FibeAir IP-10 G-Series - Alora

FibeAir® IP-10
G-Series
Product Description
Document Version 1.5
July 2009
Notice
This document contains information that is proprietary to Ceragon Networks Ltd.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, modified, or distributed without prior written authorization of
Ceragon Networks Ltd.
This document is provided as is, without warranty of any kind.
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Ceragon Networks® , FibeAir® and CeraView® are registered trademarks of Ceragon Networks Ltd.
Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.
Trademarks
CeraMapTM, ConfigAirTM, PolyViewTM, EncryptAirTM, CeraMonTM, EtherAirTM, and MicroWave FiberTM, are
trademarks of Ceragon Networks Ltd.
Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.
Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Ceragon Networks Ltd. shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential
damage in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this document or equipment supplied with
it.
Information to User
Any changes or modifications of equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the
user’s authority to operate the equipment and the warranty for such equipment.
Copyright © 2009 by Ceragon Networks Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corporate Headquarters:
Ceragon Networks Ltd.
24 Raoul Wallenberg St.
Tel Aviv 69719, Israel
Tel: 972-3-645-5733
Fax: 972-3-645-5499
Email: info@ceragon.com
www.ceragon.com
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Ceragon Networks Inc.
10 Forest Avenue,
Paramus, NJ 07652, USA
Tel: 1-201-845-6955
Toll Free: 1-877-FIBEAIR
Fax: 1-201-845-5665
Email: infous@ceragon.com
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
European Headquarters:
Ceragon Networks (UK) Ltd.
4 Oak Tree Park, Burnt Meadow Road
North Moons Moat, Redditch,
Worcestershire B98 9NZ, UK
Tel: 44-(0)-1527-591900
Fax: 44-(0)-1527-591903
Email: infoeuro@ceragon.com
APAC Headquarters:
Ceragon Networks APAC
(S'pore) Pte Ltd
100 Beach Road
#27-01/03 Shaw Towers
Singapore 189702
Tel.: 65 65724170
Fax: 65 65724199
2
Contents
Introducing FibeAir IP-10 ............................................................................................... 4
Features ........................................................................................................................... 5
Advantages.................................................................................................................... 11
Applications................................................................................................................... 12
System Overview .......................................................................................................... 13
FibeAir IP-10 & FibeAir RFUs....................................................................................... 22
Carrier Grade Ethernet ................................................................................................. 23
Wireless Network Synchronization ............................................................................. 37
Integrated Nodal Solution ............................................................................................ 43
Cross Connect (XC) ...................................................................................................... 48
FibeAir IP-10 G-Series Typical Configurations .......................................................... 62
Specifications................................................................................................................ 75
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
3
Introducing FibeAir IP-10
FibeAir IP-10 is Ceragon's comprehensive high capacity IP and Migration-to-IP network solution. The
innovative IP-10 was designed as a native Ethernet microwave radio platform that can integrate smoothly in
any network, while providing a broad range of software-configurable licensed channel schemes.
IP-10 follows in the tradition of Ceragon's Native2, which allows your network to benefit from both native
TDM and native Ethernet using the same radio. Flexible bandwidth sharing between the TDM and Ethernet
traffic ensures optimal throughput for all your media transfer needs.
With the Metro Ethernet Networking trend growing, IP-10 is poised to fill in the gap and deliver high
capacity IP communication quickly, easily, and reliably.
nXT1/E1
n X T1/E1
MEN
ETH
Control
IP-10 features impressive market-leading throughput capability together with advanced networking
functionality.
Some of the quick points that place IP-10 at the top of the wireless IP offerings:
Supports all licensed bands, from 6 to 38 GHz
Supports channel bandwidths of from 7 MHz to 56 MHz
Supports throughputs of from 10 to 500 Mbps per radio carrier (QPSK to 256 QAM)
Incorporates advanced integrated Ethernet switching capabilities
In addition, using unique Adaptive Coding & Modulation (ACM), your network benefits from non-stop,
dependable, capacity deliverance.
FibeAir IP-10 G
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
4
Features
Highest Spectral Efficiency
Modulations: QPSK to 256 QAM
Radio capacity:
o
ETSI – up to 50/100/220/280/500 Mbps over 7/14/28/40/56 MHz channels
o
FCC – up to 70/140/240/320/450 Mbps over 10/20/30/40/50 MHz channels
All licensed bands: L6, U6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 23, 26, 28, 32, 38 GHz
Highest scalability: From 10 Mbps to 500 Mbps, using the same hardware, including the same
ODU/RFU!
Configurations: 1+0 or 1+1 Hot Standby (fully redundant)
TDM Voice Transmission with Dynamic Allocation - With the n x E1/T1 option, only enabled E1/T1
ports are allocated with capacity. The remaining capacity is dynamically allocated to the Ethernet ports
to ensure maximum Ethernet capacity.
FibeAir IP-10 Capacity vs. Channel Bandwidth
600
Capacity [Mbps]
500
400
300
e
High
200
th wid
d
n
Ba
nel n
a
h
ny C
a
t
y a
acit
p
a
st C
100
0
7
10
14
20
28/30
40
50
56
Channel Bandwidth [MHz]
FibAir IP-10
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
Legacy PDH
Legacy SDH
5
Native2 Microwave Radio Technology
At the heart of the IP-10 solution is Ceragon's market-leading Native2 microwave technology.
With this technology, the microwave carrier supports native IP/Ethernet traffic together with optional native
PDH. Neither traffic type is mapped over the other, while both dynamically share the same overall
bandwidth.
This unique approach allows you to plan and build optimal all-IP or hybrid TDM-IP backhaul networks
which make it ideal for any RAN (Radio Access Network) evolution path selected by the wireless provider
(including Green-Field 3.5G/4G all-IP installations).
In addition, Native2 ensures:
Very low link latency of <0.15 msecs @ 400 Mbps.
Very low overhead mapping for both Ethernet and TDM traffic, to the microwave radio frame.
High precision native TDM synchronization distribution.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
6
Adaptive Coding & Modulation
ACM employs the highest possible modulation during changing environmental conditions, which may be
from QPSK to 256 QAM.
The benefits of this dynamic feature include:
Maximized spectrum usage
Increased capacity over a given bandwidth
8 modulation/coding work points (~3 db system gain for each point change)
Supports both Ethernet and T1/E1 traffic
Hitless and errorless modulation/coding changes, based on signal quality
T1/E1 traffic has priority over Ethernet traffic
An integrated QoS mechanism enables intelligent congestion management to ensure that your high
priority traffic is not affected during link fading.
Each T1/E1 is assigned a priority to enable differentiated T1/E1 dropping during severe link degradation.
Voice & real time
services
Non-real time
services
Weak
FEC
Strong
FEC
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
7
Integrated Layer-2 Switching
IP-10 supports two modes for Ethernet switching:
Smart Pipe - In this mode, Ethernet switching functionality is disabled and only a single Ethernet interface
is enabled for user traffic. The unit effectively operates as a point-to-point Ethernet microwave radio.
Metro Switch - In this mode, Ethernet switching functionality is enabled.
The following table lists the different aspects of IP-10 functionality.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
8
QoS-Aware Dynamic Congestion Management (with ACM)
Four priority (CoS) queues
Advanced CoS classifier: 802.1p, VLAN ID, IPv4 / IPv6 (DSCP/TOS/TC).
Advanced ingress traffic policing/rate-limiting per port/CoS
Flexible scheduling: Strict Priority, Weighted Round Robin, or hybrid.
Traffic shaping
802.3x flow control (for loss-less) operation
Intelligent Ethernet Header Compression (patent-pending)
Improves effective throughput by up to 45%!
Does not affect user traffic.
Ethernet
packet size (bytes)
Capacity increase by
compression
64
45%
96
29%
128
22%
256
11%
512
5%
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
9
Extensive Radio Capacity/Utilization Statistics
Statistics are collected at 15-minute and 24-hour intervals
Historical statistics are stored and made available when needed
Capacity/ACM statistics:
- Maximum modulation in interval
- Minimum modulation in interval
- # of seconds in an interval, during which active modulation was below the user-configured threshold
Utilization statistics:
- Maximal radio link utilization in an interval
- Average radio link utilization in an interval
- # of seconds in an interval, during which radio link utilization was above the user-configured
threshold
In-Band Management
IP-10 can optionally be managed in-band, via its radio and Ethernet interfaces. This method of management
eliminates the need for a dedicated interface and network.
In-band management uses a dedicated management VLAN, which is user-configurable.
Native TDM Base Station Timing & Synchronization
Each T1/E1 trail carries a native TDM clock, which is compliant with strict cellular application requirements
(2G/3G), and is suitable as a base station timing source.
This eliminates the need for timing-over-packet techniques for base station synchronization.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
10
Advantages
IP-10 has many advantages that cover the many aspects of flexible and reliable network building.
Incomparable Economic Value
The IP-10 pay-as-you-grow concept reduces network costs. Each network node is optimized individually,
with future capacity growth in mind.
Whenever needed, additional functionality is enabled via upgrade license, using the same hardware. Using
this flexible economic approach, a full duplex throughput of more than 400 Mbps over a single channel can
be achieved.
Experience Counts
IP-10 was designed with continuity in mind. It is based on Ceragon’s well-established and field-proven
IP-MAX Ethernet microwave technology.
With Ceragon's large install base, years of experience in high-capacity IP radios, and seamless integration
with all standard IP equipment vendors, IP-10 is poised to be an IP networking standard-bearer.
Native2
With Native2, you get optimal all-IP or hybrid TDM-IP backhaul networking - ideal for any RAN evolution
path!
User-Management Traffic Integration
In-Band Management significantly simplifies backhaul network design and maintenance, reducing both
CapEx and OpEx. It also dramatically improves overall network availability and reliability, enabling support
for services with stringent SLA (Service Level Agreement).
Unique Full Range Adaptive Modulation
Provides the widest modulation range on the market from QPSK to 256 QAM with multi-level real-time
hitless and errorless modulation shifting changing dynamically according to environmental conditions while ensuring zero downtime connectivity.
Guaranteed Ultra Low Latency (< 0.15 ms @ 400Mbps)
Suitable for delay-sensitive applications, such as VoIP and Video over IP.
Extended Quality of Service (QoS) Support
Enables smart packet queuing and prioritization.
Fully Integrated L2 Ethernet Switching Functionality
Including VLAN based switching, MAC address learning, QinQ and STP/RSTP/MSTP support.
Multiple Network Topology Support
Mesh, Ring, Chain, Point-to-Point.
Longer Transmission Distances, Smaller Antennas
Reduces network costs and enables a farther reach to the other end.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
11
Applications
Mobile backhaul
Cellular Networks
FibeAir IP-10 family supports both Ethernet and TDM for cellular backhaul network migration to IP, within
the same compact footprint. The system is suitable for all migration scenarios where carrier-grade Ethernet
and legacy TDM services are required simultaneously.
WiMAX Networks
Enabling connectivity between WiMAX base stations and facilitating the expansion and reach of emerging
WiMAX networks, FibeAir IP-10 provides a robust and cost-efficient solution with advanced native Ethernet
capabilities.
FibeAir IP-10 family offers cost-effective, high-capacity connectivity for carriers in cellular, WiMAX and
fixed markets. The FibeAir IP-10 platform supports multi-service and converged networking requirements
for both legacy and the latest data-rich applications and services.
Converged Fixed/Wireless Networks
Ceragon’s FibeAir IP-10 delivers integrated high speed data, video and voice traffic in the most optimum and
cost-effective manner. Operators can leverage FibeAir IP-10 to build a converged network infrastructure
based on high capacity microwave to support multiple types of service.
FibeAir IP-10 is fully compliant with MEF-9 & MEF-14 standards for all service types (EPL, EVPL and ELAN) making it the ideal platform for operators looking to provide high capacity Carrier Ethernet services
meeting customers demand for coverage and stringent SLA.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
12
System Overview
General
Split-mount architecture (IDU and RFU/ODU)
Compatible with all existing Ceragon RFUs/ODUs.
Dimensions
o
Height: 42.6 mm (1RU)
o
Width: 439 mm (<19")
o
Depth: 188 mm (fits in ETSI rack)
DC input voltage nominal rating: -48V
IP-10 Front Panel and Interfaces
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
13
Interfaces
Main Interfaces:
5 x 10/100Base-T
2 x GbE combo ports: 10/100/1000Base-T or SFP 1000Base-X
16 x T1/E1 (optional)
RFU/ODU interface, N-type connector
Additional Interfaces:
TDM T-Card Slot options:
o
16 x E1
o
16 x T1
o
1 x STM-1/OC-3
16 x E1/T1 T-Card
STM-1/OC-3 Mux T-Card
The T-cards are field-upgradable, and add a new dimension to the FibeAir IP-10 migration flexibility.
Terminal console
AUX package (optional):
o
Engineering Order Wire (EOW)
o
User channel (V.11 Asynchronous, RS-232)
External alarms (4 inputs & 1 output)
PROT: Ethernet protection control interface (for 1+1 HSB mode support)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
14
In addition, each of the FE traffic interfaces can be configured to support an alternate mode of operation:
MGT: Ethernet out-of-band management (up to 3 interfaces)
WS: Ethernet wayside
Available Assembly Options *
TDM options:
o
Ethernet only (no TDM)
o
Ethernet + 16 x E1 + T-Card Slot
o
Ethernet + 16 x T1 + T-Card Slot
With or without AUX package (EOW, User channel)
XPIC support
Sync unit
* Contact Ceragon support for available combinations.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
15
Adaptive Coding and Modulation
Adaptive Coding and Modulation refers to the automatic adjustment that a wireless system can make in order
to optimize over-the-air transmission and prevent weather-related fading from causing communication on the
link to be disrupted. When extreme weather conditions, such as a storm, affect the transmission and receipt
of data and voice over the wireless network, an ACM-enabled radio system automatically changes
modulation allowing real-time applications to continue to run uninterrupted. Varying the modulation also
varies the amount of bits that are transferred per signal, thereby enabling higher throughputs and better
spectral efficiencies. For example, a 256 QAM modulation can deliver approximately four times the
throughput of 4 QAM (QPSK).
Ceragon Networks employs full-range dynamic ACM in its new line of high-capacity wireless backhaul
product - FibeAir IP-10. In order to ensure high transmission quality, Ceragon solutions implement
hitless/errorless ACM that copes with 90 dB per second fading. A quality of service awareness mechanism
ensures that high priority voice and data packets are never “dropped”, thus maintaining even the most
stringent service level agreements (SLAs).
The hitless/errorless functionality of Ceragon’s ACM has another major advantage in that it ensures that
TCP/IP sessions do not time-out. Lab simulations have shown that when short fades occur (for example if a
system has to terminate the signal for a short time to switch between modulations) they may lead to timeout
of the TCP/IP sessions – even when the interruption is only 50 milliseconds. TCP/IP timeouts are followed
by a drastic throughput decrease over the time it takes for the TCP sessions to recover. This may take as long
as several seconds. With a hitless/errorless ACM implementation this problem can be avoided.
So how does it really work? Let's assume a system configured for 128 QAM with ~170 Mbps capacity over a
28 MHz channel. When the receive signal Bit Error Ratio (BER) level arrives at a predetermined threshold,
the system will preemptively switch to 64 QAM and the throughput will be stepped down to ~140 Mbps.
This is an errorless, virtually instantaneous switch. The system will then run at 64 QAM until the fading
condition either intensifies, or disappears. If the fade intensifies, another switch will take the system down to
32 QAM. If on the other hand the weather condition improves, the modulation will be switched back to the
next higher step (e.g. 128QAM) and so on, step by step .The switching will continue automatically and as
quickly as needed, and can reach during extreme conditions all the way down to QPSK.
Rx
level
256 QAM
99.9 %
128 QAM
99.95 %
64 QAM
99.99 %
32 QAM
99.995 %
16 QAM
99.999 %
QPSK
200 170
200 140
100
200
120
200 Mbps
Capacity
(@ 28 MHz channel)
Unavailability
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
16
Adaptive Modulation and Built-in Quality of Service
Ceragon's Adaptive Modulation has a remarkable synergy with the equipment's built-in Layer 2 Quality of
Service mechanism. Since QoS provides priority support for different classes of service, according to a wide
range of criteria (see below) it is possible to configure the system to discard only low priority packets as
conditions deteriorate. The FibeAir IP-10 platform can classify packets according to the most external
header, VLAN 802.1p, TOS / TC - IP precedence and VLAN ID. All classes use 4 levels of prioritization
with user selectable options between strict priority queuing and weighted fair queuing with user configurable
weights.
If the user wishes to rely on external switches QoS, Adaptive Modulation can work with them via the flow
control mechanism supported in the radio.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
17
Quality of Service (QoS)
Traffic Classification and policing
The system examines the incoming traffic and assigns the desired priority according to the marking of the
packets (based on the user port/L2/L3 marking in the packet). In case of congestion in the ingress port, low
priority packets will be discarded first.
The user has the following classification options:
Source Port
VLAN 802.1p
VLAN ID
IPv4 TOS/DSCP
IPv6 Traffic Class
After classification traffic policing/rate-limiting can optionally be applied per port/CoS.
Queuing and Scheduling
The system has four priority queues that are served according to three types of scheduling, as follows:
Strict priority: all top priority frames egress towards the radio until the top priority queue is empty. Then,
the next lowest priority queue’s frames egress, and so on. This approach ensures that high priority frames
are always transmitted as soon as possible.
Weighted Round Robin (WRR): each queue can be assigned with a user-configurable weight from 1 to
32.
Hybrid: One or two highest priority queues as "strict" and the other according to WRR
Shaping is supported per interface on egress.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
18
Ethernet Statistics
The FibeAir IP-10 platform stores and displays statistics in accordance with RMON and RMON2
standards.
The following groups of statistics can be displayed:
Ingress line receive statistics
Ingress radio transmit statistics
Egress radio receive statistics
Egress line transmit statistics
The statistics that can be displayed within each group include the following:
Ingress Line Receive Statistics
Sum of frames received without error
Sum of octets of all valid received frames
Number of frames received with a CRC error
Number of frames received with alignment errors
Number of valid received unicast frames
Number of valid received multicast frames
Number of valid received broadcast frames
Number of packets received with less than 64 octets
Number of packets received with more than 12000 octets (programmable)
Frames (good and bad) of 64 octets
Frames (good and bad) of 65 to 127 octets
Frames (good and bad) of 128 to 256 octets
Frames (good and bad) of 256 to 511 octets
Frames (good and bad) of 512 to 1023 octets
Frames (good and bad) of 1024 to 1518 octets
Frames (good and bad) of 1519 to 12000 octets
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
19
Ingress Radio Transmit Statistics
Sum of frames transmitted to radio
Sum of octets transmitted to radio
Number of frames dropped
Egress Radio Receive Statistics
Sum of valid frames received by radio
Sum of octets of all valid received frames
Sum of all frames received with errors
Egress Line Transmit Statistics
Sum of valid frames transmitted to line
Sum of octets transmitted
Notes:
•
Statistic parameters are polled each second, from system startup.
•
All counters can be cleared simultaneously.
•
The following statistics are displayed every 15 minutes (in the Radio and E1/T1 performance
monitoring windows):
•
Utilization - four utilizations: ingress line receive, ingress radio transmit, egress radio receive, and
egress line transmit
•
Packet error rate - ingress line receive, egress radio receive
•
Seconds with errors - ingress line receive
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
20
End-To-End Network Management
Ceragon provides state-of-the-art management based on SNMP and HTTP.
Integrated Web Based Element Manager: Each device includes an HTTP based element manager that
enables the operator to perform element configuration, RF, Ethernet, and PDH performance monitoring,
remote diagnostics, alarm reports, and more.
PolyView™ is Ceragon's NMS server that includes CeraMap™ its friendly and powerful client graphical
interface. PolyView can be used to update and monitor network topology status, provide statistical and
inventory reports, define end-to-end traffic trails, download software and configure elements in the network.
In addition, it can integrate with Northbound NMS platforms, to provide enhanced network management.
The application is written in Java code and enables management functions at both the element and network
levels. It runs on Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista and Sun Solaris.
Integrated IP-10 Web EMS and PolyView NMS
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
21
FibeAir IP-10 & FibeAir RFUs
FibeAir IP-10 is based on the latest Ceragon technology, and can be installed together with any FibeAir
RFU, including:
FibeAir 1500HP (FibeAir RFU-HP)
FibeAir 1500HS (FibeAir RFU-HS)
FibeAir 1500SP (FibeAir RFU-SP)
FibeAir 1500P (FibeAir RFU-P)
FibeAir RFU-C
FibeAir RFUs support multiple capacities, frequencies, modulation schemes, and configurations for various
network requirements.
The RFUs operate in the frequency range of 6-38 GHz, and support capacities of from 10 Mbps to 500
Mbps, for TDM and IP interfaces.
For more information, see the relevant RFU Product Description.
IP-10 works with
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
22
Carrier Grade Ethernet
Carrier Ethernet is a high speed medium for MANs (Metro Area Networks). It defines native Ethernet packet
access to the Internet and is today being deployed more and more in wireless networks.
The first native Ethernet services to emerge were point to point-based, followed by emulated LAN
(multipoint to multipoint-based). Services were first defined and limited to metro area networks. They
have now been extended across wide area networks and are available worldwide from many service
providers.
The term "carrier Ethernet" implies that Ethernet services are "carrier grade". The benchmark for carrier
grade was set by the legacy TDM telephony networks, to describe services that achieve "five nines
(9.9999%)" uptime. Although it is debatable whether carrier Ethernet will reach that level of reliability,
the goal of one particular standards organization is to accelerate the development and deployment of
services that live up to the name.
Carrier Ethernet is poised to become the major component of next-generation metro area networks,
which serve as the aggregation layer between customers and core carrier networks. A metro Ethernet
network, which uses IP Layer 3 MPLS forwarding, is currently the primary focus of carrier Ethernet
activity.
The standard service types for Carrier Ethernet include:
E-Line Service
This service is employed for Ethernet private lines, virtual private lines, and Ethernet Internet access.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
23
E-LAN Service
This service is employed for multipoint L2 VPNs, transparent LAN service, foundation for IPTV,
and multicast networks.
Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)
The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) is a global industry alliance started in 2001. In 2005, the MEF committed
to this new carrier standard, and launched a Carrier Ethernet Certification Program to facilitate delivery of
services to end users.
The MEF 6 specification defines carrier Ethernet as "A ubiquitous, standardized, carrier-class Service
and Network defined by five attributes that distinguish it from familiar LAN based Ethernet". The five
attributes include:
Standardized Services
Quality of Service (QoS)
Service Management
Scalability
Reliability
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
24
The Benefits
For service providers, the technology convergence of Carrier Ethernet ensures a decrease in CAPEX and
OPEX.
Access networks employ Ethernet to provide backhaul for IP DSLAMs, PON, WiMAX, and direct
Ethernet over fiber/copper.
Flexible Layer 2 VPN services, such as private line, virtual private line, or emulated LAN, offer new
revenue streams.
For Enterprises, a reduction in cost is achieved through converged networks for VoIP, data, video
conferencing, and other services.
In addition, Ethernet standardization reduces network complexity.
FibeAir IP-10 Carrier Ethernet Solution
Ceragon's FibeAir IP-10 includes a built-in Carrier Ethernet switch. The switch operates in one of two
modes:
Metro Switch - Carrier Ethernet is active.
IP-10
Ethernet
User
Interfaces
Radio
Interface
Carrier Ethernet
Switch
Metro Switch Mode
Smart Pipe - Carrier Ethernet is not active.
IP-10
Ethernet
User
Interface
Radio
Interface
Smart Pipe Mode
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
25
Using Smart Pipe, only a single Ethernet interface is enabled for user traffic and IP-10 acts as a point-topoint Ethernet microwave radio.
FibeAir IP-10 is equipped with an extensive Carrier Ethernet feature set which eliminates the need for an
external switch.
MEF Certified
The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) runs a Certification Program with the aim of promoting the deployment of
Carrier Ethernet in Access Networks, MANs, and WANs. The program offers certification for Carrier
Ethernet equipment supplied to service providers.
The program covers the following areas:
MEF-9: Service certification
MEF-14: Traffic management and service performance
FibeAir IP-10 is fully MEF-9 & MEF-14 certified for all Carrier Ethernet services (E-Line & E-LAN).
IP-10 Carrier Ethernet Functionality
IP-10 meets all Carrier Ethernet Service specifications, in each category:
Standardized Services
MEF-9 and MEF-14 certified for all service types (EPL, EVPL, and ELAN)
Scalability
-
Up to 500 Mbps per radio carrier
Integrated non-blocking switch with 4K VLANs
802.1ad provider bridges (QinQ)
Scalable nodal solution
Scalable networks (1000s of NEs)
Quality of Service (QoS)
-
Advanced CoS classification
Advanced traffic policing/rate-limiting
CoS based packet queuing/buffering
Flexible scheduling schemes
Traffic shaping
Reliability
-
Highly reliable & integrated design
Fully redundant 1+1 HSB & nodal configurations
Hitless ACM (QPSK - 256 QAM) for enhanced radio link availability
Wireless Ethernet Ring (RSTP based)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
26
- 802.3ad link aggregation
- Fast link state propagation
- <50 msec restoration time (typical)
Service Management
- Extensive multi-layer management capabilities
- 802.1ag Ethernet service OA&M
- Advanced Ethernet statistics
Integrated QoS Support
QoS is a method of classifications and scheduling employed to ensure that Ethernet packets are forwarded
and discarded according to their priority.
QoS works by slowing unimportant packets down, or, in cases of extreme network traffic, discarding them
entirely. This leaves room for important packets to reach their destination as quickly as possible. Basically,
once the router knows how much data it can queue on the modem at any given time, it can "shape" traffic by
delaying unimportant packets and "filling the pipe" with important packets first, then using any leftover
space to fill the pipe in descending order of importance.
Since QoS cannot speed up packets, it takes the total available upstream bandwidth, calculates how much of
the highest priority data it has, puts that in the buffer, and then goes down the line in priority until it runs out
of data to send, or the buffer fills up. Any excess data is held back or "re-queued" at the front of the line,
where it will be evaluated in the next pass.
Importance is determined by the priority of the packet. Priorities range from "Low" or "Bulk" (depending on
the router), to "High" or "Premium". The number of levels depends on the router. As the names imply,
Low/Bulk priority packets get the lowest priority, while High/Premium packets get the highest priority.
QoS packets may be prioritized by a number of criteria, including generated by applications themselves, but
the most common techniques are MAC Address, Ethernet Port, and TCP/IP Port.
FibeAir IP-10 supports comprehensive QoS services:
Supports four CoS/priority queues per switch port
Advanced CoS/priority classification based on L2/L3 header fields:
- Source Port
- VLAN 802.1p
- VLAN ID
- IPv4 DSCP/TOS, IPv6 TC
- Highest priority to BPDUs
Advanced ingress traffic rate-limiting per
CoS/priority
Flexible scheduling scheme per port:
- Strict priority (SP)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
27
- Weighted Round Robin (WRR)
- Hybrid, any combination of SP & WRR
Shaping per port
Smart Pipe Mode QoS Traffic Flow
The following illustration shows the QoS flow of traffic with IP-10 operating in Smart Pipe mode.
Metro Switch Mode QoS Traffic Flow
The following illustration shows the QoS flow of traffic with IP-10 operating in Metro Switch mode.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
28
Wireless Carrier Ethernet Rings
Carrier-class Ethernet rings offer topologies built for resiliency, redundancy throughout the core, distribution
and access, and a self-healing architecture that can repair potential problems before they reach end users.
Such rings are designed for increased capacity, performance, and scalability, with beneficial increased value,
stability, and a reduction in costs.
By implementing Carrier-Class Ethernet rings, providers are able to expand their LANs to WANs.
FibeAir IP-10 is a superb choice for Carrier Ethernet ring development.
Basic IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring
The following illustration is a basic example of an IP-10 wireless Carrier Ethernet ring.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring with "Dual-Homing"
(redundant site connection to fiber aggregation network)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - 1+0
IP-10 Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring - Aggregation Site
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
31
RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) ensures a loop-free topology for any bridged LAN. Spanning tree
allows a network design to include spare (redundant) links for automatic backup paths, needed for cases in
which an active link fails. The backup paths can be included with no danger of bridge loops, or the need for
manual enabling/disabling of the backup links. Bridge loops must be avoided since they result in network
"flooding".
RSTP algorithms are designed to create loop-free topologies in any network design, which makes it suboptimal to ring topologies.
In a general topology, there can be more than one loop, and therefore more than one bridge with ports in a
blocking state. For this reason, RSTP defines a negotiation protocol between each two bridges, and
processing of the BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units), before each bridge propagates the information. This
"serial" processing increases the convergence time.
In a ring topology, after the convergence of RSTP, only one port is in a blocking state. We can therefore
enhance the protocol for ring topologies, and transmit the notification of the failure to all bridges in the ring
(by broadcasting the BPDU).
Ceragon's IP-10 G supports Wireless Carrier Ethernet Ring topologies. A typical ring constructed by IP10 is
shown in the following illustration.
Ceragon's IP-10 supports native Ethernet rings of up to 500 Mbps in 1+0, and can reach Gigabit capacity in a
2+0 configuration with XPIC.
Ceragon's ring solution enhances the RSTP algorithm for ring topologies, so that failure propagation is much
faster than the regular RSTP. Instead of serially propagation link by link, the failure is propagated in parallel
to all bridges. In this way, the bridges that have ports in alternate states immediately place them in the
forwarding state.
The following illustration shows an example of such a ring.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
32
Switch A is the Root, and before the failure, the protocol converges so that a port in switch C is the alternate
port, and is therefore in the failure state.
When a failure in the link between switches E and A occurs, switch E senses it and sends a notification
(using standard BPDU) to all bridges. Switch D receives the message, and changes the role of the port from
alternate to designated, and places it in the forwarding state.
In addition, Ceragon's enhancement handles unidirectional failures in the radio. For example, in a "regular
RSTP", a failure in the link between E and A will be seen only by the root bridge. In this case, bridge E will
acknowledge the failure only upon the next BPDU. Ceragon's protocol enhancement informs bridge E
immediately about the failure.
This allows us to build wireless Ethernet rings with a protection time that is typically less than 50 msec for
four nodes, and less than 100 msec for eight to ten nodes.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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End to End Multi-Layer OA&M
(Operations, Administration, and Management)
FibeAir IP-10 provides complete OA&M functionality at multiple layers, including:
Alarms and events
Maintenance signals (LOS, AIS, RDI, …)
Performance monitoring
Maintenance commands (Loopbacks, APS commands, …)
Connectivity Fault Management (CFM)
The IEEE 802.1ag standard defines Service Layer OAM (Connectivity Fault Management). The standard
facilitates the discovery and verification of a path through 802.1 bridges and local area networks (LANs).
In addition, the standard:
•
Defines maintenance domains, their constituent maintenance points, and the managed objects
required to create and administer them.
•
Defines the relationship between maintenance domains and the services offered by VLAN-aware
bridges and provider bridges.
•
Describes the protocols and procedures used by maintenance points to maintain and diagnose
connectivity faults within a maintenance domain.
•
Provides means for future expansion of the capabilities of maintenance points and their protocols.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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IEEE 802.1ag Ethernet CFM (Connectivity Fault Management) protocols consist of three protocols that
operate together to aid in debugging Ethernet networks: continuity check, link trace, and loopback.
FibeAir IP-10 utilizes these protocols to maintain smooth system operation and non-stop data flow.
FibeAir IP-10 Carrier Ethernet Services Example
The following is a series of illustrations showing how FibeAir IP-10 is used to facilitate Carrier Ethernet
Services. The second and third illustrations show how IP-10 handles a node failure.
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 - Node Failure
Carrier Ethernet Services Based on IP-10 - Node Failure (continued)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Wireless Network Synchronization
Synchronizing the network is an essential part of any network design plan. Event timing determines how the
network is managed and secured, and provides the only frame of reference between all devices in the
network.
Several unique synchronization issues need to be addressed for wireless networks:
Phase/Frequency Lock
Applicable to GSM and UMTS-FDD networks.
- Limits channel interference between carrier frequency bands.
- Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 50 ppb.
Sync is the traditional technique used, with traceability to a PRS master clock carried over PDH/SDH
networks, or using GPS.
Phase Lock with Latency Correction
Applicable to CDMA, CDMA-2000, UMTS-TDD, and WiMAX networks.
- Limits coding time division overlap.
- Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 20 - 50 ppb, phase difference of
< 1-3 msecs.
GPS is the traditional technique used.
Wireless IP Synchronization Challenges
Wireless networks set to deploy over IP networks require a solution for carrying high precision timing to
base stations.
Throughout the globe, legacy SDH/PDH based TDM networks are being fragmented, leading to “islands of
TDM”.
Traditional TDM services are being carried over packet networks using Circuit Emulation over Packet
techniques (CESoP).
Two new approaches are being developed in an effort to meet the challenge of migration to IP:
Various ToP (Timing over Packet) techniques
Synchronous Ethernet
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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ToP (Timing over Packet)
ToP refers to the distribution of frequency, phase, and absolute time information across an asynchronous
packet switched network.
The timing packet methods may employ a variety of protocols to achieve distribution, such as IEEE1588,
NTP, or RTP.
Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE)
SyncE is standardized in ITU-T G.8261 and refers to a method whereby the clock is delivered on the
physical layer.
The method is based on SDH/TDM timing, with similar performance, and does not change the basic Ethernet
standards.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Ceragon's Native2 Sync Solution
Ceragon's synchronization solution ensures maximum flexibility by enabling the operator to select any
combination of techniques suitable for the network.
Combinations of the following techniques can be used:
Synchronization using native E1/T1 trails
“ToP-aware” transport
SyncE
Synchronization using Native E1/T1 Trails
Using this technique, each T1/E1 trail carries a native TDM clock, which is compliant with GSM and UMTS
synchronization requirements.
Ceragon's IP-10 implements PDH-like mechanism for providing the high precision synchronization of the
native TDM trails. This implementation ensures high-quality synchronization while keeping cost &
complexity low since it eliminates the need for sophisticated centralized SDH-grade "clock unit" at each
node. System is designed to deliver E1 traffic and recover E1 clock, complying with G.823 “synchronization
port” jitter and wander. That means that user can use any (or all) of the system’s E1 interfaces in order to
deliver synchronization reference via the radio to remote site (e.g. Node-B).
Each trail is independent of the other, meaning that IP-10 does not imply any restrictions on the source of the
TDM trails. (Meaning that each trail can have its own clock, and no synchronization between trails is
assumed).
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Each E1 trail is mapped independently over the radio frame and the integrated cross-connect elements.
Timing can be distributed over user traffic carrying T1/E1 trails or dedicated “timing” trails.
This method eliminates the need to employ emerging ToP techniques.
ToP-Aware Transport
Ceragon's integrated advanced QoS classifier supports the identification of standard ToP control packets
(IEEE1588v2 packets), and assigns to them the highest priority/traffic class.
This ensures that ToP control packets will be transported with maximum reliability and minimum delay, to
provide the best possible timing accuracy.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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SyncE
The SyncE technique supports synchronized Ethernet outputs as the timing source to an all-IP RBS. This
method offers the same synchronization quality provided over E1 interfaces to legacy RBS.
Ceragon's SyncE supports two modes:
“Sync from Co-Located E1” Mode
The clock for SyncE interfaces can be derived from any co-located traffic-carrying E1 interface at the BTS
site.
“Native Sync Distribution” Mode
Synchronization is distributed natively over the radio links. In this mode, no TDM trails or E1 interfaces at
the tail sites are required!
Synchronization is provided by the E1/STM-1 clock source input at the fiber hub site (SSU/GPS).
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Integrated Nodal Solution
Up to six IP-10 Native2 radios can be stacked with FibeAir IP-10 operating within nodal enclosures. This
configuration supports any combination of 1+0, 1+1, and 2+0/XPIC.
Nodal solution features:
Integrated Native2 networking functionality between all ports/radios
Native Ethernet switching
Native E1/T1 cross-connect
Up to 75 E1s or 84 T1s per radio carrier
Full high-availability support
Cross-connect/switching elements
Control/management elements
Radio carriers
TDM/Ethernet interfaces
IP-10 Nodal Design
Each IDU can be configured as a "main" or "extension" unit. The role an IDU plays is determined during
installation by its position in the traffic interconnection topology.
A main unit includes the following functions:
Central controller, management
TDM traffic cross-connect
Radio and line interfaces
An extension unit includes the following functions:
Radio and line interfaces
IP-10 design for the nodal solution is based on a "blade" approach. Viewing the unit from the rear, each IDU
can be considered a "blade" within a nodal enclosure.
IP-10 Rear View
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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IP-10 Nodal Enclosure
A "blade" can operate as a stand-alone unit at a tail site.
The "rack chassis" is also modular, for optimum economical
future upgrade, network design flexibility, and efficient
installation, maintenance, and expansion.
The solution is modular and forms a single unified nodal device,
with a common Ethernet Switch, common E1 Cross-Connect,
single IP address, and a single element to manage.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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IP-10 Stacking Method
IP-10 can be stacked using 2RU nodal enclosures. Each enclosure includes two slots for hot-swappable 1RU
units.
Additional nodal enclosures and units can be added in the field as required, without affecting traffic.
Up to six 1RU units (three adapters) can be stacked to form a single unified nodal device.
Using the stacking method, units in the bottom nodal enclosure act as main units, whereby a mandatory
active main unit can be located in either of the two slots, and an optional standby main unit can be installed
in the other slot.
The switchover time is <50 msecs for all traffic affecting functions.
Units located in nodal enclosures other than the one on the bottom act as expansion units.
Radios in each pair of units can be configured as either dual independent 1+0 links, or single fully-redundant
1+1 HSB links.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Nodal Enclosure Design
The following photos show the Nodal Enclosures and how they are stacked.
Extension Nodal Enclosure
Main Nodal Enclosure
Scalable Nodal Enclosure
The nodal enclosure is a scalable unit. Each enclosure can be added to another enclosure for modular rack
installation.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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E1/T1 Cross-Connect
E1/T1 VC (Virtual Container) trails are supported, based on the integrated E1/T1 cross-connect.
The XC (cross-connect) function is performed by the active main unit.
If a failure occurs, the backup main unit takes over (<50 msecs down time).
The XC capacity is 150 E1 VCs or 168 T1 VCs.
Each E1/T1 interface or "logical interface" in a radio in any unit in the stack can be assigned to any VC.
The XC is performed between two interfaces or "logical interfaces" with the same VC.
XC functionality is fully flexible. Any pair of E1/T1 interfaces, or radio "logical interfaces", can be
connected.
Each VC is timed independently by the XC.
Ethernet Bridging
Ethernet traffic in an XC configuration is supported by interconnecting IDU switches with external cables.
Traffic flow (dropping to local ports, sending to radio) is performed by the switches, in accordance with
learning tables.
Other than an extra FE port, dual GBE ports, and link-aggregation, no other functionality is required for XC
operation.
The FE protection port is static (only used for protection, not traffic). Its switching is performed
electrically. If the unit is a stand-alone, an external connection is made through the front panel. If the unit
is connected to a backplane, the connection is through the backplane, while the front panel port is
unused.
The GBE ports are dual: RJ-45 electrical or SFP optical (default). Optical ports can optionally be
configured as 100FX.
Ethernet traffic is not affected when a unit is connected to a backplane.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Cross Connect (XC)
The FibeAir IP-10 Cross Connect (XC) is a high-speed circuit connection scheme for transporting both
Ethernet and TDM traffic from any given port "x" to any given port "y".
The system is composed of several inter-connected (stacked) IDUs, with integrated and centralized TDM
traffic switching and Ethernet bridging capability.
The XC capacity is 75 E1 VCs (Virtual Containers) or 84 T1 VCs, whereby each E1/T1 interface or
"logical interface" in a radio in any unit of the stack can be assigned to any VC.
XC Features
Cross Connect system highlights include:
E1/T1 trails are supported based on the integrated E1/T1 cross-connect
XC capacity is 180 E1/T1 trails
XC is performed between any two physical or logical interfaces in the node, including:
- E1/T1 interface
- Radio “VC” (75 “VCs” supported per radio carrier)
- STM1/OC3 mux VC12
Each trail is timed independently by the XC
XC function is performed by the “active” main unit
In a failure occurs, backup main unit takes over (<50 msecs down time)
Modularity and flexibility
Modular design: pay-as-you-grow
Simplicity, with minimum components (IDU, backplane)
Supports XPIC, Multi-Radio, and Diversity
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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XC Basics
Integrated TDM Cross Connect is performed by defining end to end trails. Each trail consists of
segments represented by Virtual Containers (VCs). The XC functions as the forwarding mechanism
between the two ends of a trail.
The following illustration shows the basic XC concept.
Basic XC Operation
As shown in the illustration, trails are defined from one end of a line to the other. The XC forwards
signals generated by the radios to/from the IDUs based on their designated VCs. As in the example, The
cross connect may forward signals on Trail C from Radio 1, VC 3 to Radio 4, VC 1.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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The cross connect function provides connectivity for the following types of configurations:
Line to Radio
Radio to Radio
STM1/OC3
Interface
E1/T1
Interface
Line to Line
STM1/OC3
Interface
E1/T1
Interfaces
E1/T1 trails are supported based on the integrated E1/T1 cross-connect (XC).
The XC capacity is 180 E1/T1 bi-directional VC trails.
XC is performed between any two physical or logical interfaces in the node (in any main or expansion
unit) such as E1/T1 interface, radio VC (75 VCs supported per radio carrier), and STM1/OC3 mux
VC11/VC12. The function is performed by the “active” main unit. If a failure occurs, the backup main
unit takes over (<50 msecs down time).
Each VC trail is timed independently by the XC.
For each trail, the following end-to-end OA&M functions are supported:
Alarms and maintenance signals (AIS, RDI, etc.)
Performance monitoring counters (ES, SES, UAS, etc.)
Trace ID for provisioning mismatch detection.
A VC overhead is added to each VC trail to support the end-to-end OA&M functionality and
synchronization justification requirements.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
50
The following illustration is an example of XC aggregation:
STM1/OC3
Interface
IP-10
Integrated
XC
IP-10 integrated
STM1/OC3 Mux
MW
Radio
Link
E1/T1
interfaces
E1/T1
interfaces
E1/T1
interfaces
XC operation is implemented using two-unit backplanes, which provide the interconnectivity. Up to three
backplanes, consisting of six IDUs, can be stacked to provide an expandable system.
Each modular shelf holds two IDUs. The shelf includes extension connectors located at its top and bottom
panels, which allow stacking of up to three shelves (the base shelf is different from the two extension
shelves), holding up to six IDUs, which exchange TDM traffic and compose a network node. Each pair of
IDUs in a single modular shelf has access to Multi-Radio and XPIC interfaces between them.
A node composed of identical IDUs that behave in a different way, is formed by inserting the IDUs in the
stackable shelves and providing each IDU with an indication of its place in the stack. Each IDU uses
different LVDS (Low-Voltage Differential Signaling) interfaces, depending on its place in the stack and
system configuration.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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XC Operation
The integrated XC supports E1/T1 VC (Virtual Container) trails. The function of the XC is performed by
the “active” main unit.
If a failure occurs, the backup main unit takes over within <50 msecs.
The XC function is performed between two logical interfaces with the same VC (Virtual Container). The
functionality is fully flexible, so that any pair of E1/T1 interfaces, or radio logical interfaces, can be
connected.
Each VC is timed independently by the XC.
TDM XC
TDM cross-connect is implemented by transporting all received TDM traffic from each IDU to the main XC
unit placed in a pre-determined slot (or to two protected XC units). The main unit performs XC of individual
E1/T1 streams between the other IDUs and its own interfaces, and sends back E1/T1 streams. Each unit then
directs each stream to its interfaces or radio.
Using dedicated LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signal) serial interfaces, the TDM streams are transported
via the backplane between the XC and downlink IDUs. The interfaces carry the E1s/T1s in a proprietary
TDM frame containing each E1/T1 in a separate time-slot (TS). The interfaces are point-to-point between
each downlink IDU and the main XC.
There is an additional, parallel LVDS infrastructure from each unit to the main XC stand-by unit for
protection purposes.
Each of the main XC units has its own local clock, which is distributed to each of the downlink units through
an LVDS interface. Downlink units align traffic to the clock received from the active XC.
East-West configuration between the two XC units (adjacent) is achieved by configuring the second (upper)
unit in the main backplane to behave like a regular downlink. This is the case if the XC units are not
configured in protection. For this purpose, additional LVDS traffic and clock channels are set up between
them.
The IDU’s behavior as a main XC or a downlink depends on its position (main or extension backplane, and
upper/lower position in the backplane) which is detected by hardware through backplane slot ID pins, as well
as by user configuration. In addition, an IDU can be configured as a stand-alone unit.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
52
The XC process involves two stages:
1. The XC sends received E11/T1s to downlink units in LVDS (Low-Voltage Differential Signaling) time
slots, which then discard the unnecessary slots.
2. Each unit (XC included) maps each relevant LVDS time slot to radio VCs or line interfaces.
For each line interface, the user defines which time slot it is mapped to, and for each radio, which radio VCs
it transports (enabled radio VCs) and which time slot it is mapped to. Two interfaces mapped to the same
time slots are known as a trail.
Each IDU has several LVDS interfaces, some of which are disabled at the downlink units.
All LVDS traffic is synchronized to a single clock provided by the active XC unit. The clock is transmitted
to the downlink units via the LVDS infrastructure.
TDM Trail Status Handling
Due to the fact that XC system users can build networks and define E1/T1 trails across the network,
additional PM (performance monitoring) is necessary. A trail is defined as E1/T1 data delivered unchanged
from one line interface to another, through one or more radio links.
In each XC node, data can be assigned to a different VC number, but its identity across the network is
maintained by a “Trail ID” defined by the user.
Additional PM functionality provides end-to-end monitoring over data sent in a trail over the network.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
53
Wireless SNCP
IP-10 supports an integrated VC trail protection mechanism called Wireless SNCP (Sub network Connection
Protection).
With Wireless SNCP, a backup VC trail can optionally be defined for each individual VC trail.
For each backup VC, the following needs to be defined:
Two “branching points” from the main VC that it is protecting.
A path for the backup VC (typically separate from the path of the main VC that it is protecting).
For each direction of the backup VC, the following is performed independently:
At the first branching point, duplication of the traffic from the main VC to the backup VC.
At the second branching point, selection of traffic from either the main VC or the backup VC.
- Traffic from the backup VC is used if a failure is detected in main VC.
- Switch-over is performed within <50 msecs.
Wireless SNCP operation is shown in the following illustration.
E1
IP-10
B
Main
VC
Backup
VC
IP-10
A
E1
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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For each main VC trail, the branching points can be any XC node along the path of the trail.
IP-10
D
IP-10
B
IP-10
A
IP-10
C
E1 #2
E1 #2
E1 #1
IP-10
B
E1 #1
Support for Wireless SNCP in a Mixed Wireless-Optical Network
Wireless SNCP is supported over fiber links using IP-10 STM-1/OC-3 mux interfaces.
This feature provides a fully integrated solution for protected E1/T1 services over a mixed wireless-optical
network.
IP-10
Integrated XC
IP-10
D
IP-10 integrated
STM-1/OC-3 mux
STM1/OC3
fiber link
E1 #2
IP-10
A
IP-10
C
MW radio link
IP-10
B
E1 #1
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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TDM Rings
SNCP replaces a failed sub network connection with a standby sub network connection. In the FibeAir
product line, this capability is provided at the points where trails leave sub networks.
The switching criterion is based on SNCP/I. This protocol specifies that automatic switching is performed if
an AIS or LOP fault is detected in the working sub network connection. If neither AIS nor LOP faults are
detected, and the protection lockout is not in effect, the scheme used is 1+1 singled-ended.
The NMS provides Manual switch to protection and Protection lockout commands. A notification is sent to
the management station when an automatic switch occurs. The status of the selectors and the sub network
connections are displayed on the NMS screen.
Wireless SNCP Advantages
Flexibility
- All network topologies are supported (ring, mesh, tree)
- All traffic distribution patterns are supported (excels in hub traffic concentration)
- Any mix of protected and non-protected trails is supported
- No hard limit on the number of nodes in a ring
- Simple provisioning of protection
Performance
- Non traffic-affecting switching to protection (<50 msec)
- Switch to protection is done at the E1/T1 VC trail level, works perfectly with ACM (no need to
switch the entire traffic on a link)
- Optimal latency under protection
Interoperability
- Protection is done at the end points, independent of equipment/vendor networks
- Interoperable with networks that use other types of protection (such as BLSR)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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XC Management
XC system management enables users to control the XC node as an integrated system, and provides the
means for the exchange of information between the IDUs.
Several methods can be used for IP-10 XC management:
Local terminal CLI
CLI via telnet
Web based management
SNMP
Local remote channel, for configuration of a small set of parameters in the remote unit
In addition, the management system provides access to other network equipment through in-band or out-ofband network management.
The XC node is managed in an integrated manner through centralized management channels. The main unit’s
CPU is the node’s central controller, and all management frames received from or sent to external
management applications must pass through it.
The node has a single IP management address, which is the address of the main unit (two addresses in case of
main unit protection).
To ease the reading and analysis of several IDU alarms and logs, the system time should be synchronized to
the main unit’s time.
As an additional resource, an extra data channel is included in the backplane LVDS infrastructure, through
which basic management data is sent by IDUs to the XC unit (and vice-versa).
The data provided over the channel includes:
IP addresses
Basic alarm information
In addition, an SDH management channel (management through the STM-1 interface) allows control from an
SDH network, without the need for additional Ethernet interfaces.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
57
XC Management Highlights
Centralized IP Access
- A single IP address must be configured and node is reached through it, two addresses if main
units are protected
- All management frames must reach main units
- Management mode (in band/out of band) is defined by main unit’s mode
Centralized Management Channels
- SNMP main agent represents the entire node
- NMS represents the node as a single unit
- Web agent allows access to all elements from main window
- CLI/Telnet access from main unit’s CLI
Feature Configuration
- Some management is done through the main unit only: TDM XC, user registration, login, alarms
- Other features are configured individually in each extension unit: radio parameters, Ethernet
switch configuration
Ethernet XC Management
XC management connects main units to all extension units, and main units to each other. It also connects
the CPU to the Mezzanine.
In protection mode, management frames will arrive at a standby XC unit only through the protection
interface, coming from its mate.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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In-Band/Out of Band
All management frames arrive at the main unit’s CPU. The management mode (in-band/out of band) is
determined by the mode of the main unit. The mode of the extension units is irrelevant, since they can only
be reached through the internal management network.
If the main unit is configured as in-band, frames will arrive through the traffic switches by standard layer two
DA-based bridging.
If the main unit is configured as out of band, there is no built-in channel for remote management frames to
arrive at the CPU. Two possible solutions are suggested for this:
1. Install an external Ethernet switch, which will allow frames incoming through the wayside channel to be
distributed to all units.
2. Implement an IP router in the extension unit's CPU. This will allow management frames to be routed to
the internal LAN, reaching the main unit’s CPU.
For out of band, there is no wayside network. Access from remote sites is obtained through the wayside
channel. Access from the remote link to an extension unit requires an external switch.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
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Protection
The XC protection mechanism is an extension of the one used for non-XC IDUs.
Each pair of protected IDUs makes its own decisions regarding data and switching.
User and Ethernet traffic protection is implemented through Y cables or via the protection panel. TDM
traffic protection is implemented through dual LVDS interfaces on the backplane.
XC protection configurations include LVDS interface monitoring for AIS generation and SNCP support.
They also include an Ethernet line protection disabling option, whereby the user can configure Ethernet
interfaces for non-protection. In this setup, local failures will not affect all node traffic.
Signaling is performed between units in a shelf to indicate their active or standby status.
Protection Design
The XC protection method runs by the following rules:
An IDU may exchange traffic with a protection pair (even if it itself is not protected).
Main units must know which pairs are protected, to send identical traffic to protected extension pairs.
Each unit is the master clock for its LVDS interfaces.
Extension units send traffic to both main units.
All units must know from which LVDS interface to receive traffic.
The following illustration shows how the basic XC protection operates.
Main
Active
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
Main
Standby
60
The following information is sent through LVDS interfaces (by all units):
Protected or not protected
Activity: active/standby
In addition, main units inform extensions through separate hardware interfaces. This is required for
extension units to align with active LVDS, since the main units provide the LVDS clock. The signal
is encoded to prevent the system from being “stuck” due to faulty hardware.
If an XC switch occurs, downlink units will synchronize to the new clock within 50 msec.
Main units read the LVDS from both extension units to determine active/standby status. They also
receive traffic from the active unit.
Note: If a switch is detected, an idle window will open to prevent “switch cascades”.
All data is made available to the software, including alarms for protection mode mismatches and
errors, and interrupts upon protection switch.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
61
FibeAir IP-10 G-Series Typical Configurations
1+0
y
1 IP-10, 1 RFU unit required
y
Integrated Ethernet switching can be enabled for multiple local Ethernet interfaces support
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
62
1+1 HSB
y
2 IP-10, 2 RFU units required
y
Integrated Ethernet switching can be enabled for multiple local Ethernet interfaces support
y
Redundancy covers failure of all control and data path components
y
Local Ethernet & TDM interfaces protection support via Y-cables or protection-panel
y
<50mSecs switch-over time
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
63
1+0 with 32 E1s/T1s
1+0 with 64 E1s/T1s
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
64
2+0/XPIC Link, with 64 E1/T1s, “no Multi-Radio” Mode
y
Ethernet traffic
Each of the 2 units:
y
y
Feeding Ethernet traffic independently to its radio interface.
y
Can be configured independently for “switch” or “pipe” operation
y
No Ethernet traffic is shared internally between the 2 radio carriers
TDM traffic
y
Each of the 2 radio interfaces supports separate E1/T1 services
y
E1/T1 Services can optionally be protected using SNCP
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
65
2+0/XPIC Link, with 64 E1/T1s, “Multi-Radio” Mode
y
y
Ethernet traffic
y
One of the units is acting as the "master" unit and is feeding
Ethernet traffic to both radio carriers
y
Traffic is distributed between the 2 carries at the radio frame level
y
The "Master" IDU can be configured for switch or pipe operation.
y
The 2nd ("Slave") IDU has all its Ethernet interfaces and functionality effectively disabled.
TDM traffic
y
E1/T1 services are duplicated over both radio carriers and are 1+1 HSB protected
2+0/XPIC Link, with 32 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface,
no Multi-Radio, up to 150 E1s/168 T1s over the radio
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
66
1+1 HSB with 32 E1s/T1s
1+1 HSB with 64 E1s/T1s
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
67
1+1 HSB with 75 E1s or 84 T1s
1+1 HSB Link with 16 E1/T1s + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface
(Up to 75 E1s/84 T1s over the radio)
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
68
Native2 2+2/XPIC/Multi-Radio MW Link, with 2xSTM1/OC3 Mux
(up to 150 E1s/168 T1s over the radio)
Nodal Configurations
Chain with 1+0 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM1/OC3 Mux
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
69
Node with 2 x 1+0 Downlinks and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink
Chain with 1+1 Downlink and 1+1 HSB Uplink, with STM1/OC3 Mux
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
70
Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + STM1/OC3 Mux Interface at Main Site
Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+1 HSB Links + STM-1 Mux Interface at Main Site
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
71
Node with 1 x 1+1 HSB Downlink and 1 x 1+1 HSB Uplink,
with STM1/OC3 Mux
Native2 Ring with 4 x 1+0 Links, with STM1/OC3 Mux
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
72
Native2 Ring with 3 x 1+0 Links + Spur Link 1+0
Native2 Ring with 4 x 1+0 MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link (5 hops total),
with STM1/OC3 Mux
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
73
Native2 Ring with 2 x 2+0/XPIC MW Links and 1 x Fiber Link
(3 hops total), with 2 x STM1/OC3 Mux
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
74
Specifications
Radio Specifications
General
6-18 GHz
Specification
6L,6H GHz
7,8 GHz
11 GHz
13 GHz
15 GHz
18 GHz
Standards
ETSI, FCC
ETSI
ETSI, FCC
ETSI
ETSI
ETSI, FCC
Operating Frequency
Range (GHz)
5.85-6.45,
6.4-7.1
7.1-7.9, 7.78.5
10.7-11.7
12.75-13.3
14.4-15.35
17.7-19.7
Tx/Rx Spacing (MHz)
252.04, 240,
266, 300,
340, 160,
170, 500
154, 161,
168, 182,
196, 245,
300, 119,
311.32
490, 520,
530
266
315, 420,
644, 490,
728
1010, 1120,
1008, 1560
Frequency Stability
+0.001%
Frequency Source
Synthesizer
RF Channel Selection
Via EMS/NMS
System
Configurations
Non-Protected (1+0), Protected (1+1), Space Diversity
Tx Range
(Manual/ATPC)
20dB dynamic range
23-38 GHz
Specification
23 GHz
24-26 GHz
28 GHz
32 GHz
38 GHz
Standards
ETSI, FCC
ETSI, FCC
ETSI, FCC
ETSI, FCC
ETSI, FCC
Operating Frequency
Range (GHz)
21.2-23.65
24.2-26.5
27.35-31.3
31.8-33.4
37-40
Tx/Rx Spacing (MHz)
1008, 1200,
1232
800, 900, 1008
350, 500, 1008
812
1000, 1260, 700
Frequency Stability
+0.001%
Frequency Source
Synthesizer
RF Channel Selection
Via EMS/NMS
System
Configurations
Non-Protected (1+0), Protected (1+1), Space Diversity
Tx Range
(Manual/ATPC)
20dB dynamic range
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
75
RFU support
Split-Mount installation
FibeAir RFU-C (6 – 38 GHz)
1
FibeAir RFU-P (11 – 38 GHz)
FibeAir RFU-SP (6 – 8 GHz)
FibeAir RFU-HS (6 – 8 GHz)
FibeAir RFU-HP (6 – 11 GHz)
All-Indoor installation
FibeAir RFU-HP (6 – 11 GHz)
IDU to RFU connection
Coaxial cable RG-223 (100 m/300 ft), Belden 9914/RG-8 (300 m/1000
ft) or equivalent, N-type connectors (male)
Antenna Connection
Direct or remote mount using the same antenna type.
Remote mount: standard flexible waveguide (frequency dependent)
Note: For more details about the different RFUs refer to the RFU documentation.
1
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
76
Capacity
7 MHz (ETSI)
Working
Point
Modulation
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
10
25
25
25
25
50
50
50
Number of
Supported
E1s
4
6
8
10
12
13
16
18
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
9.5
14
20
23
28
32
38
42
Max
13.5
20
28
34
40
46
54
60
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
10 MHz (FCC)
Working
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Modulation
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
Number of
Supported
T1s
10
25
25
50
50
50
50
50
7
10
16
18
24
28
30
33
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
13
19
28
32
42
50
54
60
Max
18
27
40
46
61
71
78
85
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
77
14 MHz (ETSI)
Working
Point
Modulation
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
25
25
50
50
50
100
100
100
Number of
Supported
E1s
8
12
18
20
24
29
34
37
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
20
29
42
49
57
69
81
87
Max
29
41
60
70
82
98
115
125
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
20 MHz (FCC)
Working
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Modulation
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
Number of
Supported
T1s
25
50
50
100
100
100
100
150
16
22
32
38
52
58
67
73
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
28
39
57
67
93
102
118
129
Max
40
56
81
96
133
146
169
185
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
28 MHz (ETSI)
Working
Point
Modulation
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
50
50
100
100
150
150
150
200
Number of
Supported
E1s
16
22
32
44
54
66
71
75
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
38
53
77
103
127
156
167
183
Max
54
76
110
148
182
223
239
262
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
78
30 MHz (FCC)
Working
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Modulation
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
Number of
Supported
T1s
50
50
100
100
150
150
200
200
22
35
52
68
80
84
84
84
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
39
62
93
120
142
164
185
204
Max
55
89
133
171
202
235
264
292
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
40 MHz (ETSI)
Working
Point
Modulation
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
50
100
100
150
150
200
200
300
Number of
Supported
E1s
23
34
51
65
75
75
75
75
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
56
82
122
153
188
214
239
262
Max
80
117
174
219
269
305
342
374
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
40 MHz (FCC)
Working
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Modulation
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
Number of
Supported
T1s
50
100
100
150
200
200
300
300
31
46
69
84
84
84
84
84
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
56
82
122
153
188
214
239
262
Max
80
117
174
219
269
305
342
374
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
79
50 MHz (FCC)
Working
Point
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Modulation
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
Number of
Supported
T1s
100
100
150
150
200
300
300
"All capacity"
37
59
74
84
84
84
84
84
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
65
105
131
167
221
264
313
337
Max
93
150
188
239
315
377
448
482
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
56 MHz (ETSI)
Working
Point
Modulation
Minimum
Required
Capacity
License
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
100
100
150
200
300
300
"All capacity"
"All capacity"
Number of
Supported
E1s
32
48
64
75
75
75
75
75
Ethernet
Throughput
Min
75
114
152
202
251
301
350
371
Max
109
163
217
288
358
430
501
531
Note: Ethernet throughput depends on average packet size.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
80
Transmit Power with RFU-C1 (dBm)
Modulation
6-8 GHz
11-15
GHz
18-23
GHz
26-28 GHz
32-38 GHz
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
26
26
25
24
24
24
22
24
24
23
22
22
22
20
22
22
21
20
20
20
18
21
21
20
19
19
19
17
18
18
17
16
16
16
14
Transmit Power with RFU-P (dBm)
Modulation
11-15
GHz
18 GHz
23-26 GHz
28-32 GHz
38 GHz
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
23
23
23
23
22
22
213
23
23
21
21
20
20
19
22
22
20
20
20
20
19
21
21
20
20
19
19
18
20
20
19
19
18
18
17
Transmit Power with RFU-SP/HS/HP2 (dBm)
RFU-SP
1
2
3
RFU-HS and RFU-HP
Modulation
6L GHz
6H-8 GHz
6-8 GHz
11 GHz
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
25
25
25
25
25
25
24
24
24
24
24
24
23
22
30
30
30
30
29
29
27
27
27
27
26
26
26
24
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
RFU-HP supports channels with up to 30 MHz occupied bandwidth. RFU-HS is released for 6-8 GHz
20dBm for 11 GHz
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
81
Receiver Threshold (RSL) with RFU-C1 (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
1
Working
Point
Modulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth
7 MHz
(ETSI)
6.2 MHz
10 MHz
(FCC)
8.4 MHz
14 MHz
(ETSI)
12.2 MHz
20 MHz
(FCC)
17.4 MHz
28 MHz
(ETSI)
24.9 MHz
6-8
-92.0
-89.5
-86.5
-84.5
-82.0
-79.5
-76.5
-74.5
-91.0
-88.5
-85.0
-84.0
-80.0
-77.0
-75.5
-73.0
-89.0
-87.0
-84.5
-81.5
-79.5
-76.5
-73.5
-71.5
-88.0
-86.0
-83.0
-81.0
-76.5
-75.0
-72.0
-70.0
-86.5
-85.0
-82.0
-78.5
-75.5
-72.0
-70.5
Frequency
(GHz)
11-15
18-28
-91.5
-91.0
-89.0
-88.5
-86.0
-85.5
-84.0
-83.5
-81.5
-81.0
-79.0
-78.5
-76.0
-75.5
-74.0
-73.5
-90.5
-90.0
-88.0
-87.5
-84.5
-84.0
-83.5
-83.0
-79.5
-79.0
-76.5
-76.0
-75.0
-74.5
-72.5
-72.0
-88.5
-88.0
-86.5
-86.0
-84.0
-83.5
-81.0
-80.5
-79.0
-78.5
-76.0
-75.5
-73.0
-72.5
-71.0
-70.5
-87.5
-87.0
-85.5
-85.0
-82.5
-82.0
-80.5
-80.0
-76.0
-75.5
-74.5
-74.0
-71.5
-71.0
-69.5
-69.0
-86.0
-85.5
-84.5
-84.0
-81.5
-81.0
-78.0
-77.5
-75.0
-74.5
-71.5
-71.0
-70.0
-69.5
32-38
-90.5
-88.0
-85.0
-83.0
-80.5
-78.0
-75.0
-73.0
-89.5
-87.0
-83.5
-82.5
-78.5
-75.5
-74.0
-71.5
-87.5
-85.5
-83.0
-80.0
-78.0
-75.0
-72.0
-70.0
-86.5
-84.5
-81.5
-79.5
-75.0
-73.5
-70.5
-68.5
-85.0
-83.5
-80.5
-77.0
-74.0
-70.5
-69.0
Refer to RFU-C roll-out plan for availability of each frequency.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
82
Note: RSL values are typical.
Working
Point
Modulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth
30 MHz
(FCC)
26.9 MHz
40 MHz
(ETSI)
31 MHz
40 MHz
(FCC)
35.6 MHz
50 MHz
(FCC)
44.3 MHz
56 MHz
(ETSI)
49.1 MHz
6-8
-86.5
-84.0
-80.5
-77.5
-75.0
-72.5
-70.0
-68.0
-85.5
-83.5
-80.5
-78.0
-75.0
-72.5
-69.5
-67.5
-85.0
-82.5
-79.0
-76.5
-73.5
-71.0
-69.0
-66.5
-84.5
-82.0
-80.0
-77.5
-74.0
-71.0
-67.5
-66.0
-84.0
-81.5
-79.5
-76.0
-73.0
-70.0
-67.5
-65.5
Frequency
(GHz)
11-15
18-28
-86.0
-85.5
-83.5
-83.0
-80.0
-79.5
-77.0
-76.5
-74.5
-74.0
-72.0
-71.5
-69.5
-69.0
-67.5
-67.0
-85.0
-84.5
-83.0
-82.5
-80.0
-79.5
-77.5
-77.0
-74.5
-74.0
-72.0
-71.5
-69.0
-68.5
-67.0
-66.5
-84.5
-84.0
-82.0
-81.5
-78.5
-79.0
-76.0
-75.5
-73.0
-73.5
-70.5
-70.0
-68.5
-68.0
-66.0
-65.5
-84.0
-83.5
-81.5
-81.0
-79.5
-79.0
-77.0
-76.5
-73.5
-73.0
-70.5
-70.0
-67.0
-66.5
-65.5
-65.0
-83.5
-83.0
-81.0
-80.5
-79.0
-78.5
-75.5
-75.0
-72.5
-72.0
-69.5
-69.0
-67.0
-66.5
-65.0
-64.5
32-38
-85.0
-82.5
-79.0
-76.0
-73.5
-71.0
-68.5
-66.5
-84.0
-82.0
-79.0
-76.5
-73.5
-71.0
-68.0
-66.0
-83.5
-81.0
-78.5
-75.0
-73.0
-69.5
-67.5
-65.0
-83.0
-80.5
-78.5
-76.0
-72.5
-69.5
-66.0
-64.5
-82.5
-80.0
-78.0
-74.5
-71.5
-68.5
-66.0
-64.0
Note: RSL values are typical.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
83
Receiver Threshold (RSL) with RFU-P (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
Working
Point
Modulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth
10 MHz
(FCC)
8.4 MHz
14 MHz
(ETSI)
12.2 MHz
20 MHz
(FCC)
17.4 MHz
28 MHz
(ETSI)
24.9 MHz
11-18
-91.0
-88.5
-85.0
-84.0
-80.0
-77.0
-75.5
-73.0
-89.0
-87.0
-84.5
-81.5
-79.5
-76.5
-73.5
-71.5
-88.0
-86.0
-83.0
-81.0
-76.5
-75.0
-72.0
-70.0
-86.5
-85.0
-82.0
-78.5
-75.5
-72.0
-70.5
-68.0
Frequency
(GHz)
23-28
31
-90.5
-90.5
-88.0
-88.0
-84.5
-84.5
-83.5
-83.5
-79.5
-79.5
-76.5
-76.5
-75.0
-75.0
-72.5
-72.5
-88.5
-88.5
-86.5
-86.5
-84.0
-84.0
-81.0
-81.0
-79.0
-79.0
-76.0
-76.0
-73.0
-73.0
-71.0
-71.0
-87.5
-87.5
-85.5
-85.5
-82.5
-82.5
-80.5
-80.5
-76.0
-76.0
-74.5
-74.5
-71.5
-71.5
-69.5
-69.5
-86.0
-86.0
-84.5
-84.5
-81.5
-81.5
-78.0
-78.0
-75.0
-75.0
-71.5
-71.5
-70.0
-70.0
-67.5
-67.5
32-38
-89.5
-87.0
-83.5
-82.5
-78.5
-75.5
-74.0
-71.5
-87.5
-85.5
-83.0
-80.0
-78.0
-75.0
-72.0
-70.0
-86.5
-84.5
-81.5
-79.5
-75.0
-73.5
-70.5
-68.5
-85.0
-83.5
-80.5
-77.0
-74.0
-70.5
-69.0
-66.5
Note: RSL values are typical.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
84
Working
Point
Modulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth
30 MHz
(FCC)
26.9 MHz
40 MHz
(ETSI)
31 MHz
40 MHz
(FCC)
35.6 MHz
50 MHz
(FCC)
44.3 MHz
56 MHz
(ETSI)
49.1 MHz
11-18
-86.5
-84.0
-80.5
-77.5
-75.0
-72.5
-70.0
-68.0
-85.5
-83.5
-80.5
-78.0
-75.0
-72.5
-69.5
-67.5
-85.0
-82.5
-79.0
-76.5
-73.5
-71.0
-69.0
-66.5
-84.5
-82.0
-80.0
-77.5
-74.0
-71.0
-67.5
-66.0
-84.0
-81.5
-79.5
-76.0
-73.0
-70.0
-67.5
-65.5
Frequency
(GHz)
23-28
31
-86.0
-86.0
-83.5
-83.5
-80.0
-80.0
-77.0
-77.0
-74.5
-74.5
-72.0
-72.0
-69.5
-69.5
-67.5
-67.5
-85.0
-85.0
-83.0
-83.0
-80.0
-80.0
-77.5
-77.5
-74.5
-74.5
-72.0
-72.0
-69.0
-69.0
-67.0
-67.0
-84.5
-84.5
-82.0
-82.0
-78.5
-78.5
-76.0
-76.0
-73.0
-73.0
-70.5
-70.5
-68.5
-68.5
-66.0
-66.0
-84.0
-84.0
-81.5
-81.5
-79.5
-79.5
-77.0
-77.0
-73.5
-73.5
-70.5
-70.5
-67.0
-67.0
-65.5
-65.5
-83.5
-83.5
-81.0
-81.0
-79.0
-79.0
-75.5
-75.5
-72.5
-72.5
-69.5
-69.5
-67.0
-67.0
-65.0
-65.0
32-38
-85.0
-82.5
-79.0
-76.0
-73.5
-71.0
-68.5
-66.5
-84.0
-82.0
-79.0
-76.5
-73.5
-71.0
-68.0
-66.0
-83.5
-81.3
-77.5
-75.0
-72.0
-69.5
-67.5
-65.0
-83.0
-80.5
-78.5
-76.0
-72.5
-69.5
-66.0
-64.5
-82.5
-80.0
-78.0
-74.5
-71.5
-68.5
-66.0
-64.0
Note: RSL values are typical.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
85
Receiver Threshold (RSL) with RFU-SP/HP1 (dBm @ BER = 10-6)
Working
Point
Modulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
Channel
Spacing
Occupied
Bandwidth
10 MHz
(FCC)
8.4 MHz
14 MHz
(ETSI)
12.2 MHz
20 MHz
(FCC)
17.4 MHz
28 MHz
(ETSI)
24.9 MHz
RFU-SP
(6-8 GHz)
RFU-HP
(6-11 GHz)
-91.5
-89.0
-85.5
-84.5
-80.5
-77.5
-76.0
-73.5
-89.5
-87.5
-85.0
-82.0
-80.0
-77.0
-74.0
-72.0
-88.5
-86.5
-83.5
-81.5
-77.0
-75.5
-72.5
-70.5
-87.0
-85.5
-82.5
-79.0
-76.0
-72.5
-71.0
-68.5
-91.5
-89.0
-85.5
-84.5
-80.5
-77.5
-76.0
-73.5
-89.5
-87.5
-85.0
-82.0
-80.0
-77.0
-74.0
-72.0
-88.5
-86.5
-83.5
-81.5
-77.0
-75.5
-72.5
-70.5
-87.0
-85.5
-82.5
-79.0
-76.0
-72.5
-71.0
-68.5
Note: RSL values are typical.
1
RFU-HP supports channels with up to 30 MHz occupied bandwidth.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
86
Working
Point
Modulation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
QPSK
8 PSK
16 QAM
32 QAM
64 QAM
128 QAM
256 QAM
256 QAM
1
QPSK
2
8 PSK
3
16 QAM
4
32 QAM
5
64 QAM
6
128 QAM
7
256 QAM
8
256 QAM
1
QPSK
2
8 PSK
3
16 QAM
4
32 QAM
5
64 QAM
6
128 QAM
7
256 QAM
8
256 QAM
1
QPSK
2
8 PSK
3
16 QAM
4
32 QAM
Channel
Spacing
30 MHz
(FCC)
Occupied
Bandwidth
RFU-SP
(6-8 GHz)
RFU-HP
(6-11 GHz)
26.9 MHz
-87.0
-84.5
-81.0
-78.0
-75.5
-73.0
-70.5
-68.5
-87.0
-84.5
-81.0
-78.0
-75.5
-73.0
-70.5
-68.5
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
-86.0
-84.0
-81.0
40 MHz
(ETSI)
31 MHz
-78.5
-75.5
-73.0
-70.0
-68.0
-85.5
-83.0
-79.5
40 MHz
(FCC)
35.6 MHz
-77.0
-74.0
-71.5
-69.5
-67.0
50 MHz
(FCC)
44.3 MHz
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
-85.0
-82.5
-80.5
-78.0
87
5
64 QAM
6
128 QAM
7
256 QAM
8
256 QAM
1
QPSK
2
8 PSK
3
16 QAM
4
32 QAM
5
64 QAM
6
128 QAM
7
256 QAM
8
256 QAM
-74.5
-71.5
-68.0
-66.5
-84.5
-82.0
-80.0
56 MHz
(ETSI)
49.1 MHz
-76.5
-73.5
-70.5
-68.0
-66.0
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Not
supported
Note: RSL values are typical.
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
88
Interfaces
Ethernet
Supported Ethernet interfaces
Supported SFP types
5 x 10/100base-T (RJ45)
1 x 10/100/1000Base-T (RJ45)
1 x 1000base-X (SFP)
1000Base-LX (1310 nm) or SX (850 nm) or 1000base-T
Latency over the radio link
< 0.15mSeconds @ 400 Mbps
"Baby jumbo" frames support
Up to 1632Bytes
Supported Ethernet/IP
standards
802.3 – 10base-T
802.3u – 100base-T
802.3ab – 1000base-T
802.3z – 1000base-X
802.3ac – Ethernet VLANs
802.1Q – Virtual LAN (VLAN)
802.1p – Class of service
802.1ad – Provider bridges (QinQ)
802.3x – Flow control
802.3ad – Link aggregation
802.1ag/Y.1731 – Ethernet network OA&M
802.3ah – Ethernet link OA&M
802.1D – STP
802.1w – RSTP
802.1s – MSTP
RFC 1349 – IPv4 TOS
RFC 2474 – IPv4 DSCP
RFC 2460 – IPv6 Traffic Classes
MEF-9 & MEF-14 certified for all service types (EPL, EVPL & E-LAN)
MEF certification
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
89
E1/T1
Interface Type
E1/T1
Number of ports
16 per unit (optional)
Connector Type
MDR 69-pin
Framing
Unframed (full transparency)
Coding
E1: HDB3
T1: AMI/B8ZS (Configurable)
Line Impedance
120 ohm/100 ohm balanced. Optional 75 ohm unbalanced.
Compatible Standards
ITU-T G.703, G.736, G.775, G.823, G.824, G.828, ITU-T I.432, ETSI ETS
300 147, ETS 300 417, ANSI T1.105, T1.102-1993, T1.231, Bellcore GR253-core, TR-NWT-000499
Auxiliary Channels
Wayside Channel
2 Mbps or 64 Kbps, Ethernet 10/100BaseT
Engineering Order Wire
Audio channel (64 Kbps) G.711
User Channel
Asynchronous V.11/RS-232 up 19.2 kbps
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
90
Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms
Management
PolyView NMS, Web based EMS & CLI support
Protocols
SNMPv1/v2 for NMS - in compliance with RFC 1213
HTTP for web EMS
Telnet
FTP
Management Interface
Dedicated Ethernet interfaces (up to 3) or in-band
Local Configuration and
Monitoring
Standard ASCII terminal, serial RS-232
In-Band Management
Support dedicated VLAN for management
TMN
Ceragon NMS functions are in accordance with ITU-T recommendations for
TMN
External Alarms
4 Inputs: TTL-level or contact closure to ground.
1 output: Form C contact, software configurable.
RSL Indication
Accurate power reading (dBm) available at IDU, RFU1, and NMS
Performance Monitoring
Integral with onboard memory per ITU-T G.826/G.828
Mechanical
Height: 42.6 mm (1RU)
Dimensions
Width: 439 mm (<19")
Depth: 188 mm, without mounting ears and connectors
Weight
2.5 kg/5.4 lbs
Environment
1
Operating Temperature
(Guaranteed Performance)
RFU: -35°C to 55°C
IDU: 5°C to 55°C
Relative Humidity
RFU: up to 100% (all weather operation)
IDU: up to 85% (non-condensing)
Altitude
Up to 4,500 m (15,000 ft)
Office Vibration
0.1g at 5-200 Hz
Note that the voltage at the BNC port on the RFUs is not accurate and should be used only as an aid
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
91
Power Input
Standard Input
-48 VDC
DC Input range
-40.5 to -59 VDC (up to -57 VDC for USA market)
Optional Inputs
110-220 VAC
-24 VDC
Power Consumption
Max power consumption
IP-10 IDU
25W
Max system power consumption
RFU-C + IP-10
1+0 with RFU-C 6-26 GHz: 47W
1+0 with RFU-C 28-38 GHz: 51W
1+1 with RFU-C 6-26 GHz: 84W
1+1 with RFU-C 28-38 GHz: 88W
Max system power consumption
RFU-P + IP-10
1+0: 65W
1+1: 105W
Max system power consumption
RFU-SP + IP-10
1+0: 80W
1+1: 130W
Max system power consumption
RFU-HP + IP-10
1+0: 105W
1+1: 150W
FibeAir® IP-10 G-Series Product Description
92
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