How to Enable Audit Logging with Advanced Server

How to Enable Audit Logging with
EDB Postgres™ Advanced Server
Version 9.5
May 2, 2016
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
by EnterpriseDB® Corporation
Copyright © 2016 EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
EnterpriseDB Corporation, 34 Crosby Drive, Suite 100, Bedford, MA 01730, USA
T +1 781 357 3390 F +1 978 589 5701 E info@enterprisedb.com www.enterprisedb.com
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
2
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
Table of Contents
1
Introduction ................................................................................................................. 4
1.1
2
Typographical Conventions Used in this Guide ................................................. 5
Modifying the postgresql.conf File ............................................................................. 6
2.1
Enabling Auditing ............................................................................................... 7
2.2
Specifying What to Log ...................................................................................... 8
2.3
Saving and Applying Modifications ................................................................... 9
3
Viewing Audit Logs .................................................................................................. 10
4
Audit Tagging ........................................................................................................... 13
5
Appendix ................................................................................................................... 18
5.1
Auditing Settings .............................................................................................. 18
5.1.1
edb_audit ....................................................................................................... 18
5.1.2
edb_audit_directory ...................................................................................... 18
5.1.3
edb_audit_filename ....................................................................................... 19
5.1.4
edb_audit_rotation_day................................................................................. 19
5.1.5
edb_audit_rotation_size ................................................................................ 19
5.1.6
edb_audit_rotation_seconds .......................................................................... 20
5.1.7
edb_audit_connect ........................................................................................ 20
5.1.8
edb_audit_disconnect .................................................................................... 21
5.1.9
edb_audit_statement ..................................................................................... 21
5.1.10 edb_audit_tag ................................................................................................ 21
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
3
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
1 Introduction
Notice: The names for EDB’s products have changed.
The product formerly referred to as Postgres Plus Advanced Server is now referred to
as EDB Postgres Advanced Server (Advanced Server).
The product formerly referred to as Postgres Enterprise Manager (PEM) is now
referred to as EDB Postgres Enterprise Manager (EDB Enterprise Manager).
Until a new version of this documentation is published, wherever you see an earlier
version of a product name, you may substitute it with the current name. Name changes in
software and software outputs will be phased in over time.
EDB Postgres Advanced Server adds extended functionality to the open-source
PostgreSQL database. The extended functionality supports database administration,
enhanced SQL capabilities, database and application security, performance monitoring
and analysis, and application development utilities.
Advanced Server allows database and security administrators, auditors, and operators to
track and analyze database activities using audit logs. Audit logs can be configured to
include:

When a role establishes a connection to an Advanced Server database.

When a role disconnects from an Advanced Server database.

When database objects are created, modified or deleted from a database.

When queries are performed against the database.

When failed authentication attempts occur.

When failed attempts to perform unauthorized activities occur.
This tutorial documents how to create and review an audit log. The path names and
commands referenced in the examples are for Advanced Server hosts that reside on a
CentOS 6.5 host – you may have to modify paths and commands for your configuration.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
4
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
1.1 Typographical Conventions Used in this Guide
Certain typographical conventions are used in this manual to clarify the meaning and
usage of various commands, statements, programs, examples, etc. This section provides a
summary of these conventions.
In the following descriptions a term refers to any word or group of words that are
language keywords, user-supplied values, literals, etc. A term’s exact meaning depends
upon the context in which it is used.

Italic font introduces a new term, typically, in the sentence that defines it for the
first time.

Fixed-width (mono-spaced) font is used for terms that must be given
literally such as SQL commands, specific table and column names used in the
examples, programming language keywords, etc. For example, SELECT * FROM
emp;

Italic fixed-width font is used for terms for which the user must
substitute values in actual usage. For example, DELETE FROM table_name;

A vertical pipe | denotes a choice between the terms on either side of the pipe. A
vertical pipe is used to separate two or more alternative terms within square
brackets (optional choices) or braces (one mandatory choice).

Square brackets [ ] denote that one or none of the enclosed terms may be
substituted. For example, [ a | b ] means choose one of “a” or “b” or neither
of the two.

Braces {} denote that exactly one of the enclosed alternatives must be specified.
For example, { a | b } means exactly one of “a” or “b” must be specified.

Ellipses ... denote that the preceding term may be repeated. For example, [ a |
b ] ... means that you may have the sequence, “b a a b a”.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
5
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
2 Modifying the postgresql.conf File
If the server is configured to save audit logs, auditing will start each time the server starts.
Configuration parameters that reside in the postgresql.conf file specify the auditing
behavior of the server. The postgresql.conf file is located in the data directory
under your PostgreSQL installation (see Figure 2.1).
Figure 2.1 – Opening the postgresql.conf file.
If you've performed your installation with the graphical installer on Linux, the
postgresql.conf file is located in:
/opt/PostgresPlus/9.5AS/data
If you've performed your installation with the graphical installer on Windows, the
postgresql.conf file is located in:
C:\ProgramFiles\PostgresPlus\9.5AS\data
If you've used an RPM installer to install Advanced Server, the postgresql.conf file is
located in:
/var/lib/ppas/9.5/data
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
6
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
2.1 Enabling Auditing
To enable auditing, open the postgresql.conf file with an editor of your choice. To
enable a parameter, remove the pound sign (#) from in front of the parameter, and specify
a parameter setting to the right of the equal sign (=).
To enable auditing, modify the postgresql.conf file, changing the following
parameters in the EDB Audit section (see Figure 2.2):

To enable database auditing, remove the # sign in front of edb_audit and
change the 'none' value to 'csv'. This specifies that the log will be written to a
.csv file format.

Remove the # sign in front of edb_audit_directory. Accept the default
directory, or you can change where the edb_audit_directory locates files by
changing 'edb_audit' to a file name of your choice ('path').

Remove the # sign in front of edb_audit_filename to accept the default
filename which includes a timestamp. The escape sequences (%Y, %m, etc.) will be
replaced by the appropriate current values according to the system date and time.

Remove the # sign in front of edb_audit_rotation_day,
edb_audit_rotation_size, and edb_audit_rotation_seconds to
control audit log file rotation.
Figure 2.2 – Modifying the postgresql.conf file.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
7
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
2.2 Specifying What to Log
Use parameters within the EDB AUDIT section of the postgresql.conf file to specify
the type of information included in the audit logs. The following example logs all
attempts at connecting and disconnecting, and all statements performed against the
database. (see Figure 2.3):

Remove the pound sign in front of edb_audit_connect and change the value
to 'all' to specify that all connection attempts will be logged.

Remove the pound sign in front of edb_audit_disconnect and change the
value to 'all' to specify that all disconnection attempts will be logged.

Remove the pound sign in front of edb_audit_statement and change the
value to 'all' to specify that all queries (SELECT statements), all DML
statements (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE), and all DDL statements (CREATE,
DROP, ALTER) will be logged.
Figure 2.3 – Logging parameters.
Please note that the above parameters settings serve as a convenient example, but may
store more information than required. You should evaluate your own auditing needs, and
adjust the parameter settings accordingly to avoid storing excessively large audit files.
To keep audit logs manageable, consistent log file maintenance and rotation is essential.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
8
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
For more information about EDB audit logging parameters, see the Appendix.
2.3 Saving and Applying Modifications
To instruct the server to apply the changes that you've made to the auditing parameters,
you must reload the server parameters. Reloading configuration parameters does not
require Advanced Server users to log out of their current Advanced Server sessions.
Save the postgresql.conf file, and reload the configuration parameters at the
command line (see Figure 2.4), or use the Reload Configuration option on the menu
bar (see Figure 2.5).
Figure 2.4 – Reloading Advanced Server with the service command.
To reload the system configuration parameter values through the Applications (or
Windows Start) menu, navigate through Postgres Plus Advanced Server menu
to the Expert Configuration menu, and select Reload Configuration.
Figure 2.5 – Reloading configuration parameter values through the Applications menu.
If prompted, provide a password to reload the parameters.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
9
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
3 Viewing Audit Logs
You can view the audit logs with your choice of the text editor. By default, on a Linux
system (installed with the graphical installer) the log files are written to:
/opt/PostgresPlus/9.5AS/data/edb_audit
On a Windows system, the audit logs are stored in:
C:\ProgramFiles\PostgresPlus\9.5AS\data\edb_audit
The time and date that the log file was created is part of the log file name; the most recent
entries will be located in the file with the most recent date/time in their file name (see
Figure 3.1).
Figure 3.1 – Viewing a list of audit files ordered by date and time.
Entries in the audit logs provide an overview of the activity on the database server. If, for
example, a Login Role named Alice logs in and provides the correct password, the
connection information is added to the audit log (see Figure 3.2) because all connection
attempts are logged as specified in the postgresql.conf file.
Figure 3.2 – Viewing connection information for a Login Role.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
10
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
If Alice provides the wrong password, authentication fails and the failed connection
attempt is recorded in the audit log (see Figure 3.3).
Figure 3.3 – Audit log records unauthorized connection information.
If a Login Role named Bob (who has CREATE DATABASE privileges but does not have
CREATE ROLE privileges) attempts to create a new Login Role named Ted (see Figure
3.4):
Figure 3.4 – Example of an unauthorized command.
The attempt to create the new role fails because Bob did not have sufficient privileges.
The audit log records the failed attempt (see Figure 3.5):
Figure 3.5 – Audit log records for the example above.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
11
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
For debugging or monitoring purposes, the tail –f command can be useful; invoke the
command on the most recent audit log to see current activity performed against the server
(see Figure 3.6).
Figure 3.6 – Viewing an audit log.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
12
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
4 Audit Tagging
Audit tagging allows an application developer to associate an arbitrary string (for
example an application user name or a task identifier meaningful to the application
developer) with activities in the audit log. This provides additional detailed information
about database activity and richer auditing capabilities.
The edb_audit_tag parameter provides the mechanism to store this additional
information in the audit log. You can modify the audit tag:

with a SET statement in an application. Typically an application may change an
audit tag as it moves from task to task.

in the postgresql.conf file. The tag specified in the postgresql.conf file
will act as a default value, applied to the entire cluster.

with the PEM or psql client. You can associate an audit tag with a function,
procedure, or role with the SET clause of an ALTER or CREATE statement.
To add an audit tag in the server configuration file, open the postgresql.conf file
with an editor of your choice. If prompted, provide your password.
To enable audit tagging, remove the # sign in front of edb_audit_tag in the EDB
Audit section of the postgresql.conf file. Enter a string value to the right of the =
sign and inside the straight quotes (see Figure 4.1). In the example below, the data tag
Publishing Department is added.
Figure 4.1 – Modifying the edb_audit_tag parameter.
When configuration parameters are reloaded, the specified audit tag will be added to
audit log entries (see Figure 4.2).
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
13
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
Figure 4.2 – Audit log entries with audit tags.
You can also use the PEM client to associate an audit tag value with a role or database
object. To start the PEM client, click Postgres Enterprise Manager from the
Postgres Plus Advanced Server selection in the Applications menu (see
Figure 4.3).
Figure 4.3 – Opening the PEM client.
When the PEM client opens, right-click Postgres Plus Advanced Server in the
Object browser tree control and select Connect from the context menu to connect to
the server. If prompted, provide your password for authentication.
After authenticating with the server, the server's node of the tree control will be populated
with the objects that reside on that server.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
14
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
To create a new role with an associated audit tag, right click the Login Role node of
the PEM client's tree control, and select New Login Role… to launch the New Login
Role dialog (see Figure 4.4).
Figure 4.4 – The New Login Role… dialog.
For example, you can use the following selections to create a role named Alice with an
associated audit tag that displays Clerk, Human Resources:
On the Properties tab, use the Role name field to add the name Alice.
On the Definition tab:

Provide a password in the Password field.

Reenter the password in the Password (again) field.
On the Variables tab,

Use the drop-down listbox next to Variable Name to select edb_audit_tag.

Use the Variable Value field to add Clerk, Human Resources.

Use the drop-down listbox next to the Database field to select edb.

Click Add to enable audit tagging for Alice (see Figure 4.5).
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
15
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
Figure 4.5 – Adding an audit tag.
After making your selections on the New Login Role… dialog, click the OK button to
create Alice.
If Alice logs in and makes a statement, the audit log will record the activity and include
the audit tag Clerk, Human Resources (see Figure 4.6). Notice the very next entry in
the audit log includes the audit tag Publishing Department, which was added to the
postgresql.conf file.
Figure 4.6 – The audit log entry.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
16
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
You can attach a different audit tag to a role named Bob (see Figure 4.7)
Figure 4.7 – Adding a different audit tag.
This time, when Bob logs in and attempts to create a new role, the audit log will record
the unauthorized activity and it will also include the audit tag Salesperson, Print
Sales (see Figure 4.8).
Figure 4.8 – The audit log entry.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
17
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
5 Appendix
5.1 Auditing Settings
This section describes configuration parameters used by the Advanced Server database
auditing feature.
5.1.1 edb_audit
Parameter Type: Enum
Default Value: none
Range: {none | csv | xml}
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Enables or disables database auditing. The values xml or csv will enable database
auditing. These values represent the file format in which auditing information will be
captured. none will disable database auditing and is also the default.
5.1.2 edb_audit_directory
Parameter Type: String
Default Value: edb_audit
Range: n/a
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Specifies the directory where the audit log files will be created. The path of the directory
can be absolute or relative to the POSTGRES_PLUS_HOME/data directory.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
18
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
5.1.3 edb_audit_filename
Parameter Type: String
Default Value: audit-%Y%m%d_%H%M%S
Range: n/a
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Specifies the file name of the audit file where the auditing information will be stored. The
default file name will be audit-%Y%m%d_%H%M%S. The escape sequences, %Y, %m etc.,
will be replaced by the appropriate current values according to the system date and time.
5.1.4 edb_audit_rotation_day
Parameter Type: String
Default Value: every
Range: {none | every | sun | mon | tue | wed | thu | fri | sat} ...
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Specifies the day of the week on which to rotate the audit files. Valid values are sun,
mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat, every, and none. To disable rotation, set the value to
none. To rotate the file every day, set the edb_audit_rotation_day value to every.
To rotate the file on a specific day of the week, set the value to the desired day of the
week.
5.1.5 edb_audit_rotation_size
Parameter Type: Integer
Default Value: 0MB
Range: 0MB to 5000MB
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
19
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Specifies a file size threshold in megabytes when file rotation will be forced to occur. The
default value is 0MB. If the parameter is commented out or set to 0, rotation of the file on
a size basis will not occur.
5.1.6 edb_audit_rotation_seconds
Parameter Type: Integer
Default Value: 0s
Range: 0s to 2147483647s
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Specifies the rotation time in seconds when a new log file should be created. To disable
this feature, set this parameter to 0.
5.1.7 edb_audit_connect
Parameter Type: Enum
Default Value: failed
Range: {none | failed | all}
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Enables auditing of database connection attempts by users. To disable auditing of all
connection attempts, set edb_audit_connect to none. To audit all failed connection
attempts, set the value to failed. To audit all connection attempts, set the value to all.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
20
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
5.1.8 edb_audit_disconnect
Parameter Type: Enum
Default Value: none
Range: {none | all}
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
Enables auditing of database disconnections by connected users. To enable auditing of
disconnections, set the value to all. To disable, set the value to none.
5.1.9 edb_audit_statement
Parameter Type: String
Default Value: ddl, error
Range: {none | ddl | dml | select | error | rollback | all}
Minimum Scope of Effect: Cluster
When Value Changes Take Effect: Reload
Required Authorization to Activate: PPAS service account
This configuration parameter is used to specify auditing of different categories of SQL
statements. To audit statements resulting in error, set the parameter value to error. To
audit DDL statements such as CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, etc., set the parameter
value to ddl. Modification statements such as INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE or TRUNCATE
can be audited by setting edb_audit_statement to dml. Setting the value to all will
audit every statement while none disables this feature.
5.1.10
edb_audit_tag
Parameter Type: String
Default Value: none
Minimum Scope of Effect: Session
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
21
How to Enable Audit Logging with EDB Postgres Advanced Server
When Value Changes Take Effect: Immediate
Required Authorization to Activate: User
Use edb_audit_tag to specify a string value that will be included in the audit log when
the edb_audit parameter is set to csv or xml.
Copyright © 20xx EnterpriseDB Corporation. All rights reserved.
22
Download PDF