THE GIGAPXL PROJECT
Graham Flint
Catherine Aves
Michael Jones
Angel’s Window on trail to Cape Royal
9” x 18” format, 200mm lens
1-stop grad filter, center filter, f/22, ¼ sec
1
2
3
4
CULTURAL ARCHIVES
CULTURAL ARCHIVES
Newspaper Rock State Historical Park
• Close-up viewing distance
~ 0.3 m
• Required pixel count at rock face
(20/20 vision equivalent) ~ 11.5 mm-1
• Full image pixel count
~ 4.2 gigapixel
• Real-world dimensions ~ 8m x 4m
• Normal viewing distance ~ 4.5 m
• Close-up zoom ratio
~ 15:1
5
6
1
WHY USE FILM IN THE DIGITAL AGE?
Pixels per frame
4 x 109
Capture time
1/125 sec
Data per pixel
36 bits
Information capture rate
1.8 x 1013 bits/sec
IMAGE TRANSFER
SCENE
ATMOSPHERE
LENS
FILM
SCANNER
DVD
7
8
FILM RESPONSE
MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF)
Sinusoidal Test Chart
Exposed Negative
MTF
• Spatial frequency of 30 cy/mm corresponds to 100 pixels/mm (2540 pixels/in)
• Equates to 6.45 megapixels per square inch
Densitometer Trace
9
CHOICE OF FORMAT
10
ATMOSPHERIC MTF
1000 megapixels at 6.45 megapixels/sq.in. requires a film area
of 155 square inches (twice the area of an 8” x 10”)
14” x 14” plate
(196 sq in)
9” x 18” roll
(162 sq in)
• 5.5 km path in mid-summer
11
12
2
DISTANT LANDSCAPE LENSES
MTF OF CCD ARRAY
• Uses six glass types
• Normalized for 100 pixels/mm
• Accommodates 6.6” filter
• Each lens is unique
13
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
14
ULTRA-WIDE CAMERA DESIGN
• 60-shot magazine
• Rapid manual advance
• Vacuum film hold down
• Dial indicator focus/tilt
• Interchangeable magazines
• Exposure counter
• Wheel sockets
Contributions due to atmosphere, lens, film, and scanner
are balanced at 30 cy/mm
(1,045 megapixels on 9” x 18” format)
15
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
Mormon Temple, San Diego CA
16
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
17
18
3
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
300
RGB Value
250
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Pixel number
19
SCANNING & PROCESSING
20
PORTRAIT OF AMERICA
• Scanner: Leica Geosystems DSW700 (2000-4000 ppi)
STATUS
• Processing Hardware:
Two custom PCs (AMD Athlon 64 & PIV 3Ghz) each with:
- Two 120Gb drives (one each exclusively for Photoshop
files and scratch space)
- Two dual DVD burners
- RAM: 3Gb (2Gb dedicated to PS)
- NVidia Quadro4 980 XGL graphics board
• > 1,100 photographs
• 502 locations
• 46 states & provinces
• Printer: Epson Stylus Pro 9600
7-color Ultrachrome inks
Epson Enhanced Matte paper
• 28 national parks
• 39 state/regional parks & monuments
• Storage media: DVDs & external hard drives (Lacie, terabyte)
• 91 cities
• Software:
Adobe Photoshop CS2
ColorByte ImagePrint RIP
21
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
22
PORTRAIT OF THE WORLD
Focus on UNESCO World Heritage Sites
• Multicultural significance
• Sites presently at risk
• 788 locations worldwide
• Vastly greater task
• Teams
• Cameras
• Logistics
Red – sites photographed
Blue – sites to be photographed summer/fall 2005
23
24
4
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
San Diego from Coronado Island
9” x 18” format, 480mm lens
1-stop grad filter, f/16, 4 minutes
25
10X
26
100X
27
San Diego CA from Coronado Island
28
10X
29
30
5
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
BUILDING
RESTORATION
Example of
deteriorating building
At 5.5X chisel marks
visible
Ultra-high resolution
provides large-scale
prints for use as
restoration guides
100X
31
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
Museum of Art
Balboa Park
San Diego CA
32
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
33
__PERFORMANCE
CAMERA__
REVELATIONS IN OF
THE“NORMAL”
DIGITAL DARKROOM
34
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
or
Just one more benefit of ultra-high resolution
Parasailers at Torrey Pines, San Diego CA
35
36
6
NOISE REDUCTION
__PERFORMANCE OF “NORMAL” CAMERA__
• Structured noise addressed via straightforward
FFT routine
• Random noise (grain related)
- Favorable ratio of smallest image feature
to grain density
- Wavelet-based image decompostion and
reconstruction
• Superior to standard Photoshop™ plug-ins
• Less effective than elaborate movie industry
techniques (CINESITE, etc.)
• Well suited to images in the 1-4 billion pixel regime
37
__PERFORMANCE
“NORMAL”
BalboaOF
Reflecting
Pool CAMERA__
38
__PERFORMANCE
“NORMAL”
BalboaOF
Reflecting
Pool CAMERA__
Reflecting pond, Balboa Park, San Diego CA
39
40
THE GIGAPXL PROJECT
Near-term objectives (1-2 years)
• Maximize the information content of photographic
images
• Generate an ultra-high-resolution portrait of
North America
• Disseminate images for use and enjoyment by others
Long-term objectives (3-6 years)
• Expand to world-wide coverage
• Provide future generations with an archive of sites
which cannot be physically preserved
41
Half Dome from Glacier Point, Yosemite NP
42
7
3.5 km
43
44
45
46
“VIRTUAL CART” CONFIGURATION
WHO NEEDS SUCH RESOLUTION?
VIRTUAL REALITY
• Virtual reality
• 20/20 vision (~1 arcminute resolution)
• Cultural archives
• Hemispherical coverage
• Preservation/restoration
• ~75 megapixels
• ~7.5 gigapixels at 10X zoom
47
48
8
CHOICE OF FOCAL LENGTH
• Focal length too short, film resolution dominates
• Focal length too long, atmospheric blurring dominates
• Distant landscapes (5-20 km)
- Matched focal length 200-300 mm
- Ultra-wide angle for 9” x 18”
• Typical cityscapes (0.1-1.5 km)
- Matched focal length 400-600 mm
- “Normal” lens for 9” x 18” format
49
9
Download PDF

advertising