pentium III; Pentium Pro.
Pentium II A family of microprocessors
from Intel. The Pentium II represents the
continuing evolution of the Pentium family
of microprocessors and adds several notable features, including integrated L1/L2
caches of up to 2MB that can be accessed at
the full clock speed and a built-in floatingpoint processor and memory management
unit. It also has a superscalar design and
dual pipelining, which allow the Pentium II
Pentium III A family of microprocessors
from Intel. The Pentium III represents the
continuing evolution of the Pentium family
of microprocessors and adds several notable features, including 50 new floatingpoint instructions and 8 new registers to
speed up floating-point calculations in scientific and engineering calculations, along
with 12 new multimedia instructions to increase MPEG-2 performance and speech
recognition. The most controversial new
feature is the processor serial number, designed to increase network and online shopping security, but feared by many as a threat
to privacy.
Available in a whole range of clock speeds,
initially from 450MHz to 500MHz versions, the Pentium III can use the Pentium II
100MHz system bus and is equivalent to
9.5 million transistors.
See also Intel Corporation; Pentium; Pentium II; Streaming SIMD Extensions.
Pentium Pro A family of microprocessors
introduced by Intel in 1995. The Pentium Pro
is optimized for the execution of 32-bit software and is available with clock speeds from
150 to 200MHz. With a 32-bit data bus running at 60 or 66MHz, it supports superscalar
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PeopleSoft, Inc.
architecture and pipelines and contains the
equivalent of 5.5 million transistors.
rectory immediately above the current
directory.
Dynamic execution (a combination of
branch prediction and speculative execution) allows the processor to anticipate
and schedule the next instructions for execution. Pentium Pro offers up to 1MB of
Level 2 cache that runs at the same speed
as the processor.
See also parent directory; root directory.
See also Intel Corporation; Pentium;
Pentium II.
PeopleSoft, Inc. A major developer of
large enterprise resource planning (ERP)
applications for finance, materials and inventory management, distribution, human
resources, and manufacturing, all within a
single computing environment.
For more information on PeopleSoft, see
www.peoplesoft.com.
Performance Monitor In Microsoft
Windows NT, a network and server monitoring tool that displays resource use for selected system-level components; you can
also use Performance Monitor to troubleshoot performance problems and assess
hardware upgrade requirements. Information can be logged to a file for later analysis.
period The . character; pronounced
“dot.” Used to indicate the name of the current directory in a pathname and to separate the elements in a domain name, as in
www.sybex.com.
period and double-period directories
In a hierarchical directory system, a shorthand way of referring to directories. The
period (.) represents the current directory,
and the double period (..) represents the di-
Peripheral Component Interconnect
local bus Abbreviated PCI local bus. A
specification introduced by Intel in 1992
for a local bus that allows up to 10 PCIcompliant expansion cards to be plugged
into the computer. One of these expansion
cards must be the PCI controller card, but
the others can include a video card, network interface card, SCSI interface, or any
other basic function.
The PCI controller exchanges information
with the computer’s processor, either 32 or
64 bits at a time, and allows intelligent PCI
adapters to perform certain tasks concurrently with the main processor by using
bus-mastering techniques.
PCI is compatible with ISA (Industry Standard Architecture), EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture), and MCA
(Microchannel Architecture) expansion
buses for backward compatibility with older technologies. PCI can operate at a bus
speed of 32MHz and can manage a maximum throughput of 132MBps with a 32-bit
data path or a rate of 264MBps with a
64-bit data path.
See also 1394; local bus; PCI-X; Plug and
Play; Universal Serial Bus.
Perl Acronym formed from Practical Extraction and Report Language. Perl is an interpreted programming language developed by Larry Wall, used to manipulate
text, files, and processes and to print reports on the extracted information.
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Personal Computer Disk Operating System
Perl is rapidly becoming the system administrator’s answer to all those problems that
a C program does not seem to fit. It does not
have the arbitrary limitations of other languages, so lines can be of any length, arrays
can be of any size, variable names can be as
long as you care to make them, and binary
data does not cause problems.
permanent swap file A swap file that,
once created, is used over and over again.
This file is used in virtual memory operations, in which hard-disk space is used in
place of RAM.
See also temporary swap file.
permanent virtual circuit Abbreviated
PVC. A permanent communications circuit, created and maintained even when no
data is being transmitted.
A PVC has no setup overhead and gives improved performance for periodic transmissions that require an immediate connection.
Packets are transferred in order over a specific path and arrive at their destination in
the same order.
See also switched virtual circuit.
permissions In a network or multiuser
environment, the ability of a user to access
certain system resources, including files and
directories. Permissions are based on the
rights given to user accounts by the system
administrator.
See also rights.
permuted index A special kind of index
used in several of the Unix system manuals.
Many of the Unix manuals treat each command on a separate page, and these pages
are not numbered continuously; they are
numbered only within each command. This
makes it easy to add or remove pages as requirements change, but it can make it difficult to find specific information. The
permuted index is the solution.
The permuted index has three columns. The
central column, where you start your
search, is in alphabetic order. The column
to the right lists the command that performs
the function and the section number in the
man pages where you will find a detailed
description, and the column on the left contains additional keywords to help confirm
that you have found the correct entry.
See also man pages.
Personal Communications Services
Abbreviated PCS. A digital wireless communications technology that includes
voice, data, and video.
PCS competes with the traditional analog
cellular phone system, but PCS’s digital technology can provide clearer voice quality, better security through encryption, and lower
costs, as well as additional services such as
messaging, voice mail, and caller ID.
Personal Computer Disk Operating
System Abbreviated PC-DOS. The version of the DOS operating system supplied
with PCs made by IBM.
PC-DOS and MS-DOS began as virtually
identical operating systems, with only a few
minor differences in device driver names
and file sizes, but after the release of DOS 6
(MS-DOS 6.2 and PC-DOS 6.1), the two
grew much further apart.
See also Microsoft Disk Operating System.
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personal digital assistant
personal digital assistant Abbreviated PDA. A tiny, pen-based, battery-powered computer that combines personal
organization software with fax and e-mail
facilities into a unit that fits into your pocket. PDAs are available from several manufacturers, including Apple’s Newton, and
others from 3Com, Casio, Tandy, Toshiba,
Motorola, Sharp, Sony, GRiD, and AT&T.
Personal Information Manager Abbreviated PIM. A multipurpose software
package that combines a word processor,
database, and other accessory modules to
allow the user to manipulate data in a less
structured way than required by conventional programs. A PIM can store notes,
memos, names and addresses, appointments, and to-do lists, and it may be part of
the software used in a PDA (personal digital
assistant).
Personal NetWare Novell’s peer-topeer network replacement for NetWare Lite,
released in 1994, that provides MS-DOS
and Microsoft Windows users with the ability to share files, printers, CD-ROMs, and
other resources, as well as run standard network applications. Other features include
simplified network administration, increased security, and a single login so that
users can view or access all network resources at once.
Personal NetWare can manage a maximum
of 50 workstations per server and a maximum of 50 servers on each network, giving
a maximum of 2500 nodes per network.
personalized menus In Microsoft Windows 2000, a feature that hides infrequently used menu selections.
See also cascading menus.
peta- Abbreviated P. A metric system
prefix for one quadrillion, or 1015. In computing, based on the binary system, peta has
the value of 1,125,899,906,842,624, or the
power of 2 (250) closest to 1 quadrillion.
petabyte Abbreviated PB. Usually
1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes (250), but
may also refer to 1 quadrillion bytes (1015).
PGP See Pretty Good Privacy.
physical address See hardware
address.
physical device An item of hardware,
such as a disk drive or a tape drive, that is
physically separate from other devices.
physical drive A real drive in the computer that you can see or touch, as opposed
to a conceptual or logical drive. One physical drive may be divided into several logical
drives, which are parts of the hard disk that
function as if they were separate disk drives.
See also partition; volume.
physical layer The first and lowest of
the seven layers in the OSI Reference Model for computer-to-computer communications. The physical layer defines the
physical, electrical, mechanical, and functional procedures used to connect the
equipment.
See also OSI Reference Model.
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pipeline
physical unit Abbreviated PU. The
name used in IBM’s Systems Network Architecture (SNA) to indicate a physical device and its associated resources within the
network.
rules for packet size and content, designed
to crash the receiving computer.
See also logical unit.
pinouts The configuration and purpose
of each pin in a multipin connector.
PIM See Personal Information Manager.
pin-compatible A description of a chip
or other electronic component with connecting pins exactly equivalent to the connecting pins used by a different device. With
a pin-compatible chip, you can easily upgrade a system by replacing the older chip
with the newer version.
See also plug-compatible.
See also brute-force attack; denial of service attack; dictionary attack.
pipe A section of memory that can be
used by a program or a command to pass information to a second command for processing. The information is stored in a firstin first-out basis and is not altered during
transmission. A pipe is opened like a file
and is read from or written to in the same
way; pipes are also unidirectional in that
one pipe is used to read data and another is
used to write data.
Ping Acronym formed from packet internet groper. A TCP/IP command used to test
for network connectivity by transmitting a
special ICMP (Internet Control Message
Protocol) diagnostic packet to a specific
node on the network, forcing the node to
acknowledge that the packet reached the
correct destination. If the node responds,
the link is operational; if not, something is
wrong. The word ping is often used as a
verb, as in “ping that workstation to see if
it’s alive.”
A special form of pipe, known as a named
pipe, originated in the Unix operating system. A named pipe allows two processes to
exchange information. This concept has
been extended in several network operating
systems as a method of interprocess communication, allowing data to be exchanged between applications running on networked
computers.
Ping is designed for network testing, troubleshooting, and measurement, and because of the large load it can impose on a
busy, working network, it should not be
used during normal operations, unless the
system administrator is tracing a specific
problem on the network.
pipeline A mechanism used in microprocessors that speeds up the processing of
instructions.
ping of death A very large, specially
constructed ICMP packet that violates the
See also mailslots; named pipe; semaphore; shared memory; socket.
The Intel Pentium processor features two
pipelines, one for data and one for instructions, and can process two instructions per
clock cycle. A processor with two or more
pipelines is said to be superscalar.
See also superscalar.
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pipeline burst cache
pipeline burst cache A secondary or L2
cache associated with a microprocessor
that allows fast data-transfer rates. Pipeline
burst cache requires RAM chips that can
synchronize with the microprocessor’s
clock.
pipeline stall A microprocessor design
error that leads to delays in the processing
of an instruction.
pipelining 1. In processor architecture,
a method of fetching and decoding instructions that ensures that the processor never
needs to wait; as soon as one instruction is
executed, the next one is ready.
2. In parallel processing, the method used
to pass instructions from one processing
unit to another.
See also parallel processing.
and read easily while in transit; usually applied to an unencrypted password.
See also cleartext.
platform 1. An operating system environment, such as a NetWare platform or a
Unix platform.
2. A computer system based on a specific
microprocessor, such as an Intel-based platform or a PowerPC-based platform.
platform-specific routers Routers
based on a specific and proprietary hardware architecture, which is usually vendorspecific.
player A small program launched or used
by a Web browser to process a specific type
of file that the browser cannot handle. A
player is a program that deals with sound
files.
PKI See Public Key Infrastructure.
See also helper; plug-in; viewer.
PKUNZIP A very popular file decompression utility available as shareware. PKUNZIP uncompresses files or archives created
by PKZIP; both programs are usually available together.
plenum cable Cable with a special Teflon
coating designed for use in suspended ceilings, in inside walls, or between floors.
See also PKZIP; WinZip.
PKZIP A very popular file compression
utility available as shareware. PKZIP not
only compresses files to save disk space or
cut modem transmission times, but also
combines compressed files to create compressed archives.
See also PKUNZIP; WinZip.
plaintext Text that has not been encrypted in any way and that can be intercepted
The Teflon coating provides low flamespread and low, nontoxic smoke in the case
of an accident. Plenum cables should meet
the CMR (Communications Riser Cable) or
CMP (Communications Plenum Cable)
specifications of the National Electric Code
and are often used for cable runs in airreturn areas.
See also riser cable.
Plug and Play Abbreviated PnP. A standard from Compaq, Microsoft, Intel, and
Phoenix that defines techniques designed
to make PC configuration simple and
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Point-to-Point Protocol
automatic. A user can plug in a new device,
and the operating system will recognize it
and configure it automatically when the
system is next started.
PnP adapters contain configuration information stored in nonvolatile memory,
which includes vendor information, serial
number, and checksum information. The
PnP chipset allows each adapter to be isolated, one at a time, until all cards have been
properly identified by the operating system.
The PnP-compatible BIOS isolates and
identifies PnP cards at boot time, and when
you insert a new card, the BIOS performs an
auto-configuration sequence enabling the
new card with appropriate settings.
New PCs with flash BIOS will be easy to upgrade so that they can take advantage of
PnP; older systems with ROM-based BIOS
will need a hardware change before they
can take full advantage of PnP.
See also Peripheral Component Interconnect local bus; Plug and Pray.
Plug and Pray What most of us do when
our Plug-and-Play systems do not work
automatically.
plug-compatible Any hardware device
designed to work in exactly the same way
as a device manufactured by a different
company. For example, all external serial
devices are plug-compatible, because you
can replace one with another without
changing the cabling or connector.
See also pin-compatible.
plug-in A small program you can link in
to your Web browser to add a special capability not originally present or to recognize
new file types or content. Plug-ins are available from a huge number of companies and
are usually free.
See also helper.
PMMU See paged memory management unit.
PNNI See Private Network-to-Network
Interface.
PnP See Plug and Play.
POH See power-on hours.
PointCast, Inc. The largest privately
held media company on the Internet, providing online news to corporations. The
PointCast broadcast receives more than
120 million hits a day and offers access to a
collection of more than 600 leading business sources.
Unlike the World Wide Web and other Internet applications, PointCast uses server
push technology, in which the server automatically sends new data to a client without
a specific request from that client.
For more information on PointCast, see
www.pointcast.com.
point-to-point link A direct connection
between two, and only two, locations or
nodes.
Point-to-Point Protocol Abbreviated
PPP. A TCP/IP protocol used to transmit IP
datagrams over serial lines and dial-up telephone point-to-point connections.
PPP allows a PC to establish a temporary direct connection to the Internet via modem
and appear to the host system as if it were
an Ethernet port on the host’s network.
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Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PPP provides router-to-router, host-torouter, and host-to-host connections and
also provides an automatic method of assigning an IP address so that mobile users
can connect to the network at any point.
See also PPP Multilink; Point-to-Point
Tunneling Protocol; Serial Line Internet
Protocol.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
Abbreviated PPTP. A proprietary networking protocol proposed by Microsoft that
supports virtual private networks, allowing
remote users to access Windows NT Server
systems across the Internet without compromising security. PPTP allows corporations to
use public networks rather than leasing its
own lines for wide area communications.
See also encapsulation; Layer 2 Tunneling
Protocol; PPP Multilink; tunneling.
point of presence Abbreviated POP. A
connection to the telephone company or to
long-distance carrier services.
polling A method of controlling the
transmission sequence of devices on a
shared circuit or multi-drop line by sending
an inquiry to each device asking if it wants
to transmit. If a device has data to send, it
sends back an acknowledgment, and the
transmission begins. Three methods are in
common use:
■
■
■
Roll-call A master station uses a polling
list to locate the next node to poll.
Hub A node polls the next node in
sequence.
Token-passing A token is passed to the
next node in sequence. This node can
transmit or pass the token to the next
device.
polymorphic virus A form of virus that
can change its appearance to avoid detection. The virus encrypts itself using a special
formula each time an infection occurs.
Virus-detecting software uses special scanning techniques to find and remove polymorphic viruses.
See also boot sector virus; file-infecting virus; macro virus; multipart virus; stealth
virus, vaccine; virus.
POP See point of presence; Post Office
Protocol.
port 1. To move a program or an operating system from one hardware platform
to another. For example, Windows NT
portability refers to the fact that the same
operating system can run on both Intel and
reduced instruction set computing (RISC)
architectures.
2. The point at which a communications
circuit terminates at a network, serial, or
parallel interface card, usually identified by
a specific port number or name.
3. A number used to identify a connection
point to a specific Internet protocol.
See also portable; port number.
portability The ability to transfer an application or operating system from one vendor’s hardware to another, quickly and
easily, without rewriting the software and
without affecting its performance.
This can be achieved in several ways:
■
Write the program in a portable language,
such as C, C++, or Java.
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port number
■
■
■
■
Use only standard programming language
features.
Use only standard libraries.
Don’t make assumptions about word size
or byte ordering.
Use layers of software to distance the application from operating system or hardware dependencies.
portable Describes the degree to which a
program can be moved easily to different
computing environments with a minimum
number of changes. Applications written
for the Unix operating system are often described as portable applications, as are Java
applets.
See also Java.
portable computer Any computer light
and small enough to be carried easily. There
are two types:
■
■
Laptop computers, which are small
enough to be used in an airplane seat and
powerful enough to run major operating
systems and popular business applications. Extended battery life is making the
laptop a serious alternative to the desktop
system.
Notebook computers, which are smaller
than laptops and about the size of a
textbook or student notebook, but still
capable of running major applications. A
notebook computer will easily fit into a
briefcase.
Major advances in battery life and the use
of flash memory are part of the continuing
development of portable computers.
See also docking station; port replicator.
Portable Document Format Abbreviated PDF. A file format standard developed
by Adobe Systems and others for use in electronic documents. A file in this format usually has the filename extension of .PDF.
Portable Operating System Interface
Abbreviated POSIX. A collection of IEEE
standards that defines a complete set of portable operating system services. POSIX is
based on Unix services, but it can be implemented by many other operating systems.
Each of the standards defines a specific aspect of an operating system, including such
areas as system administration, system security, networking, and the user interface.
When program or operating system service
meets the appropriate POSIX standard, it is
said to be POSIX-compliant.
See also IEEE standards.
port multiplier A concentrator that provides multiple connections to the network.
port number The default identifier for a
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol) or Internet process.
For example, ftp (File Transport Protocol),
HTML (HyperText Markup Language),
and Telnet are all available at preassigned
unique port numbers so that the computer
knows how to respond when it is contacted
on a specific port; Web servers use port 80,
and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
e-mail is always delivered to port 25. You
can override these defaults by specifying
different values in a URL, but whether they
will work depends on the configuration on
the target system.
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port replicator
A total of 65,535 port numbers are available for use with TCP, and the same number are available for UDP (User Datagram
Protocol).
mailing list, rather than a message sent to
an individual.
See also port.
Postal Telephone and Telegraph Abbreviated PTT. The official government
body that administers and manages the telecommunications systems in many European
countries.
port replicator A device containing
standard computer ports used to avoid constantly connecting and disconnecting peripherals from a portable computer.
A port replicator duplicates all your computer’s ports and may even add a Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI) port or a
second Universal Serial Bus port. The external monitor, full-sized keyboard, and
mouse you use in the office are connected to
the port replicator; when it is time to take
the portable computer on the road, you
simply unplug the port replicator, leaving
everything attached to the replicator for
your return.
See also docking station.
portal A large Web site that acts as a gateway to the Internet and may also offer
search facilities, free e-mail, online chat, instant messaging, as well as other services,
including hard news, sports, and personal
finance. Portals make money by selling advertising space.
POSIX See Portable Operating System
Interface.
See also posting; Usenet.
posting Sending an article or an e-mail
message to a Usenet newsgroup.
See also post; Usenet.
Post Office Protocol Abbreviated POP.
An Internet mail server protocol that
also provides an incoming mail storage
mechanism.
POP works with Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which actually moves the
e-mail from one system to another, and the
latest version of the standard is POP3.
When a client connects to a POP3 server, all
the messages addressed to that client are
downloaded; there is no ability to download
messages selectively. Once the messages are
downloaded, the user can delete or modify
messages without further interaction with
the server.
In some locations, POP3 is being replaced
by another standard, Internet Mail Access
Protocol (IMAP) version 4.
POST See power-on self test.
See also Internet Mail Access Protocol;
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
post An individual article or e-mail
message sent to a Usenet newsgroup or
power conditioning The use of protective and conditioning devices to filter out
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power supply
power surges and spikes and ensure clean
power. There are three main types of
power-conditioning devices:
■
■
■
Suppression, which protects against sudden destructive transient voltages.
Regulation, which modifies the power
waveform back to a clean sine wave. A
UPS (uninterruptible power supply) is a
common form of voltage regulator. It may
be online, actively modifying the power,
or offline and available only after the line
voltage drops below a certain level.
operating system; designed to ensure that the
major system components are present and
operating. If a problem is found, the POST
firmware displays an error message on the
screen, sometimes with a diagnostic code
number indicating the type of fault.
PowerPC A family of RISC-based, superscalar microprocessors jointly developed by
Apple, Motorola, and IBM, with a 32-bit
address bus and a 64-bit data bus.
■
Isolation, which protects against noise.
These types of devices are often expensive.
■
Because power conditioning is expensive,
usually only the servers or hosts in a network
are protected. Surge suppressors may be
used with workstations or other important
network nodes, such as bridges or routers.
See also blackout; brownout; power surge;
spike; surge.
Power Mac A series of computers from
Apple Computer, Inc., based on the PowerPC chip. Although Power Macs run on the
PowerPC chip rather than on the traditional Motorola chips, they run a version of the
Macintosh operating system and look and
feel just like 680x0-based computers. They
can also run MS-DOS and Windows software under emulation.
power-on hours Abbreviated POH. A
cumulative count of the hours since the last
time the system was started.
See also mean time between failures.
power-on self test Abbreviated POST.
A set of diagnostic programs loaded from
ROM before any attempt is made to load the
■
■
■
■
The 601 houses 2.8 million transistors,
runs at 110MHz, and is designed for use
in high-performance, low-cost PCs.
The 66MHz 602 is targeted at the consumer electronics and entry-level computer markets.
The low-wattage 603e is aimed at batterypowered computers.
The 604 is for high-end PCs and
workstations.
The 64-bit 620 is available in a 133MHz
version capable of executing four instruction per clock cycle and is designed for servers and high-performance applications.
The 750 (also known as the G3) is available in a range of processors running from
333 to 400MHz with an integrated L2
cache of 1MB and is equivalent to 6.35
million transistors.
power supply A part of the computer
that converts the power from a wall outlet
into the lower voltages, typically 5 to 12
volts DC (direct current), required internally
in the computer. PC power supplies are usually rated in watts, ranging from 90 to 300
watts. If the power supply in a computer
fails, nothing works—not even the fan.
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power surge
power surge A sudden, brief, and often
destructive increase in line voltage. A power
surge may be caused by an electrical appliance, such as a photocopier or elevator, or
by power being reapplied after an outage.
See also power conditioning; surge; surge
suppressor.
PPP See Point-to-Point Protocol.
PPP Multilink An extension to the Pointto-Point Protocol that can provide bandwidth on demand by combining multiple
links between two systems; a process also
known as bonding. PPP Multilink provides
the negotiation features and protocols that
allow systems to indicate that they can
bond. The links can be of different types
and different speeds.
See also inverse multiplexing; Point-toPoint Protocol.
computer-to-computer communications.
The presentation layer defines the way in
which data is formatted, presented, converted, and encoded.
See also OSI Reference Model.
Pretty Good Privacy Abbreviated PGP.
A popular public-key encryption and digital certificate program, originally written
by Phil Zimmermann, available at no
charge from certain Internet sites.
PGP uses Diffie-Hellman public-key algorithms, is available for Microsoft Windows
and Macintosh platforms, and works with
most popular messaging applications such
as Microsoft Exchange, Eudora, and Claris
Emailer for the Macintosh.
See also Privacy Enhanced Mail; RSA Data
Security.
PRI See Primary Rate ISDN.
PPTP See Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol.
preemptive multitasking A form of
multitasking in which the operating system
executes an application for a specific period
of time, according to its assigned priority.
At that time, it is preempted, and another
task is given access to the CPU for its allocated time. Although an application can
give up control before its time is up, such as
during input/output waits, no task is ever
allowed to execute for longer than its allotted time period.
See also cooperative multitasking; timeslice multitasking.
presentation layer The sixth of seven
layers of the OSI Reference Model for
primary domain controller In a Microsoft Windows NT domain, a computer
running Windows NT Server that authenticates domain logons and manages the directory database for the domain. All changes
to all accounts in the domain are automatically tracked and sent to the primary domain controller. There can be only one
primary domain controller in any domain.
See also backup domain controller; domain; domain controller.
primary key See key.
primary member One of two members
of a mirror set. The primary member contains the original data; the shadow member
contains the copy.
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Priority Access Control Enabled
See also disk mirroring; shadow member.
Primary Rate ISDN Abbreviated PRI.
An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) service that provides 23 B (bearer)
channels, capable of speeds of 64Kbps,
and one D (data) channel, also capable
of 64Kbps. The combined capacity of
1.544Mbps is equivalent to one T1 channel.
See also Basic Rate ISDN.
primary time server In Novell NetWare, a server that provides time information to secondary time servers and to
workstations.
A primary time server must synchronize
time information with at least one other primary or reference time server.
See also reference time server; secondary
time server; single reference time server.
PRINTCON A Novell NetWare workstation utility used to create, view, or modify
print-job configurations on the network.
Configuration options include the printer
to be used, the print queue to process the
job through, the print-device mode, the
printer form number, and the number of
copies.
PRINTDEF A Novell NetWare workstation utility used to create, view, and modify
printer definitions on the network.
Printer Access Protocol Abbreviated
PAP. The protocol used in AppleTalk networks to manage communications between
computers and printers.
See also AppleTalk.
Printer Agent In Novell Distributed
Print Services, a printer object that replaces the Print Queue, Printer, and Printer
Server objects used in other Novell printing environments.
printer emulation The ability of a printer to change modes so that it behaves like a
printer from another manufacturer. For example, many dot-matrix printers offer an
Epson printer emulation in addition to their
own native mode. Most laser printers offer
a Hewlett-Packard LaserJet emulation.
See also emulator; terminal emulation.
print queue A collection of documents
waiting to be printed on a particular network printer.
See also Novell Distributed Print Services.
print server A server that handles printing for all users on the network. A print
server collects print jobs sent by applications running on other networked PCs,
places them in a print queue on the hard
disk, and routes them to one or more printers attached to the print server.
See also local printer; Novell Distributed
Print Services.
print spooler In an operating system or
network operating system, the software
that coordinates print jobs sent to a shared
printer when that printer is busy. Each print
job is stored in a separate file and is printed
in turn when the printer becomes free.
Priority Access Control Enabled Abbreviated PACE. A technology from 3Com
Corporation designed to deliver on-time
multimedia over switched Ethernet networks
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Privacy Enhanced Mail
with insufficient bandwidth and without the
ability to prioritize traffic. This is accomplished by the use of the PACE-enabled
switches that allow the switch port and end
stations to take turns when transmitting.
Privacy Enhanced Mail Abbreviated
PEM. An e-mail standard that uses a patented RSA encryption scheme to provide a
confidential method of authentication.
PEM is little used due to the proprietary nature of the encryption scheme.
See also Secure MIME; RSA.
private automatic branch exchange
Abbreviated PABX. An automatic telephone
system that serves a particular location, such
as an office, providing connections from one
extension to another, as well as a set of connections to the external telephone network.
Many PABXs handle computer data and
may include X.25 connections to a packetswitched network.
See also private branch exchange.
private branch exchange Abbreviated
PBX. A telephone system, usually owned by
the customer, that serves a particular location, such as an office, providing connections from one extension to another, as well
as a set of connections to the external telephone network.
See also private automatic branch
exchange.
private data network Abbreviated
PDN. A highly secure and very expensive
network of leased lines built for a single user,
usually a corporation.
PDNs are used to transmit highly sensitive
data such as banking and other financial information. The service provider guarantees
a certain bandwidth will always be available, although some of that bandwidth may
go unused during periods of light traffic.
See also Virtual Private Network.
private key One of two keys used in
public key encryption. The user keeps the
private key secret and uses it to encrypt
digital signatures on outgoing messages and
to decrypt incoming messages.
See also public key encryption.
private leased circuit A leased communications circuit, available 24 hours a day,
7 days a week, that connects a company’s
premises with a remote site.
Private Network-to-Network Interface Abbreviated PNNI. A dynamic linkstate routing protocol for Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM)-based networks. Any
given ATM network may include ATM
switches from several vendors; PNNI provides a routing protocol to communicate
configuration information about the network to these groups of switches.
See also Integrated-Private Network-toNetwork Interface.
privileged mode An operating mode
supported in protected mode in Intel processors that allows the operating system and
certain classes of device drivers to manipulate parts of the system, including memory
and input/output ports. Applications cannot
be executed in privileged mode.
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programming language
See also protected mode; privilege level;
real mode.
privilege level 1. Those rights granted
to a user or a group of users by the network
administrator that determine the functions
the user can execute. Rights form an important component of network security and
can include supervisor rights and read,
write, erase, and modify rights, along with
several others.
2. A form of protection built into Intel mi-
croprocessors. The Intel microprocessor architecture provides two broad classes of
protection. One is the ability to separate
tasks by giving each task a separate address
space. The other mechanism operates within a task to protect the operating system and
special processor registers from access by
applications. Within a task, four privilege
levels are defined. The innermost ring is assigned privilege level 0 (the highest, or most
trusted, level), and the outermost ring is
privilege level 3 (the lowest, or least privileged, level). Rings 1 and 2 are reserved for
the operating system and operating system
extensions; level 3 is available to applications. This protection is maintained by
complex circuitry in the processor’s memory management unit.
PRN In MS-DOS, Windows, and OS/2,
the logical device name for a printer, usually the first parallel port, which is also
known as LPT1.
See also parallel port.
process In a multitasking operating system, a program or a part of a program. All
EXE and COM files execute as processes,
and one process can run one or more other
processes.
See also session; thread.
Professional Server Expert Abbreviated PSE. A certification from IBM that offers
specialization in a specific network operating system, including Novell NetWare,
OS/2 Warp Server, or Windows NT Server.
See also Professional Server Specialist.
Professional Server Specialist Abbreviated PSS. An introductory hardware certification from IBM designed to assess
knowledge of IBM Netfinity and PC server
architecture, installation, configuration,
and management.
See also Professional Server Expert.
Profile object In Novell NetWare, a special Novell Directory Services (NDS) object
used to assign the same login script to a
group of users. A Profile login script is executed after the container login script has
executed, but before the user login script.
programming language A language
used to write a program that the computer
can execute. Almost 200 programming languages exist. An example is the popular C
language, which is well suited to a variety of
computing tasks. With C, programmers can
write anything from a device driver, to an
application, to an operating system.
Certain kinds of tasks, particularly those
involving artificial intelligence (LISP or
Prolog), process control (Forth), or highly
mathematical applications (Fortran and
APL), can benefit from a more specific
language.
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Project Athena
Programming languages are also divided
into low-level languages, such as assembly
language, and high-level languages, such as
C, C++, and Java.
Services (NDS); also known as an attribute.
User object properties include name, login
name, password restrictions, e-mail address,
and other related information.
See also assembly language; compiler; interpreter; machine language.
2. In Microsoft Windows, a characteristic
Project Athena A Massachusetts Institute of Technology project that ran from
1983 to 1991, sponsored by MIT, DEC,
and IBM, and developed the X Window
system and Kerberos authentication, as
well as several other important relational
database and network-related systems.
property rights In Novell NetWare,
characteristics of an object in Novell Directory Services (NDS). Property rights are
Add or Delete Self, Compare, Read, Supervisor, and Write.
See also Kerberos; X Window.
promiscuous mode A mode in which a
network device or interface card captures
all the packets on the network, not just
those addressed to it specifically.
Network analyzers work in promiscuous
mode to monitor network traffic and to
perform statistical analyses of the traffic.
See also network analyzer; sniffer.
propagation delay In communications,
any delay between the time a signal enters
the transmission channel and the time it is
received.
This delay is relatively small across a LAN,
but can become considerable in satellite
communications, in which the signal must
travel from one earth station to the satellite
and back to earth again. Unusually long delays may require the use of specialized
hardware to ensure that the link is not broken prematurely.
property 1. In Novell NetWare, a characteristic of an object in Novell Directory
of an object or device, accessed via that object’s Properties dialog box.
proprietary software Software developed in-house by a particular business or
government agency and never made available commercially to the outside world.
The operating systems used in certain
portable computers and PDAs (personal
digital assistants) may also be considered
proprietary, because they are specific to
one system and are not generally available
anywhere else.
protected mode In Intel processors, an
operating state that supports advanced
features. Protected mode in these processors provides hardware support for multitasking and virtual memory management,
and it prevents programs from accessing
blocks of memory that belong to other executing programs.
In 16-bit protected mode, supported on
80286 and higher processors, the CPU can
address a total of 16MB of memory
directly; in 32-bit protected mode,
supported on 80386 and higher processors,
the CPU can address up to 4GB of memory.
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PU
Microsoft Windows NT, OS/2, and most
versions on Unix running on Intel processors run in protected mode.
See also real mode.
Novell NetWare’s IPX/SPX, but the trend
these days is moving toward more open systems such as TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol).
See also OSI Reference Model.
protocol In networking and communications, the formal specification that defines
the procedures to follow when transmitting
and receiving data. Protocols define the format, timing, sequence, and error checking
used on the network.
See also communications protocol; OSI
Reference Model; protocol stack.
protocol analyzer A hardware or combined hardware and software product used
to analyze the performance data of the network and to find and troubleshoot network
problems.
Protocol analyzers vary greatly in complexity. Some use dedicated hardware and can
decode as many as 150 protocols; others
convert an existing networked PC into a
network-specific analyzer.
See also network analyzer; sniffer.
protocol converter A combined hardware and software product that converts
from one network protocol to another;
used when two dissimilar networks are
connected.
See also gateway.
protocol stack The several layers of software that define the computer-to-computer
or computer-to-network protocol.
Several companies have developed important proprietary protocol stacks, including
protocol suite See protocol stack.
protocol tunneling See tunneling.
proxy server A software package running on a server positioned between an internal network and the Internet.
The proxy server filters all outgoing connections so that they appear to be coming
from the same machine, in an attempt to
conceal the underlying internal network
structure from any intruders. By disguising
the real structure of the network, the proxy
server makes it much more difficult for an
intruder to mount a successful attack.
A proxy server will also forward your requests to the Internet, intercept the response, and then forward the response to
you at your network node. A system administrator can also regulate the external sites
to which users can connect.
See also dual-homed host; firewall.
PSE See Professional Server Expert.
PSS See Professional Server Specialist.
PSTN See Public Switched Telephone
Network.
PTI See Payload Type Identifier.
PTT See Postal Telephone and
Telegraph.
PU See physical unit.
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public data network
public data network Abbreviated PDN.
Any government-owned or governmentcontrolled commercial packet-switched network, offering wide-area services to dataprocessing users.
or certificate. Other CAs would then vouch
for those CAs, and they in turn would be
vouched for by other CAs.
public key encryption An encryption
scheme that uses two keys. In an e-mail
transaction, the public key encrypts the
data, and a corresponding private key decrypts the data. Because the private key is
never transmitted or publicized, the encryption scheme is extremely secure.
public network Normal voice telephone
systems; also called the direct distance dial
(DDD) network.
For digital signatures, the process is reversed; the sender uses the private key to
create the digital signature, which can then
be read by anyone who has access to the
corresponding public key. This confirms
that the message really is from the apparent
sender.
Public trustee In Novell NetWare, a
special trustee, used only for trustee
assignments.
See also digital signature; private key.
Public Key Infrastructure A proposal
to provide a structure for verifying and authenticating users involved in transactions
on the Internet or on corporate intranets
and extranets.
The proposal involves a set of trusted certificate authorities (CAs) who would publish a
person’s public key and vouch for the authenticity of the data using a digital signature
See also certificate authority; digital
signature.
Public Switched Telephone Network
A designation used by the ITU to describe
the local telephone company.
The Public trustee allows objects in Novell
Directory Services (NDS) that do not have
any other rights to have the rights granted
to the Public trustee. This is similar to the
way the user GUEST or the group EVERYONE worked in earlier versions of Novell
NetWare.
punch-down block A connecting device
used for telephone lines; also known as a
quick-connect block. The wires are pushed
into metal teeth that strip the insulation
away and make a good connection.
push See server push.
PVC See permanent virtual circuit.
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quarter-inch cartridge
Q
QIC See quarter-inch cartridge.
QoS
See quality of service.
quadrature amplitude modulation In
communications, a data-encoding technique used by modems. Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of phase
and amplitude change that can encode multiple bits on a single carrier signal. For example, the CCITT V.42bis standard uses 4
phase changes and 2 amplitudes to create
16 different signal changes.
See also trellis-coded modulation.
quality of service Abbreviated QoS. The
network requirements to support a specific
application. Different types of networks and
network traffic have a different QoS.
QoS includes the ability to guarantee the
delivery of time-sensitive data, control the
bandwidth, set priorities for specific network traffic, and provide an appropriate
level of security.
QoS is often associated with the delivery of
data such as live video, while at the same
time maintaining sufficient bandwidth for
the delivery of normal network traffic, perhaps at a lower data rate.
See also bandwidth on demand; Fast IP;
IP Multicast; IP over ATM; IP switching;
multicast.
Quantum Corporation A major manufacturer of disk storage systems. Quantum
now makes a wide variety of disk types, including IDE, SCSI, solid-state, and Fibre
Channel.
For more information on Quantum Corporation, see www.quantum.com.
quarter-inch cartridge Abbreviated
QIC. A set of tape standards defined by the
Quarter-Inch Cartridge Drive Standards
Association, a trade association established
in 1987. Several standards are in use today
as Table Q.1 shows.
TABLE Q.1 QIC CAPACITIES
QIC Standard
Capacity
Tape Type
QIC-24
60MB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-40
40MB
mini cartridge
QIC-80
80MB
mini cartridge
QIC-100
40MB
mini cartridge
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query language
TABLE Q.1 QIC CAPACITIES (CONTINUED)
QIC Standard
Capacity
Tape Type
QIC-120
125MB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-128
128MB
mini cartridge
QIC-150
250MB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-380
380MB
mini cartridge
QIC-525
525MB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-1000
1GB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-1350
1.35GB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-3010
340MB
mini cartridge
QIC-3020
680MB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-4GB
4GB
full-sized cartridge
QIC-5GB
5GB
full-sized cartridge
query language In a database management system, a programming language that
allows a user to extract and display specific
information from a database.
question mark A wildcard character
used in many operating systems to represent a single character in a filename or filename extension.
Structured Query Language (SQL) is an
international database query language
that allows the user to issue high-level
commands or statements, such as SELECT
or INSERT, to create or modify data or the
database structure.
See also asterisk.
See also Structured Query Language.
See also print queue.
queue A temporary list of items waiting
for a particular service, stored on disk in a
special directory. For example, a print
queue is a list of documents waiting to be
printed on a network printer.
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QuickTime
quick-connect block See punch-down
block.
QuickTime A cross-platform data format from Apple Computer, Inc., used to
display movies. QuickTime synchronizes as
many as 32 tracks containing time-based
digital data such as sound, video, MIDI, or
other control information. A QuickTime
movie created on one platform can be
played back on another without modification; versions are available for Macintosh
and Microsoft Windows.
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RAD
R
RAD See Rapid Application
Development.
radio frequency interference Abbreviated RFI. Many electronic devices, including radios, televisions, computers, and
peripherals, can interfere with other signals
in the radio-frequency range by producing
electromagnetic radiation. The use of radio
frequencies is generally regulated by government agencies.
See also Class A certification; Class B certification; extremely low-frequency
emission; Federal Communications
Commission.
RADIUS See Remote Authentication
Dial In User Service.
RADSL See Rate-Adaptive Digital
Subscriber Line.
RAID See redundant array of inexpensive disks.
will be erased when the computer is turned
off, so contents must be copied onto a real
disk to be saved.
See also disk cache.
random access Describes the ability of
a storage device to go directly to the required memory address without needing
to read from the beginning every time data
is requested.
In a random-access device, the information
can be read directly by accessing the appropriate memory address. There is nothing
random or haphazard about random access; a more precise term is direct access.
See also sequential access.
random-access memory Abbreviated
RAM. The main system memory in a computer, used for the operating system, applications, and data.
See also dynamic RAM; static RAM.
RAM See random-access memory.
RAM chip A semiconductor storage device, either dynamic RAM or static RAM.
RAM disk An area of memory managed
by a special device driver and used as a simulated disk; also called virtual drive. Because the RAM disk operates in memory, it
works much faster than a regular hard disk.
However, anything stored on a RAM disk
Rapid Application Development Abbreviated RAD. A set of client/server application-development tools designed to speed
up the development of robust applications
for SQL databases.
See also Structured Query Language.
RARP See Reverse Address Resolution
Protocol.
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read-only memory
RAS See Remote Access Server.
Rate-Adaptive Digital Subscriber
Line Abbreviated RADSL. An Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) service
with a provision for testing the line length
and quality before starting the service and
adjusting the line speed accordingly.
See also Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line; High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line;
Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line; VeryHigh-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line.
RBOC See Regional Bell Operating
Companies.
RCDD See Registered Communications
Distribution Designer.
RCONSOLE A Novell NetWare workstation utility that allows network administrators to manage routers and servers
from a remote PC using a modem or from
a workstation on the network. RCONSOLE establishes the connection to the
server and converts the PC into a virtual
server console. This function is also available in NetWare Administrator from the
Tools menu.
memory is released. If the data does not
match, that block on the disk is marked as
bad, and another attempt is made to write
the data elsewhere on the disk.
README file A plain text file that contains information about the software,
placed on the distribution disks by the
manufacturer.
The filename may vary slightly; it might be
READ.ME, README.1ST, README
.TXT, or README.DOC, for example.
README files may contain last-minute,
important information that is not in the
program manuals or online help system.
You should always look for a README file
when installing a new program on your system; it may contain information pertinent
to your specific configuration. You can
open a README file in any word processor
or text editor because the file does not contain embedded formatting commands or
program-specific characters.
read-only Describes a file or other collection of information that can only be read; it
cannot be updated in any way or deleted.
RDP See Remote Desktop Protocol.
Certain important operating system files
are designated as read-only to prevent their
accidental deletion. Also, certain types of
ROM and some devices such as archive
backup tapes and CD-ROMs can be read
from but not changed.
read-after-write verification A method
of checking that data is written to a hard
disk correctly. Data is written to the disk
and then read back and compared with the
original data still held in memory. If the
data read from the disk matches, the data in
read-only memory Abbreviated ROM.
A semiconductor-based memory system that
stores information permanently, retaining
its contents when power is switched off.
ROMs are used for firmware, such as the
BIOS in the PC. In some portable computers,
In NetWare 3, use ACONSOLE to perform
this function.
See also NetWare Administrator; REMOTE.
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RealAudio
applications and even the operating system
are stored in ROM.
See also flash memory.
RealAudio Technology developed by RealNetworks (previously known as Progressive Networks, Inc.) that lets you play audio
files as they are in the process of being
downloaded, rather than waiting until the
complete file has arrived, which gives a
much faster response time. RealAudio uses
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) as the delivery mechanism.
See also IP Multicast; multicasting; streaming; User Datagram Protocol.
real mode 1. An operating state supported by all processors in the Intel 80x86 family, and the only operating mode supported
by MS-DOS. In real mode, the processor can
directly address 1MB of memory. Unlike
protected mode, real mode does not offer
any advanced hardware features for memory management or multitasking.
2. In Microsoft Windows, an operating
mode that runs Windows using less than
1MB of extended memory. Real mode is
not used in Windows 3.1 or later.
See also protected mode.
RealNetworks, Inc. Developer of
streaming audio and video technology for
use over the Internet; previously known as
Progressive Networks.
Realtime Streaming Protocol Abbreviated RTSP. A proposed protocol from
Netscape and RealNetworks for streaming
live and prerecorded audio and video across
the Internet and corporate intranets. RTSP
also includes features for bidirectional control, support for IP Multicast, and system
security.
See also IP Multicast; RealAudio; Real-time
Transport Protocol; Resource Reservation
Protocol.
Real-time Transport Protocol Abbreviated RTP. A protocol designed for use in
online videoconferencing applications involving multiple participants.
RTP can be used with any continuous data
stream and so is suitable for use in interactive
simulators and with control and measurement applications. RTP uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) as the delivery mechanism.
See also Realtime Streaming Protocol; Resource Reservation Protocol; User Datagram Protocol.
reboot To restart the computer and reload the operating system, usually after a
crash.
In some cases, you may be able to restart the
computer from the keyboard; in more severe crashes, you may have to turn the computer off and then back on again.
See also boot.
For more information on RealNetworks,
Inc., see www.real.com.
Receive Data Abbreviated RXD. A
hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C
standard and used to carry serial data from
one device to another.
See also RealAudio; streaming.
See also Transmit Data.
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redirector
record locking A method used to control
access to individual records in a database.
In a multiuser environment, there is always
the possibility that two users will attempt to
update the same record at the same time but
with different information. The initial attempt to solve this problem was to use file
locking in which the first user to access the
file locks out all other users and prevents
them from opening the file. After the file is
updated and closed again, the next user can
gain access.
File locking can seriously degrade overall
system performance as many users attempt
to access the same files time after time. To
avoid this slowdown, many database management systems use record locking, which
limits access to individual records within
the database files.
See also file and record locking.
Recovery Console In Microsoft Windows 2000, a command-line interface that
gives access to a set of commands used to recover a system that will not restart.
See also Emergency Repair Disk; safe
mode.
recursion In programming, the ability of
a subroutine to call itself.
Recursion is often used when solving problems that repeat the same processing steps.
However, some limiting factor must be
present; otherwise, the program will never
stop.
Red Hat Software A major distributor
of Linux. Red Hat Linux is a three-CD
package, containing a stable version of the
Linux kernel, a large set of operating system
utilities, source code, Apache HTTP Server,
sendmail, and Perl, as well as trial versions
of commercial software.
SAP, IBM, Compaq, Oracle, Intel, and Novell have all made equity investments in Red
Hat Software.
For more information on Red Hat Software,
see www.redhat.com.
See also Apache HTTP Server; Linux; Perl.
Red Horde A nickname for Novell, Inc.,
the leading network operating system software company, as well as the NetWare resellers worldwide. Red is Novell’s
corporate color.
redirection 1. In Unix and many other
operating systems, a shell mechanism that
causes the standard input from a program
to come from a file rather than from the terminal; it also causes standard output and
standard error to go to a file rather than to
the terminal. Because Unix is a file-based
operating system, and terminals and other
devices are treated as though they are files,
a program doesn’t care or even know if its
output is going to a terminal or to a file.
2. A mechanism used by most of the pop-
ular Web server software packages that reroutes clients attempting to access a specific
URL to a different URL, either on the same
or on a different server. Redirection is a
convenient way to avoid dead links.
See also link rot; pipe; Uniform Resource
Locator.
redirector A software module loaded
onto all the workstations on a network that
intercepts application requests for file- and
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reduced instruction set computing
disk duplexing, depending on whether one
or two independent hard-disk controllers
are used.
printer-sharing services and diverts them to
the file server for action.
See also NetWare shell; NETx.COM;
requester.
■
reduced instruction set computing
Abbreviated RISC, pronounced “risk.” A
processor that recognizes only a limited
number of assembly-language instructions.
RISC chips are relatively cheap to produce
and debug because they usually contain
fewer than 128 instructions. RISC processors are commonly used in workstations,
and they can be designed to run up to 70
percent faster than processors that use complex instruction set computing (CISC).
See also complex instruction set computing; IBM RS/6000; instruction set.
redundant array of inexpensive
disks Abbreviated RAID. In networking
and mission-critical applications, a method
of using several hard disk drives (often SCSI
or Integrated Drive Electronics [IDE] drives)
in an array to provide fault tolerance in the
event that one or more than one drive fails.
Each level of RAID is designed for a specific
use:
■
■
RAID 0 Data is striped over one or more
drives, but there is no redundant drive.
RAID 0 provides no fault tolerance because the loss of a hard disk means a complete loss of data. Some classification
schemes omit RAID 0 for this reason.
RAID 1 Two hard disks of equal capacity duplicate or mirror each other’s contents. One disk continuously and
automatically backs up the other disk. This
method is also known as disk mirroring or
■
■
■
RAID 2 Bit-interleaved data is written
across several drives, and then parity and
error-correction information is written to
additional separate drives. The specific
number of error-correction drives depends on the allocation algorithm in use.
RAID 3 Bit-interleaved data is written
across several drives, but only one parity
drive is used. If an error is detected, the
data is reread to resolve the problem. The
fact that data is reread in the event of an error may add a small performance penalty.
RAID 4 Data is written across drives by
sectors rather than at the bit level, and a
separate drive is used as a parity drive for
error detection. Reads and writes occur
independently.
RAID 5 Data is written across drives in
sectors, and parity information is added
as another sector, just as if it were ordinary data. This level of RAID can provide
faster performance as the parity information is written across all the drives, rather
than to a single parity drive.
There is not much difference in speed or
quality among these levels. The appropriate
level of RAID for any particular installation
depends on network usage. RAID levels 1, 3,
and 5 are available commercially, and levels
3 and 5 are proving popular for networks.
Several vendors have created their own
RAID levels, including 6, 7,10, 11, and 35.
Some of these are actually combinations of
existing RAID levels, such as Compaq’s
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Registry
Level 0+1, which combines RAID levels 0
and 1.
See also backup; disk striping; disk striping
with parity; parity; single large expensive
disk.
reentrant Describes a programming
technique that allows one copy of a program to be loaded into memory and shared.
When one program is executing reentrant
code, a different program can interrupt and
then start or continue execution of that
same code.
Many operating system service routines use
reentrant code so that only one copy of the
code is needed. The technique is also used in
multithreaded applications, in which different events are taking place concurrently in
the computer.
reference time server In Novell NetWare, a server that provides externally derived time data to secondary time servers
and to workstations. Reference time servers
take part in time synchronization, but they
do not change their time except in response
to the external time source.
See also primary time server; secondary
time server; single reference time server.
regedit In Microsoft Windows, an application that knowledgeable users can access
to edit the contents of the Registry database. In Windows NT, this application is
called regedit32.
See also Registry.
Regional Bell Operating Companies
Abbreviated RBOC. The telephone companies formed as a result of the breakup of
AT&T, finalized in 1984.
Each of the RBOCs was assigned a specific
geographical area, and each of these areas
was divided into service areas known as local access and transport areas (LATA).
See also Local Exchange Carrier.
Registered Communications Distribution Designer Abbreviated RCDD. A
certification from BICSI (a telecommunications association) for those involved in the
design and installation of low-voltage wiring infrastructures in new construction or
in existing buildings. An additional specialization, RCDD: Local Area Network, is
available for those involved with designing
and installing LAN cabling.
Registry In the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems, a system database
containing configuration information.
The operating system continually references the Registry database for information on
users and groups, the applications installed
on the system and the type of document
each can create, what hardware is available
and which ports are in use, and property
sheets for folders and application icons.
Changes to the Registry are usually made
automatically as configuration information
is changed using Control Panel applications
or the Administrative Tools; however,
knowledgeable users can make changes directly using the application regedit or
regedit32.
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Registry Editor
The Registry database replaces the text-based
.INI configuration files used in earlier versions of Windows and replaces the MS-DOS
configuration files AUTOEXEC.BAT and
CONFIG.SYS.
See also regedit.
See also Common name; Context; Distinguished Name; NDS tree.
REMOTE A Novell NetWare server utility used to access the server console from a
PC or a workstation or by using a modem.
See also RCONSOLE.
Registry Editor See regedit.
regular expression In Unix, a sequence
of characters that can match a set of fixedtext strings used in searching for and replacing text.
Many Unix programs, including vi, ed,
emacs, grep, and awk, use regular
expressions.
relational database A database model
in which the data always appears from the
point of view of the user to be a set of twodimensional tables, with the data presented
in rows and columns.
The rows in a table represent records, which
are collections of information about a specific topic, such as the entries in a doctor’s
patient list. The columns represent fields,
which are the items that make up a record,
such as the name, address, city, state, and zip
code in an address list database.
See also database model.
Relative Distinguished Name In Novell Directory Services (NDS), a shortened
Distinguished Name that identifies an object by its relationship within the current
context.
Relative Distinguished Names do not begin
with a period, but you can use a period at the
end of the name to move up the NDS tree.
remote access A workstation-to-network connection, made using a modem and
a telephone line, that allows data to be sent
and received over large distances. Remote
access and authentication and security for
such access is managed differently in different network operating systems.
See also private data network; public data
network; Virtual Private Network.
Remote Access Server Abbreviated
RAS. In Microsoft Windows NT Server, a
software package that allows remote users
to connect to the server via modem and access network resources. Users can connect
to the server using a telephone line and an
analog modem, an ISDN connection, or an
X.25 network.
Remote Authentication Dial In User
Service Abbreviated RADIUS. A thirdparty authentication server attached to a
network.
Remote users dial in to the server, and the access server requests authentication services
from the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server authenticates users and gives them access
to network resources. The access server is
acting as a client to the RADIUS server.
See also access server; authentication;
challenge-response authentication.
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Remote Storage
remote boot A technique used to boot a
workstation from an image file on the file
server rather than from a local drive attached directly to the workstation.
remote digital loopback test A capability of certain modems that allows the
whole circuit to be tested.
remote connection See remote access.
Remote File System Abbreviated RFS.
A distributed file system network protocol
that allows programs running on a computer to use network resources as though they
were local. Originally developed by AT&T,
RFS has been incorporated as a part of Unix
System V Interface Definition.
remote-control program A program
that allows the user to link two PCs together so that one of the computers controls the
operation of the other. The connection may
be over a dedicated serial line, a local-area
network, or a modem-to-modem communications link. Each computer runs a copy
of the remote-control program.
Remote-control programs are particularly
useful for troubleshooting problems at
computers located far from the technical
support center, for installing or removing
demonstration software without needing to
visit the customer site, for training remote
users, and for telecommuting.
Popular remote control programs include
Symantec’s pcAnywhere, Microcom’s
Carbon Copy, and Traveling Software’s
LapLink for Windows.
See also mobile computing; wireless
communications.
Remote Desktop Protocol Abbreviated RDP. An extension to the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU) T.120
protocol that provides the connection between a thin client and the terminal server.
RDP works with Microsoft Windows
workstations using TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
See also Independent Computing Architecture; thin client.
See also loopback.
Remote Installation Services Abbreviated RIS. In Microsoft Windows 2000
Server, a service that allows the installation
of a single workstation image of Windows
2000 Professional to any number of computers while at the same time ensuring that
each system has unique security identifiers.
Remote Procedure Call Abbreviated
RPC. A set of procedures used to implement
client/server architecture in distributed
programming.
RPC describes how an application initiates
a process on another network node and
how it retrieves the appropriate result.
RPCs were first implemented by Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard systems
running the Unix operating system.
See also Common Object Request Broker
Architecture; Distributed Component Object Model; Object Request Broker.
remote resource Any device not attached to the local node, but available
through the network.
Remote Storage In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, a service that moves in-
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remote user
frequently used files from local hard disk
storage to tape when disk resources drop
below a certain level. If a user requests the
file after it has been transferred to tape, the
file is read back, and a dialog box explains
that the file is being retrieved from remote
storage.
NetWare contains three major types of
replicas:
remote user A user who logs in to the
network using a modem and telephone line
from a site located some distance from the
main network.
■
A remote user may always dial in from the
same location, as in the case of a telecommuter working from home, or may dial in
from a different location every time, as in
the case of mobile sales people.
See also mobile computing; remote access; wireless communications.
repeater A simple hardware device that
moves all packets from one local-area
network segment to another by regenerating, retiming, and amplifying the electrical
signals.
The main purpose of a repeater is to extend
the length of the network transmission medium beyond the normal maximum cable
lengths.
See also active hub; bridge; brouter;
router.
replica In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), a copy of a directory partition.
Replicas are designed to eliminate a single
point of failure and to provide faster access
to users across a wide-area network.
■
■
Master The original replica, created
during system installation. A Master replica of the Root partition is stored in a hidden directory on the first file server
installed.
Read-Write Used to read or update Novell Directory Database (NDD) information. There will be at least two ReadWrite replicas for each partition to ensure
that the NDD will continue to function
even if some of the servers with replicas
are unavailable.
Read-Only Used to display but not
modify NDD information.
A fourth replica type, Subordinate Reference, is important to NDS communications. This is a link between a parent
partition and a child partition, containing
a list of the servers in which replicas of the
child partition are stored, their addresses,
and replica types, as well as other NDS
partition information. Subordinate Reference replicas are maintained by the operating system and cannot be changed by
users or the system administrator.
See also Novell Directory Services; NetWare Directory Database; partition; replica
synchronization.
replica synchronization In Novell Directory Services (NDS), the process used to
exchange information between a partition’s
replicas to ensure that all information is upto-date.
When a change is made to a replica, synchronization ensures that the change is
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Resource Reservation Protocol
made available to all other replicas as soon
as possible.
See also Novell Directory Services; partition; replica.
replication The process of synchronizing
data stored on two or more computers either for backup purposes or to make the information more accessible to users at
different locations.
In Microsoft Windows NT Server, replication is used to duplicate data to another
server; the server holding the master copy of
the data is called the export server, and the
server receiving the data is known as the import server.
In Novell Directory Services (NDS), replication is used to distribute all or part of the
Novell Directory Database to other servers.
requester Special software loaded onto a
networked workstation to manage communications between the network and the workstation. This software may also be referred to
as a shell, redirector, or client, depending on
the networking system in use.
See also NetWare shell; NetWare DOS Requester; NETx.COM.
Request for Comment Abbreviated
RFC. A document or a set of documents in
which proposed Internet standards are described or defined.
Well over a thousand RFCs are in existence, and they represent a major method of
online publication for Internet technical
standards.
See also Internet Engineering Task Force.
Request to Send Abbreviated RTS. A
hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C
standard to request permission to transmit.
See also Clear to Send.
reserved memory In MS-DOS, a term
used to describe that area of memory
between 640Kb and 1MB, also known as
upper memory. Reserved memory is used
by MS-DOS to store system and video
information.
See also memory management.
reserved word See keyword.
resource 1. Any part of a computer system that can be used by a program as it runs.
Resources include memory, hard and floppy
disks, networking components, the operating system, printers, and other output devices, as well as queues, security features, and
other less well defined data structures.
2. In HTML, any URL, directory, or appli-
cation that the server can access and send to
a requesting client.
See also HyperText Markup Language;
Uniform Resource Locator.
Resource Reservation Protocol Abbreviated RSVP. An Internet protocol designed to deliver data on time and in the right
order over TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol) networks.
RSVP is a control and signaling protocol, not
a routing protocol, and it works by reserving
bandwidth from one end system to another;
this reduces the bandwidth available to other
users.
See also IP switching; Real-time Transport
Protocol.
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response time
response time The time lag between
sending a request and receiving the data.
Response time can be applied to a complete
computer system, as in the time taken to
look up a certain customer record, or to a
system component, as in the time taken to
access a specific cluster on disk or for a
memory circuit to return data requested by
the processor.
restore To copy files from a backup or
archival storage to their normal location,
especially when the files are being copied to
replace files lost by accident.
REXX is a general-purpose interpreted language and uses English-like words, rather
than the sometimes terse syntax of C or C++.
RFC See Request for Comment.
RFI See radio frequency interference.
RFS See Remote File System.
RG-58 A 50-ohm coaxial cable, used in
Ethernet networks, that conforms to the
IEEE 802.3 10Base2 standard.
RG-59 A 75-ohm coaxial cable used in
ARCnet and in television.
See also backup.
retensioning A maintenance operation
required by certain tape drives to ensure
correct tape tension; retensioning fast forwards and then rewinds the entire tape or
tape cartridge.
Return key See Enter key.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
Abbreviated RARP. A part of the TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) protocol suite that allows a computer, more specifically a diskless workstation, to obtain an IP address from a server
when only the hardware address is known.
See also Address Resolution Protocol;
hardware address; IP address.
REXX Acronym formed from Restructured Extended Executor Language. A
scripting language from IBM, originally
written by Mike Cowlishaw of IBM UK in
1979 for the VM mainframe environment
and now available on many operating systems, including OS/2, Unix, and VMS.
RG-62 A 93-ohm coaxial cable used in
ARCnet LANs or in IBM 3270 applications.
right angle bracket The > symbol that
is used in Unix and other operating systems
to direct the output from a command to a
file or to a device.
Also commonly used in e-mail messages to
indicate the text has been cut from another
e-mail message.
rights In a network or multiuser environment, the ability of a user to access certain system resources, including files and
directories. Permissions are based on the
rights given to user accounts by the system
administrator.
See also inherited rights.
rightsizing The process of matching a
corporation’s goals to the computing and
network solutions available to maximize
business effectiveness in reaching that goal.
See also downsizing; outsourcing; service
bureau.
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RJ-12
ring network A network topology in the
form of a closed loop or circle, with each
node in the network connected to the next.
Messages move in one direction around the
system. When a message arrives at a node,
the node examines the address information
in the message. If the address matches the
node’s address, the message is accepted;
otherwise, the node regenerates the signal
and places the message back on the network
for the next node in the system. It is this re-
generation that allows a ring network to
cover greater distances than star networks
or bus networks. Ring networks normally
use some form of token-passing protocol to
regulate network traffic.
The failure of a single node can disrupt network operations; however, fault tolerant
techniques have been developed to allow
the network to continue to function in the
event one or more nodes fail.
See also token-ring network.
RING NETWORK
RIP See Routing Information Protocol.
See also plenum cable.
RIS
RISC See reduced instruction set
computing.
RJ-11 A commonly used modular telephone connector. RJ-11 is a four-wire (twopair) connector most often used for voice
communications.
riser cable Any cable that runs vertically
between floors in a building. Riser cable
may be run through special conduits or inside the elevator shaft.
RJ-12 A commonly used modular telephone connector. RJ-12 is a six-wire (threepair) connector most often used for voice
communications.
See Remote Installation Services.
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RJ-45
RJ-11
RJ-45 A commonly used modular telephone connector. RJ-45 is an eight-wire
(four-pair) connector used for data transmission over unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable and leased telephone line connections.
RLL encoding An efficient method of
storing information on a hard disk. Compared with older, less-efficient methods,
such as modified frequency modulation encoding (MFM), RLL encoding effectively
doubles the storage capacity of a disk.
See also advanced run-length limited
encoding.
rlogin A Unix utility that establishes a
terminal to remote host connection on a
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) network. Once the connection is established, any commands you
enter will run on the remote system.
roaming user profile In Microsoft Windows NT Server, a user profile stored on the
server and downloaded to a workstation
that follows a user from one computer to
another, allowing users to access their profile from any location on the network.
See also local user profile; mandatory user
profile.
robot Sometimes abbreviated bot. A
World Wide Web application that automatically locates and collects information
about new Web sites. Robots are most often
used to create large databases of Web sites.
See also spider.
Rockwell Semiconductor Systems A
major manufacturer of chip sets for modems, cellular and cordless telephones, fax
machines, PC-based videoconferencing
systems, and high-speed communications
systems.
For more information on Rockwell Semiconductor Systems, see www.rockwell.com.
roll back The ability of a database management system to abort a transaction
against the database before the transaction
is complete and return to a previous stable
condition.
See also roll forward; transaction
processing.
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ROT-13
RJ-45
roll forward The ability of a database
management system to re-create the data in
the database by rerunning all the transactions listed in the transaction log.
See also roll back; transaction processing.
ROM See read-only memory.
ROM BIOS See BIOS.
root 1. In many operating systems, the
name of the directory at the top of the directory tree from which all other directories
are descended.
2. In Unix, the name of the superuser, user
number 0. The system administrator uses
this account for certain administrative
tasks. One of the main objectives of an intruder on a Unix system is to gain root user
status. Once achieved, the intruder has unlimited access to the system.
See also avatar; root directory.
root domain The top-level Domain
Name Service (DNS) domain on the Internet. Also, in Microsoft Windows 2000
Server, the top-level domain in a Windows
2000 domain tree.
See also child domain; first-layer domain;
parent domain
root directory In a hierarchical directory structure, such as that used in Unix
and many other operating systems, the directory from which all other directories
must branch. You cannot delete the root
directory.
See also parent directory; period and
double-period directories.
Root object In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), the original container object, created when NDS is first installed.
The Root object contains all other NDS objects and cannot be deleted, renamed, or
moved. Sometimes written [Root].
ROT-13 Pronounced “rote-13.”A simple
encoding scheme often used to scramble
posts to Usenet newsgroups.
ROT-13 works by swapping each alphabetic character with another 13 characters removed from its location in the alphabet, so
that a becomes n, and so on; numbers and
punctuation are unaffected.
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router
ROT-13 makes the article unreadable until
the text is decoded and is often used when
the subject matter might be considered offensive. Many newsreaders have a built-in
command to unscramble ROT-13 text, and
if you use it, don’t be surprised by what you
read. If you think you might be offended,
don’t decrypt the post.
You will also find other, inoffensive material encoded by ROT-13, including spoilers
that give away the ending of a book or film
and answers to puzzles or riddles.
router An intelligent connecting device
that can send packets to the correct LAN
segment to take them to their destination.
Routers link LAN segments at the network
layer of the OSI Reference Model for computer-to-computer communications. The
networks connected by routers can use similar or different networking protocols.
A router may be one or more of the following types:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Central Acts as a network backbone,
connecting many LANs.
Peripheral Connects individual LANs to
either a central router or to another peripheral router.
Local Operates within its LAN driver’s
cable-length limitations.
Remote Connects beyond its device
driver limitations, perhaps through a modem or remote connection.
Internal Part of a network file server.
External Located in a workstation on
the network.
See also bridge; brouter; gateway.
ROUTER
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RS-232-C
routing The process of directing packets
from a network source node to the destination node.
See also routing protocol.
Routing and Remote Access Service
Abbreviated RRAS. In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, the service used by remote users
to access the server. In addition, RRAS provides routing functions. RRAS replaces the
Windows NT Remote Access Service (RAS).
RPL A Novell NetWare server utility that
allows users to boot diskless workstations
from files on the server.
Routing Information Protocol Abbreviated RIP. A routing protocol used on
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol) networks that maintains a list of reachable networks and calculates the degree of difficulty involved in
reaching a specific network from a particular location by determining the lowest
hop count.
Service.
The Internet standard routing protocol
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the successor to RIP.
See also Open Shortest Path First.
routing protocol The protocol that enables routing by the use of a specific routing
algorithm that determines the most appropriate path between the source and destination nodes.
Routing protocols provide dynamic routing
configuration; without routing protocols,
system administrators would have to manually configure routing tables.
See also Open Shortest Path First; Routing
Information Protocol; routing table.
routing table A table stored in a router;
used to keep track of routes to specific network destinations.
RPC See Remote Procedure Call.
See also remote boot.
RRAS
See Routing and Remote Access
RS-232-C A recommended standard (RS)
interface established by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also known as
EIA/TIA-232.
The standard defines the specific electrical,
functional, and mechanical characteristics
used in asynchronous transmissions between a computer (data terminal equipment, or DTE) and a peripheral device (data
communications equipment, or DCE). RS is
the abbreviation for recommended standard, and the C denotes the third revision of
that standard. RS-232-C is compatible with
the CCITT V.24 and V.28 standards, as
well as ISO IS2110.
RS-232-C uses a 25-pin or 9-pin DB connector. The accompanying illustration
shows the pinouts used in a DB-25 male
connector. It is used for serial communications between a computer and a peripheral
device, such as a printer, modem, or mouse.
The maximum cable limit of 15.25 meters
(50 feet) can be extended by using highquality cable, line drivers to boost the signal, or short-haul modems.
See also 1394; High Speed Serial Interface;
Universal Serial Bus.
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RS-422
RS-232-C INTERFACE
RS-422 A recommended standard (RS)
interface established by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also known as
EIA/TIA-422.
serial interface, but does not specify a connector. Manufacturers who use this standard use many different types of connectors
with nonstandard pin configurations.
The standard defines the electrical and
functional characteristics used in a balanced serial interface, but does not specify
a connector. Manufacturers who use this
standard use many different types of connectors with nonstandard pin configurations. Serial ports on some Macintosh
computers are RS-422 ports.
RS-449 A recommended standard (RS)
interface established by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also known as
EIA/TIA-449.
RS-423 A recommended standard (RS)
interface established by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also known as
EIA/TIA-423.
The standard defines the specific electrical,
functional, and mechanical characteristics
used in serial binary data interchange,
and it is often used with synchronous
transmissions.
RS-449 may be implemented using a 37-pin
or 9-pin DB connector; the accompanying
illustration shows a DB-37 male connector.
The standard defines the electrical and functional characteristics used in an unbalanced
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RS-530
RS-449 INTERFACE
RS-485 A recommended standard (RS)
interface established by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also known as
EIA/TIA-485.
RS-485 is similar to RS-422, except that the
associated drivers are tri-state rather than
dual-state. RS-485 can be used in multipoint applications, in which one computer
controls as many as 64 devices.
RS-530 A recommended standard (RS)
interface established by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA). Also known as
EIA/TIA-530.
The standard defines the specific electrical,
functional, and mechanical characteristics
used in transmitting serial binary data, either synchronously or asynchronously, using a 25-pin DB connector.
RS-530 works in conjunction with RS-422
(balanced electrical circuits) or RS-423 (unbalanced electrical circuits) and allows data
rates from 20Kbps to 2Mbps. The maximum
distance depends on the electrical interface in
use. RS-530 is compatible with CCITT V.10,
V.11, X26; MIL-188/114, and RS-449.
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RS/6000
RS-530 INTERFACE
RS/6000 See IBM RS/6000.
RSA A public key, or asymmetric, encryption scheme invented by and named for
three mathematicians—Ron Rivest, Adi
Shamir, and Len Adleman.
The theoretical background to RSA is that
it is very difficult to find the factors of a very
large number that is the product of two
prime numbers. RSA has been analyzed
closely and is considered very secure provided a sufficiently long key is used.
RSA Data Security A leading publisher
of encryption software, founded by mathematicians Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len
Adleman.
The company holds patents on several important encryption schemes and provides
encryption and security consulting services.
For more information on RSA Data
Security, see www.rsa.com.
RSVP See Resource Reservation
Protocol.
RTP See Real-time Transport Protocol.
RTS See Request to Send.
RTSP See Realtime Streaming Protocol.
run-time version A special, limitedcapability release of software bundled with a
single product that allows that product to run,
but does not support any of the other applications capable of running in that same environment. The run-time version provides some but
not all the features of the full product.
RXD See Receive Data.
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SAN
S
S3 Inc. A leader in the field of multimedia
and graphics accelerator chips, S3 Inc. sells
to companies such as Compaq, Dell, and
Diamond Multimedia, who use the chips in
their systems and on add-in cards.
For more information on S3 Inc., see
www.s3.com.
SAA See Systems Application
Architecture.
safe mode In Microsoft Windows, a
special way of starting the operating system
using only the most essential components,
to allow for problem diagnosis and system
troubleshooting.
See also Emergency Repair Disk; Recovery
Console.
SAM See Security Accounts Manager.
SAM database In Microsoft Windows
NT, the Security Accounts Manager database that holds all the user accounts, groups,
policies, and other information relating to
the domain.
The SAM database is maintained by the
User Manager for Domains utility and is accessed internally by the Security Accounts
Manager.
See also domain; Security Accounts
Manager.
same-server migration In Novell NetWare, one of the methods used to upgrade
from NetWare 2 to NetWare 4.
sag A short-term drop in line voltage to
between 70 and 90 percent of the nominal
voltage.
The process involves upgrading the file system to the NetWare 3 format first and then
upgrading to NetWare 4. The server hardware must be capable of running NetWare 4.
See also power conditioning; spike; surge.
See also across-the-wire migration.
salvageable files In Novell NetWare,
files that have been deleted by users, but
that are recoverable.
Samsung/AST Research The more
than 30 companies in the Samsung Group
manufacture everything from consumer
electronics to notebook PCs and monitors
to ATM switches, and Samsung Electronics
is one of the largest producers of DRAM
and other semiconductors in the world.
The FILER utility can display a list of deleted files and can recover the files providing
they have not been overwritten in whole or
in part.
If the directory containing the deleted file is
also deleted, the file is saved in a system directory called DELETED.SAV in the volume’s root directory.
For more information on Samsung, see
www.samsung.com, and for more information on AST Research, see www.ast.com.
SAN See storage area network.
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sandbox
sandbox In the Java programming system, an area within which the Java applet
may execute. The sandbox is created by the
Java Virtual Machine.
The applet can do anything it likes within
the sandbox, but it cannot read or alter any
data outside the sandbox. This security
measure allows users (at least in theory) to
run untrusted code without compromising
the security of their own environment.
See also Java; Java applet; Java Virtual
Machine.
Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. Abbreviated SCO. Developers of several important
strains of Unix, including XENIX, SCO
UNIX, and the SCO OpenServer series of
products.
SCO began shipping Unix products based
on Intel processors in 1982, and now SCO
accounts for approximately 40 percent of
the Unix market, with more than 8,000 applications available from various vendors.
In 1995, SCO bought the rights to Unix
from Novell, and recently the company
combined UnixWare and OpenServer into
a single integrated operating system.
For more information on SCO, see
www.sco.com.
See also OpenServer; UnixWare.
Santa Cruz Operation Advanced Certified Engineer Abbreviated SCO ACE. A
certification from Santa Cruz Operation
based on its SCO Unix products. Three specializations are available: Server Track,
Open Server Track, and UnixWare Track.
SAP See Service Advertising Protocol.
SAP AG One of the world’s largest independent software suppliers, based in Walldorf, Germany.
SAP’s flagship product goes under the unassuming name of R/3, but the product
serves a large part of the corporate client/
server world and encompasses accounting
and controlling, production and materials
management, human resources management, plant maintenance, workflow software, quality management, sales and
distribution, and project management.
For more information on SAP, see
www.sap.com.
SAR
See segmentation and reassembly sublayer.
SAS See single-attached station.
SATAN See Security Administrator
Tool for Analyzing Networks.
Scalable Performance Architecture
Abbreviated SPARC. A 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor
from Sun Microsystems.
See also SPARCstation; Sun Microsystems,
Inc.
scalablility The ability of an operating
system to add system resources to provide
faster processing or to handle increased
loads in anticipation of future needs.
In practice, this usually means that an operating system is available on a range of increasingly capable hardware, with only
modest increases in price at each level.
Schedule service In Microsoft Windows NT, a system service that performs an
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SCSI-1
automated task at a specific time using the
AT command.
Schema In Microsoft Active Directory,
the definition of the objects and their properties that can be stored in the Active Directory database.
The Active Directory Schema is flexible and
allows programmers to add new objects and
to add new properties to existing objects.
See also Active Directory; Global Catalog;
Multimaster Replication; Object
SCO See Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
SCO ACE See Santa Cruz Operation Advanced Certified Engineer.
SCOadmin A set of graphical system administrator tools provided with Santa Cruz
Operation (SCO) OpenServer.
SCOadmin lets you add or remove users,
manage printers and filesystems, and check
your network configuration quickly and
easily.
SCO OpenServer A set of Unix products from Santa Cruz Operation (SCO).
OpenServer includes a journaling filesystem, integrated symmetrical multiprocessing, a set of graphical administration tools,
and a Web server. You can also run
MS-DOS and Windows applications
under software emulation.
See also Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.; SCO
Unix.
SCO Unix A popular version of Unix
from Santa Cruz Operation (SCO), based
on System V, Release 3.2, with many System V, Release 4 enhancements.
SCO Unix includes the Korn shell, X Window, Level C2 security, multiprocessor
support, and the ability to run MS-DOS
and Windows applications under software
emulation.
See also Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
SCR
See Sustainable Cell Rate.
script A small program or macro invoked
at a particular time.
For example, a login script may execute the
same specific set of instructions every time a
user logs in to a network. A communications
script may send user-identification information to an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
each time a subscriber dials up the service.
scripting The process of invoking a
script, written in a scripting language, from
an HTML document on a Web site.
Scripts can be written in a range of languages, including Perl, Tcl, REXX, JavaScript,
JScript, or even Microsoft Visual Basic.
See also Common Gateway Interface;
JavaScript; Perl; REXX; Tcl.
SCSI See Small Computer System
Interface.
SCSI-1 A commonly used name for the
first Small Computer System Interface
(SCSI) definition, published in 1986; has
an 8-bit parallel interface and a maximum
data transfer rate of 5MBps.
See also Fast SCSI; Fast/Wide SCSI; SCSI2; SCSI-3; Small Computer System Interface; Ultra SCSI; Ultra2 SCSI; Wide Ultra
SCSI; Wide Ultra2 SCSI.
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SCSI-2
SCSI-2 A 1994 extension to the Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI)
definition.
This standard broadened the 8-bit data bus
to 16 or 32 bits (also known as Wide SCSI),
doubling the data transfer rate to 10 or
20Mbps (also known as Fast SCSI). Wide
SCSI and Fast SCSI can be combined to give
Fast/Wide SCSI, with a 16-bit data bus and
a maximum data-transfer rate of 20Mbps.
SCSI-2 is backward compatible with SCSI-1,
but for maximum benefit, you should use
SCSI-2 devices with a SCSI-2 controller.
SCSI-2 also adds new commands, and although the connector is physically smaller,
it uses 68 pins rather than the 50 in SCSI-1.
Higher data-transfer rates are achieved by
using synchronous rather than asynchronous transfers.
See also Fast SCSI; Fast/Wide SCSI; SCSI;
SCSI-1; SCSI-3; Small Computer System
Interface; Ultra SCSI; Ultra2 SCSI; Wide Ultra SCSI; Wide Ultra2 SCSI.
SCSI-3 An extension to the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) standard.
This definition increased the number of
connected peripherals from 7 to 16, increased cable lengths, added support for a
variety of interfaces including a serial interface, a Fibre Channel interface, a 1394 interface, and support for Serial Storage
Architecture and several packet interfaces.
Data-transfer rates depend on the hardware
implementation, but data rates in excess of
160Mbps are possible.
See also 1394; Fast SCSI; Fast/Wide SCSI;
Fibre Channel; Small Computer System
Interface; SCSI-1; SCSI-2; Serial Storage
Architecture; Ultra SCSI; Ultra2 SCSI; Wide
Ultra SCSI; Wide Ultra2 SCSI.
SCSI bus Another name for the Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI) interface
and communications protocol.
SCSI terminator The Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI) interface must be
correctly terminated to prevent signals
echoing on the bus.
Many SCSI devices have built-in terminators that engage when they are needed.
With some older SCSI devices, you must
add an external SCSI terminator that plugs
into the device’s SCSI connector.
See also active termination; forced perfect
termination; passive termination.
scuzzy See Small Computer System
Interface.
SDH See Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy.
SDK See software development kit.
SDLC See Synchronous Data Link
Control.
SDRAM See synchronous DRAM.
SDSL See Single-Line Digital Subscriber
Line.
Seagate Desktop Management
Suite A package of network management utilities from Seagate Software, Inc.,
that includes hardware and software inventory, server monitoring, client monitoring
and control, network traffic monitoring, virus protection, remote access, remote control, and print-queue management.
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Secure MIME
The Desktop Management Suite also uses
Seagate’s Crystal Reports and includes
more than 80 standard reports as well as facilities to create custom reports.
See also Desktop Management Interface.
Seagate Technology, Inc. A major
manufacturer of storage technology solutions, including tape drives, hard disks, as
well as network information management
software and the reporting package, Crystal Reports.
For more information on Seagate Technology, Inc., see www.seagate.com.
search drive A drive that the operating
system searches when the requested file is
not located in the current directory.
See also current drive.
search engine A special Web site that
lets you perform keyword searches to locate
Web pages; see Appendix A for a list of popular search engines.
To use a search engine, you enter one or
more keywords or, in some cases, a more
complex search string such as a Boolean expression. The search engine returns a list of
matching Web pages, newsgroups, and FTP
archives taken from its database, usually
ranked in some way, that contain the expression you are looking for, along with a
brief text description of the material.
Searching this database is much faster than
actually searching the Internet, but the accuracy and relevance of the information it
contains depend on how often the data is
updated and on the proportion of the Web
that is actually searched for new content.
See also portal.
secondary cache Cache memory located on the motherboard rather than on the
microprocessor; also known as L2 cache.
Secondary cache can significantly improve
system performance.
second source In computer hardware,
an alternative supplier of an identical product. Second sources are a safety net for the
buyer, because there are at least two suppliers for one product.
secondary time server In Novell NetWare, a server that does not determine the
network time, but receives that information
from a primary or single reference time
server.
See also primary time server; reference
time server; single reference time server.
Secure HTTP Abbreviated S-HTTP, S/
HTTP, or HTTP-S. An extension to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), from
Enterprise Integration Technology, that allows Web browsers and servers to sign, authenticate, and encrypt an HTTP packet at
the application layer.
S-HTTP is not widely used and is being replaced by Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
See also Secure Sockets Layer.
Secure MIME Abbreviated S/MIME. An
extension to the Multipurpose Internet
Mail Extension (MIME) e-mail standard
that adds security in the form of the RSA
public-key algorithm.
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Secure Sockets Layer
See also Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension; Pretty Good Privacy; Privacy Enhanced Mail.
Secure Sockets Layer Abbreviated
SSL. An interface originally developed by
Netscape that provides encrypted data
transfer between client and server applications over the Internet.
SSL works at the network level and so can be
used by any SSL-compliant application.
Applications that use SSL use RSA public
key encryption and digital signatures to
establish the identity of the two parties in the
transaction.
See also RSA; Secure HTTP; SOCKS.
Secure WAN Abbreviated S/WAN. An
initiative from RSA Data Security designed
to create secure firewall-to-firewall connections over the Internet.
S/WAN creates a Virtual Private Network
(VPN) over the Internet, and all data transmitted on this VPN is encrypted to keep it
secure.
See also IPSec; SOCKS; Virtual Private
Network.
security Operating system controls used
by the network administrator to limit users’
access to approved areas.
The National Security Agency document
called “Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria” (TCSEC) specifies security levels that vendors must follow to comply with
Department of Defense security standards.
This publication details standards for security levels used to control access to computer systems from Class A1, the highest
verifiable security level, to Class D, the lowest, which has no security.
Class C2 is the security level most appropriate to the business world; higher levels of
security tend to intrude too much into normal commercial working patterns. C2 security requires that the operating system
provide individual logins with separate accounts and a verifiable audit trail, that resources have owners, and that files and
other system resources be protected from
other processes that might corrupt them.
An operating system that lets anyone have
unfettered access, such as MS-DOS or the
MacOS, falls into the D category. C1 and
C2 levels can be implemented in a commercial environment. After the B1 level, the
computing environment changes radically,
and many of the mandatory access-control
mechanisms become impractical for normal commercial operations.
See also intruder.
Security Accounts Manager Abbreviated SAM. In Microsoft Windows NT, the
security system that manages and provides
access to the account or SAM database.
SAM authenticates a user name and password against information contained in the
database and creates an access token that
includes the user’s permissions.
See also SAM database; security identifier.
Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks Abbreviated SATAN.
A software package, available free over the
Internet, that allows network administrators
to identify gaps in their security systems.
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semaphore
Critics of the program argue that SATAN
lets hackers exploit the information contained in the program on how to infiltrate
these security systems, but so far, the program seems to have acted as a wake-up call
for network administrators.
See also intruder; security.
security equivalence In Novell Directory Services (NDS), when an object or
trustee receives the same rights given to another object.
See also implied security equivalence; explicit security equivalence.
security groups In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, the groups used to assign
rights and permissions. Security groups replace Windows NT’s user groups.
See also distribution groups.
security ID See security identifier.
security identifier Abbreviated security
ID or SID. In Microsoft Windows NT, a
unique name that identifies a logged-on
user to the internal security system.
A SID contains a complete set of permissions and can apply to a single user or to a
group.
See also Security Accounts Manager.
security log In Microsoft Windows
2000, a system log that records changes to
security settings and audited access such as
attempts to open files or folders. You can
use the Event Viewer to look at the contents
of the security log.
See also application log; Event Viewer;
system log.
security zone In Microsoft Internet Explorer, a set of classifications that control
how a Web-based application can interact
with the browser.
The four zones—Internet, Local intranet,
Trusted sites, and Restricted sites—place
different security restrictions on any Web
sites visited and manage ActiveX controls,
Java applets, cookies, downloads, and
scripting .
segmentation and reassembly
sublayer Abbreviated SAR. One of two
sublayers that make up the ATM Adaptation Layer, the other being the convergence
sublayer (CS).
The SAR is the lower of the two sublayers,
packages variable-sized data packets into
fixed-sized cells at the transmitting end, and
repackages the cells at the receiving end.
SAR is also responsible for locating and
managing lost cells and cells that are received out of sequence.
See also ATM Adaptation Layer; convergence sublayer.
semaphore An interprocess communication signal that indicates the status of a
shared system resource, such as shared memory, in a multitasking operating system.
There are several types of semaphores:
Event Allows a thread to tell other
threads that an event has occurred and that
it is safe for them to resume execution.
Mutual exclusion (mutex) Protects system resources, such as files, data, and peripheral devices, from simultaneous
access by several processes.
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sendmail
Multiple wait (muxwait) Allows threads
to wait for multiple events to take place or
for multiple resources to become free.
See also mailslots; named pipe; pipe;
shared memory; socket.
sendmail A Unix system utility program
or daemon that acts as a mail transport
agent in an e-mail system, receiving messages from a user’s e-mail program and
then routing the mail to the correct destination. Normal users rarely come into
direct contact with sendmail; it is difficult
to administer and is a known security
problem.
See also Post Office Protocol; Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol.
sequel See Structured Query Language.
sequential access An access method
used by some storage devices, such as tapes,
that requires them to start at the beginning
to find a specific storage location. If the information is toward the end of the tape, access can take a long time.
See also random access.
serial communications The transmission of information from computer to computer or from computer to peripheral
device one bit at a time.
Serial communications can be synchronous
and controlled by a clock, or they can be
asynchronous and coordinated by start and
stop bits embedded in the data stream. The
sending and receiving devices must both use
the same baud rate, parity setting, and other
communication parameters.
Sequenced Packet eXchange Abbreviated SPX. A set of Novell NetWare protocols implemented on top of IPX
(Internetwork Packet eXchange) to form a
transport-layer interface.
See also 1394; asynchronous transmission; High Speed Serial Interface; RS-232C; RS-422; RS-423; RS-449; RS-485; RS530; Serial Storage Architecture; synchronous transmission; Universal Serial Bus.
SPX provides additional capabilities over
IPX. For example, it guarantees packet delivery by having the destination node verify
that the data were received correctly. If no
response is received within a specified time,
SPX retransmits the packet. If several retransmissions fail to return an acknowledgment, SPX assumes that the connection has
failed and informs the operator. All packets
in the transmission are sent in sequence,
and they all take the same path to their destination node.
Serial Line Internet Protocol Abbreviated SLIP. A protocol used to run Internet
Protocol over serial lines or telephone connections using modems.
See also Internetwork Packet eXchange.
SLIP allows a computer to establish a temporary direct connection to the Internet via
modem and to appear to the host system as
if it were a port on the host’s network.
SLIP is slowly being replaced by PPP (Pointto-Point Protocol).
See also Internet Protocol; Point-to-Point
Protocol.
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Server Message Block
serial port A computer input/output
port that supports serial communications,
in which information is processed one bit at
a time.
RS-232-C is a common protocol used on serial ports when communicating with modems, printers, mice, and other peripherals.
See also parallel port.
Serial Storage Architecture Abbreviated SSA. A high-performance serial interface, originally developed by IBM, used to
connect peripherals, such as scanners, disk
drives, optical disks, and printers, to workstations or servers.
A typical SSA interface has two ports with
a total bandwidth of 80Mbps and can manage two 20Mbps transmissions simultaneously, one in each direction. The shielded
four-wire cable is configured as two pairs,
and the maximum cable length is 25 meters
(82 feet).
SSA is also specified as a physical layer serial interface in SCSI-3.
workstation. A server may also have several processors rather than just one and
may be dedicated to a specific support
function such as printing, e-mail, or communications. Many servers also have large
power supplies, UPS (uninterruptible power supply) support, and fault-tolerant features, such as RAID technology.
On the Internet, a server responds to requests from a client, usually a Web browser.
See also access server; communications/
modem server; file server; print server;
Web server.
server application In Object Linking
and Embedding (OLE), an application that
creates OLE objects.
See also Object Linking and Embedding.
server-based application An application run from the server rather than from a
local hard disk.
See also client application; thin client.
See also 1394; Fibre Channel; SCSI-3; serial
communications.
nal services.
server Any computer that makes access
to files, printing, communications, and other services available to users of the network.
Server Manager A Microsoft Windows
NT Server utility used to manage domains,
workgroups, and computers.
In large networks, a dedicated server runs a
special network operating system; in smaller installations, a nondedicated server may
run a personal computer operating system
with peer-to-peer networking software running on top.
Server Message Block Abbreviated
SMB. A distributed file-system network
protocol, developed by Microsoft and
adopted by many other vendors, that allows a computer to use the files and other
resources of another computer as though
they were local. For network transfers,
SMBs are encapsulated within the NetBIOS
network control block packet.
A server typically has a more advanced
processor, more memory, a larger cache,
and more disk storage than a single-user
server-based computing See Termi-
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server push
server push A mechanism used on the
Internet whereby a client application, usually a Web browser, maintains an open connection to a Web site, and the Web server
provides new content to the client automatically, as soon as the new content becomes
available. This process continues until the
server decides to close the connection.
See also client pull.
server root A directory on a Web server
that contains the server program as well as
configuration and information files.
Server service In Microsoft Windows
NT Server, a service that manages access to
and sharing of local resources attached to
the network.
server side include Abbreviated SSI. A
method used to create dynamic Web pages.
See also Alerter service; Messenger service; Server service.
Service Advertising Protocol Abbreviated SAP. A protocol that provides a method for servers, printers, and other devices to
advertise their services on a Novell NetWare network and allows routers to create
and maintain a database of current internetwork server information.
SAP packets are normally broadcast every
60 seconds and include the name, network
address, and type of service offered by a
server.
SAP traffic can be excessive on large networks, and SAP filtering is often used to reduce the traffic; SAP traffic can be severely
reduced or even eliminated from rarely used
servers.
The INCLUDE statement is used to embed
commands within an HTML document and
tells the Web server to perform specific
tasks. A common way of using INCLUDE is
to tell the server to load the contents of another external file at a specific point in the
original HTML document.
service bureau A company that provides data processing or business software
development services to its customers.
SSIs can degrade server performance due to
the number of repeated disk accesses they
make, and they can also prove to be a security problem.
By using a service bureau, a company can
avoid the high hardware and personnel costs
associated with running its own in-house
services.
See also Extensible Markup Language;
HyperText Markup Language.
See also outsourcing.
service In Microsoft Windows NT, a process that performs a particular system function and often provides an API (application
programming interface) so that other processes can take advantage of its abilities.
A service bureau might provide typesetting,
prepress production, optical document
scanning, or other services.
Service Level Agreement Abbreviated
SLA. An agreement between a user and a
service provider that defines the terms and
conditions of the service, as well as being a
means for evaluating the service provided
against the service specified.
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SET
See also Internet Service Provider; service
provider.
service pack A periodic update to the
Microsoft Windows family of operating
systems.
A service pack includes fixes to bugs and
problems reported by both customers and
by Microsoft and may also contain additional new features or applications.
Service Profile Identifier Abbreviated
SPID. An 8- to 14-character identifier
associated with an ISDN connection that
defines the services available on that
connection.
The SPID is actually stored at the telephone
company central office and is accessed by
and used to identify your ISDN service.
Don’t lose it; your ISDN system will not run
without it.
See also Integrated Services Digital
Network.
service provider A general term used to
describe those companies providing a connection to the Internet or to other communications services. Access methods vary
from high-speed dedicated access to dialup
using SLIP or PPP.
See also Internet Service Provider.
servlet A small application that is written in the Java programming language and
runs on a Web server.
(Internetwork Packet eXchange/Sequenced
Packet eXchange) settings.
It also provides a convenient front end to
the SET command, as well as information
about the number of running processes,
NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs) installed, volumes mounted, users logged in,
and name spaces loaded.
In NetWare 5, SERVMAN has been
merged into MONITOR.
See also MONITOR; SET.
session 1. The time during which a program is running on either a local or a remote
computer.
2. An MS-DOS or a Microsoft Windows
program run as a separate protected task
under certain multitasking operating systems, such as OS/2.
3. In communications, the name for the ac-
tive connection between a mainframe terminal (or a personal computer emulating a
terminal) and the computer itself. Many
different transactions or message exchanges may take place during a single session.
See also process; thread.
session layer The fifth of seven layers of
the OSI Reference Model for computer-tocomputer communications.
The session layer coordinates communications and maintains the session for as long
as it is needed, performing security, logging,
and administrative functions.
See also OSI Reference Model.
SERVMAN A Novell NetWare utility
used to manage the server and view network information, including operating system performance parameters and IPX/SPX
SET A Novell NetWare server command used to establish operating system
parameters, including parameters for
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setup string
communications, the memory pool, file
and directory caching, the disk and file
system, locking, transaction tracking, the
NetWare Core Protocol (NCP), and error
handling.
The SET command is also used by many other operating systems, including MS-DOS,
OS/2, and Unix, to establish environment
values.
setup string See control code.
SFT See System Fault Tolerance.
sgi See Silicon Graphics, Inc.
SGML See Standard Generalized
Markup Language.
SGRAM See synchronous graphics
RAM.
shadow member One of two members
of a mirror set. The primary member contains the original data; the shadow member
contains the copy. The shadow member is
read only if the primary member cannot be
read.
See also disk mirroring; primary member.
shadow memory The technique of
copying the contents of the BIOS ROM
into faster RAM when the computer first
boots up.
Because RAM is usually two to three times
faster than ROM, and the speedier access
reduces the time required to execute a BIOS
routine, the processor spends more time
working and less time waiting.
share In Microsoft Windows NT, a resource such as a printer or a directory,
shared by a server or a peer on the network.
shared folder In a networked Macintosh, a folder that is available to other users,
either without restriction or through a password. A shared folder in the Macintosh is
comparable to a network directory on a PC.
shared memory An interprocess communications technique in which the same memory is accessed by more than one program
running in a multitasking operating system.
Semaphores or other management elements
prevent the applications from colliding or trying to update the same information at the
same time.
See also mailslots; named pipe; pipe;
semaphore; socket.
sharing In Microsoft Windows, the process of making a network resource, such as
a file, a folder, or a printer, available to other network users.
See also share; hidden share.
shell In Unix, the command processor.
The shell accepts commands from the user,
interprets them, and passes them to the operating system for execution.
The three major shells are the Bourne shell
(the original Unix shell from AT&T), the C
shell (developed as a part of the BSD Unix
efforts), and the Korn shell (also developed
by AT&T).
In recent years several public-domain shells
have become popular, including Bash (the
Bourne-again shell), which is often used on
Linux, Tcsh, and Zsh.
See also Bash shell; Bourne shell; C shell;
Korn shell.
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shortcut trust
shielded cable Cable protected against
electromagnetic and radio frequency interference (RFI) by metal-backed mylar foil
and plastic or PVC.
See also unshielded cable.
shielded twisted-pair cable Abbreviated STP. Cable with a foil shield and copper braid surrounding the pairs of wires.
The wires have a minimum number of
twists per foot of cable length; the greater
the number of twists, the lower the
crosstalk. STP offers high-speed transmission for useful distances, and it is often associated with Token Ring networks, but its
bulk quickly fills up wiring conduits.
short circuit Often abbreviated to short.
A circuit that is accidentally completed at a
point too close to its origin to allow normal
or complete operation. In cabling, a short
circuit often occurs when two stripped
wires touch.
shortcut In Microsoft Windows, a link
to an object such as a file, a folder, a Web
page, or an application. You can create an
unlimited number of shortcuts, and you can
place them on the Desktop, on the Start
menu, or in a particular folder.
shortcut keystroke See key
combination.
shielded twisted-pair cable.
shortcut trust In Microsoft Windows
2000 Server, an explicit trust used to defeat
the trust referral process between directory
trees.
short See short circuit.
See also downlevel trust; explicit trust;
two-way transitive trust.
See also crosstalk; shielded cable; un-
SHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR CABLE
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shortest-path routing
shortest-path routing A routing algorithm in which paths to all network destinations are calculated. The shortest path is
then determined by a cost assigned to each
link.
short-haul modem A simple, low-cost
modem that can transmit information only
over short distances, such as from one side
of a building to the other side.
See also line driver; long-haul modem.
S-HTTP See Secure HTTP.
S/HTTP See Secure HTTP.
SID See security identifier.
SIG See special interest group.
signal-to-noise ratio Abbreviated SNR.
The ratio between the desired signal and the
unwanted noise at a specific point in a cable; a measure of signal quality.
SNR is particularly important in networks
using unshielded twisted-pair cable (UTP).
SNR specifications for token-ring networks
are much more stringent than those for
10BaseT or ARCnet.
signature A short text file that is automatically added to the end of your e-mail or
Usenet posts.
A signature file usually contains your name
(or alias) and e-mail address, and some people like to add pithy quotes; whatever your
signature file contains, remember to keep it
short.
Silicon Graphics Certified IRIX Network Administrator An advanced certification from Silicon Graphics designed to
demonstrate proficiency in administering
Silicon Graphics IRIX-based networks.
Silicon Graphics Certified IRIX System
Administrator A basic certification from
Silicon Graphics designed to demonstrate
proficiency in administering Silicon Graphics IRIX systems.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. Sometimes abbreviated sgi. A major manufacturer of
Unix and RISC-based graphics workstations and supercomputers.
The company’s workstations are used in
product engineering, computer simulation,
data warehousing, and in Hollywood postproduction facilities to add special effects.
For more information on Silicon Graphics
Inc, see www.sgi.com.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Abbreviated SMTP. The TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol that provides a simple e-mail service and
is responsible for moving e-mail messages
from one e-mail server to another. SMTP
provides a direct end-to-end mail delivery,
which is rather unusual; most mail systems
use store-and-forward protocols.
The e-mail servers run either Post Office
Protocol (POP) or Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) to distribute e-mail messages
to users.
Many third-party vendors sell host software capable of exchanging SMTP e-mail
with proprietary e-mail systems, such as
IBM’s PROFS.
See also Internet Mail Access Protocol;
Post Office Protocol; store-and-forward.
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single-ended SCSI
Simple Network Management
Protocol Abbreviated SNMP. A standard
protocol, part of the TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) suite,
used to manage and monitor nodes on a
network. The accompanying illustration
shows how the SNMP manager and agent
are organized.
SNMP is a communications protocol for
collecting information about devices on the
network, including hubs, routers, and
bridges. Each piece of information to be
collected about a device is defined in a Management Information Base (MIB). SNMP
uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to send
and receive messages on the network.
SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
single-attached station Abbreviated
SAS. In the Fiber Distributed Data Interface
(FDDI), a device attached to only one of the
dual, counter-rotating rings.
Noncritical devices, such as workstations,
are often connected using SASs, because
they are less expensive than dual-attached
stations (DASs).
See also dual-attached station; Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
single-ended SCSI A Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI) bus-wiring scheme
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single large expensive disk
that uses a single wire for each signal transmitted on the bus. Used more often than differential SCSI.
See also differential SCSI; Small Computer
System Interface.
single large expensive disk Abbreviated SLED. The traditional alternative to
RAID (redundant array of inexpensive
disks), used by most networks.
Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line Abbreviated SDSL; sometimes called Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line. A symmetrical,
bidirectional Digital Subscriber Line service
that operates on one twisted-pair wire.
SDSL can provide data rates of up to the T1
rate of 1.544Mbps over a cable length of
up to 1,000 feet, and because it operates
above the voice frequency, voice and data
can be carried on the same connection at
the same time.
LEDs are used to transmit signals through
the cable.
Single-mode fiber allows only one route for
a light wave to pass through, and it can
transmit signals over considerable distances. For this reason, it is often used in telephone networks rather than in local-area
networks.
See also multimode fiber.
single reference time server In Novell
NetWare, the server that determines the
network time and provides that information to workstations and to secondary time
servers on the network.
Single reference time servers are not compatible with reference or primary time servers.
See also primary time server; reference
time server; secondary time server.
single sign-on See single login.
See also Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line; Digital Subscriber Line; High-Bit-Rate
Digital Subscriber Line; Rate-Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line; Very-High-Bit-Rate
Digital Subscriber Line.
single-user logon In Microsoft Windows NT, a mechanism that allows a user
to connect to multiple servers, domains,
and applications with a single logon.
single login An authentication process
that allows users to log in to a complex network only once rather than requiring them
to log in to each separate network element.
single-user system A computer system
designed for use by one person at a time, often on a personal computer.
See also single login.
Additional connections and drive mappings
are managed in the background as a part of
the authentication process. Also known as
single sign-on.
Windows 95 and 98, MS-DOS, the MacOS,
OS/2 Warp, and Windows NT Workstation are all examples of single-user operating systems. Unix and most network
operating systems are multiuser systems.
single-mode fiber Narrow diameter
fiber-optic cable in which lasers rather than
Site In Microsoft Active Directory, one
or more TCP/IP (Transmission Control
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Small Computer System Interface
Protocol/Internet Protocol) subnets linked
by reliable network connections.
site license A software license that covers all the installed copies of a software
package at a specific location or locations.
Some large corporations and government
institutions prefer to negotiate a site license rather than try to pay for and keep
track of all the individual copies they use.
A site license may allow unlimited copies
for internal use, or it may limit the number
of copies of a program the corporation can
use concurrently.
See also application metering; concurrent
license.
to connect a computer to peripheral devices
using only one port. Devices connected in
this way are said to be “daisy-chained,” and
each device must have a unique identifier or
priority number.
SCSI has been standard on the Macintosh
since the Mac Plus was introduced, and it is
available on personal computers as a single
host adapter, using a special connector.
SCSI is often used to connect hard disks,
tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and other
mass storage media, as well as scanners and
printers.
Features of the SCSI definition include:
■
SLA See Service Level Agreement.
■
slash The / character. In many operating
systems, used to separate command-line
switches that alter the default settings for an
operating system command.
Used in Unix as the name of the root filesystem and also to separate elements (files
and directories) in a directory pathname.
SLED See single large expensive disk.
SLIP See Serial Line Internet Protocol.
Small Computer System Interface
Abbreviated SCSI, which is pronounced
“scuzzy.”
A high-speed parallel interface defined by
the ANSI X3T9.2 committee. SCSI is used
■
The bus can manage simultaneous reads
and writes.
The original standard supports as many as
7 devices on a single host adapter; new
standards support as many as 16 devices
and a bus length of up to 25 meters (80
feet).
SCSI devices have their own control circuitry and can disconnect from the host
adapter to process tasks on their own,
freeing the bus for other purposes.
Table S.1 lists the various SCSI standards,
along with the bus speed in Mbps, the bus
width in bits, and the maximum number of
devices supported.
See also Fast SCSI; Fast/Wide SCSI; SCSI-1;
SCSI-2; SCSI-3; Ultra SCSI; Ultra2 SCSI;
Wide Ultra SCSI; Wide Ultra2 SCSI.
TABLE S.1 SCSI STANDARDS
SCSI Standard
SCSI-1
Maximum Bus Speed
Bus Width
Maximum Devices
5
8
8
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small office/home office
TABLE S.1 SCSI STANDARDS (CONTINUED)
SCSI Standard
Maximum Bus Speed
Bus Width
Maximum Devices
Fast SCSI
10
8
8
Fast/Wide SCSI
20
16
16
Ultra SCSI
20
8
8
Wide Ultra SCSI
40
16
16
Ultra2 SCSI
40
8
8
Wide Ultra2 SCSI
80
16
16
small office/home office Abbreviated
SOHO. That portion of the market for
computer services occupied by small offices
and home-based businesses rather than by
large corporate buyers. SOHO is a small
but growing market sector characterized by
very well informed buyers.
The large number of home offices is the result of many factors in the economy, including corporate downsizing and cheaper, more
capable computers and office equipment,
and is a trend that is likely to continue.
See also telecommuting.
smart hub A concentrator, used in
Ethernet or ARCnet networks, with certain
network-management facilities built in to
firmware that allow the network administrator to control and plan network configurations; also known as an intelligent hub.
In token-ring networks, a smart hub is
known as a Controlled Access Unit (CAU).
A CAU can determine if nodes are operating, connect and disconnect nodes, and
monitor node activity.
See also Controlled Access Unit.
smart terminal See intelligent terminal.
SMB See Server Message Block.
smart card A credit-card–sized device
that stores public and private keys, passwords, and other personal information that
must be kept secure. Several operating systems, including Windows 2000, can use
smart-card information for certificatebased authentication and log on.
SMDS See Switched Multimegabit
Data Services.
smiley A group of text characters used in
e-mail and in Usenet posts to indicate humor or some other emotion. You must turn
a smiley on its side for it to make sense.
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social engineering
Hundreds of smileys are in common use,
and new ones are invented all the time. Two
popular favorites are :-), to indicate smiling,
and ;-), to indicate winking.
In Windows 2000, Computer Management
is a MMC snap-in.
See also Computer Management; Microsoft Management Console.
See also emoticon.
S/MIME See Secure MIME.
SMM See system management mode.
SMS See Storage Management
Services.
SMTP See Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol.
SNA See Systems Network
Architecture.
SNA gateway A hardware and software
device that connects an SNA (Systems Network Architecture) mainframe to a localarea network.
SNA gateway products are available from
Microsoft and from Novell.
See also Microsoft SNA Server; NetWare
for SNA.
snail mail A rude reference to the relatively slow speed of the conventional postal
service when compared with the speed of
online e-mail systems.
snap-in In Microsoft Management Console (MMC), the software that constitutes
the administrative tool.
MMC provides the user interface, and the
snap-in actually performs the management
or administrative function. Snap-ins can be
provided by Microsoft or can be written by
third-party software developers.
sneakernet An informal method of file
sharing in which a user copies files on to a
floppy disk and then carries the disk to the
office of a co-worker.
sniffer A small program loaded onto a
system by an intruder, designed to monitor
specific traffic on the network.
The sniffer program watches for the first
part of any remote login session that includes
the user name, password, and host name of
a person logging in to another machine.
Once this information is in the hands of the
intruder, he or she can log on to that system
at will. One weakly secured network can
therefore expose not only the local systems,
but also any remote systems to which the local users connect.
Sniffer is also the name of a network analyzer product from Network General.
See also intruder; network analyzer; spoofing; Trojan Horse.
SNMP See Simple Network Management Protocol.
SNR See signal-to-noise ratio.
social engineering A method used by
intruders to collect password information
from genuine users by false pretenses.
Social engineering can take many forms.
For example, a potential intruder telephones a busy technical support department, claiming to be a new service engineer
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socket
who has just lost his password. Rather than
go through the appropriate procedures, the
technical support person assigns a new
password over the phone and implements it
on the system so that the new engineer can
use it immediately.
provides a BIOS-level software interface to
the hardware, effectively hiding the specific
details from higher levels of software. Socket services also detect when you insert or remove a PCMCIA card and identify the type
of card.
See also brute-force attack; dictionary attack; sniffer.
See also card services.
socket 1. A general-purpose interprocess communication mechanism, originally developed in the Unix world. Sockets
allow processes that are not running at the
same time or on the same system to exchange information; pairs of cooperating
sockets manage communications between
the processes on your computer and those
on a remote computer in a networked environment. You can read data from or
write data to a socket just as you can to a
file. Sockets are now used in many other
environments.
2. That part of an IPX (Internetwork Pack-
SOCKS A proxy protocol that provides a
secure channel between two TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) systems, usually a Web browser
running on an internal corporate intranet
and a Web server on the Internet.
SOCKS provides firewall services, as well
as fault tolerant features, auditing, and
management.
See also firewall; proxy server; Secure
Sockets Layer; Secure WAN.
soft modem See controllerless modem.
et eXchange) internetwork node address
that represents the destination of an IPX
packet. Certain sockets are reserved by NetWare for particular applications. For example, IPX delivers all NetWare Core Protocol
(NCP) request packets to socket 451h.
software An application program or operating system that a computer can execute.
Software is a broad term that can imply one
or many programs, and it can also refer to
applications that may consist of more than
one program.
See also mailslots; named pipe; pipe;
semaphore; shared memory; WinSock.
software development kit Abbreviated SDK. A package that contains useful software development tools, such as editors,
compilers, debuggers, libraries, and technical information.
socket services Part of the software
support needed for PCMCIA (PC Memory
Card International Association) hardware
devices in a portable computer, controlling
the interface to the hardware.
Socket services is the lowest layer in the
software that manages PCMCIA cards. It
software interrupt An interrupt generated by an instruction in a program, often
called a trap.
See also hardware interrupt.
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source license
software license A license to use a software package subject to certain conditions.
These conditions usually define the rights of
the purchaser and limit the liability of the
program’s publisher.
cost of purchasing each application separately. Additional benefits include inter-application communications, easy installation
of the whole package, and reduced training
time.
See also application metering; site license.
Microsoft Office and Lotus SmartSuite are
examples of popular software suites.
software piracy The illegal copying and
distribution of copyrighted software.
Copying software, like duplicating any
copyrighted material, is illegal.
In an attempt to discourage software piracy, the Software Publishers Association
(SPA) has run several advertising campaigns, including a billboard showing a pair
of handcuffs and the message “Copy software illegally and you could get this hardware absolutely free.” The SPA has been
successful in persuading companies to inventory their software so that corporations
know which software copies they have purchased legally.
Software Publishers Association Abbreviated SPA. An association of software
developers and distributors most notable
for their tactics in fighting software piracy,
including extremely blunt advertising campaigns and unannounced visits to companies suspected of acts of piracy.
software suite A selection of business
applications sold as a single integrated
package.
The standard version of a software suite
usually includes a word processor, a
spreadsheet, presentation graphics, and an
e-mail program, and the professional version will often add a database program. The
cost of the suite is significantly less than the
SOHO See small office/home office.
Solaris A version of Unix from SunSoft
that runs on Intel-based PCs and Sun
workstations; SunSoft is a subsidiary of
Sun Microsystems.
Solaris is based on Unix System V Release 4
and includes networking support, the
OpenWindows graphical user interface,
and DeskSet, an integrated desktop that includes some 50 productivity tools. Solaris
supports a Java Virtual Machine as well as
the Common Desktop Environment and
WebNFS. Multiprocessor systems are supported, and Solaris uses symmetrical multiprocessing techniques to take advantage of
the additional processing power.
See also Common Desktop Environment;
Java Virtual Machine; SunOS; WebNFS.
SOM See System Object Model.
SONET See Synchronous Optical
Network
source address The address portion of
a packet or datagram that identifies the
sender.
See also destination address.
source license A software license that
gives the user the right to possess and modify
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source routing
the original source code from which an application or operating system is created.
these loops could lead to packets looping on
their way to their destination.
In the past, source licenses have either been
simply impossible to obtain or have been
prohibitively expensive. With the spread of
open source software, things are changing.
SP
See also binary license; open source
software
source routing IBM’s Token Ring
method of routing data frames through a
network consisting of multiple LANs by
specifying the route to be traveled in each
frame. The route is actually determined by
the end stations through a discovery process supported by source-bridge routers.
IBM bridges can be of two types:
■
■
Single-route broadcasting allows certain
bridges to pass the packet so that only a
single copy arrives on each ring in the
network.
All-routes broadcasting sends the packet
across all the possible routes in the network, so as many copies of the packet arrive at the destination as there are bridges
in the network.
See switch processor.
spanning tree algorithm A technique
based on the IEEE 802.1 standard that finds
the most desirable path between segments
of a multilooped, bridged network.
If multiple paths exist in the network, the
spanning tree algorithm finds the most efficient path and limits the link between the
two networks to this single active path. If
this path fails because of a cable failure or
other problem, the algorithm reconfigures
the network to activate another path, thus
keeping the network running.
SPARC See Scalable Performance
Architecture.
SPARCstation A Sun Microsystems
family of Unix workstations based on the
SPARC processor.
SPARCstations range from small, diskless
desktop systems to high-performance, tower servers in multiprocessor configurations.
See also Scalable Performance Architecture; Sun Microsystems, Inc.
SPA See Software Publishers
Association.
space parity See parity.
spanning tree A network segment that
is free of logical loops; a network structure
that has a root node and one path, usually
the shortest distance, that connects all the
other nodes.
This tree structure is used in bridged networks to make routing decisions, especially
if multiple paths connect nodes, because
SPEC benchmarks See Systems
Performance Evaluation Cooperative
benchmarks.
special group In Microsoft Windows NT
Server, a group whose membership is predefined and automatically updated.
Special groups provide an easy way to describe sets of users. For example, the Everyone group always includes all domain users
and is updated automatically as user accounts are added and deleted.
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ST506 Interface
special interest group Abbreviated
SIG. A group that meets to share information about a specific topic, such as particular
hardware, software, programming languages, or operating systems. A SIG is often part
of a user group or other organization.
SPID See Service Profile Identifier.
spider A World Wide Web application
that automatically locates and collects information about new Web sites. Spiders
are most often used to create large databases of Web sites that in turn are accessed
by search engines responding to user requests for information.
conversation or, in a more concerted
attack, may use a network analyzer to
monitor and capture network traffic.
See also brute-force attack; dictionary
attack; sniffer; social engineering; Trojan
Horse.
spooler See print spooler.
SPX See Sequenced Packet eXchange.
SQE Abbreviation for signal quality
error. See heartbeat.
SQL See Structured Query Language.
SRAM See static RAM.
See also robot; search engine.
SSA See Serial Storage Architecture.
spike A short, transient electrical signal,
often of very high amplitude.
See also power conditioning; power surge;
surge suppressor.
splat A slang expression for the asterisk
character (*) that you can yell across a
crowded room without fear of being misunderstood.
See also bang.
splitter server In Internet video, a server
that receives a video signal and then rebroadcasts that signal across a network.
See also IP multicast; multicast; stream
thinning.
spoofing A security breach in which an
intruder logs on to the system by pretending
to be a genuine user.
The intruder may obtain another person’s
user name and password in casual
SSE See Streaming SIMD Extensions.
SSI See server side include.
SSL See Secure Sockets Layer.
ST506 Interface A popular hard-disk interface standard developed by Seagate
Technologies, first used in IBM’s PC/XT
computer.
The interface is still used in systems with
disk capacities smaller than about 40MB.
ST506 has a relatively slow data-transfer
rate of 5Mbps.
A later variation of ST506, called ST412,
adds several improvements. Because these
two interfaces are so closely related, they
are often referred to as ST506/412.
See also Enhanced Small Device Interface;
Integrated Drive Electronics; Small Computer System Interface.
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ST
ST See straight-tip connector.
Standard Generalized Markup
Language Abbreviated SGML. A 1986
standard (ISO 8879) for defining the structure and managing the contents of any digital document.
The standard specifies a definition for formatting a digital document so that it can be
modified, viewed, or output on any computer system. Each SGML document consists of two parts:
■
■
The DTD (Document Type Definition)
defines the structure of the document.
The DI (Document Instance) describes the
data or text of the document.
HTML, used in World Wide Web documents on the Internet, is a part of SGML.
See also Extensible Markup Language;
HyperText Markup Language; Virtual
Reality Modeling Language.
Standby Monitor In a Token Ring network, a network node that serves as a
backup to the Active Monitor and can take
over in the event that the Active Monitor
fails.
See also Active Monitor.
star network A network topology in the
form of a star.
At the center of the star is a wiring hub or
concentrator, and the nodes or workstations
are arranged around the central point
representing the points of the star. Wiring
costs tend to be higher for star networks than
for other configurations, because each node
requires its own individual cable. Star
networks do not follow any of the IEEE
standards.
See also bus network; ring network;
topology.
star-dot-star A commonly available file
specification (*.*) that uses the asterisk
wildcard character. It is equivalent to specifying any combination of filename and filename extension.
STAR NETWORK
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stop bit
StarLAN A network operating system
from AT&T that implements CSMA/CD
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision
Detection) protocols on twisted-pair cable
transmitting at 1Mbps; a subset of 802.3.
In 1988, StarLAN was renamed StarLAN
1, and StarLAN 10 was launched. StarLAN
10 is a 10Mbps Ethernet version that uses
twisted-pair cable or fiber-optic cable.
start bit In asynchronous transmissions,
a start bit is transmitted to indicate the beginning of a new data word.
See also data bits; parity; stop bit.
STARTUP.NCF A Novell NetWare server configuration boot file that loads the
NetWare server’s disk driver, along with
name spaces and certain SET parameters.
See also SET.
stateless filter See packet-level filter.
static RAM Abbreviated SRAM, pronounced “ess-ram.” A type of computer
memory that retains its contents as long as
power is applied; it does not need constant
refreshment, as required by dynamic RAM
(DRAM) chips.
An SRAM chip can store only about onefourth of the information that a DRAM chip
of the same complexity can hold. However,
SRAM, with access times of 10 to 25 nanoseconds, is much faster than DRAM, at 80
nanoseconds or more, and is often used in
caches. SRAM is four to five times as expensive as DRAM.
static routing A method used to preprogram connecting paths between networks
into a router by a network administrator.
If a connection fails, the administrator must
reprogram the router to use a new path. In
most large networks, the delay that this
causes is unacceptable, and dynamic routing is used instead. Dynamic routing automatically locates and uses the best available
path and recalculates paths if a connection
fails.
See also dynamic routing.
statistical multiplexing Abbreviated
stat mux. In communications, a method of
sharing a transmission channel by using statistical techniques to allocate resources.
A statistical multiplexer can analyze traffic
density and dynamically switch to a different channel pattern to speed up the transmission. At the receiving end, the different
signals are merged back into individual
streams.
See also frequency-division multiplexing;
inverse multiplexing; time-division
multiplexing.
stat mux See statistical multiplexing.
stealth virus A form of virus that attempts to hide from antivirus software and
from the operating system by remaining in
memory.
See also boot sector virus; file-infecting
virus; macro virus; multipart virus; polymorphic virus; Trojan Horse; vaccine.
stop bit In asynchronous transmissions,
a stop bit is transmitted to indicate the end
of the current data word. Depending on the
convention in use, one or two stop bits are
used.
See also data bits; parity; start bit.
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storage area network
storage area network Abbreviated
SAN. A method used to physically separate
the storage function of the network from
the data-processing function.
SAN provides a separate network devoted to
storage and so helps to reduce network traffic by isolating large data transfers such as
backups. Most of the SAN vendors, including StorageTek and Compaq, use a Fibre
Channel–based SAN system, although IBM
has proposed a proprietary architecture.
store-and-forward A method that temporarily stores messages at intermediate
nodes before forwarding them to the next
destination. This technique allows routing
over networks that are not available at all
times and lets users take advantage of offpeak rates when traffic and costs might be
lower.
See also message switching.
STP See shielded twisted-pair cable.
See also network attached storage.
Storage Management Services Abbreviated SMS. A set of Novell NetWare
Loadable Modules and other software that
allows data to be backed up and retrieved
from the server and from workstations attached to the network. SMS is independent
of both the hardware used to create the
backup and also the file systems actually being backed up or restored.
straight-tip connector Abbreviated ST.
A fiber-optic cable connector that maintains the perfect alignment of the ends of the
connected fibers, required for efficient light
transmission.
stream In Internet video, an end-to-end
connection between a client and a server that
lets a user start to look at a video clip before
the whole file has finished downloading.
STRAIGHT-TIP CONNECTOR
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StreetTalk
streaming A method used to deliver audio and video content in real time so that
the person using the system can interact
with the data stream.
the tape is not stopped during a backup. To
use streaming tape, the computer and backup software must be fast enough to keep up
with the tape drive.
A client downloads a portion of the audio/
video file, decompresses it, and starts to
view the video clip before the rest of the file
arrives. Data is built up in a buffer before
the playback begins, and the next part of
the file is downloaded as the first part plays.
See also DC-2000; tape cartridge.
See also IP Multicast multicasting.
Streaming SIMD Extensions Abbreviated SSE. A set of multimedia instructions
introduced with Intel’s Pentium III.
SSE provides four main improvements over
the Pentium II instruction set:
■
■
■
■
Eight new directly addressable 128-bit
floating-point registers.
Eight new instructions for streaming data
to and from memory.
Twelve new Single Instruction, Multiple
Data (SIMD) integer instructions.
Fifty new SMID floating-point
instructions.
SSE can benefit 3-D graphics, 2-D images,
speech recognition, and MPEG-2 encoding,
as well as scientific and engineering applications. Most standard office and business applications will see little or no improvement.
See also Pentium III.
Streaming Single Instruction, Multiple Data Extensions See Streaming
SIMD Extensions.
streaming tape A high-speed tape backup system designed to optimize throughput;
STREAMS A Novell NetWare Loadable
Module (NLM) that provides a common interface between NetWare and transport
protocols such as IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, and
SNA.
STREAMS allows services to be provided
across the network regardless of the transport protocol in use, because the protocol is
transparent to the operating system.
streams A function within Unix that
provides flexible communications paths between processes and device drivers.
stream thinning In Internet video, the
process of removing video frames to protect
the audio feed.
Stream thinning is used to preserve the connection in times of network congestion and
to avoid a forced reconnection and its associated disruptive effect on the transmission.
Stream thinning restores the full video signal once additional bandwidth becomes
available.
StreetTalk The distributed global
naming and directory service for Banyan
VINES network operating system. The
StreetTalk database contains all the necessary information about all nodes and devices on the network, and this database is
updated constantly.
Under StreetTalk, all users, printers, and
servers have a three-part StreetTalk address
in the form of device or user name, domain
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string
name, and organization name. StreetTalk
also allows nicknames for nodes and devices.
SteetTalk is designed to manage a large
number of different environments, including Banyan networks, Windows NT, Unix,
and Novell NetWare.
SQL contains about 60 commands and is
used to create, modify, query, and access
data organized in tables. It can be used either as an interactive interface or as embedded commands in an application:
■
See also domain directory services; Enterprise Network Services; global directory
services; NetWare Directory Services;
X.500.
string See character string.
stripe set A single volume created across
multiple hard disk drives and accessed in
parallel to optimize disk-access time.
See also disk striping; disk striping with
parity.
strong password A password that is
specifically designed to be difficult to guess.
Strong passwords are always more than
10 characters and always include punctuation characters and numbers.
See also password; weak password.
structured graphics
See object-
oriented graphics.
■
Dynamic SQL statements are interactive,
and they can be changed as needed. If you
normally access SQL from a commandline environment, you are using dynamic
SQL, which is slower than static SQL but
much more flexible.
Static SQL statements are coded into application programs, and as a result, they
do not change. These statements are usually processed by a precompiler before being bound into the application.
Many databases implement SQL queries
behind the scenes, enabling communication
with database servers in systems with client/
server architecture.
SQL is an ANSI standard in the United
States, as well as a worldwide International
Organization for Standardization (ISO)
standard.
See also Open Database Connectivity.
Structured Query Language Abbreviated SQL, pronounced “sequel.” In relational database management systems, a
query language developed by IBM for use in
mainframe applications.
structured wiring A planned cabling
system for enterprise-wide network communications, including both voice and data. AT&T’s Premises Distribution Systems
and IBM’s Cabling System are both structured wiring designs.
SQL was adopted by Oracle Corporation
for use in its database management systems
running on all platforms, not just mainframes, and subsequently emerged as a de
facto standard for all database management packages.
subdirectory A directory contained
within another directory. The root directory is the top-level directory, from which all
other directories must branch. In common
use, subdirectory is synonymous with directory or folder.
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superpipelining
See also current directory; parent directory; period and double-period directories.
sub-hive An organizational element in
the Microsoft Windows Registry, similar to
a subdirectory on a hard disk.
subscribe To post to a Usenet newsgroup or to join a mailing list. This is not a
subscription in the sense of a magazine subscription; no money ever changes hands.
A sub-hive may contain other sub-hives or
may contain keys. Microsoft documentation
sometimes refers to sub-hives as sub-keys.
Sun Certified Solaris Administrator
A basic certification from Sun Microsystems
designed to recognize technical expertise in
installing and administering Solaris-based
systems.
See also hive; key; Registry.
See also Sun Microsystems, Inc.
sub-key See sub-hive.
Sun Certified Solaris Network
Administrator An advanced certification
from Sun Microsystems designed to recognize technical expertise in networking and
administering Solaris-based systems and in
the security aspects of Solaris.
subnet A logical network created from a
single IP address. A mask is used to identify
bits from the host portion of the address to
be used for subnet addresses.
See also address classes; Classless InterDomain Routing; IP address; subnet address; subnet mask.
subnet address The subnet portion of
an IP address. In a subnetted network, the
host part of the IP address is divided into a
subnet portion and a host portion by a subnet mask.
See also address classes; Classless InterDomain Routing; IP address; subnet; subnet mask.
subnet mask A number or, more correctly, a bit pattern that identifies which
parts of an IP address correspond to the network, subnet, and host portions of the address. Also referred to as an address mask.
See also address classes; Classless InterDomain Routing; IP address; subnet; subnet address.
See also Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. A manufacturer of high-powered workstations and one of
the major technical forces in the Unix world.
Sun workstations run Solaris, a version of
Unix based on Unix System V Release 4,
and range from small, diskless desktop systems to high-performance, tower servers in
multiprocessor configurations.
For more information on Sun Microsystems,
Inc., see www.sun.com.
See also Java; Jini; Network File System;
Solaris.
SunOS A Unix operating system from
Sun Microsystems. SunOS is based on BSD
Unix; Solaris is based on System V Release 4.
See also Solaris; Sun Microsystems, Inc.
superpipelining A preprocessing technique used by some microprocessors in
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superscalar
which two or more execution stages (such
as fetch, decode, execute, or write back) are
divided into two or more pipelined stages,
giving considerably higher performance.
superscalar A microprocessor architecture that contains more than one execution
unit, or pipeline, allowing the processor to
execute more than one instruction per clock
cycle.
For example, the Pentium processor is superscalar, with two side-by-side pipelines for
integer instructions. The processor determines whether an instruction can be executed in parallel with the next instruction in
line. If it does not detect any dependencies,
the two instructions are executed.
See also complex instruction set computing; reduced instruction set computing.
superserver A computer specifically designed for use as a network server.
A superserver is a very high performance system, often characterized by scalable input/
output channels, complex multiprocessing
features, and a large price tag. It may have
several processors, large amounts of errorcorrecting memory, cache memory, and
hard-disk space, as well as fault-tolerant features, such as redundant power supplies.
superuser A special Unix privilege level,
with unlimited access to all files, directories, and commands.
The system administrator must become the
superuser to perform certain functions, such
as creating new accounts, changing passwords, and other administrative tasks that
ordinary users are not allowed to perform
for security reasons. The superuser’s login
name is usually root, with a user ID of 0.
See also avatar.
surfing To browse your way through
various Internet resources, exploring tangents whenever you feel like it.
surge A short, sudden, and often destructive increase in line voltage. A voltageregulating device, known as a surge
suppressor, can protect computer equipment against surges.
See also power conditioning; spike; surge
suppressor.
surge protector See surge suppressor.
surge suppressor A voltage-regulating
device placed between the computer and
the AC line connection that protects the
computer system from power surges; also
known as a surge protector.
See also power conditioning.
Sustainable Cell Rate Abbreviated
SCR. In Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM), the maximum average cell rate that
can be maintained over a virtual connection.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Available Cell Rate; Minimum Cell Rate;
Peak Cell Rate.
SVC See switched virtual circuit.
SVID See System V Interface Definition.
S/WAN See Secure WAN.
swap To temporarily move a process
from memory to disk, so that another
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symmetrical multiprocessing
process can use that memory space. When
space becomes available again, the process
is swapped back into memory. This allows
more processes to be loaded than there is
physical memory space to run them
simultaneously.
swapping The process of exchanging
one item for another. In a virtual memory
system, swapping occurs when a program
requests a virtual memory location that is
not currently in memory. Swapping may
also refer to changing floppy or compact
disks as needed when using a single disk
drive.
swap space On a hard disk, a file used to
store parts of running programs that have
been swapped out of memory temporarily
to make room for other running programs.
A swap file may be permanent, always occupying the same amount of hard-disk space,
even though the application that created it
may not be running, or temporary, created
as and when needed.
See also permanent swap file; temporary
swap file; virtual memory.
switch processor Abbreviated SP. In
Cisco Systems 7000 series routers, the processor module that acts as the administrator
for all bus activity; also known as the ciscoBus controller.
See also ciscoBus; Cisco Extended Bus.
Switched Multimegabit Data
Services Abbreviated SMDS. A highspeed metropolitan-area network service
based on the 802.6 standard for use over T1
and T3 circuits. SMDS supports Ethernet,
Token Ring, and FDDI (Fiber Distributed
Data Interface) gateways.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
switched virtual circuit Abbreviated
SVC. A communications circuit that is established for the duration of the session and
then disconnected, much like a normal
voice telephone call. SVCs are used extensively in X.25 networks
See also permanent virtual circuit.
Sybase, Inc. A leading supplier of database management and applications development software, including PowerBuilder,
a rapid application development environment, and PowerJEnterprise, a Java development package.
For more information on Sybase, Inc., see
www.sybase.com.
Symantec Corporation A leading developer of utility programs for the PC and
the Macintosh whose products include application and system software, security and
antivirus packages, remote productivity,
and Internet access.
For more information on Symantec Corporation, see www.symantec.com.
Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Switched 56 A switched four-wire digital data service available from a local exchange carrier that operates at 56Kbps.
See also Virtual Private Network.
See Single-Line Digital Subscriber Line
symmetrical multiprocessing A multiprocessing design that assigns a task to a
processor in response to system load as the
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synchronization
application starts running. This design
makes for a much more flexible system
than asymmetrical multiprocessing, in
which the programmer matches a specific
task to a certain processor while writing
the program.
In symmetrical multiprocessing, the overall
workload is shared by all processors in the
system; system performance increases as
more processors are added into the system.
The drawback is that symmetrical multiprocessing operating systems are much
harder to design than asymmetrical multiprocessing operating systems.
See also asymmetrical multiprocessing.
synchronization The timing of separate
elements or events to occur simultaneously.
In computer-to-computer communications, the hardware and software must be
synchronized so that file transfers can take
place.
See also asynchronous transmission; synchronous transmission.
Synchronous Data Link Control Abbreviated SDLC. The data-link protocol
most widely used in networks that conform to IBM’s SNA (Systems Network
Architecture).
SDLC is a bit-oriented synchronous protocol that organizes information into well-defined units known as frames. SDLC is
similar to the HDLC (High-level Data Link
Control) protocol defined by the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).
See also data-link layer; High-level Data
Link Control; Systems Network
Architecture.
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Abbreviated SDH. A set of fiber-optic–based
standards from the ITU for use with
SONET and ATM in Europe
synchronous DRAM Abbreviated
SDRAM. A high-speed memory technology, faster than EDO RAM; used in workstations and servers.
synchronous graphics RAM Abbreviated SGRAM. A type of high-speed dynamic RAM used in video adapters.
Synchronous Optical Network Abbreviated SONET. A set of fiber-optic–
based communications standards with
transmission rates from 51.84Mbps to
13.22Gbps.
First proposed by Bellcore in the mid1980s, SONET was standardized by ANSI,
and the ITU adapted SONET in creating the
worldwide Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
(SDH) standard.
SONET uses synchronous transmissions in
which individual channels (called tributaries) are merged into higher-level channels
using time-division multiplexing techniques. Data is carried in frames of 810
bytes, which also includes control information known as the overhead.
See also Optical Carrier; Synchronous
Digital Hierarchy.
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system administration
SYNCHRONOUS DATA LINK CONTROL
synchronous transmission A transmission method that uses a clock signal to
regulate data flow.
In synchronous transmissions, frames are
separated by equal-sized time intervals.
Timing must be controlled precisely on the
sending and the receiving computers. Special characters are embedded in the data
stream to begin synchronization and to
maintain synchronization during the transmission, allowing both computers to check
for and correct any variations in timing.
See also asynchronous transmission.
syntax The formal rules of grammar as
they apply to a specific programming
language or operating system command;
in particular, the exact sequence and
spelling of command elements required for
the command to be interpreted correctly.
syntax error An error in the use of a programming language or operating system
command syntax, such as misspelling a keyword or omitting a required space.
SyQuest Technology, Inc. A leading
manufacturer of removable storage media,
particularly the SCSI-based removable hard
disk available for the PC and the Macintosh.
For more information on SyQuest Technology, Inc., see www.syquest.com.
System III The release of Unix from
AT&T prior to the release of System V.
System III was the first version of Unix to
be ported to the Intel family of processors
and formed the basis for SCO’s release of
XENIX.
System IV A version of Unix from
AT&T that was never released outside the
company, mostly to avoid confusion with
the 4.xBSD series of products.
System V The last version of Unix from
AT&T, pronounced “System Five.” The latest release is known as System V Release 4.2,
often abbreviated SVR4 or SVR4.2.
System V Interface Definition Abbreviated SVID. A set of documents released by
AT&T that defined the Unix System V interfaces and operating system calls.
system administration The day-to-day
administrative and management tasks
performed by the system administrator,
including:
■
Starting up and shutting down the system
■
Setting the system time and date
■
Assigning and changing passwords
■
Adding and removing users and groups
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System Administration: Informix Dynamic Server
■
■
■
■
Installing, upgrading, and removing
application packages and installing operating system upgrades
Backing up the system, storing archives
off location, and restoring backups as
needed
Installing and configuring new hardware
such as printers, storage devices, and communications systems
Monitoring system performance and
making tuning adjustments as necessary
See also system administrator.
System Administration: Informix
Dynamic Server A certification from
Informix designed for individuals who
configure, maintain, and tune Informix
Dynamic Server databases.
See also Database Specialist: Informix4GL Certified Professional.
system administrator The person
charged with the responsibility of managing the system.
In a very large system, the system administrator may in fact be several people or even
a department; if you are running Linux on
your system at home, you have to be your
own system administrator.
See also system administration.
SYSTEM directory In Novell NetWare,
the SYS:SYSTEM directory created during
installation. This directory contains NetWare operating system files and directories,
as well as NetWare Loadable Modules
(NLMs) and network administrator utilities.
System Fault Tolerance Abbreviated
SFT. In Novell NetWare, a method of duplicating data on several hard disks so that
if one disk fails, the data is still available
from another disk.
Several levels of hardware and software
SFT are available in NetWare, with each
level of redundancy decreasing the possibility of catastrophic data loss. For example,
SFT I includes HotFix redirection, and SFT
II adds disk duplexing and disk mirroring.
SFT III uses duplicate servers so that all
transactions are recorded on both; if one
fails, the other can take over.
See also disk striping; redundant array of
inexpensive disks; Transaction Tracking
System.
System Information In Microsoft Windows 2000, a system utility that reports detailed hardware and software
configuration, hardware resource information, and a system summary. System Information is a Microsoft Management
Console (MMC) snap-in located in Computer Management.
See also Computer Management; Microsoft Management Console; snap-in.
system management mode Abbreviated SMM. In the Intel family of microprocessors, a low power consumption mode
used to conserve battery power. All recent
Intel processors have SMM and so are suitable for use in portable, battery-powered
computers.
system log In Microsoft Windows
2000, a default system log that records
events generated by Windows 2000 system
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Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative benchmarks
services, device drivers, and other system
components. You can use the Event Viewer
to look at the contents of the system log.
■
See also application log; Event Viewer;
security log.
System Monitor In Microsoft Windows
2000, a network and server monitoring tool
that displays resource use for selected system-level components. Replaces the Windows NT Performance Monitor.
See also alert log; counter log; Performance Monitor; trace log.
System Object Model Abbreviated
SOM. A specification from IBM that allows
objects created in different environments to
communicate.
See also Distributed System Object Model.
Systems Application Architecture
Abbreviated SAA. A set of IBM standards,
first introduced in 1987, that defines a consistent set of interfaces for future IBM software. Three standards are defined:
■
Common User Access (CUA) A graphical user interface definition for products
designed for use in an object-oriented operating environment. The OS/2 desktop
follows CUA guidelines in its design, and
Microsoft Windows implements certain
CUA features.
■
Common Programming Interface
(CPI) A set of application programming
interfaces (APIs) designed to encourage
independence from the underlying operating system. The standard database query
language is Structured Query Language
(SQL).
Common Communications Support
(CCS) A common set of communications protocols that interconnect SAA systems and devices.
Systems Network Architecture Abbreviated SNA. IBM’s proprietary terminalto-mainframe protocol, introduced in 1974.
SNA describes a seven-layer system, with
each layer building on the services provided
by the previous layer. Devices on an SNA
system are usually connected using the
SDLC protocol, running over serial lines.
SNA is not compatible with the seven-layer
OSI Reference Model.
Systems Performance Evaluation
Cooperative benchmarks Abbreviated
SPEC benchmarks. A set of ten standardized tests designed to measure workstation
performance.
Six of the tests evaluate floating-point performance, and four tests concentrate on integer performance.
Results are reported as SPECmarks, a geometric mean of all ten scores.
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Systems Performance Evaluation Cooperative benchmarks
SYSTEMS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
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T3
T
T See tera-.
T1 A long-distance, point-to-point circuit, providing 24 channels of 64Kbps, giving a total bandwidth of 1.544Mbps.
The standard T1 frame is 193 bits long,
made up of twenty-four 8-bit voice samples
and one synchronization bit. It transmits
8000 frames per second. When a T1 service
is made available in single 64Kbps increments, it is known as fractional T1.
In Europe, the comparable circuit is known
as E-1, and it has a speed of 2.054Mbps. T1
has been superseded by the CCITT DS-1
designation.
time, multipoint data communications over
local area networks and ISDN, dial-up, and
Internet connections. T.120 became well
known after Microsoft incorporated it into
the NetMeeting package.
See also H.323; Microsoft NetMeeting.
T2 A long-distance, point-to-point communications service, providing up to 4 T1
channels.
T2 offers 96 channels of 64Kbps, for a total
bandwidth of 6.3Mbps. T2 is not available
commercially, although it is used within
telephone company networks.
See also T1; T-carrier.
See also fractional T1; T-carrier.
T1 multiplexer A statistical multiplexer
that divides the 1.544MbpsT1 bandwidth
into 24 separate 64Kbps channels of digitized data or voice.
See also fractional T1; T1.
T1 small aperture terminal Abbreviated TSAT. A small satellite terminal used for
digital communications that can handle T1
data rates of up to 1.544Mbps.
See also fractional T1; T1.
T.120 A group of communications and
applications protocols that support real-
T3 A long-distance, point-to-point communications service, providing up to 28 T1
channels.
T3 can carry 672 channels of 64Kbps, for a
total bandwidth of 44.736Mbps, and is usually available over fiber-optic cable. T3 is
used almost exclusively by AT&T and the
regional telephone operating companies,
although certain large private corporations
are using T3 with digital microwave or fiberoptic networks.
In Europe, T3 has been superseded by the
CCITT DS-3 designation.
See also T1; T-carrier.
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T4
T4 A long-distance, point-to-point communications service, providing up to 168
T1 channels.
integration of ATM switches into the
Internet and implementing routing on top
of those switches.
T4 can carry 4032 channels of 64Kbps, for
a total bandwidth of 274.176Mbps. T4 can
be used for both digitized voice and data
transmission.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode; IP
over ATM; IP switching.
See also T1; T-carrier.
table In a relational database system, a
table is comparable to a database file, but is
more highly structured.
The organization of a table is logical, not
physical. Each row (or record) in a table
contains a unique key, or primary key, so
that any item of data in the table can be retrieved by referring only to that key.
Through the process known as normalization, all data items in a row are made to depend only on this primary key. View and
data dictionaries in a relational database
take the form of two-dimensional tables.
tag An element in HTML used to annotate
a document. A tag is text enclosed by angle
brackets that tells the client Web browser
how to display each part of the document.
For example, the tag <H1> indicates the start
of a level one heading, and the tag </H1> indicates the end of a level one heading.
See also element; HyperText Markup
Language.
tag switching A technology from Cisco
Systems, Inc., that integrates data-link layer
switching with network layer routing for
large-scale networks, allowing the
tap A connector that attaches to a cable
without blocking the passage of information along that cable; a connection onto the
main transmission medium of the network.
tape cartridge A self-contained tape
storage module, containing tape much like
that in a video cassette. Tape cartridges are
primarily used to back up hard-disk systems.
See also DC-2000; quarter-inch cartridge;
Zip drive.
tape drive A computer peripheral device
that reads from and writes to magnetic tape.
The drive may use tape on an open reel or
from an enclosed tape cartridge. Because
tape-management software must search
from the beginning of the tape every time it
wants to find a file (a process called sequential access), tape is too slow to use as a primary storage system; however, tapes are
frequently used to back up hard disks.
See also streaming tape.
TAPI See Telephony API.
tar In Unix, a utility program that can create, list, add to, and retrieve from an archive
file, which is usually stored on tape. The archive file has the filename extension .tar.
The archive created by tar is not compressed
and can be further processed by the Unix
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T-carrier
compress (extension .Z) or gzip (extension
.gz) utilities to give compound extensions
such as filename.tar.Z or filename.tar.gz.
task Any independent running program
and the set of system resources that it uses.
A task may be an operating system process
or part of an application.
The four-level, time-division multiplexing
specification for the U.S. telephone system
allows the bit stream of the smaller carriers
to be multiplexed into the larger ones.
The following are the four service levels:
■
See also context switching; multitasking;
task switching.
Task Manager In Microsoft Windows
NT, an application that allows a user to
manually inspect the tasks running on the
computer and select individual tasks for
shutdown. Task Manager is opened by
pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del.
■
■
task switching To change from one running program to another quickly, either at
the direction of the operating system or at
the request of the user.
TB See terabyte.
T-carrier A digital communications service from a common carrier for voice or
data transmission.
■
T1 Provides 24 channels of 64Kbps,
giving a total bandwidth of 1.544Mbps.
When a T1 service is made available in
single 64Kbps increments, it is known as
fractional T1.
T2 The equivalent of 4 T1 services, T2
offers 96 channels of 64Kbps, for a total
bandwidth of 6.3Mbps.
T3 The equivalent of 28 T1 circuits, T3
offers 672 channels of 64Kbps, for a total
bandwidth of 44.736Mbps. T3 is available commercially, but is not often used
for LANs.
T4 The equivalent of 168 T1 circuits,
T4 provides 4,032 channels of 64Kbps,
for a total bandwidth of 274.176Mbps.
See also T1; T2; T3; T4.
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Tcl
T-CARRIER
Tcl See Tool Command Language.
TCM See trellis-coded modulation.
TCO See total cost of ownership.
T-connector A T-shaped device, used
with coaxial cable, that connects two thin
Ethernet cables and also provides a third
connector for the network interface card.
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TCP ports
T-CONNECTOR
TCP See Transmission Control Protocol.
TCP/IP See Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol.
TCP ports In a TCP/IP network when a
computer connects with another computer
to access a specific service, and end-to-end
connection is established and a socket is set
up at each end of the connection. This socket is created at a particular port number, depending on the application in use. Table T.1
lists the port numbers used for some of the
common protocols.
TABLE T.1 PORT NUMBERS FOR COMMON PROTOCOLS
Port Number
Protocol
21
File Transfer Protocol
23
Telnet
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
70
Gopher
79
Finger
80
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
119
Network News Transfer Protocol
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TDM
TDM See time-division multiplexing.
TDMA See Time Division Multiple
Access.
TDR See time-domain reflectometer.
Technical and Office Protocol Abbreviated TOP. An Ethernet implementation
for use in an engineering environment,
developed by Boeing Corporation.
See also Manufacturing Automation
Protocol.
telecommunications A general term for
the electronic transmission of all forms of
information, including digital data, voice,
fax, sound, and video, from one location to
another over some form of communications link.
the number of commuters as low as possible.
Most studies indicate that home workers are
happier and more productive. However,
some jobs do not lend themselves to telecommuting; welding and brain surgery are very
difficult to do over the phone.
See also small office/home office.
teleconferencing The use of audio, video, animation, and application sharing,
linked by a communications channel, to allow widely separated individuals to take
part in a discussion or meeting.
Desktop video and chalkboard programs
such as Microsoft NetMeeting are becoming more and more common, and groupware applications such as Lotus Notes are
helping people work together.
Telecommunications Industry Association Abbreviated TIA. An important
trade group, active in the areas of standards
development, trade shows, international
marketing, and legislative efforts.
Telephony API Abbreviated TAPI. A
standard telephone interface for Microsoft
Windows, developed by Intel and Microsoft,
designed to allow applications to set up and
control calls.
The TIA often works in close association
with the Electronic Industries Association
(EIA).
TAPI does not define the method of data
transmission used once a call is in progress.
It is completely independent of the telephone network itself and can be used on
public-switched telephone networks, ISDN,
and IP networks.
For more information on TIA, see www
.tiaonline.org.
See also Electronic Industries Association.
telecommuting Working at home on a
computer connected to the office by modems and telephone lines instead of commuting to the office.
Telecommuting saves time, cuts down on
automobile use and pollution, and decreases
stress. Some local and state governments
actively encourage telecommuting to keep
See also Telephony Services API.
Telephony Services API Abbreviated
TSAPI. A standard telephone interface developed by AT&T and Novell, designed to
allow applications to set up and control
calls. TSAPI is available as a NetWare
Loadable Module for NetWare 4.01 and
later.
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terminator
TSAPI requires that the PBX (private
branch exchange) be linked to a server and
so has greater control over the call than
does Telephony API.
terabyte Abbreviated TB. In computing,
usually 240, or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes.
Terabytes are used to represent extremely
large hard-disk capacities.
See also Telephony API.
terminal emulation A method of operation or software that makes a personal computer or a workstation act like a terminal
attached to a mainframe, usually for the
purpose of telecommunications. Communications programs often include popular
emulations, such as ANSI, VT-52, VT-100,
VT-200, and TTY.
Telnet A terminal emulation protocol,
part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols and
common in the Unix world, that provides
remote terminal-connection services.
The most common terminal emulations are
for Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)
VT-52, VT-100, and VT-220 terminals, although many companies offer additional
add-in emulations.
See also tn3270.
temporary swap file A swap space
that is created every time it is needed. A
temporary swap file can consist of several
discontinuous pieces of hard-disk space. A
temporary swap file does not occupy harddisk space if the application that created it
is not running.
See also swap space; permanent swap file;
virtual memory.
ter A term describing a tertiary CCITT
recommendation, an alternative or extension to the primary or secondary recommendation.
See also bis.
tera- Abbreviated T. A prefix that means
1012 in the metric system,
1,000,000,000,000; commonly referred to
as one trillion in the American numbering
system, and one million million in the British numbering system.
See also Telnet; tn3270.
Terminal services In Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, an optional component
that provides multiple user sessions from
the same machine; also known as thinclient computing, multiuser Windows, or
server-based computing.
With Terminal services installed, the major
portion of all application processing takes
place on the server, rather than on the client,
allowing you to use cheaper client hardware, install application software on the
server rather than on every client, and administer the server from a remote console.
terminate-and-stay-resident
program Abbreviated TSR. A small accessory or utility program that stays loaded
in memory, even when it is not actually running. A TSR can be invoked quickly to perform a specific task.
TSR’s are often used with single-tasking operating systems such as MS-DOS.
terminator A device attached to the last
peripheral device in a series or the last node
on a network.
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TEX
For example, the last device on a SCSI bus
must terminate the bus; otherwise, the bus
will not perform properly. A 50-ohm resistor is placed at both ends of an Ethernet
cable to prevent signals reflecting and interfering with the transmission.
See also active termination; forced perfect
termination; passive termination.
TE X A typesetting language developed by
Donald E. Knuth of Stanford University,
capable of professional-quality typeset text,
particularly of mathematical equations and
scientific, Japanese, Chinese, Cyrillic, and
Arabic text.
TE X is not easy for the casual user to master, but several packages are available containing macros designed to solve specific
typesetting problems.
text file See ASCII file.
text mode A mode in which the computer displays characters on the screen using
the built-in character set, but does not show
any graphics characters or a mouse pointer.
Also known as character mode.
thin client In a client/server network, a
client that requires relatively small amounts
of local memory and hard-disk space and
leaves most of the processing to the server.
Sometimes called a Windows terminal.
In some cases, the client operating system,
as well as the applications the client runs
and the data it manipulates, all reside on the
server.
See also NetPC; network computer; total
cost of ownership; Zero Administration for
Windows.
thin-client computing See Terminal
services.
thin Ethernet Connecting coaxial cable
used on an Ethernet network; also known
as thinnet.
The cable is 5 millimeters (0.2 inch) thick,
about as thick as your little finger, and can
be used to connect network nodes up to a
distance of approximately 165 meters (500
feet). Thin Ethernet is primarily used for office installations.
See also thick Ethernet.
TFTP See Trivial File Transfer Protocol.
thick Ethernet Connecting coaxial cable
used on an Ethernet network; also known
as thicknet.
The cable is 1 centimeter (0.4 inch) thick,
almost as thick as your thumb, and can be
used to connect network nodes up to a distance of approximately 1006 meters (3300
feet). Thick Ethernet is primarily used for
facility-wide installations.
See also thin Ethernet.
thicknet See thick Ethernet.
thinnet See thin Ethernet.
thrashing An excessive amount of disk
activity that causes a virtual memory system to spend all its time swapping pages in
and out of memory, and no time executing
the application.
Thrashing can be caused when poor system
configuration creates a swap file that is too
small or when insufficient memory is installed in the computer. Increasing the size
of the swap file or adding memory are often
the best ways to reduce thrashing.
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TIA/EIA structured cabling standards
thread 1. A concurrent process that is
part of a larger process or program. In a
multitasking operating system, a single program may contain several threads, all running at the same time. For example, one
part of a program can be making a calculation while another part is drawing a graph
or a chart.
2. A connected set of postings to a Usenet
newsgroup. Many newsreaders present
postings as threads rather than in strict
chronological order.
See also multiprocessing; newsgroup;
newsreader; Usenet.
threaded newsreader An application
used to read the articles posted to Usenet
newsgroups.
A threaded newsreader groups the newsgroup posts into threads of related articles,
whereas unthreaded newsreaders present
them in their original order of posting. Of
the two types, threaded newsreaders are
much more convenient to use.
See also bandwidth.
TIA See Telecommunications Industry
Association.
TIA/EIA structured cabling
standards Standards specified by
the Electronics Industry Association/
Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA), including:
■
■
■
■
■
See also newsgroup; newsreader; Usenet.
throughput A measure of the data-transfer rate through a complex communications or networking scheme.
■
Throughput is considered an indication of
the overall performance of the system. For
example, the throughput of a server depends on the processor type, operating system in use, hard disk capacity, network
interface card in use, and the size of the data
transfer buffer.
■
In communications, throughput is usually
measured as the number of bits or packets
processed each second.
■
ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-1991 Commercial
Building Telecommunications Wiring.
EIA/TIA TSB-36 Additional Cable Specifications for UTP Cables. 1991.
EIA/TIA TSB-40 Telecommunications
Systems Bulletin—Additional Transmission Specifications for UTP Connecting
Hardware. 1992.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-568A 1995 revises the
original 568 document and adds material
from TSB-36 and TSB-40.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-569-1990 Commercial
Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-570-1991 Residential and
Light Commercial Telecommunications
Wiring Standard.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-606-1993 Administration
Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings.
ANSI/EIA/TIA-607-1994 Commercial
Building Grounding and Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications.
Local codes and standards may impose
additional requirements.
See also cabling standards.
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ticket
ticket A token within the Kerberos
authentication system that contains the user’s name and address, as well as the service
the user requested, security information,
a time deadline, and other authentication
information.
See also authentication; Kerberos.
tie line A private circuit, leased from a
communications carrier, connecting two or
more points in a single organization.
Time Division Multiple Access Abbreviated TDMA. A technique used to allocate
multiple channels on the same frequency on
a cellular phone or satellite communications system.
See also Code Division Multiple Access.
time-division multiplexing Abbreviated TDM. A method of sharing a transmission channel by dividing the available time
equally between competing stations. At the
receiving end, the different signals are
merged back into their individual streams.
See also frequency-division multiplexing; inverse multiplexing; statistical
multiplexing.
time-domain reflectometer Abbreviated TDR. A diagnostic tool used to detect
cabling faults.
A TDR calculates the length of a cable by
measuring the time it takes for a reflected
pulse to return to the TDR and then multiplying that by the nominal velocity of
propagation.
time to live Abbreviated TTL. A mechanism used to ensure that misdirected
information doesn’t end up traveling a
TCP/IP network or the Internet for all
eternity.
Each IP datagram contains a TTL value;
once this value reaches zero, the datagram
is simply assumed to be undeliverable and is
discarded.
timeout Many procedures require a device to respond or reply to an inquiry within
a certain period of time; if the device does
not respond, a timeout condition occurs,
thus preventing the procedure from hanging up the computer.
Timeouts are also used in communications
to detect transmission failures. Some timeouts are fixed, such as the amount of time
during which an operating system will attempt to access a modem or printer; others
can be specified by the user.
time-slice multitasking A form of multitasking in which the operating system assigns the same small time period to each
process in turn.
See also cooperative multitasking; preemptive multitasking.
time stamp An identification code that
includes the time that an event took place.
Most operating systems add a time stamp to
indicate a file’s create time. Automatic error
logging or security auditing processes often
add a time stamp to critical events such as
changes to passwords or accounts.
time synchronization A method of synchronizing time across all servers on the
network so that all servers report the same
time.
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token-ring network
tn3270 A special version of the Telnet
program specifically designed for use with
large IBM computers using 3270 and 327x
series terminals. Most of the computers
on the Internet use Unix, but if you ever
encounter an IBM mainframe, you will
definitely need tn3270.
So how do you know when to use tn3270
rather than Telnet? It’s time to load up
tn3270 if you try to connect to an Internet
host with Telnet and one of the following
happens:
■
■
■
The on-screen messages are all in uppercase letters rather than the usual Unix mix
of uppercase and lowercase letters.
You see VM or MVS anywhere in the login message. These are both names of IBM
operating systems.
Your session is aborted before it really
gets started.
See also Telnet.
token passing A network access method that uses a circulating electronic token to
prevent multiple nodes from transmitting
on the network simultaneously.
Before a node can transmit, it must be in
possession of the token. Fiber Distributed
Data Interface (FDDI), Token Ring, and
Token Bus networks all use token passing
to avoid packet collisions.
See also Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Detection; token-ring network.
Token Ring network IBM’s implementation of the token-ring network architecture, which uses a token-passing protocol
transmitting at 4 or 16Mbps.
Using standard telephone wiring, a Token
Ring network can connect a maximum of
72 devices; with shielded twisted-pair (STP)
wiring, each ring can support a maximum
of 256 nodes. Although it is based on a
closed-loop ring structure, a Token Ring
network uses a star-shaped cluster of as
many as eight nodes, all attached to the
same wiring concentrator or Multistation
Access Unit (MAU). The MAUs are then
connected to the main ring circuit.
A Token Ring network can include personal computers, minicomputers, and mainframes. The IEEE 802.5 standard defines
token-ring networks.
token-ring network A LAN with a ring
structure that uses token passing to regulate
traffic on the network and avoid collisions.
On a token-ring network, the controlling
network interface card generates a token
that controls the right to transmit. This token is continuously passed from one node to
the next around the network. When a node
has information to transmit, it captures the
token, sets its status to busy, and adds the
message and the destination address. All
other nodes continuously read the token to
determine if they are the recipient of a message. If they are, they collect the token, extract the message, and return the token to
the sender. The sender then removes the
message and sets the token status to free, indicating that it can be used by the next node
in sequence.
See also 802.5; Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection; Token Ring
network.
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Tool Command Language
TOKEN RING NETWORK
Tool Command Language Abbreviated Tcl, pronounced “tickle.” Developed by
John Ousterhout while at the University of
California at Berkeley, Tcl is a general-purpose extensible scripting language supplied
as a C library on Unix systems.
Tcl is also available in versions for MS-DOS,
Windows, and the Macintosh.
signifies the type of institution or the country of its origin.
In the United States, the most common toplevel domains include:
com
■
edu
■
gov
■
int
■
mil
See also Perl; REXX; scripting.
TOP See Technical and Office Protocol.
top-level domains On the Internet, the
highest category of host name, which either
A commercial organization. Most
companies end up in this category.
■
An educational establishment such
as a university.
A branch of the U.S. government.
An international organization such
as NATO or the United Nations.
A branch of the U.S. military.
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traffic
■
net
A network organization.
■
org
A nonprofit organization.
Most countries also have unique domains
named after their international abbreviations; for example, ca represents Canada,
uk represents Great Britain, and jp represents Japan.
See also domain; domain name: Domain
Name Service.
topology The map of a network. Physical topology describes where the cables are
run and where the workstations, nodes,
routers, and gateways are located. Networks are usually configured in bus, ring,
star, or mesh topologies. Logical topology
refers to the paths that messages take to get
from one user on the network to another.
TOPS A local-area network (LAN) from
TOPS Corporation that uses the LocalTalk
protocol to connect Apple computers, PCs,
and Sun workstations.
Toshiba Corporation One of the largest
manufacturers of electrical equipment in
the world, a major supplier of notebook
computers, and a co-developer of the digital
video disc.
For more information on Toshiba Corporation, see www.toshiba.com.
total cost of ownership Abbreviated
TCO. A term first used by the Gardener
Group in an attempt to quantify the real
cost of a particular computer solution.
TCO encompasses the direct costs of the
hardware and the software required and
then adds in costs for maintenance and support, costs for the users performing their
own technical support rather than their official job, and system productivity costs.
See also NetPC; network computer; thin
client; Zero Administration for Windows.
TP See twisted-pair cable.
trace log In Microsoft Windows 2000,
a System Monitor log used to monitor
events such as disk input/output or page
faults; when the event occurs, it is logged
into the trace log.
See also alert log; counter log; page fault;
System Monitor.
tracert A utility used on TCP/IP networks to trace the route that datagrams
take between the server and another system. As tracert also tells you how long each
hop takes, it can be a useful tool in identifying system trouble spots.
trackball A device used for pointing, designed as a space-saving alternative to the
mouse.
A trackball contains a movable ball that
you rotate with your fingers to move the
cursor on the screen. Because it does not
need the area of flat space that a mouse
needs, trackballs are popular with users of
portable computers. The Apple PowerBook
includes a trackball as part of the keyboard
case, Microsoft has released a small trackball that clips onto the side of a laptop computer, and IBM has developed a dualbutton, touch-sensitive pointing stick called
the TrackPoint.
traffic The flow of messages and data
carried by a communications channel or
link. Traffic on a data network is normally
measured in bits transferred in a given time
period.
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transaction
transaction A single activity within a
computer system, such as an entry into an
airline reservation database, that is executed
in real time rather than as a batch process.
transaction processing A processing
method in which transactions are executed
immediately when they are received by the
system, rather than at some later time as in
batch-processing systems. Airline reservation databases and automatic teller machines are examples of transactionprocessing systems.
See also on-line transaction processing;
roll back; roll forward; two-phase commit.
Transaction Tracking System Abbreviated TTS. A fault-tolerant feature of Novell NetWare that maintains the integrity of
databases by backing out or rolling back incomplete transactions that result from a
failure in a network component.
transceiver A contraction of transmitter/receiver. A device capable of both transmitting and receiving data.
The data may be located on the network interface card that connects a workstation to
a network, or it may be on a separate device. A transceiver can convert between an
AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) Ethernet
connection and another type of cabling,
such as fiber-optic, coaxial, or unshielded
twisted pair (UTP).
transitive trust See two-way transitive
trust.
Transmission Control Protocol Abbreviated TCP. The transport-level protocol used in the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
It works above IP in the protocol stack
and provides reliable data delivery over
connection-oriented links.
TCP adds a header to the datagram that contains the information needed to get the datagram to its destination. The source port
number and the destination port number allow data to be sent back and forth to the correct processes running on each computer. A
sequence number allows the datagrams to be
rebuilt in the correct order in the receiving
computer, and a checksum verifies that the
data received is the same as the data sent. In
addition to these fields, the TCP header contains the following information:
■
■
■
transfer rate See data-transfer rate.
■
transient See surge.
Acknowledgment number Indicates
that the data was received successfully. If
the datagram is damaged in transit, the receiver discards the data and does not send
an acknowledgment to the sender. After a
specified timeout expires, the sender retransmits data for which no acknowledgment has been received.
Offset Specifies the length of the header.
Reserved Variables set aside for future
use.
Flags Indicate that this packet is the end
of the data or that the data is urgent.
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Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
■
■
■
■
Window size Provides a way to increase
packet size, which can improve efficiency
in data transfers.
Urgent pointer Gives the location of
urgent data.
Options Reserved for future use or for
special options as defined by the protocol.
Padding Ensures that the header ends on
a 32-bit boundary.
The data immediately follow this header
information.
See also Internet Protocol; Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; User
Datagram Protocol.
Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol Abbreviated TCP/IP.
A set of communications protocols first developed by the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency (DARPA) in the late 1970s.
The set of TCP/IP protocols encompasses
media access, packet transport, session
communications, file transfer, e-mail, and
terminal emulation.
TCP/IP is a widely published open standard, and while completely independent of
any specific hardware or software company, it is supported by a huge number of
vendors and is available on many different
computers, from PCs to mainframes, run-
ning many different operating systems.
Many corporations, universities, and government agencies use TCP/IP, and it is also
the basis of the Internet.
TCP/IP is separated from the network hardware and will run over Ethernet, token-ring,
X.25 networks, and dial-up connections. It
is a routable protocol, so datagrams can be
sent over specific routes, and it has reliable
and efficient data-delivery mechanisms.
TCP/IP uses a common expandable addressing scheme, so any system can address any
other system, even in a network as large as
the Internet, and new networks can be added
without service disruptions.
The popularity that the TCP/IP family of
protocols enjoys today did not arise just because the protocols were available or even
because the U.S. government mandated
their use. They are popular because they are
robust, solid protocols that solve many of
the most difficult networking problems and
do so in an elegant and efficient way.
See also Address Resolution Protocol; File
Transfer Protocol; Hypertext Transfer Protocol; Internet Control Message Protocol;
Internet Mail Access Protocol; Internet Protocol; Post Office Protocol; Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol; Simple Network Management Protocol; Telnet; tn3270; User
Datagram Protocol.
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transmission medium
TCP HEADER
TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL
transmission medium The physical
cabling used to carry network information,
such as fiber-optic, coaxial, shielded
twisted-pair (STP), and unshielded twistedpair (UTP) cabling.
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trusted domain
transmission mode The manner in
which communications can take place between a sender and a receiver.
Several modes are defined, as follows:
■
■
■
■
Simplex Communications can go in
only one direction, so the sender can use
the whole of the available bandwidth.
Half-duplex Communications can go in
two directions, but only in one direction
at a time.
Full-duplex Communications can go in
two directions simultaneously.
Echo-plex A rare mode in which characters are retransmitted to the sender for
error-checking purposes.
Transmit Data Abbreviated TXD. A
hardware signal defined by the RS-232-C
standard that carries information from one
device to another.
See also Receive Data.
transport layer The fourth of seven layers of the OSI Reference Model for computer-to-computer communications. The
transport layer defines protocols for message structure and supervises the validity of
the transmission by performing some error
checking.
See also OSI Reference Model.
trap See software interrupt.
trap door An entry point in a computer
network, through which an intruder can
gain access without authentication.
tree In Microsoft Active Directory, a
hierarchy of domains linked via trust rela-
tionships that share the same namespace,
Directory Schema, and Global Catalog.
See also Active Directory; Directory Schema; Global Catalog.
Tree object In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), the hierarchical organization of all
the objects on the network into a single
structure.
See also container object; Novell Directory
Services; Organization object.
trellis-coded modulation Abbreviated
TCM. A form of quadrature amplitude
modulation used in modems that operate at
9600 bits per second or higher. TCM encodes data as a set of bits associated with
both phase and amplitude changes.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol Abbreviated TFTP. A little-used and simplified version of the TCP/IP file transfer protocol that
does not include password protection.
Because it has no security associated with it,
most system administrators do not support
its use and recommend File Transfer Protocol instead.
See also File Transfer Protocol.
Trojan Horse A type of computer virus
that pretends to be a useful program, such
as a game or a utility, to entice you to use it,
when in reality it contains special code that
will intentionally damage any system onto
which it is loaded.
See also logic bomb.
trusted domain In Microsoft Windows
NT Server, a domain that a trusting domain
will allow to authenticate logons.
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trustee
See also trusting domain; trust
relationship.
trustee In Novell NetWare, a user or
group object that has been granted rights to
work with a directory, an object, or a file.
See also Public trustee; trustee assignment.
trustee assignment In Novell NetWare, a mechanism that determines how a
user can access an object, a directory, or a
file. Also known as trustee rights.
For example, trustee rights regulate whether a user can read a file, change it, change its
name, delete it, or control other users’ trustee rights to it. Trustee rights are assigned to
individual users, and one user’s rights can
be different from another user’s rights to
the same directory
See also Public trustee; trustee.
trustee rights See trustee assignment.
trusting domain In Microsoft Windows NT Server, a domain that lets users
and groups in the trusted domain use its
resources.
See also trusted domain; trust relationship.
trust relationship In Microsoft Windows NT Server, a link between domains
that allows pass-through authentication, in
which a trusting domain allows the logon
authentication of a trusted domain.
With the right trust relationships, a user
with one user account in one domain has
the potential to access the whole network.
Global groups and user accounts defined in
the trusted domain can be assigned rights
and permissions in a trusting domain, even
though those accounts do not exist in the
trusting domain’s directory database.
See also authentication; pass-through
authentication; trusted domain; trusting
domain; user account.
TSAPI See Telephony Services API.
TSAT See T1 small aperture terminal.
TSR See terminate-and-stay-resident
program.
TTL See time to live.
TTS See Transaction Tracking System.
tunneling The encapsulation of one protocol within another, often used to transport a local-area network protocol across a
backbone that does not support that particular protocol.
Tunneling is also used to create pseudoconnections across connectionless networks such as the Internet and may be referred to as protocol encapsulation or
synchronous pass-through.
See also encapsulation; Point-to-Point
Tunneling Protocol.
twinaxial cable A cable with two coaxial cables inside a single insulating shield.
Twinaxial cable is used with IBM AS/400
minicomputers.
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Type 1–9 cable
TWINAXIAL CABLE
twisted-pair cable Abbreviated TP. Cable that comprises two or more pairs of insulated wires twisted together, at six twists
per inch.
In twisted-pair cable, one wire carries the
signal and the other is grounded. The cable
may be shielded or unshielded. Telephone
wire installed in modern buildings is often
twisted-pair wiring.
two-phase commit A method used in
transaction processing to ensure data is
posted to shared databases correctly by dividing the writing of data into two steps.
Each of the steps must receive a verification
of completeness from the shared databases;
otherwise, the transaction-processing system rolls back the transaction and tries
again.
See also on-line transaction processing; roll
back; roll forward; transaction processing.
two-way transitive trust In Microsoft
Windows 2000 Server, an automatic trust
relationship created between two Windows
2000 domains.
If domain A trusts domain B, and domain B
trusts domain C, then domain A trusts domain C, and domain C also trusts domain
A. In Windows NT, all trust relationships
were created and managed manually.
See also downlevel trust; explicit trust;
shortcut trust;
TXD See Transmit Data.
Type 1–9 cable IBM Cabling System
specifications, as follows:
■
Type 1 Shielded, twisted, dual-pair
cable with 22-gauge solid conductors
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type-ahead buffer
and a braided shield. Used with Token
Ring networks.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Type 2 Two-pair, shielded cable with
solid conductors and a braided shield.
Type 2 also includes four pairs of unshielded voice-grade lines, giving a total
of six pairs in the same sheath.
Type 3 Four unshielded, solid, twisted
pairs, used for voice or data. IBM’s variant of twisted-pair telephone wire.
Type 4 No published specification.
Type 5 Dual 100/140 micron fiber-optic
cable; IBM now recommends 125-micron
fiber-optic cable, which is the current industry standard for fiber-optic cable.
Type 6 Shielded, two-pair, braided cable used for patch cables. Type 6 is more
flexible than Type 1 cable.
Type 7 No published specification.
Type 8 Shielded, dual-pair cable with
no twists, housed in a flat jacket; commonly used under carpets.
■
Type 9 Shielded, dual-pair, plenum cable with solid or braided conductors and
a fire-resistant outer coating, for use between floors in a building.
See also American Wire Gauge; cabling
standards; plenum cable; riser cable; structured wiring.
type-ahead buffer See keyboard buffer.
typefull naming In Novell Directory
Services (NDS), a formal method used to
name objects that includes name types for
each part of the name. For example,
.CN=Gary.OU=Marketing.O=Sybex.
See also typeless naming.
typeless naming In Novell Directory
Services (NDS), a common method used to
name objects that does not include name
types for each part of the name. For example, .Gary.Marketing.Sybex.
See also typefull naming.
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unicast
U
UART See universal asynchronous
receiver/transmitter.
UBR See Unspecified Bit Rate.
unauthorized access To gain entry to a
computer system using a stolen or guessed
password.
See also hacker; intruder.
UDP See User Datagram Protocol.
Ultra SCSI An extension of the SCSI-2
standard that increases the data-transfer
rate to 20Mbps independent of the bus
width. Ultra SCSI supports four to eight devices depending on cable type and length.
See also SCSI-2; Small Computer System
Interface.
Ultra2 SCSI An extension of the SCSI-2
standard that increases the data transfer
rate to 40Mbps over an 8-bit bus. Ultra2
SCSI supports a maximum of 8 devices.
See also SCSI-2; Small Computer System
Interface.
Ultra Wide SCSI An extension of the
SCSI-2 standard that increases the datatransfer rate to 80Mbps over a 16-bit bus.
Ultra2 SCSI supports a maximum of 16
devices.
See also SCSI-2; Small Computer System
Interface.
unbundled software 1. Software sold
with a computer system that is priced separately, rather than included as part of a
package.
2. A feature in an application repackaged
and sold by itself at a lower price.
See also bundled software.
UNC See Universal Naming
Convention.
uncompress The process of restoring a
compressed file to its original form.
See also unzip.
undelete To recover an accidentally deleted file. Many operating systems include
commands you can use to recover a deleted
file; however, once the file has been overwritten on your hard disk by a new file, the
original is lost, and the only way to get it
back is to reload it from a recent backup.
See also file recovery.
Ultrix A version of Unix from Digital
Equipment Corporation that looks and
works like BSD Unix.
See also BSD Unix.
UMB See upper memory block.
unicast The broadcast of individual audio or video signals from a server to individual clients to provide an on-demand
video service.
See also IP multicast; multicast.
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Unicode
Unicode A 16-bit character code, defined by the Unicode Consortium and by
ISO 10646, that supports a maximum of
65,536 unique characters rather than the
256 characters available in the current
ASCII character set.
keywords, prices, a copyright statement, or
even a digital certificate, along with their
associated Uniform Resource Identifiers.
By using two bytes to represent each character, Unicode allows almost all the world’s
written languages to be represented in a single character set; for example, the Chinese
language defines almost 10,000 basic ideographs. When universally adopted, Unicode will make multilingual software much
easier to write and maintain.
Uniform Resource Identifier Abbreviated URI. In the HTTP message header, a set
of characters that identifies a resource such
as a file from anywhere on the Internet.
Products such as Novell NetWare and
Microsoft Windows NT provide Unicode
support.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange; double-byte character set; Extended Binary Coded Decimal
Interchange Code.
Uniform Resource Characteristic Abbreviated URC. A mechanism designed to
provide additional information about an
Internet site or a Web page.
A URC lists pairs of attributes and their values and might contain author information,
See also Uniform Resource Identifier; Uniform Resource Locator.
The URI includes Uniform Resource
Names and Uniform Resource Locators to
identify the file by type and location.
See also Uniform Resource Name;
Uniform Resource Locator.
Uniform Resource Locator Abbreviated URL. An address for a resource on the
Internet.
URLs are used as a linking mechanism between Web pages and as a method for Web
browsers to access Web pages.
A URL specifies the protocol to be used to
access the resource (such as HTTP or FTP),
the name of the server where the resource is
located (as in www.sybex.com), the path to
that resource (as in /catalog), and the name
of the document to open (/index.html).
UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR
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Universal Serial Bus
Uniform Resource Name Abbreviated
URN. A proposal from the IETF (Internet
Engineering Task Force) for a naming
scheme that will identify Internet resources
by name, irrespective of where they are
located.
universal asynchronous receiver/
transmitter Abbreviated UART; pronounced “you-art.” An electronic module
that combines the transmitting and receiving circuitry needed for asynchronous communications over a serial line.
See also Uniform Resource Locator.
See also asynchronous transmission.
UniForum A nonprofit organization
founded in 1980 dedicated to improve Unix
through the open exchange of ideas and information between users and developers.
Universal Coordinated Time In Novell
NetWare, the standard system time based
on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Previously known as /usr/group, UniForum has several hundred thousand members in many countries throughout the
world.
uninterruptible power supply Abbreviated UPS; pronounced “you-pea-ess.” An
alternative power source, usually consisting
of a set of batteries, used to power a computer system if the normal power service is
interrupted or falls below acceptable levels.
A UPS system is usually applied only to the
most critical devices on the network, such
as servers, routers, gateways, and independent hard disks. They are of two main
types:
■
■
An online UPS continuously monitors and
modifies the power flowing through the
unit. If an outage occurs, the UPS continues to provide regulated power.
A standby UPS monitors the AC level, but
only switches in when the power drops below a preset level; it contains circuitry capable of switching to backup power in 5
milliseconds or less.
See also power conditioning; UPS
monitoring.
Local time on a NetWare server is defined
in terms of the difference from GMT; for
example, Pacific Standard Time is GMT
minus eight hours.
Universal Naming Convention Abbreviated UNC. In Microsoft Windows NT
Server, a scheme used to gain access to a
shared resource.
The general form of a UNC is:
\\servername\sharename\path\filename
The servername portion identifies the
name of the server where the resource is located, and sharename identifies the name of
the shared file resource under which the information has been shared. This is followed by the path and filename of the
resource.
Universal Serial Bus Abbreviated USB.
A standard from Intel and Microsoft for a
high-speed peripheral bus designed to remove the need for almost all the connectors
on the back of a personal computer.
USB defines the ports and bus characteristics
with data transfer rates of up to 12Mbps
over a single cable of up to 5 meters (16 feet).
USB is capable of supporting a maximum of
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universal synchronous receiver/transmitter
63 devices such as external CD-ROM drives,
printers, external modems, mice, and the
keyboard and also supplies power to some
devices so there is no need for separate power cords or batteries. Most personal computers will have two USB ports.
See also 1394.
universal synchronous receiver/
transmitter Abbreviated USRT. An electronic module that combines the transmitting
and receiving circuitry needed for synchronous communications over a serial line.
See also synchronous transmission.
Unix Pronounced “yoo-nix.” A multiuser, multitasking operating system, originally conceived in 1969 at AT&T’s Bell Labs
by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.
Since then, Unix has gone on to become the
most widely used general purpose operating system in the world.
Over the last 25 years, there have been three
major strands in Unix development:
■
Original AT&T Unix from Versions 1 to
7, and Systems III to V.
■
Microsoft/SCO XENIX.
■
Berkeley releases from 1BSD to 4.4BSD.
In addition, a large number of commercial
Unix-related systems have been released by
developers such as Apple, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, IBM,
SCO, Silicon Graphics, and Sun Microsystems. Unix is available on a huge range of
hardware, from a PC to a supercomputer.
Several free (or almost free) versions of
Unix are available in the Intel world, including Linux, FreeBSD, and NetBSD; since
they contain no proprietary code, they are
not affected by licensing agreements other
than the GNU General Public License.
Unix today is a very different animal from
the Unix of the 1980s. A typical system then
consisted of a minicomputer serving a collection of dumb terminals. Unix today is
more likely to be a graphical workstation
on a network or a Web server on the Internet and is a large and complicated commercial offering, serving a wide range of
applications.
See also Advanced Interactive Executive;
A/UX; Berkeley Unix; BSD Unix; FreeBSD;
Interactive Unix; Linux; NetBSD; SCO
Unix; Solaris; System V Interface Definition; UnixWare.
Unix client Any computer running Unix
that connects to the network.
Unix shell In Unix, a program that acts
as a user interface, interpreting commands
typed at the keyboard and passing them on
to the operating system.
The shell sets up standard input, standard
output, and standard error, lets you customize your Unix session environment, and
gives access to a shell programming language for creating shell scripts.
Some versions of Unix provide only one
shell, while others provide a selection from
which you can choose to use the one you
like best.
Common shells include the following:
■
■
Bourne Very compact and simple to use;
the original Unix shell.
Korn Perhaps the most popular shell;
an upward compatible extension to the
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unsubscribe
Bourne shell with a history file, commandline editing, aliases, and job control.
■
■
■
■
■
C The first BSD shell, the C shell uses
C-like syntax and offers a history mechanism, aliasing, and job control.
Bash The Bourne-again shell from the
Free Software Foundation extends the capabilities of the Bourne shell in a similar
way to the Korn shell.
Rc A small, compact, and elegant shell
with a strong C flavor but without command-line editing and job control.
Tcsh An enhanced version of the C
shell.
Zsh A large shell that seems to offer all
the features available in all the other
shells.
See also Bash shell; Bourne shell; C shell;
Korn shell.
UnixWare A release of the Unix operating system, originally from Novell, now
available from SCO.
UnixWare is a 64-bit operating system that
combines SCO’s OpenServer system with
previous versions of UnixWare and includes Netscape’s FastTrack Server for
Web site creation. A separate software development kit, which includes a C/C++
compiler, a debugger, and other development tools, is also available.
See also Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
unmoderated newsgroup A Usenet
newsgroup or mailing list in which posts are
not subject to review before distribution.
You will find the discussions in unmoder-
ated newsgroups to be wildly spontaneous,
but they may also contain more than their
share of flames and flame wars.
See also alt newsgroups; moderated
newsgroup.
unshielded cable Any cable not protected from electromagnetic interference
or radio frequency interference (RFI) by an
outer foil shield.
unshielded twisted-pair cable Abbreviated UTP. Cable that contains two or
more pairs of twisted copper wires.
The greater the number of twists, the lower
the crosstalk. UTP is offered in both voice
grade and data grade. The advantages of
UTP include ease of installation and low cost
of materials. Its drawbacks are limited signaling speeds and shorter maximum cablesegment lengths.
See also crosstalk; shielded twisted-pair
cable.
Unspecified Bit Rate Abbreviated
UBR. A type of Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) service that provides spare
bandwidth to noncritical services such as
file transfers.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Available Bit Rate; Constant Bit Rate; Variable Bit Rate.
unsubscribe To remove the name of a
Usenet newsgroup from the list of newsgroups maintained by your newsreader. If
you change your mind, you can always subscribe to the newsgroup again in the future.
See also newsgroup; subscribe.
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unzip
UNSHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR CABLE
unzip The process of uncompressing an
archive created by PKZIP, WinZip, compress, or gzip.
See also uncompress.
update sequence number Abbreviated USN. In Microsoft Active Directory, a
unique 16-bit number used to track updates
to Active Directory properties.
upgradable computer A computer system specifically designed to be upgraded as
technology advances.
The amount of circuitry that must be
changed when you make the upgrade and
the method of upgrading differ from one
upgradable computer to another. At a minimum, you must replace the processor; at
most, you need to change nearly all the circuitry installed in the computer. In some
systems, the use of a ZIF socket to hold the
main processor makes an upgrade easy; in
other systems, replacing the main processor
can be extremely difficult.
upgrade 1. The process of installing a
newer and more powerful version of a
software or hardware product. For example, you may upgrade to a newer and more
capable version of a software package, such
as Microsoft Word, or to a larger hard disk.
In the case of hardware, an upgrade is often
called an upgrade kit.
2. A new and more powerful version of soft-
ware (a noun referring to the improved
software itself).
uplink The transmission of information
from an earth station to a communications
satellite.
See also downlink.
upload In communications, sending a file
or files from one computer to another over
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Usenet newsgroups
a network or via a modem. For example,
you might upload a file to a network server.
URC See Uniform Resource
See also download.
URI See Uniform Resource Identifier.
UPN
URL See Uniform Resource Locator.
See user principal name.
upper memory See reserved memory.
upper memory block Abbreviated
UMB. The memory between 640KB and
1MB in a personal computer running
MS-DOS. This area was originally reserved for system and video use; however,
not all the space is used. The unused portions are the UMBs.
With an Intel 80386 (or later) processor, as
much as 120KB of additional memory can
be gained by accessing UMBs. This space
can be used to load device drivers and
terminate-and-stay-resident programs.
UPS See uninterruptible power supply.
UPS monitoring The process that a
server uses to make sure that an attached
UPS (uninterruptible power supply) system
is functioning properly.
See also power conditioning.
uptime The length or percentage of time
during which a computer system is functioning and available for use.
See also downtime; power-on hours.
upward compatibility The design of
software that incorporates the capability to
function with other, more powerful products likely to become available in the near
future. Adherence to design standards
makes upward compatibility possible.
Characteristic.
URN
See Uniform Resource Name.
USB See Universal Serial Bus.
Usenet Contraction of user network;
sometimes written as UseNet or USENET,
pronounced “yooz-net.” An international,
noncommercial network, linking many
thousands of Unix sites.
Although there is a very close relationship
between the Internet and Usenet, they are
not the same thing by any means. Usenet
predates the Internet; in the early days, information was distributed by dial-up connections and UUCP software. Not every
Internet computer is part of Usenet, and not
every Usenet system can be reached from
the Internet.
Like the Internet, Usenet has no central governing body; it is run by the people who use
it. With tens of thousands of newsgroups,
Usenet is accessed by millions of people every day, in more than 100 countries.
See also Usenet newsgroups.
Usenet articles An individual e-mail
message sent to a Usenet newsgroup.
Usenet newsgroups The individual
discussion groups within Usenet.
Usenet newsgroups contain articles posted
by Internet and Usenet subscribers; very
few of them actually contain hard news.
Most newsgroups are concerned with a
single subject, and the range of subjects
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user
throughout Usenet is simply phenomenal;
if people are interested in a topic, you will
find a newsgroup for that topic.
user Any person allowed to access a computer system or network.
user account A security mechanism
used to control access to a network or to a
multiuser computer system, established and
maintained by the network administrator.
Elements of a user account include password information, rights and permissions,
and information about the groups to which
the user belongs.
User Datagram Protocol Abbreviated
UDP. The connectionless, transport-level
protocol used in the TCP/IP suite of protocols, usually bundled with IP-layer software. Because UDP does not add overhead,
as does connection-oriented TCP, UDP is
often used with SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol) applications.
Multicast applications, such as Mbone and
the Real-time Transport Protocol, that deliver audio and video streams use UDP as
their delivery mechanism because the acknowledgment and retransmission services
offered by TCP are not needed and add too
much overhead. If a packet of audio data is
lost, retransmission is neither practical nor
desirable.
See also multicast backbone; Real-time
Transport Protocol; Transmission Control
Protocol.
user group A group of users of a specific
computer or software package who meet to
share tips and listen to industry experts.
Some PC user groups hold large, wellattended monthly meetings, run their own
Web sites, and publish newsletters of exceptional quality.
See also special interest group.
User Manager for Domains In Microsoft Windows NT Server, an administrative tool used to manage accounts,
groups, and security policies throughout
the domain.
See also user rights policies.
User object In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), an object that represents a user with
access to the network.
See also Leaf object; Organization object;
Root object; user template.
user principal name Abbreviated
UPN. In Microsoft Active Directory, a
name for a user. UPN consists of the user’s
logon name and the Domain Name Service
(DNS) name of the domain where the user
object resides, separated by an at sign. For
example, billg@microsoft.com.
user rights policies In Microsoft Windows NT Server, a mechanism used to determine the rights that users and groups
possess when trying to perform network
tasks. User rights policies are administered
by the User Manager for Domains tool.
See also User Manager for Domains.
user template In Novell Directory
Services (NDS), a special User object that
assigns default property values and rights
when a new user is created.
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uuencode
A user template speeds up the process of
creating a large number of new users at the
same time, especially if these users share details such as locations, account restrictions,
and so on.
available on many systems, particularly
Linux.
See also Network News Transport
Protocol.
See also User object.
uudecode Pronounced “you-you-decode.”
USN
1. To convert a text file created by the Unix
See update sequence number.
U.S. Robotics Corporation A major
manufacturer of modems and creator of the
PalmPilot personal digital assistant; merged
with 3Com Corporation in 1998 in one of
the largest deals in telecommunicationsindustry history.
For more information on U.S. Robotics
Corporation, see www.usr.com.
USRT See universal synchronous
receiver/transmitter.
UTP See unshielded twisted-pair cable.
uucp Pronounced “you-you-cee-pee.” A
standard set of Unix utilities used to manage
the transmission of information between
Unix systems and to Usenet newsgroups, using serial connections and regular telephone
lines. The name is derived from “Unix-toUnix copy.”
These utilities were originally developed by
Mike Lesk at Bell Labs in the 1970s, and a
version known as HoneyDanBer uucp was
developed in the 1980s by P. Honeyman, D.
A. Nowitz, and B. E. Redman. An even
newer version, known as Taylor uucp, is
uuencode utility back into its original binary form. Graphical images and other binary
files are often sent to Usenet newsgroups in
this form, because the newsgroups can only
handle text and don’t know how to manage
binary files.
2. The name of the utility program that
performs a text-to-binary file conversion.
Originally a Unix utility, uudecode is now
available for most operating systems.
See also uucp; uuencode.
uuencode Pronounced “you-youen-code.”
1. To convert a binary file such as a graph-
ical image into a text file so that the file can
be sent over the Internet or to a Usenet
newsgroup as a part of an e-mail message.
When you receive a uuencoded text file, you
must process it through the Unix uudecode
utility to turn it back into a graphical image
that you can view.
2. The name of the utility that performs a
binary-to-text file conversion. Originally a
Unix utility, uuencode is now available for
most operating systems.
See also uucp; uudecode.
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V.17
V
V.17 A CCITT (ITU) Group 3 fax modulation standard for transmitting fax data
at up to 14,400bps, with a fallback to
12,000bps as line conditions deteriorate.
V.21 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
300bps modems using full-duplex transmission over dial-up lines. This standard is
not compatible with the Bell 103 standard
widely used in the United States.
V.22 A CCITT (ITU) standard for 600bps
and 1200bps full-duplex modems over twowire, dial-up, or leased lines. V.22 uses
phase-shift keying modulation.
V.22 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard for
2400bps full-duplex modems over dial-up
and two-wire leased lines, with fallback to
1200bps and then 600bps operation. V.22
bis uses quadrature amplitude modulation.
V.23 A CCITT (ITU) standard for 600bps
or 1200bps synchronous or asynchronous
half-duplex modems used on dial-up lines.
V.24 A CCITT (ITU) definition of the interface between a modem and a computer
system. V.24 is functionally equivalent to
the RS-232-C standard, but does not specify connectors or pin assignments; those are
defined in ISO 2110.
V.25 A CCITT (ITU) standard for automatic calling and answering circuits over
dial-up lines using a parallel interface. V.25
includes the disabling of echo suppression
on manually dialed calls.
V.25 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard for automatic calling and answering circuits over
dial-up lines with three modes: asynchronous, character-oriented synchronous, and
bit-oriented synchronous (HDLC/SDLC).
V.25 bis does not include modem configuration commands.
V.26 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
1200bps, full-duplex modems used over
four-wire leased lines.
V.26 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard for
1200bps and 2400bps full-duplex modems
used on dial-up lines.
V.27 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
4800bps, full-duplex modems used with
four-wire leased lines, with a manual
equalizer.
V.27 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard for
2400bps or 4800bps, full-duplex modems
used with four-wire leased lines. The main
advance over V.27 is the addition of an automatic adaptive equalizer for use on leased
circuits.
V.27 ter A CCITT (ITU) standard for
2400bps or 4800bps, full-duplex modems
used with dial-up lines. Used in some
CCITT Group 3 fax transmissions.
See also CCITT Groups 1–4.
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V.90
V.29 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
9600bps modems used with point-topoint, four-wire leased lines. This standard
has been adopted for CCITT Group 3 fax
transmissions over dial-up lines at
9600bps and 7200bps.
See also CCITT Groups 1–4.
V.32 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
9600bps modems, with fallback to 4800bps,
used over two-wire, dial-up lines or twowire or four-wire leased lines, with echo canceling to remove any telephone-line echo,
and quadrature amplitude modulation.
V.32 encodes four data bits for each baud to
give an effective throughput of 9600bps and
includes trellis-coded modulation errorcorrecting techniques. V.32 is the first standard for 9600bps modems using standard
lines anywhere in the world.
V.32 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard extending V.32 to 7200, 12,000, and 14,400
bits per second. V.32 bis uses trellis-coded
modulation.
V.32 terbo A pseudo-standard proposed
by AT&T and others that supports transmission at up to 19, 200bps.
The name is a pun and does not represent an
ITU standard; the next revision of the V.32
standard after V.32 bis will be V.32 ter, and
V.32 terbo has been replaced by the ITU
standard V.34.
over four-wire, leased circuits, with timedivision multiplexing available for line
sharing.
V.34 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
28.8Kbps modems using trellis-coded
modulation techniques and advanced data
compression.
See also V.fast.
V.42 A CCITT (ITU) standard for error
correction rather than for a modem. V.42
uses LAP-M (Link Access ProcedureModem) as the primary error-correcting
protocol, with MNP (Microcom Networking Protocol) classes 2 through 4 as an
alternative.
V.42 can be used with V.22, V.22 bis, V.26
ter, V.32, and V.32 bis.
V.42 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard that
adds a British Telecom Lempel-Ziv datacompression technique to V.42 error correction, usually capable of achieving a compression ratio of 3.5 to 1.
V.54 A CCITT (ITU) standard that specifies the loopback tests incorporated into
modems for testing the telephone circuit
and isolating any transmission problems.
V.56 bis A CCITT (ITU) standard that
defines a network transmission model used
to evaluate modem performance over twowire voice-grade circuits.
See also V.fast.
V.33 A CCITT (ITU) standard for
12,000bps and 14,400bps modems used
V.90 A CCITT (ITU) standard for modems; also known as the 56K modem
standard. V.90 describes an asymmetric
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V.110
connection, with theoretical speeds of up to
56Kbps downstream and an upstream connection rate of up to 33.6Kbps.
amount of code to an existing file, the vaccine program causes an alert to be generated if a virus does attack.
V.90 modems attain their high speed by
assuming the circuit is a digital circuit and
reducing the number of analog-to-digital
conversions they perform, except for the
conversion that takes place for outbound
traffic at the user’s modem.
See also antivirus program; boot sector
virus; file-infecting virus; infection; macro virus; multipart virus; polymorphic
virus; stealth virus; Trojan Horse; virus.
Whether you actually achieve these rates
depends on the quality of the phone line and
the distance to the local telephone company
central office. If the other end of the connection is not digital, the modem switches
into full analog mode at 28.8 or 33.6Kbps.
In order to reduce crosstalk between adjacent lines, the FCC has placed restrictions
on maximum signal strength levels, and so
54Kbps is the theoretical maximum data
rate.
See also K56Flex; X2.
V.110 A CCITT (ITU) standard that
specifies how DTE (data terminal equipment) using synchronous or asynchronous
serial interfaces is supported on an ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network).
V.120 A CCITT (ITU) standard that
specifies how DTE (data terminal equipment) using synchronous or asynchronous
serial interfaces is supported on an ISDN
(Integrated Services Digital Network) using
a protocol to encapsulate the transmitted
data.
vaccine A utility program designed to
protect files from viruses. By adding a small
Value Added Network Abbreviated
VAN. Commercially available turn-key
data networks from companies such as
CompuServe, GE Information Services, and
Infonet Services Corporation.
VANs are available on a leased-line or a
dial-up rate and save an organization the
trouble of setting up the equipment and
contracting for the lines and service. VANs
can also provide additional services such as
message routing, resource management,
and protocol-conversion services.
value-added process Abbreviated
VAP. In Novell NetWare 2.x, an application that adds functions to the network operating system, such as print server or
communications server software.
NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs) provide a similar function in later versions of
NetWare.
See also Virtual Loadable Module.
value-added reseller Abbreviated
VAR. A company that adds value to a system, repackages it, and then resells it to the
public.
This added value can take the form of better
documentation, user support, service support, system integration, or sometimes just a
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Vendor Independent Messaging
new nameplate on the box. For example,
Canon makes the print engine used in many
laser printers, including those from HewlettPackard (HP); in this case, Canon is an OEM
(original equipment manufacturer) and HP
is the VAR.
value entry In Microsoft Windows, the
actual data in the Registry, stored in the
keys. Each value entry has a name, a data
type (which determines the length and the
format of the value), and the value itself.
See also hive; key; Registry; sub-hive;
sub-key; volatile key.
values In Novell Directory Services
(NDS), the actual data stored in the properties of an NDS object. Properties can have
more than one value; some are required,
and others are optional.
vampire tap A connector used to connect
one cable segment to another. A needle on
the connector pierces the cable insulation to
make a connection to the wire within.
for non-real-time VBR applications such as
transaction processing.
See also Asynchronous Transfer Mode;
Available Bit Rate; Constant Bit Rate; Unspecified Bit Rate.
VAX Digital Equipment Corporation’s
(DEC’s) popular line of minicomputers and
workstations, first introduced in 1977.
See also DECnet; VMS.
VBA See Visual Basic for Applications.
VBR See Variable Bit Rate.
VBScript A version of Microsoft Visual
Basic used as a scripting language in Microsoft Internet Explorer Web browser and
in Microsoft Internet Information Server.
See also scripting.
VCC See Virtual Channel Connection.
VCI See Virtual Channel Identifier.
VDSL See Very-High-Bit-Rate Digital
Subscriber Line.
VAN See Value Added Network.
vector graphics See object-oriented
VAP See value-added process.
graphics.
vaporware A slang term for a product
that has been announced but has missed its
release date, often by a large margin, and so
is not actually available.
vendor The person or company that
manufactures, supplies, or sells computer
hardware, software, or related services.
VAR See value-added reseller.
Variable Bit Rate Abbreviated VBR. A
connection-oriented Asynchronous Transfer Mode service for real-time applications
for which minor data loss is acceptable, and
Vendor Independent Messaging
Abbreviated VIM. An e-mail API
originally developed by Lotus, and
supported by Apple, IBM, MCI, Novell,
and Oracle and other e-mail vendors.
Developers use VIM to add e-mail
capabilities to their applications.
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version number
Microsoft supports its own e-mail API,
Messaging API (MAPI), and a VIM-toMAPI dynamic link library makes it possible to exchange messages between the two
interfaces.
See also Messaging API.
version number A method of identifying a particular software or hardware release, assigned by the developer, that often
includes numbers before and after a decimal point; the higher the number, the more
recent the release.
The number before the decimal point indicates the major revision levels (as in Microsoft Windows NT 3 and Windows NT 4),
and the part after the decimal indicates a minor revision level (as in Windows NT 3.5
and Windows NT 3.51). In some cases, a minor revision can produce a significant difference in performance.
Many people steer clear of any release labeled 1.0, because this number implies the
first release of a product that may not have
had extensive real-world use. Microsoft has
avoided this issue with the release of Windows systems tied to the year, as in Windows 98 and Office 2000.
vertical application An application specifically created for a narrow and specialized market or profession. Software
designed for veterinary hospital management is an example of a vertical application.
vertical bar The | symbol. Used in Unix
and in other operating systems to pipe the
output of one command into the input of
another.
Very-High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber
Line Abbreviated VDSL. A higher-speed
version of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line (ADSL).
VDSL is asymmetrical with a higher downstream data-transfer rate than its upstream
rate. Upstream rates can be from 1.6Mbps
to 2.3Mbps, and downstream rates range
from 12.96Mbps to 51.84Mbps, depending on the distance involved.
See also Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
Line; Digital Subscriber Line; HighBit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line; RateAdaptive Digital Subscriber Line; SingleLine Digital Subscriber Line.
very low-frequency emission Abbreviated VLF. Radiation emitted by a computer monitor and other common
household electrical appliances, such as
televisions, hair dryers, electric blankets,
and food processors.
VLF emissions range from 2 to 400kHz and
decline with the square of the distance from
the source. Emissions are not constant
around a computer monitor; they are higher from the sides and rear, and weakest
from the front of the screen.
Sweden is the only country to have defined
a set of standards for monitor emissions. In
1990, Mat Oct Provadet (MPR), the Swedish National Board for Meteorology and
Testing, revised its guidelines for acceptable
VLF emissions as less than or equal to 25
nanoTesla (nT). A nanoTesla is a unit of
measurement for small magnetic fields.
See also extremely low-frequency emission; radio frequency interference.
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Video Electronics Standards Association
very small aperture terminal Abbreviated VSAT. A small satellite terminal used
for digital communications, from 1 to 3
meters (3.3 to 10 feet) in diameter, capable
of managing digital transmissions of up to
56Kbps. Satellites that can handle T1 data
rates of up to 1.544Mbps are known as
TSATs.
VESA See Video Electronics Standards
Association.
VESA local bus Abbreviated VL bus;
also known as VL local bus. A local bus
architecture introduced by VESA (Video
Electronics Standards Association), in which
as many as three VL bus adapter slots are
built into the motherboard. The VL bus allows for bus mastering. The most common
VL bus adapters are video adapters, harddisk controllers, and network interface
cards.
See also Peripheral Component Interconnect local bus; PC Card.
V.everything A marketing term used by
some modem manufacturers to describe modems that comply with both the K56Flex
and X2 proposed standards as well as with
the adopted CCITT (ITU) V.90 standard.
A V.everything modem should be compatible with any other mode