COINS System Administrator`s Manual
COINS System
Administrator’s Manual
Instructions for operating system, COINS, and
Progress administration
April 2008
COINS USA
6 Airport Park Blvd., Latham, NY 12110
Phone: 518-C-4-COINS
Fax: 518-242-7216
Email: supportdesk.us@coins-global.com
COINS System Administrator’s Manual
April 2008
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright© 2008 Construction Industry Solutions (Shaker)
Corporation (hereinafter known as COINS USA). ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
PROPRIETARY RIGHTS NOTICE: This software and the documentation attendant
thereto contain trade secrets and confidential information proprietary to COINS USA. The
Licensee is bound to the proprietary nature of this material.
The software and the associated documentation may be used and/or reproduced only by a
COINS USA Licensee and then only in accordance with the terms and conditions of the
COINS USA End User License Agreement. Any unauthorized use, dissemination or
reproduction of the software, documentation, and/or information contained therein is
strictly prohibited.
While efforts have been taken during the preparation of this manual to assure its accuracy,
COINS USA assumes no liability for errors or omissions in this manual, or from the use of
information contained therein.
A form for users' comments and suggestions is provided at the back of this manual. You may
address your comments to Corporate Communications, COINS USA, 6 Airport Park Blvd.,
Latham, NY 12110.
COINS and Dig Deeper are registered trademarks of Construction Industry Solutions (Shaker) Corporation.
COINS Ti is a trademark of Construction Industry Solutions (Shaker) Corporation.
AIX, IBM, pSeries, xSeries, and RISC System/6000 are registered trademarks of International Business
Machines Corporation.
Microsoft, Excel, and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Progress is a registered trademark of Progress Software Corporation.
Progress Query/Results and RDBMS are trademarks of Progress Software Corporation.
Red Hat and Linux are registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc.
UNIX and UNIXWARE are registered trademarks of The Open Group.
Other products are the trademarks of their respective owners.
Contents
••••••
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Purpose of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Setup of this Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Conventions Used in this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
General Usage Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Terminal Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Dumb Terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Terminal Emulation Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Login Files and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
/etc/profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
$HOME/.profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
$COINSDIR/.coinsprofile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Users and UNIX Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
New Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Backups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
COINS Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
System Backups: SMIT (AIX), Edge (SCO), and Edge (Linux). . .35
Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
System Integrity and Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Error Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Database Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Weekly Server Shutdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
System Activity Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Checking Database Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
System Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Separate Disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
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COINS USA Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Serial Printers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Parallel Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Network Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Printer Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Advanced Usage Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Storage Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Adding a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Adding a Physical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Mirroring a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Removing a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Removing a Physical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Adding a Logical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Adding a File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Changing the Size of a File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Removing a File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Progress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Progress Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Performing an Index Rebuild. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Installing Progress v9 on Your Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Installing Progress v9 on Your PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Multi-volume Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Create a Multi-volume Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Network Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Network Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Graphical User Interface (GUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
GUI Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
GUI Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Saving the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
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COINS System Administrator’s Manual
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Introduction
••••••
Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Purpose of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Setup of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Conventions Used in this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
COINS System Administrator’s Manual
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6
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Introduction
••••••
Purpose of this Guide
This Guide provides COINS® system administrators with general
information and procedures for administering COINS in a UNIX
environment. It is intended to give the System Administrator a better understanding of the system as a whole, including how the system is put together and how COINS interacts with it.
This is not a guide to UNIX system administration; this Guide is
about COINS and UNIX. Therefore, it only presents UNIX concepts
and commands related to the needs of COINS system administration. In other words, if you want to learn UNIX, this is not the
book to use!
Throughout the Guide we use other sources for direct quotes of
explanations. Since others have already written excellent explanations of UNIX topics, we see no reason to recreate the wheel. Furthermore, you are encouraged to review these sources in their
entirety.
The source cited most frequently, which is found at
http://www.infocom.cqu.edu.au/Units/aut99/85321/Resources/Print_Resources/Textbook/,
is no longer world viewable and focuses on Linux. You can also
refer to the COINS System Overview Guide and the “man” pages for
your system.
Comments and suggestions are encouraged. Feel free to contact us
at 518-242-6467, or use the comment form located at the end of this
Guide.
COINS System Administrator’s Manual
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Introduction
Setup of this Guide
This Guide is divided into two main chapters - Chapter 1, General
Usage Guide and Chapter 2, Advanced Usage Guide. The first chapter is intended for use by the System Administrator. If you are a
System Administrator with a basic understanding of the system,
Chapter 1 has important information for you.
The second chapter approaches the system from a much more
advanced point of view for those with a more technical background.
In other words, System Administrators with an information technology (IT) background or experience should refer to Chapter 2,
Advanced Usage Guide.
Warning
Do not use Chapter 2 unless you are fully qualified with technical
expertise.
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COINS System Administrator’s Manual
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Introduction
Conventions Used in this Guide
Certain typographical conventions are used throughout this manual to help clarify procedures.
Description
Example
Key on the terminal or PC
keyboard
[Enter]
Keystroke combination
holding the first key down while
pressing the second
Press [Ctrl][C]
Keystroke combination
pressing the first key and
releasing it, then pressing the
second key and releasing it
Press [Esc] then [3]
System message or output
extracted from a UNIX screen
DLC=/progress/dlc83b
User entry in a system dialog
Type ping coinshost
Variable
Type ping <host name>
File name or system prompt
when specified in text
… in a .profile file
Web addresses
www.coins-ti.com
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Introduction
10
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General Usage Guide
••••••
General Usage Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Terminal Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Dumb Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Terminal Emulation Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Login Files and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
/etc/profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
$HOME/.profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
$COINSDIR/.coinsprofile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Users and UNIX Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
New Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
COINS Backups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
System Backups: SMIT (AIX), Edge (SCO), and Edge (Linux) . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
System Integrity and Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Error Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Database Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Weekly Server Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
System Activity Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Disk Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Checking Database Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
System Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Separate Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
COINS USA Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Serial Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Parallel Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Network Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Printer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
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Chapter 1: General Usage Guide
••••••
Terminal Emulation
Terminal emulation is required for UNIX servers. This emulation can be in the form of an actual dumb terminal or software designed to imi‐
tate the actions of a dumb terminal. Instead of rewriting information on terminals, we use information from another source that presents this material clearly.
The Dumb Terminals section is a detailed description of terminals taken from:
http://www.infocom.cqu.edu.au/Units/aut99/85321/Resources/Print Resources/Textbook/chap18/index.html
Note
Some minor wording changes have been made: the changes are in
italics.
Dumb Terminals
UNIX is a multi‐user operating system. To make use of this attribute, multiple users must be able to connect to the system at the same time. This implies that there must be multiple access points. Dumb termi‐
nals are one of the cheapest methods for providing multiple access points to a UNIX machine.
In most cases a dumb terminal is connected to a UNIX machine using a serial line. A dumb terminal does little more than present text to the user and transfer keystrokes from the terminal back to the central com‐
puter. It is dumb because the terminal does no processing of the data.
Even though the interface on these terminals is primitive, they are still one of the most used methods for adding extra access points to a UNIX computer.
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1: General Usage Guide
Businesses wanting to use dumb terminals have two options other than purchasing purpose built dumb terminals. A personal computer can act as a dumb terminal by:
‹ Connecting the PC’s serial port to the UNIX machine’s serial port, network, and
‹ Using a communications program to communicate with the UNIX machine over the serial line or network. COINS USA uses MultiView 2000 for terminal emulation software.
Terminal Emulation Software
Terminal emulation software, such as the MultiView 2000 recom‐
mended by COINS USA, enables a PC to communicate with the UNIX host.
Loading COINS Portal as your terminal emulation
software
COINS USA developed COINS Portal to simplify the installation and use of MultiView 2000 on end‐user PCs. It comes in two types that can be installed and used interchangeably on the same PC: COINS Portal with a graphical user interface (GUI) and COINS, a character‐based termi‐
nal emulator.
Follow these instructions to load COINS Portal on a userʹs PC.
1.
Note the IP address of the server.
a. At the console: type uname –n or hostname to get the name of the server.
b. If using AIX or Linux, type ping <name of the server>. (Note: This does not work with OpenServer or Unixware.)
c. Note the IP address given. It is a number that looks like <#>.<#>.<#>.<#>.
Figure 1‐1 shows an example entered at the console of a server named c o i n s h o s t where the prompt is $>. The IP address in this example is 102.70.12.171.
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1: General Usage Guide
Figure 1‐1: Determining the Server’s IP Address
$>uname –n
coinshost
$>ping coinshost
PING coinshost: (102.70.12.171): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 102.70.12.171: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0 ms
64 bytes from 102.70.12.171: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0 ms
64 bytes from 102.70.12.171: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0 ms
Press [Ctrl][C] to break out of this display; it repeats continu‐
ously until you break.
2.
Exit all other applications before beginning the installation of COINS Portal.
3.
Place the COINS Portal CD in the PCʹs CD‐ROM drive. The installation program starts up automatically.1
4.
If you want to use the GUI version of COINS Portal, enter the license key (from the label on the COINS Portal CD package) in the box on the screen. Enter it exactly as shown on the label, using upper case letters and including any dashes shown.
If you only want to use the character version of COINS Portal, leave this field empty and simply click the Next button.
5.
Enter the IP address for the COINS host machine and click the Next button. The installation of COINS Portal finishes.
6.
After COINS Portal is installed, the installation program checks for a valid version of Multi‐View 2000. If one is not found, the installation program prompts you to install MultiV‐
iew 2000. Click Yes to proceed.
1.
COINS System Administrator’s Manual
April 2008
If CD auto‐run is disabled, click the Windows Start button, then click Run. Click the Browse button, find the icon for the CD‐ROM drive and double‐click it. Double‐click Launch.exe. You are returned to the Run dialog; click the OK button to begin the installation.
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1: General Usage Guide
16
7.
Enter the serial number for MultiView 2000.
8.
Enter the COINS hostʹs IP address again, this time to update MultiView 2000.
9.
Skip the remaining dialogs to configure MultiView. The instal‐
lation of COINS Portal has already done this.
10.
Click Finish to install MultiView 2000. Do not run the terminal session wizard. Installation finishes.
11.
Close the MultiView window. You may now use COINS Portal to access COINS.
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1: General Usage Guide
Login Files and Processes
Introduction
When you log into your terminal, the server performs several activities to prepare the environment for you. Many of these activities are stan‐
dard across all UNIX users. Others can be specified and tailored for each individual system and user.
This section discusses these files and changes that customize the envi‐
ronment for COINS.
/etc/profile
The /etc/profile file sets various environment variables and asso‐
ciated elements of the environment. This file executes at login for each user, but the commands set here are overridden by those contained in your personal .profile file (discussed below).
For COINS, nothing needs to take place in the /etc/profile file. However, this file is important enough that the System Administrator should be aware of its existence.
$HOME/.profile
Each user is generally given a personal .profile file in his or her home directory to set the environment for that user. This file also exe‐
cutes certain commands that the user needs. Commands set in the userʹs personal .profile file override the settings in the /etc/profile, though /etc/profile executes regardless of the presence of a user .profile. An example of a userʹs .profile is found in Figure 1‐2, COINS Set‐
tings in a Sample .profile File.
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1: General Usage Guide
There are several options for setting up a user’s home directory. Fre‐
quently, the path is to the userʹs home directory /home/<user
name> (AIX) where <user name> is the name of the user, or the path could be /usr/<user name> (in SCO UNIX), /etc/skel (for Unix‐
Ware), or /home (for Linux). This information is generally contained in the $HOME variable. Note
The period preceding the file name (.profile) is important, as it
is part of the name. Furthermore, it also hides the file from a regu‐
lar ls listing of the contents of the directory. To see the file listed,
you therefore need to use the –a option with ls.
The .profile file is where most of the COINS‐focused environment settings are established for each user. Below is a listing of the COINS‐
specific entry into the .profile file. (The line numbers shown here do not appear in the actual file. They were added to this Guide to help explain the entries.)
Figure 1‐2: COINS Settings in a Sample .profile File
Line Listing entry
1 if test ‐f /coins/.coinsprofile
2 then
3 . /coins/.coinsprofile
4 PATH= $SPL:$DLC:$DLC/bin:$COINS‐
DIR:$PATH
5 export PATH
6 exec coins
7 else
8 echo “The COINS configuration file was not
found!”
Letʹs examine the critical lines of this code to ensure that you are com‐
fortable with the settings that must be made in the .profile file.
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Line # 1
if test -f /coins/.coinsprofile
This line sets up an if statement that verifies the existence of another file. This new file is called the .coinsprofile, which we discuss next. For our present purposes, this command simply tests for the existence of the file. If it does, the commands listed after the then statement are executed.
Line # 3
. /coins/.coinsprofile
This line actually executes the .coinsprofile and performs the commands contained within it.
Line # 4
PATH= $SPL:$DLC:$DLC/bin:$COINSDIR:$PATH
This line sets the PATH environment variable. The PATH vari‐
able specifies where the system should look to execute com‐
mands. Many times if a command is not working, it is because the path is set incorrectly.
Line # 6
exec coins
This line actually executes the COINS program. Note that COINS does not execute if the file .coinsprofile does not exist. Because it is part of the then group of commands (see line #2), this only executes if the .coinsprofile is found.
Line # 7
else
The else statement is performed if the .coinsprofile file cannot be found. These commands are as follows.
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Line # 8
echo “The COINS configuration file was not found!”
This command displays a message telling the user that the .coinsprofile file is not found. It does not say this explic‐
itly, but if you are aware the .coinsprofile is the COINS configuration file, then you know what to look for.
Line # 9
sleep 5
This line causes the screen to wait for 5 seconds after perform‐
ing the last command. This allows you to actually see the mes‐
sage.
$COINSDIR/.coinsprofile
The .coinsprofile file is where the COINS related environment variables are set. These variables can contain any values you like; for example, the DLC variable contains the path leading to your installa‐
tion location of Progress. To fully understand the .coinsprofile file, it is necessary to understand how variables are set in UNIX.
To set a variable in UNIX, use the following syntax:
<variable>=<value>; export <variable>
To view the variable’s value, use the following syntax:
echo $<variable>
For example, to set the DLC variable to contain the path to the Progress directory, type:
DLC=/progress/dlc91b; export DLC
To view the variable:
echo $DLC
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This methodology has several useful applications. First, it enables the administrator to change one variable in one location and have it change for all users. Since the .coinsprofile is contained in the COINS directory (COINSDIR) and every .profile accesses this one file, every script that requires knowledge of the Progress location can use this variable. This usefulness extends beyond using variables to store paths in general. Variables are generally used to store any piece of information that needs to be accessed from several locations.
Returning to our discussion of the .coinsprofile contents, this file contains the necessary environment variables to allow all Progress and COINS functions to work properly. Below you can see the .coinsprofile file used on COINS servers.
DLC=/progress/dlc91e
COINSDIR=/coins
BIDIR=/coinsdb
DATA=/coinsdb
SPL=/coins/spool
PROGDIR=/coinsprog
DEVICENAME=/dev/rmt0
PS1=“$LOGNAME> “
PROTERMCAP=/coins/shaker/protermcap73c
export DLC COINSDIR BIDIR DATA SPL PROGDIR DEVI‐
Letʹs go through the primary use for each of these variables.
Note
On some systems, many of these paths may point to the same loca‐
tion.
DLC
Contains the path to the current installation of Progress.
COINSDIR
Contains the start up files, reporting files, and posting files.
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BIDIR
Contains the location of the bi file for COINS.
DATA
Contains the location of the database files.
SPL
Contains the path to COINS printing files.
PROGDIR
Contains the path to the COINS program.
DEVICENAME
Contains the device that is used for backups and updates.
PS1
The UNIX variable for your system prompt.
PROTERMCAP
Contains the data regarding the different terminals that can be used.
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Users and UNIX Accounts
This section discusses which files are used to create a new user. As you have already seen, each user has a personal .profile that contains lines of commands run to set up the environment for the user. Where do these files come from? Does the administrator need to create the file?
If the System Administrator needed to create the same file each time a user is added to the system, that System Administrator would very quickly create a template to copy for every new user. That is exactly the technique used by the UNIX operating system for each new user. This .profile template is located in different locations for each type of UNIX.
‹ AIX UNIX contains this template in /etc/security and calls it profile, making the entire path to the file /etc/security/profile.
‹ In UnixWare, there are two templates found in /etc/skel and /usr/lib/scoadmin/account/skel. They are both called .profile.
‹ SCO UNIX contains the file in /usr/lib/mkuser/sh/ and also calls it profile.
‹ Linux contains the file in /etc/svc1/.profile.
This file is already on the system and can be modified to add items required for each user. However, as with all systems files that a System Administrator can modify, a backup should be created.
New Users
Each type of UNIX has its own way of adding new users to the UNIX system. This section details the requirements needed by SCO, AIX, UnixWare, and Linux to create a new user.
First, when a new user is created, a directory for that user is also cre‐
ated, usually as a subdirectory in /home. After that directory is cre‐
ated, the .profile file is copied into that directory.
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When creating a user, itʹs important to keep in mind that each user must be part of a group. Users are placed into groups according to responsibilities, and each group has rights on the system based on those responsibilities.
The Understanding UNIX Accounts section is a general description of user accounts taken from:
http://www.infocom.cqu.edu.au/Units/aut99/85321/Resources/Print_Resourc
es/Textbook/chap9/index.html
Understanding UNIX Accounts
A UNIX account is a collection of logical characteristics that specify who the user is, what the user is allowed to do, and where the user is allowed to do it. These characteristics include the following:
‹ Login (or user) name
‹ Password
‹ Numeric user identifier or UID
‹ Default numeric group identifier or GID
Many accounts belong to more than one group, but all accounts have one default group.
‹ Home directory
‹ Login shell
‹ Collection of startup files
Each of these characteristics is described below.
Login names
Every user account is assigned a unique login (or user) name. The user name uniquely identifies the account. The operating system uses the user identifier number (UID) to uniquely iden‐
tify an account. The translation between UID and the user name is carried out reading the /etc/passwd file (/etc/passwd is introduced below).
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Login name format
On a small system, the format of login names is generally not a problem since it is unlikely that there are duplicate user names in a small user population.
On a large site with hundreds or thousands of users and multi‐
ple computers, assigning a login name can be a major problem.
Table 1‐1, User name Guidelines contains guidelines for user names that can make life easier for both you, as the System Administrator, and your users.
Table 1‐1: User name Guidelines
Unique
User names should be unique not only on the local
machine but also across different machines at the
same site. A login name should identify the same
person and only one person on every machine on the
site. This can be very hard to achieve at a site with a
large user population, especially if different machines
have different administrators.
The reason for this guideline is that under certain
circumstances it is possible for people with the same
user name to access accounts with the same user
name on different machines.
Up to 8
characters
UNIX ignores or disallows login names that are longer,
dependent on which platform you are using.
Lowercase
Numbers and upper case letters can be used. Login
names that are all upper case should be avoided as
some versions of UNIX can assume this to mean your
terminal doesn't recognize lower case letters and every
piece of text subsequently sent to your display is in
uppercase.
Easy to
remember
A random sequence of letters and numbers is hard to
remember, and so the user must continually ask the
System Administrator, "What's my user name?"
No nicknames
A user name is probably part of an e-mail address. The
user name is one method by which other users identify
who is on the system. Not all the users may know the
nicknames of certain individuals.
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Table 1‐1: User name Guidelines
Standard
format
There should be a specified system for creating a user
name. Some combination of first name, last name, and
initials is usually the best. Setting a policy allows you to
automate the procedure of adding new users. It also
makes it easy for other users to work out what the user
name for a person might be.
Passwords
An accountʹs password is the key that lets someone in to use the account. A password should be a secret collection of char‐
acters known only by the owner of the account. Poor choice of passwords is the single biggest security hole on any multi‐user computer system.
As System Administrator, you should follow a strict set of guidelines for passwords, particularly for the root accountʹs password. In addition, you should promote the use of the guidelines in Table 1‐2, Password Guidelines among your users.
Table 1‐2: Password Guidelines
Combinations
Use combinations of upper and lower case
characters, numbers, and punctuation
characters.
Don't use random combinations of characters
if they break the next two rules.
26
Easy to remember
If users forget their password, they can't use
the system and subsequently contact you.
Also, users should not have to write their
password down.
Quick to type
One of the easiest and most used methods for
breaking into a system is simply watching
someone slowly type in a password. This is
difficult to do if the password is typed in
quickly.
Minimum length
A password should be at least 6 characters
long.
The shorter a password is, the easier it is to
break. Some systems do not allow passwords
shorter than a specified length.
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Table 1‐2: Password Guidelines
Maximum length
A password should be no longer than 8 to 10
characters.
Most systems appear as if they are accepting
longer passwords, but they are simply ignoring
the extra characters. The actual size is
system-specific, but between 8 and 10
characters is generally the limit.
Don't use words
Do not use words from any language.
Passwords that are words can be cracked
easily.
Don't use words
plus a number
Do not use combinations of words and
numbers. Passwords like hello1 are just as
easy to crack as hello.
Use acronyms
Use combinations of words separated by
punctuation characters or acronyms of
uncommon phrases or song lines. They should
be easy to remember but hard to crack, e.g.,
b1gsh1p.
Change regularly
Change passwords regularly, but not so often
that you forget which password is currently
set.
Never reuse passwords.
Home directories
Every user must be assigned a home directory. When the user logs in, this home directory becomes the userʹs current direc‐
tory. Typically, all user home directories are stored under one directory. Many modern systems use the directory /home. Older versions used /usr/users.
The names of home directories match the user name for the account. For example, a user jonesd would have the home directory /home/jonesd.
In some instances, you may decide to further divide users by placing users from different categories into different subdirec‐
tories. For example, all staff accounts may be placed under /home/staff while students are placed under /home/students. These separate directories may even be on separate partitions.
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Login shell
Every user account has a login shell, which is the program exe‐
cuted each time the user logs in. Normally, this is one of the standard user shells such as Bourne, csh, bash, etc. However, it can be any executable program.
A common method of disabling an account is to change the login shell to the program /bin/false. When someone logs into such an account, /bin/false is executed and the login:
prompt reappears.
Adding new users on an AIX System
Instructions for adding new users on an AIX system
using SMIT, mkuser, passwd.
1.
At the prompt, type mkuser <login name>.
2.
At the prompt, type passwd <login name>.
3.
The system provides prompts for user input such as new pass‐
words. The machine returns to a prompt after the user is cre‐
ated.
Example
On a system with the prompt $>
$>mkuser georgew
$>passwd georgew Changing password for ʺgeorgewʺ
georgewʹs New password:
Enter the new password again to verify it.
Adding new users on an SCO UNIX System
Instructions for adding new users on an SCO system
using scoadmin (3.2v5.x) or sysadmsh (v3.2v4.x).
28
1.
Login as root.
2.
At the prompt, type scoadmin and press [Enter].
3.
Select the highlighted Account Manager option.
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4.
Use the arrow key to highlight the Users menu option.
5.
Use the down arrow [↓] to open the menu. Highlight the Add
new user option and press [Enter].
6.
At the login field, type the login name.
7.
Press [Enter] to move to the Comment field and type the userʹs full name.
8.
Leave the Password field set to SET PASSWORD NOW.
9.
Use the down arrow [↓] until you reach the OK option and press [Enter].
10.
Leave the default set to ENTER NEW PASSWORD.
11.
Press [Tab] to move the cursor to the ENTER PASSWORD
field.
12.
Enter the password and press [Enter].
13.
For confirmation, enter the password again and press [Enter].
14.
Press the space bar to set Force at next login so the user can select his or her own password.
15.
Press the [Tab] key to move to the OK button, then press [Enter].
Adding new users on a UnixWare System
Instructions for adding new users on a UnixWare system using scoadmin.
1.
Login as root.
2.
At the prompt, type scoadmin and press [Enter].
3.
Select the highlighted Account Manager option.
4.
Use the arrow key to highlight the Users menu option.
5.
Use the down arrow [↓] to open the menu. Highlight the Add new user option and press [Enter].
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6.
At the login field, type the login name.
7.
Press [Enter] to move to the Comment field and type the user’s full name.
8.
Leave the Password field set to SET PASSWORD NOW.
9.
Use the down arrow [↓] to get to the OK option and press [Enter].
10.
Leave the default set to ENTER NEW PASSWORD.
11.
Press [Tab] to move the cursor to the ENTER PASSWORD field.
12.
Enter the password and press [Enter].
13.
For confirmation, enter the password again and press [Enter].
14.
Press the space bar to set Force at next login so the user can select his or her own password.
15.
Press the [Tab] key to move to the OK button, then press [Enter].
Adding New Users on a Linux System
Instructions for adding new users on a Linux system using useradd
-m.
30
1.
At the prompt, type useradd -m <username>.
2.
Type passwd <username>.
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Backups
All System Administrators are familiar with the concept of backups to protect against loss of data and to ensure the continuation of business. Too many times, people view a system crash in the same way they view a car accident—you assume that it won’t happen to you. System Administrators and others make backups because ʺthey are supposed to,ʺ but that is where the commitment ends. Rarely do they verify the backups, ensure the safety of the backups, or (even more importantly) go through their entire recovery plan.
Backups can also be viewed in economic terms. What are the costs of replacing the data if it is lost? What are the costs of downtime? If these costs are high—for some companies these costs are the difference between staying in business and going out of business—then you should create a disaster recovery plan and practice it.
A disaster recovery plan is a comprehensive plan for recovering your system. The plan should include provisions for such events as hard‐
ware failures, data loss, and backup media failure. Good questions to ask yourself are:
‹ How long would it take to return to normal operating levels if the server were irreparably damaged today?
‹ Are you sure you could boot a new system from bootable media?
‹ Could you simply reload the last backup tape for your data?
‹ Are you sure all your programs can be reloaded from a backup tape and do not need to be reinstalled?
‹ Have you tried to completely restore your system from the tapes you have? How long did it take?
‹ How much money would be lost in the time that it takes to recover the system?
If the answers to these questions are not known, you should perform a dry run of the recovery plan. The dry run ensures that: 1) Everything needed is available, and 2) You are capable of performing the recovery smoothly should the need arise.
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General Guidelines
The following are some basic guidelines regarding backups to ease the recovery process.
Note
Backups should include any databases connected to the COINS
accounting database, such as Human Resource Suite, BI2, and User
Defined Data Elements databases. If you use other custom data‐
bases with COINS or COINS Ti, they should be included as well. If
you employ custom backup scripts, they need to be modified to
backup the connected databases. Please contact your COINS USA
Account Representative for more information.
1.
Rotate 4 weeks of backups
Weeks may pass before errors are noticed; therefore, having at least four weeks of backups is recommended.
2.
Keep a set of backups offsite Even though chances are slim that the building could be destroyed, having backups offsite enables recovery. In other words, restoring the data is a possibility in such a situation.
3.
Clean the tape drives periodically If the tape drives are not clean, the backups can fail. Cleaning the drives regularly removes one possible cause of backup fail‐
ure.
4.
Replace tapes periodically
Tapes are not permanent media–they do wear out. You should therefore replace the tapes before they go bad; if you don’t, the tapes are replaced only after they go bad and after a bad backup. Replace tapes at least yearly.
5.
Perform a recovery every two months until the plan works, and then once a year thereafter.
These five items are excellent guidelines for protecting your com‐
pany’s computing environment. However, all the theory in the world is useless without specifics regarding implementation, which is the System Administratorʹs job. Therefore, the next two sections cover both COINS and operating system backups.
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COINS Backups
When COINS is installed on your system, a menu option called late backup or scheduled backup (Version 6) is available on the system. Its purpose is to allow System Administrators to designate a backup of their choice at the time of their choice. This backup is then repeated nightly to ensure that a recent backup is available in the event of a disaster. Once the backup begins, users are not allowed to log into the system.
Note
Additional information can be found in the System Overview docu‐
ment on the COINS USA documentation CD.
Most System Administrators set the backup to run in the evening, when no one is using the system. After the backup is complete, you can choose to verify it. The verify process ensures that all the data is accessible on the tape—an extremely important aspect of restoring data.
An important aspect of the Late Backup process is the command that it is using to actually backup the files; use the cpio –ovB command. It is advisable to write this command down on the label you place on the tapes created by the late.bu script. If you need to restore from the backup, knowing the command used to create the backup is helpful in extreme circumstances.
Performing COINS backups in COINS Version 7
Instructions for performing backups in COINS Version 7 (e.g., soft‐
ware level 9.7c2.26):
1.
Login to the UNIX system. If there is a backup user in UNIX, log in with that user name and password. (This user corresponds to the User ID defined within COINS System Administration as the backup user.)
2.
Ensure that there are no users in COINS.
3.
Login to COINS as the backup user as set up in COINS Sys‐
tem Administration. This takes you directly to the backup screen.
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4.
Select the type of backup you want to do.
Performing COINS backups in COINS Version 6
Instructions for performing backups in COINS Version 6 (e.g., soft‐
ware level 7.6c3.24):
34
1.
Login to the UNIX system.
2.
Ensure that there are no users in COINS. 3.
Login to COINS and select System Administration from the COINS Activity Selection Menu.
4.
Select Backup Menu.
5.
Select the type of backup you want to do.
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System Backups: SMIT (AIX), Edge (SCO), and Edge
(Linux)
The best data backups in the world are useless without an operating system (OS) or an OS that requires incremental updates and significant amounts of work to restore it to the necessary state. As with the COINS backup, the purpose of an OS backup is to ensure that in the event of disaster (e.g., a hardware crash or a fouled operating system upgrade), the odds for a quick, full, and working recovery are as high as possible.
Every experienced System Administrator either knows or has heard stories of server disasters where there were either no backups or the backups were bad. Like most negative events in life, we assume they will not happen to us. With computers, the story is different. This leaves the System Administrator in a rather precarious position of waiting for the inevitable.
Using SMIT to Backup an AIX Operating System (for
GUI)
The SMIT backup is different from the COINS backup in that it is used primarily to backup the operating system.
Use the following procedure to backup the AIX Operating System to tape with the GUI version of SMIT.
1.
Put a tape in the tape drive.
2.
From the UNIX prompt, type smit and press [Enter].
3.
Click on System Storage Management (Physical & Logical Storage).
4.
Click on System Backup Manager.
5.
Click on Back Up the System. Figure 1‐3, SMIT Options list appears with a list of options.
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Figure 1‐3: SMIT Options list
36
6.
At the Backup DEVICE or FILE prompt, click on List. A list of items to choose from appears.
7.
Select the desired device from the list (e.g., 4.0 GB 4mm Tape Drive).
8.
At the EXPAND /tmp if needed? prompt, click on List, then click on yes to turn EXPAND on.
9.
Click on OK to run the backup. Figure 1‐4, SMIT Backup Progress appears to show backup progress.
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Figure 1‐4: SMIT Backup Progress
Using SMIT to Backup an AIX Operating System
(Character)
Use the following procedure to backup the AIX Operating System to tape with the character version of SMIT.
1.
Put a tape in the tape drive.
2.
From the UNIX prompt, type smitty.
3.
Press the down arrow [ ↓ ] to highlight System Storage Man‐
agement (Physical & Logical Storage), then press [Enter] to select it.
4.
Press the down arrow [ ↓ ] to highlight System Backup Man‐
ager, then press [Enter] to select it.
5.
Press [Enter] to select Back Up the System. Figure 1‐5, Back Up the System appears with a list of options.
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Figure 1‐5: Back Up the System
6.
38
At the Backup DEVICE or FILE prompt, click on [F4] to view a list of backup devices, as shown on Figure 1‐6, Select Backup Device.
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Figure 1‐6: Select Backup Device
7.
Use the down arrow [↓] to highlight the device you are using for backup. Press [Enter] when the device you need is high‐
lighted, such as /dev/rmt0.
8.
Use the down arrow [↓] to go to the EXPAND /tmp if needed? prompt. Press the [Tab] key to change the option to Yes.
9.
Press [Enter] to begin the backup process. Figure 1‐7, Command Status appears to show backup progress.
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Figure 1‐7: Command Status
Using BackupEdge to Backup an SCO UNIX, Linux, or
UnixWare System
Use the following procedure to backup the SCO UNIX, Linux, or Unix‐
Ware system using BackupEdge.
A. Begin BackupEdge
1.
Login to your SCO UNIX, Linux, or UnixWare machine as the r o o t user and enter the appropriate password.
40
2.
Double click the UNIX icon on your desktop.
3.
Type go at the prompt to enter COINS.
4.
Select option 5 (System Administrator) and enter the pass‐
word.
5.
Select option 5 (UNIX).
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6.
Type edgemenu at the UNIX root prompt. The BackupEDGE Master Menu displays, as pictured in Screen 1‐8, BackupEdge Master Menu.
Figure 1‐8: BackupEdge Master Menu
7.
Please type the letter of your selection and press [Enter]. Select option A (Perform a MASTER Backup), then press [Enter].
B. Begin Master Backup
1.
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After you have chosen option A from the BackupEdge Master Menu, the screen shown in Figure 1‐9, Master Backup Screen appears. Use this screen to begin the Master Backup process.
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Figure 1‐9: Master Backup Screen
2.
Answer the questions on the Master Backup screen as follows:
Do you w a n t to e x c l u d e a n y dir e ct ori e s? ( Y / N )
Press [Enter] to accept the default choice of NO.
Do you want to exclude any files? (Y/N)
Press [Enter] to accept the default choice of NO.
Allow Single Files To Be Split Across Volumes (Y/N)
Press [Enter] to accept the default choice of YES.
3.
Insert the first tape, then press [Enter].
Type y when you are ready to start the backup process.
Note
If a white screen labeled Error appears at this point, close the
screen by choosing the Close command at the bottom of the screen.
As the backup process begins, you should see a screen scrolling through the information being backed up. This process takes a while, depending on how much OS data needs to be backed up.
Note
You are prompted to insert additional backup tapes, if needed,
during the backup process. Make sure to label these tapes in
sequence as you use them (e.g., Tape 1, Tape 2).
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C. Verify Backup
After you have performed the Master Backup process, verify that you can restore this information from BackupEdge.
Figure 1‐10: BackupEdge Master Menu
1.
From the BackupEdge Master Menu, select option E (List / Verify / Read Label). Press [Enter]. Figure 1‐11, List / Verify / Read Label Screen appears.
Figure 1‐11: List / Verify / Read Label Screen
2.
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Select option C (To Perform A Bit‐Level Verify Of The Archive Volume(s)), then press [Enter].
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3.
Insert the first tape you used for backup (e.g., Tape 1), then enter y when you are ready to begin the verification process.
Note
If the backup process requires more than one tape, you are
prompted for those tapes during the verification process.
4.
At the end of the verification process, you should receive a summary and the following message:
BIT-LEVEL VERIFY CONTENTS OF BACKUP VOLUME(s)
COMPLETE - NO ERRORS. 5.
Press [Enter] to continue.
D. RecoverEDGE
After you have verified the BackupEdge Master Backup, you must cre‐
ate RecoverEDGE diskettes.
1.
From the BackupEdge Master Menu, select option F (Utility Programs Menu). Figure 1‐12, Utility Programs Menu appears.
Figure 1‐12: Utility Programs Menu
2.
44
Select option D (Make RecoverEDGE 2 Diskettes). Figure 1‐13, Command Screen appears.
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Figure 1‐13: Command Screen
3.
With Generate highlighted, press [Enter] to begin the Recover‐
EDGE 2 Diskette creation process.
4.
When prompted, insert a disk into the floppy disk drive and press [Enter].
5.
The following message appears:
The Diskette Will Be Formatted And Verified
Automatically. Continue?
Select Yes. Figure 1‐14, Boot Diskette Creation Screen appears. Messages appear on this screen for each operation performed while creating the boot diskette.
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Figure 1‐14: Boot Diskette Creation Screen
46
6.
When the first disk is complete, label it RecoverEDGE 2
Boot Diskette.
7.
When prompted, insert a second disk into the floppy disk drive and press [Enter]. Figure 1‐15, File System Diskette Screen appears. Messages appear for each operation performed while creating a file system diskette.
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Figure 1‐15: File System Diskette Screen
8.
When the second disk is complete, label it RecoverEDGE 2
Filesystem Diskette.
D. Exit BackupEDGE
1.
Press [Enter] to return to the Command screen.
2.
At the Command screen, select Quit and press [Enter] to exit.
3.
At the BackupEdge Master Menu, press Exit.
4.
At the UNIX prompt, type exit and press [Enter].
5.
When prompted, type y to exit UNIX, then y to exit COINS.
6.
At the prompt, type exit to leave the system.
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Disaster Recovery
Disasters include everything from a fouled operating system upgrade to hardware crashes to a lightning strike or other natural event. While disasters canʹt always be prevented, the System Administrator can pre‐
pare for them, so that recovery is as quick and complete as possible.
Uninterruptible Power Supply
The COINS server should be connected to an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). The purpose is to maintain power to your server in case of a power failure. Some UPS models can also provide power stabiliza‐
tion in case of a brownout.
Some types of UPS come with software that performs an orderly shut‐
down if an extended power outage occurs (i.e., one that lasts longer than the UPS battery life).
Backups
COINS backups should be done daily. The server, operating system, and COINS programs can be replaced with relative ease, but your dynamic COINS data cannot. The only place it resides is on your server and your backup tapes. (See COINS Backups on page 33 for information on performing a COINS backup.) COINS USA has established the fol‐
lowing general guidelines for COINS backups:
‹ Use a different tape for each day of the working week.
‹ Have 4 weeks worth of tapes.
‹ Insert new tapes into the rotation every year.
‹ Store monthly backups for one year.
‹ Keep a yearly backup indefinitely.
COINS USA recommends that you make an archival copy of the annual year‐end backup and store it in a safe, secure loca‐
tion.
‹ Keep your backup tapes in a fireproof safe, or keep copies at an off‐site location.
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Operating system backups should be performed every three months or whenever changes are made to the operating system. (See System Back‐
ups: SMIT (AIX), Edge (SCO), and Edge (Linux) for information on tools you can use to back up the operating system.) Keep multiple copies of your operating system backups, including some in a fireproof safe or offsite.
Environmental Factors
You should take your server’s environment into consideration to help prevent disasters.
Temperature
Your server should be located in a relatively cool area. Com‐
puter down‐time is commonly caused by temperature increases. Also, if the power to your building should fail, a UPS connected to your server should keep the server running, even when the air conditioning is not running. This situation can cause the server to overheat.
Water
The server should not be exposed to water or extreme mois‐
ture. Water can come from a variety of sources, such as con‐
densation overflow from an air conditioning system, ruptured waterpipes, structural leaks from outside the building, water from sprinkler systems, and a variety of other sources.
Humidity
If the server is located in a humid area, the moisture in the air can accelerate oxidation of electronic circuits, conductors, and connectors, as well as provide highly resistant current paths that can make a circuit perform unpredictably. A lack of mois‐
ture in the air increases the potential for shocking the server with static electricity, which leads to the possibility of frying computer circuits.
Smoke/Fire
Contamination from smoke can deposit particles on disk and tape surfaces that can render recorded data unrecoverable. Fire and heat can cause thermal damage to a server. In the event of a fire, either water from sprinklers or Halon from a fire extin‐
guishing system can wreak havoc with your computer equip‐
ment.
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Power Stresses
Power irregularities, such as unpredictable spikes, drops, blackouts, continuous bouts of low voltage or high voltage, contamination from high frequency noise, failure of backup generators, or failure of your UPS can all cause data loss.
Restricted Air Flow
Failure of chassis fans or blockage of air conditioning ducts can decrease the cooling air flow around your computer equip‐
ment. This can cause the temperature to rise and thus damage your equipment.
Dust
Dust is everywhere and is seemingly unavoidable. Dust causes problems when it contaminates your disk/tape drive. It can also create thermal insulation and cause the temperature of computer equipment to rise. It is therefore a good practice to keep the environment surrounding your equipment as dust free as possible.
Human
Human factors take many forms. Unauthorized personnel can maliciously destroy or steal data and equipment. Depending on the sensitivity and value of your data and equipment, you may wish to consider security measures in the environment of your computer equipment. Most human factors, however, take the form of accidents, such as accidentally deleting data or knocking over and damaging/destroying equipment. Educa‐
tion is often the key to preventing these disasters.
Test Plan
Having a UPS, backups, and a proper environment for your equip‐
ment are all measures for protecting your equipment and the data that reside therein. Probably one of the most important measures for recov‐
ery is having a plan. Create a test plan to determine how long it would take to restore everything and get your system back up and running. Test the plan to make sure it will work in the event of an actual disas‐
ter. By so doing, you can find out if your backups work and if you can restore your operating system.
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You should also consider that you may need to order replacement computer equipment. Make an inventory of the equipment you cur‐
rently have so you know what to order. Keep this list offsite. You should also keep backups of your data offsite. Once you have your new equipment, restore the system and data from backups. If you have previously tested your plan, this should work. After everything is restored, perform a full system backup of the new system.
For extra protection, COINS USA offers a Disaster Recovery Service. This service transfers the COINS license to a client’s second machine. COINS USA also assists with the initial setup of the auxiliary machine. It is probably best to keep this machine in a different location.
System Maintenance
Check hardware error reports. Most devices post errors before failing, and these errors are noted in the hardware error report. On AIX sys‐
tems, use the command errpt to check this. On SCO systems, check the contents of the /usr/adm/messages file. On UnixWare systems, the file is located at /var/adm/log/osmlog. You should do this weekly, if possible.
The tape drive responsible for backing up your COINS data should be cleaned periodically. Most tape drives have an error light to indicate when it needs cleaning. If not, clean the drive every three months.
Check database log files for errors. Database log files can also point to system problems. At the very least, this should be done monthly.
Reboot the server weekly. Shutting down clears out shared memory as well as resets ports. This keeps your system running at peak perfor‐
mance.
Data Redundancy
Relying on tape backup is not always the best answer. Hardware redundancy can be a better method. There are many levels of hard‐
ware redundancy ranging from having extra disk space, to mirroring, to clustering.
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Hardware Maintenance Agreement
In the case of any type of hardware failure, you need to call upon the hardware vendor who sold you the system to replace any defective parts or make the necessary repairs. It is imperative that a hardware maintenance agreement be in place for just such an event.
For AIX users with IBM Hardware Support agreements:
1.
Notify COINS USA of the problem at (518) C‐4‐COINS (518‐
242‐6467). This notification lets COINS USA prepare the sup‐
port services you need after IBM has finished its work.
2.
Call IBM Hardware Support at 1‐800‐IBM‐SERV.
3.
Be prepared to provide IBM Hardware Support with the fol‐
lowing information about the machine you are calling about:
4.
•
Type of machine
•
Serial number of your server
•
Accurate description of the problem, complete with error report entries, if possible
•
Directions to your office (for on‐site service)
•
Location of the server in the building (for on‐site service)
Make sure you have a recent operating system backup on hand.
If IBM is not your vendor, ensure that you have a hardware mainte‐
nance agreement in place with another provider, and that you know how to contact that provider for service.
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System Integrity and Performance
Introduction
Maintaining system integrity is not merely keeping the system run‐
ning. If the system performance is not maintained as well, the system becomes unusable.
The main benefit of monitoring system performance is to keep you aware of the server’s status so that corrective action can be taken before the system becomes overloaded or fails. There are several tools and routine maintenance activities that you can use to monitor the serverʹs status and maintain its integrity and performance:
‹ Error reports
‹ Database log files
‹ Weekly shut down
‹ System activity report (SAR)
‹ Disk space
‹ Database size checks
‹ System commands
‹ Separate disks
‹ Additional COINS USA services
Error Reports
The purpose of an error report is to let a knowledgeable user check what could be going on if there is a problem (e.g., if you are trying to load a tape and, for some reason, the tape does not load). The error reports generated by the operating system can tell you a great deal, and can quickly provide a reason for strange performance.
When troubleshooting, you can explore many paths. The error report is only one of them. It should be checked regularly to prevent more serious errors.
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Checking error reports in AIX
Use the following general instructions to check errors reported by your operating system.
1.
To open the AIX error report, type errpt –a|more at a system prompt and press [Enter].
2.
Look for errors that have the P H listing in the third and fourth fields. These are Permanent Hardware errors that need to get fixed.
Example
476B351D 0119183200
4865FA9B 0119163100
ERROR
P H rmt2
P H rmt0
TAPE DRIVE FAILURE
TAPE OPERATION
The second field represents the date and time of the error. The first four numbers are the month and day, the middle four numbers are the time (in 24‐hour notation), and the last two numbers indicate the year. For example, 0119183200 means the error occurred at 1832 (6:32 PM) on January 19, 2000.
Checking error reports in Linux
Use the following general instructions to check errors reported by your operating system. Linux stores error messages in the file usr/log/messages.
1.
To check Linux usr/log/messages, type
cat /usr/log/messages | more
at a system prompt and press [Enter]. This opens the file so you can review it.
2.
Look for messages that contain the word error, since Linux messages take on different forms.
Checking error reports in SCO UNIX
Use the following general instructions to check errors reported by your operating system. SCO UNIX stores error messages in the file usr/adm/messages.
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1.
To check SCO usr/adm/messages, type
cat /usr/adm/messages | more
at a system prompt and press [Enter]. This opens the file so you can review it.
2.
Look for messages that contain the word error, since SCO UNIX messages take on different forms.
Checking error reports in Unix
Use the following general instructions to check errors reported by your operating system.
1.
To check Unix /var/log messages, type /var/log messages at a system prompt and press [Enter]. This opens the file so you can review it.
Checking error reports on UnixWare
Use the following general instructions to check errors reported by your operating system. UnixWare stores error messages in the file /var/adm/log/osmlog.
1.
To check oslog, type cat /var/adm/log/osmlog I more at the system prompt and press [Enter]. This opens the file so you can review it. Press the space bar to continue scrolling through the file page by page.
Database Log Files
Database log files keep an ongoing record of actions performed to the database, including user logins, sessions, server starts and stops, if you truncate before‐image files, etc. They also contain any errors your database might have. As part of your system monitoring service, COINS USA technicians clean out your database logs periodically. This prevents the files from becoming too large and taking up too much space. It also keeps the errors current so you aren’t reviewing antiquated errors. The following is an excerpt from a database log file:
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Fri Nov 17 14:51:58 2000
14:51:58 SRV 0:Multi-user session begin. (333)
14:52:01 SRV 1:The port 2597 is already in use. (785)
14:52:01 SRV 1:Begin normal shutdown. (2248)
14:52:02 SRV 1:Multi-user session end. (334)
Here are some errors that you may encounter in your database log file:
02:00:05
07:07:39
09:48:26
08:55:25
11:27:29
(279)
Usr
Usr
Usr
Usr
Usr
39: SYSTEM ERROR: unable to set semaphore set:A, errno 22. (551)
3: SYSTEM ERROR: strent request for more than 32K. (893)
36: SYSTEM ERROR: Releasing regular latch. latchId: 1. (5028)
36: SYSTEM ERROR: rlrdprv missing part of a note. (867)
6: SYSTEM ERROR: stkpush: stack overflow. Increase the -s parameter.
1.
To open your database log files, enter the directory where they are located. Type cd $DATA at the Unix command prompt and press [Enter]. This should place you in the proper direc‐
tory.
2.
To determine which files you need to examine, type ls -l *.lg at the command prompt and press [Enter]. This gives you a list‐
ing as shown here.
(root)/coinsdb# ls -l *.lg
-rw-rw-rw- 1 root system
-rw-rw-rw- 1 scms staff
-rw-rw-rw- 1 scms staff
-rw-rw-rw- 1 scms staff
-rw-rw-rw- 1 scms staff
-rwxrwxrwx 1 scms staff
-rw-rw-rw- 1 scms staff
-rw-rw-rw- 1 scms staff
3.
56 Dec 08 10:31 cfco1.lg
1991 Aug 17 09:24 cfmas.lg
5819 Dec 11 15:15 coinsco00.lg
8621 Dec 11 15:15 coinsco90.lg
506 Jul 20 10:27 coinshr.lg
9304 Dec 11 15:15 rbdb.lg
407 May 25 2000 rbmas.lg
698 May 25 2000 sfdmas.lg
To inspect your database log, type cat databasename.lg I
more and press [Enter]. Remember to replace databasename with the name of the database you wish to check, such as coinsco10.lg. Press the space bar to continue scrolling through the file page by page. Repeat this process for each database you are concerned about.
•
Errors within your database usually begin with SYSTEM
ERROR, as in the above example. Jot down these errors. Especially take note of the numbers within parentheses at the end of the error line. These are error numbers that can be used to look up specific errors in the Progress Knowl‐
edgebase.
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Example
07:07:39 Usr 3: SYSTEM ERROR: strent request for more than 32K.
(893)
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•
When looking up error 893 in the Knowledgebase, you learn that this error has been known to be caused by run‐
ning many persistent procedures. The Knowledgebase also provides possible solutions. In this case, it suggests adding more physical memory or increasing the -B parameter for the database.
•
If you are concerned about errors you find in your database log files, enter a call with COINS USA’s support services and provide the error number and description.
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Weekly Server Shutdown
The COINS server should be shut down once a week, at a regularly scheduled time. Unlike a web server that needs to be up at all times, the COINS server needs to be shut down on a regular basis. Shutting down the server helps keep the memory clean and the system running at peak performance when it is needed most. The uptime command tells you how long the system has been up. (See uptime Command on page 66 for more information about this com‐
mand.)
Before shutting down the server
Do the following before you shut down the server:
‹ Check for active users and processes. Make sure all users are out of the system.
‹ Perform the regular daily backup.
Shutting down the server in AIX
Follow these general instructions to shut down the COINS server in an AIX system:
‹ To shut down a machine completely, type shutdown –F.
‹ To reboot an AIX computer, type shutdown –Fr.
Shutting down the server in Linux
Follow these general instructions to shut down the COINS server in a Linux system:
‹ To shutdown a Linux machine, type shutdown now. ‹ To reboot, type reboot.
Shutting down the server in SCO UNIX and UnixWare
Follow these general instructions to shut down the COINS server in an SCO UNIX or UnixWare system:
‹ To shutdown an SCO or UnixWare machine, type cd / to change to the root directory.
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‹ Type shutdown –y –g0. ‹ To reboot, type shutdown –y –g0 –i6.
Note
To restart the server after a full shutdown, press the Power button
located on the front of the server.
Rebooting the server
Follow these general instructions to reboot the COINS server:
In an AIX system:
To reboot an AIX computer, type shutdown –Fr.
In an SCO UNIX or UnixWare system:
To reboot an SCO or UnixWare machine, type shutdown –y
–g0 –i6.
In a Linux system:
To reboot a Linux machine, type reboot.
Important tasks are performed each time you reboot your server, including the deletion of files from the temporary directories and per‐
formance checks on the file systems. It is important to reboot your server on a weekly basis to clear shared memory and reset the ports. If PCs connected to your server should fail for some reason, processes may remain in place and tie up memory, even though the PC is down.
To continue using the server indefinitely without rebooting may even‐
tually lead to a variety of errors and performance issues. However, if you maintain a rebooting routine, you can free up memory that has remained in limbo due to ghost processes. What this means for your system is improved performance, or at the very least, you can main‐
tain the status quo of your system. Rebooting is often the solution to occasional problems and errors that arise.
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System Activity Report
If you would like to see how your system is performing, use the Sys‐
tem Activity Report (SAR)—a good performance utility.
Note
This report does not work in Linux.
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Type sar 5 5 at the UNIX command prompt and press [Enter].
3.
Five samples quickly appear on the screen at five second inter‐
vals. The following is an example of results you may receive:
16:41:18 %usr %sys %wio %idle
16:41:23
8
0
1
90
16:41:28
9
1
3
86
16:41:33
7
3
0
89
16:41:38
9
8
12
71
16:41:43
6
0
0
94
Average
8
3
3
86
•
The %usr column represents the amount of time the pro‐
cessor spends on user processes.
•
The %sys column represents the amount of time the pro‐
cessor spends on operating system functions.
•
The %wio column represents the amount of time the pro‐
cessor spends waiting for input/output on disk drives to complete.
•
The %idle column represents the amount of time the pro‐
cessor remains idle with no outstanding disk I/O requests.
The next example demonstrates statistics you may see that rep‐
resent problems:
60
%usr
%sys
%wio
%idle
Problem
25
15
60
0
Disk bottleneck
50
25
25
0
User process
25
60
15
0
CPU bottleneck
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25
25
15
35
OK
•
If your results match the first row of results on a consistent basis, you may need to look into disk repair or replace‐
ment.
•
If your results match the second row, you should deter‐
mine what processes you are running when you take the results. You may need to schedule some processes over‐
night to free up system resources during the day.
•
If your results match the third row, your processor is too slow and you may need to consider an upgrade to your system.
•
The final row is a balanced load and is fine.
Gather samples at different times to determine the state of your sys‐
tem.
Disk Space
As System Administrator, you should always monitor the available space on the system. When disks run out of space, various problems can occur. Since some issues produce misleading error messages, you should check on the space periodically to make sure there is sufficient space available in each file system.
As a rule, the used space for any file system should not exceed 85%. If you maintain a sizeable ʺcushionʺ of free space, the system can better handle sudden usage spikes.
As System Administrator, you should become familiar with which areas of your disks need growth potential and which do not. With COINS, the areas containing Progress and the COINS program do not need to grow regularly, while the areas that contain your databases and reports need to be able to grow.
Since each system is different, the System Administrator needs to “echo” the environmental variables to determine where everything is stored.
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Showing disk space in an AIX or Linux System
Follow these general instructions to show the amount of disk space available on the COINS server.
1.
Type df –k at a system prompt and press [Enter]. A screen similar to that shown in Figure 1‐16, df ‐k Output appears; the exact information displayed varies from system to system.
2.
Review the results for file systems that have a %Used greater than 85%.
Figure 1‐16: df ‐k Output
Filesystem
/dev/hd4
/dev/hd2
/dev/hd9var
/dev/hd3
/dev/hd1
1024-blocks
32768
385024
40960
16384
606208
Free
26320
5968
29932
13940
97592
%Used
20%
99%
27%
15%
84%
Iused
1004
18393
404
218
26297
%Iused
7%
20%
4%
6%
18%
Mounted on
/
/usr
/var
/tmp
/home
Note
In an AIX system, there are typically four file systems for COINS.
Leave as much room as possible for future growth.
/coins
Contains COINS files
/coinsdb
Contains the COINS database; this is an active file system; requires swap space and room for growth
/progress
Contains Progress software; fairly static in size
/coinsprog
Contains the COINS application software; fairly static in size
These four locations are file systems that can be administered independently; if new space is needed and empty space is available, it is allocated automatically.
Showing disk space in an SCO UNIX or UnixWare
System
Follow these general instructions to show the amount of disk space available on the COINS server.
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1.
Type dfspace at a system prompt and press [Enter]. A screen similar to that shown in Figure 1‐17, dfspace Output, appears; the exact information displayed varies from system to system.
2.
Review the results for file systems with less than 15% available disk space.
Figure 1‐17: dfspace Output
/
:Disk space: 40.44 MB of 422.00 MB available (9.58%).
/stand :Disk space: 6.88 MB of 14.99 MB available (45.87%).
/u
:Disk space: 1268.44 MB of 3600.99 MB available (35.22%)
Note
SCO UNIX and UnixWare are limited in their ability to allocate
new space, so it is imperative that sufficient space is allocated to
the file system containing COINS, the databases, and PROGRESS
during installation. If that fills up, there are issues; for example,
reports may not run or users wonʹt be able to add information to
the database.
Checking Database Sizes
The size of your database is an important factor to monitor. With a multi‐volume database, your variable length extent must be moni‐
tored for growth to determine if new extents should be added. The variable length extent should not exceed the recommended 1.65 gigabytes. It is also necessary to know if there is room available to copy your largest database. If there is no room, it is difficult to create end of year databases, make room for upgrades, etc. You must know database sizes to determine rate of growth and to help determine if there is enough system space to maintain the databases.
The following information allows you to check your database growth at your convenience.
1.
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To view the size of your database(s), enter the directory where your database files are located. Type cd $DATA at the UNIX command prompt and press [Enter]. This should place you in the proper directory.
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2.
To determine which files you need to examine, type ls -1 *.db at the command prompt and press [Enter]. This gives you a listing similar to the following:
(root)/coinsdb# ls -1 *.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 root
system
327680 Dec 08 10:31 cfco1.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
327680 Aug 17 09:24 cfmas.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
9732096 Dec 12 14:13 coinsco00.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
9797632 Dec 12 14:11 coinsco90.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
2899968 Jul 20 10:27 coinshr.db
-rwxrwxrwx
1 scms
staff
180224 Dec 12 14:10 rbdb.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
180224 Jan 25 2000 rbmas.db
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
327680 Aug 12 1998 sfdmas.db
In this single volume example, coinsco90.db (Company 90) is approximately a 9.7 megabyte database.
3.
If your database is multi‐volume, you must type ls -l *.d* at the command prompt and press [Enter]. This gives you a list‐
ing similar to the following:
(root)/coinsdb# ls -1 *.d*
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
250000000 Dec 12 14:43
coinsm12.d1
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
250000000 Dec 12 14:43
coinsm12.d2
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
1024 Dec 12 14:43 coinsm12.d3
-rw-rw-rw-
1 scms
staff
2048 Dec 12 14:42 coinsm12.db
In this multi‐volume example, there are two fixed extents of 250 megabytes and one variable extent of 1 kilobyte. If the vari‐
able length extent begins to grow, it is time to add more data extents.
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Here is a breakdown of what these statistics mean:
A
B
C
D
E
F
-rw-rw-rw-
scms
staff
9797632
Dec 12 14:11
coinsco90.db
•
Column A lists the permissions of the file. A quick glance at this shows that the file has read (r) and write (w) permis‐
sions, but no execute (x) permissions.
•
Column B displays the owner of the file.
•
Column C displays the group to which the file belongs.
•
Column D displays the file size, which is further broken down below.
•
Column E displays the date and time (24‐hour notation) that the file was modified.
•
Column F displays the name of the file. In this case, it is the Company 90 database.
Understanding the size of a file
This is a breakdown of the size of Company 90’s database file coinsco90.db:
G
H
I
J
000
009
797
632
Giga-
Mega-
Kilo-
byte
As you can see from the table, this file is not large enough to fall into the Gigabyte category. The database, however, is 9 megabytes, thus indicating that the file can grow 1.641 gigabytes (1641 megabytes) before it reaches the maximum single volume database limit of 1.65 gigabytes.
‹ If the file size falls within Column J, it is a 632 byte file.
‹ If the file size falls within Column I, it is a 797 kilobyte file.
By breaking the file sizes down in this manner, you can easily deter‐
mine your database size and its room for growth.
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System Commands
This section describes some basic operating system commands that aid in keeping the operating system running at peak performance. If you use these routinely, you should quickly notice when the system begins overloading.
uptime Command
The uptime command provides information concerning how long the system has been up, which is important for planning weekly server shutdowns. See Weekly Server Shutdown on page 58. This command also tells you the time, the number of users, and the load average. ‹ The time and the number of users are self‐explanatory.
‹ The load average is an indicator of how busy the system is. The lower the number, the less busy the system is. Therefore, if the system is running slowly, check the load average; the numbers given reveal if the system is slow due to usage.
ps Command
The ps command displays the processes that are running on the sys‐
tem. It displays information similar to what you see when you press [Ctrl][Alt][Del] in Windows 95, 98, or NT. The more processes running on the system, the greater the load on the system. This command also tells you who is running the process, and which process is the parent of the process in question.
who Command
The who command returns the user names of those logged into the system. This is useful when you need to shut the system down or per‐
form any other maintenance operation that requires everyone to get out of the system. With this command, the System Administrator can identify those in the system and get them out.
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Separate Disks
It is recommended that you use separate disk drives whenever possi‐
ble to help improve the performance of your system and COINS. This speeds up performance by creating greater access to the data.
Information is permanently stored on hard disks. Applications must retrieve this data from the disk drive so that applications can function and individuals can access the data needed to complete their tasks. The design of a hard drive affects the speed at which this information is retrieved.
Hard drives consist of the media that stores the data and a drive head that reads and writes the information to the disk. The drive head can only read or write one piece of information at a time. This has an impact on the applicationʹs performance, particularly if you have many people accessing information on the disk drive or if many pieces of information need to be accessed.
One popular solution to this challenge is to store the data on several disk drives in the system. This provides multiple access points to the data through the different heads of the different disk drives. All COINS clients have the option of creating multi‐volume databases, so that different parts of the database can reside on different disk drives.
COINS USA Services
Other methods are available for you to speed up your system and increase performance. COINS USA offers several services geared toward this purpose.
The Oxygen program includes a service option for COINS USA’s Technical Services Unit to perform system administration duties and preventive maintenance. AIX performance tuning is aimed toward improving the performance of the system. As an example, during AIX performance tuning, swap space can be split across disks or strategically placed close to data to decrease the time the drive head has to travel to get data. Another pos‐
sibility is to put highly used data close together and move less used data together. These strategies are supported by the AIX operating system and greatly improve performance.
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The System Monitoring program gives subscribers special assistance with monitoring and fine tuning their systems. Each month, a COINS USA Technical Services specialist dials into your system, performs minor tuning, and checks for potential problems. COINS USA also provides a monthly report, and performs a more detailed analysis of system use every six months. With these services, we:
‹ Review the Hardware Error Report.
‹ Determine if the server has enough disk space to copy the larg‐
est database.
‹ Implement a scheduled reboot, if requested.
‹ Check database size against limits.
‹ Make hardware recommendations.
‹ Perform basic tuning.
‹ Check database integrity.
‹ Identify bottlenecks, such as insufficient server memory.
The Internet Business Continuity Service can keep you operating when your systems are disabled. For example, you can obtain a COINS license for a backup system or COINS USA can provide off‐site COINS processing over the Internet to a secure hosted server that is available to you when your systems are disabled.
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Printers
Introduction
Three main types of printers can be set up on a UNIX system: serial, parallel, and network. There are many differences between them, and the printer you choose depends mostly on the situation and your orga‐
nization’s needs.
Serial Printers
Serial printers are connected directly to the computer through a serial port. A serial connection is slower than the other types of printer con‐
nections since, as the name indicates, communication takes place seri‐
ally, one bit at a time. Although cable length can approach 50 feet, the printer is still attached to one computer and must be used only by that computer.
Setting up serial printers
Use these general instructions to set up serial printers on your system. The methods vary slightly between AIX and SCO UNIX systems.
In an AIX system:
1.
Type smitty from a prompt while logged in as root.
2.
Select Devices and press [Enter].
3.
Select Printer/Plotter Devices and press [Enter].
4.
Select Add a Printer/Plotter and press [Enter].
5.
Select Other Serial Printer and press [Enter].
6.
Select the appropriate connection type and press [Enter].
7.
Select an available port and press [Enter].
This allows smit to access the printer when setting up a queue. To set up the print queue, follow the instructions below.
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8.
Type smitty from a prompt while logged in as root.
9.
Select Print Spooling and press [Enter].
10.
Select Add a print Queue and press [Enter].
11.
Select the printer type and press [Enter].
12.
Select the printer and press [Enter].
13.
Select ASCII printer type. Use a generic print driver, since COINS does the formatting.
In an SCO UNIX or UnixWare system:
At the prompt:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
At the prompt, type
/usr/lib/lpadmin -ppr1 -v/dev/ttyXX -i$COINSDIR/shaker/dumb.s
and press [Enter].
3.
Type accept pr1 and press [Enter].
4.
Type enable pr1 and press [Enter].
At the system console:
70
1.
Select the Print Manager icon.
2.
Press the Add Printer button.
3.
Select the port.
4.
Select the model, which should be dumb.s.
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Parallel Printers
Parallel printers, like serial printers, connect directly to the server, but they connect through a parallel port rather than a serial port. Speed is the major difference; as the name implies, information is sent in paral‐
lel. This enables more information to reach the printer in the same amount of time as a serial connection can handle.
Another difference is the maximum practical cable length. While a serial printer can have a cable length of up to 50 feet, a parallel printer can only have a cable up to 15 feet.
Setting up parallel printers
In an AIX system:
Follow the instructions for setting up serial printers, except select parallel when prompted for the printer type.
In an SCO UNIX or UnixWare system:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
At the prompt, type /usr/lib/lpadmin -ppr1 -v/dev/lp0 -i$COINSDIR/shaker/dumb.p
and press [Enter].
At the system console:
1.
Select the Print Manager icon.
2.
Press the Add Printer button.
3.
Select the port.
4.
Select the model, which should be dumb.p.
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Network Printers
Network printers are the most popular printer type used in business today. These printers reside on the network; they can be used from any terminal connected to the network. Cable length is not an issue.
Setting up network printers with HP JetDirect
Perform these steps to add a new network printer to the UNIX spooler with any version of HP JetDirect.
1.
Set the printer up in the /etc/hosts file. The following exam‐
ple uses VI, a common UNIX text editor. Adjust the procedure as necessary if you use a different text editor.
a. Log in as root.
b. Type vi /etc/hosts and press [Enter].
c. Press [Shift][G] to go to the end of the file.
d. Add an IP address for the printer, with the printer name in lowercase letters, for example:
99.88.7.2
inv
where the name of the printer is inv.
Note
The name of a printer has a maximum length of 4 characters,
but the print queue name can be any length.
e. Save the changes and exit VI by typing [Esc], then :wq.
2.
Set up the print queue for this printer.
a. Type smit spooler.
b. Set up a single port queue.
c. Select Add a print queue and press [Enter].
d. From the options presented, make the selections specified in Table 1‐3, Add Print Queue Options.
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Table 1‐3: Add Print Queue Options
Option
Setting/Notes
HPJETDIRECT
If connecting the printer via
JetDirect
other
For type of printer; this lets COINS
determine printer type
generic driver
Lets COINS determine the format
Boot/FTP Server
Select #2 Do not make
this Boot/Ftp
Server
e. On the next screen, press the down arrow [↓] to ASCII, type the printer name (e.g., inv), and press [Enter]. f.
Press the down arrow [↓] to hostname ‐> and type the printer name again, e.g., inv. (The printer must already be established in the /etc/hosts file, as described in Step 1.)
g. Press [Enter] to accept.
h. Press [ESC][3] twice to return to the main menu.
3.
Change the Default Printer Attributes for the print queue so COINS can set them internally to what is needed.
a. Select Change/Show Print Queue Characteristics.
b. Select Default printer job attribute.
c. Change specific parameter settings as shown in Table 1‐4, Default Printer Job Attributes for all Print Queues.
Note
Donʹt press [Enter] until you finish making all the changes!
Use the arrow key [↓] to move to the next item, and use the
[Tab] key to toggle an entry from Yes to No or from No to Yes.
Table 1‐4: Default Printer Job Attributes for all Print Queues
Attribute
Desired setting
Initialize printer
NO
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Table 1‐4: Default Printer Job Attributes for all Print Queues
Restore
NO
Wrap Long Lines
NO
Send form feed after each job
NO
Lines/page
00
Columns/page
233
4.
Press [Enter] to complete the printer attribute changes.
5.
Quit SMIT by pressing [F10].
6.
Confirm that the print queues are listed correctly by typing lpstat –t at the system prompt.
Setting up network printers on SCO
Use these instructions to add a new network printer to the UNIX spooler with any version of HP JetDirect.
1.
Set up the printer in the /etc/hosts file. The following example uses VI, a common UNIX text editor. Adjust the pro‐
cedure as necessary if you use a different text editor.
a. Log in as root.
b. Type vi /etc/hosts and press [Enter].
c. Press [Shift][G] to go to the end of the file.
d. Add an IP address for the printer, with the printer name in lowercase letters. For example:
99.88.7.2
inv
where the name of the printer is inv.
Note
The name of the printer has a maximum length of 4 characters,
but the print queue name can be any length.
e. Save the changes and exit VI by typing [Esc], then :wq.
2.
Set up the print queue for this printer.
a. Type scoadmin at the command prompt.
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b. Select Print Manager.
c. Select Add Network Printer and press [Enter].
d. Enter the printer name (e.g., inv) and press [Enter].
e. Select or enter the printer model, hplaserjet.
f.
The protocol for HP printers configured on the network is System V.
g. Enter the name of the host that controls the remote printer, or select a choice from the list.
h. The new printer should appear in the Printer Setup list on the local host. Select Exit to end the Print Manager setup.
Setting up network printers on UnixWare
Use these instructions to add a new network printer to the UNIX spooler with any version of HP JetDirect.
1.
Set the printer up in the /etc/hosts file. The following exam‐
ple uses VI, a common UNIX text editor. Adjust the procedure as necessary if you use a different text editor.
a. Log in as root.
b. Type vi /etc/hosts and press [Enter].
c. Press [Shift][G] to go to the end of the file.
d. Add an IP address for the printer, with the printer name in lowercase letters. For example:
99.88.7.3
inv
where the name of the printer is inv.
Note
The name of the printer has a maximum length of 4 characters,
but the print queue name can be any length.
e. Save the changes and exit VI by typing [Esc], then :wq.
2.
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a. Type scoadmin at the command prompt.
b. Select Printer Setup Manager.
c. Select Add TCP/IP Printer and press [Enter].
d. Enter the printer name (e.g., inv) and press [Enter].
e. Select or enter the printer model, HP LaserJet (Postscript).
f.
The protocol for HP printers configured on the network is lpd (BSD).
g. Enter the name of the host that controls the remote printer, or select a choice from the list.
h. The new printer should appear in the Printer Setup list on the local host. Select Exit to end the Printer Setup Manager.
Printer Security
Printer security is available in COINS Version 7, handled within COINS System Administration. For complete information, see the dis‐
cussion of the Printer File in Chapter 6 of the System Administration Guide.
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Advanced Usage Guide
••••••
Advanced Usage Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Storage Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Adding a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Adding a Physical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Mirroring a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Removing a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Removing a Physical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Adding a Logical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Adding a File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Changing the Size of a File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Removing a File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Progress Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Performing an Index Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Installing Progress v9 on Your Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Installing Progress v9 on Your PC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Multi-volume Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Create a Multi-volume Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Network Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Network Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Graphical User Interface (GUI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
GUI Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
GUI Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Saving the Configuration File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
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Chapter 2: Advanced Usage
Guide
••••••
Storage Management
Introduction
The UNIX storage structure is composed of file systems. Various types of UNIX have slightly different structures. Occasionally, it is necessary to modify how your server storage system is set up. Perhaps you want to add a new volume group or change the size of the file system. This section explains how to use various system storage management tools.
Note
It is highly recommended that you perform a SMIT (AIX) backup
or EdgeBackup (SCO/UnixWare) before and after you make
changes detailed in this section of the manual. Unless otherwise indicated, any mention throughout this manual
of the SCO operating system refers to SCO OpenServer rather than
SCO UnixWare.
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Adding a Volume Group
A volume group is a collection of physical disks (hard drives). Before adding a new volume group, at least one physical volume must exist on the system that is not allocated to another volume group.
Adding a Volume Group using smit (AIX)
1.
To add a volume group, you must first determine which physi‐
cal volumes are available for use. Type lspv and press [Enter] at the command prompt to see a listing similar to the follow‐
ing.
hdisk0 000fa0fd4aca22f0 rootvg hdisk1 000fa0fd89691c4b None* *None indicates that this volume is available for use. 80
2.
When you have the name of the physical volume(s) to add, type smit and press [Enter].
3.
From the System Management screen, select System Storage Management and press [Enter].
4.
At the next screen, select Logical Volume Manager and press [Enter].
5.
Select Volume Groups and press [Enter].
6.
At the following screen, select Add a Volume Group and press [Enter].
7.
The Add a Volume Group screen now appears. You need to supply information about the volume group you are about to create. Enter a name for the volume group in the first field (e.g., coinsvg or newvg).
8.
If you have a 9.1 or 18 gigabyte hard drive, select 32 megabytes for the physical partition size by pressing the [Tab] key. If you have smaller drives, select a physical partition size of 16 mega‐
bytes or smaller depending on the drive.
9.
Using the physical volume names that you acquired through the lspv command in Step 1, press [F4] for a list of available volumes. Use the [F7] key to select which volume(s) to add to your volume group.
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10.
VERY IMPORTANT: Select yes for Activate volume group AUTOMATICALLY at system restart and press [Enter] to save all your information and create the volume group. (See Figure 2‐1, Adding a Volume Group through smit.)
11.
Press [F10] or [Esc][0] to exit smit.
Figure 2‐1: Adding a Volume Group through smit
Adding a Volume Group using scoadmin
(SCO/UnixWare)
SCO OpenServer and UnixWare operating systems do not have the volume group storage structure.
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Adding a Physical Volume
It may sometimes be necessary to add a new hard drive, or physical volume, to a machine. This section outlines how to perform this pro‐
cess.
Note
Check to make sure you are not voiding any warranties by adding
new hardware yourself.
Adding a Physical Volume (AIX)
Occasionally, you may need to add a new physical volume to your already defined volume group for mirroring or other purposes. First, you must know which physical volumes are free and available to be added to a volume group. You can use the lspv command followed by pressing [Enter] to view a listing.
Once you have determined that a physical volume is free, you may add it according to the steps outlined below.
Adding a physical volume from the command line
1.
From the command line, type extendvg <volume group
name> <physical volume name(s)> and press [Enter].
Example
# extendvg newvg hdisk3 hdisk4 hdisk5
Note
It is possible to add more than one physical volume to a vol‐
ume group.
Adding a physical volume from smit
82
1.
Type smit at the command prompt and press [Enter].
2.
At the System Management screen, select System Storage Management and press [Enter].
3.
At the next screen, select Logical Volume Manager and press [Enter].
4.
Select Volume Groups and press [Enter].
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5.
From the Volume Groups menu, select Set Characteristics of a Volume Group and press [Enter].
6.
Select Add a Physical Volume to a Volume Group and press [Enter].
7.
Enter the Volume Group name, or press [F4] to select it from the list.
8.
Type in the Physical Volume name(s), or use [F4] to select the volume(s) from a list. You may enter multiple volumes for this selection.
9.
Press [Enter] to complete the process. 10.
Press [F10] or [ESC][0] to exit the smit screens.
Adding a Physical Volume (SCO/UnixWare)
To add a new hard drive, it must first be physically installed by fol‐
lowing the procedure outlined below. For further information about this procedure, refer to www.sco.com.
1.
Once you power up the machine, the operating system should detect the new hardware.
2.
At the root prompt, type diskadd and press [Enter]. This com‐
mand runs you through the disk add utility.
3.
You should receive a menu similar to the following:
4.
Type y and press [Enter] to continue. Then select 1. Create Par‐
tition, and press [Enter].
5.
At the prompt, select option 1, UNIX, as the type of partition you wish to create, and press [Enter].
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6.
Specify the percentage of the disk that the UNIX partition should use. Type 100 and press [Enter].
7.
Exit and update system configuration by selecting choice 4 from the menu and pressing [Enter].
8.
Skip the surface analysis by typing y and pressing [Enter].
9.
Determine how many file systems you would like to add to the drive, and what they are to be called (i.e., /progress).
10.
Use the default file system type, if possible.
11.
If prompted for block size, select 1024 and press [Enter].
12.
Press [Enter] to enable the Auto‐mount at reboot option.
13.
Enter the size (number of megabytes) to allocate for each file system.
14.
Once you define the new file systems, a listing displays on the screen, and your drive is ready for use if you selected the Auto‐
mount option. You may have to reboot your system at this time if you did not select the Auto‐mount option.
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Mirroring a Volume Group
One popular method of ensuring data integrity is to use RAID. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a way of storing the same data in multiple places, i.e., multiple disks. RAID‐1 is known as disk mirroring, in which at least one drive is a duplicate of another drive.
Mirroring a Volume Group in AIX
1.
Before you can mirror the original drive, you must know which physical volumes are free and available to be added to a vol‐
ume group. These drives must be unused by other volume groups and empty of data. To view a listing of drives, you can use the lspv command and press [Enter]. 2.
From the command line, type extendvg <volume group
name> <physical volume name(s)> and press [Enter].
Example
# extendvg rootvg hdisk1
3.
Type smitty vg and press [Enter] at the command prompt to enter the Volume Groups screen. Smitty vg is the shortcut to the volume group menu currently accessed in the first section entitled Adding a Volume Group on page 80.
4.
Select Mirror a Volume Group and press [Enter].
5.
Enter the name of the volume group in the field, or press [F4] to view a list of volume groups available. Press [Enter].
6.
Select Foreground for the Mirror sync mode option.
7.
Type the name of the physical volume where the copy will reside only, or press [F4] to select the volume from the list. If you enter multiple drives, the system tries to create copies on both drives.
8.
Press [Enter] to save your changes and mirror the volume group.
9.
Press [F10] or [Esc][0] to exit smit. See Figure 2‐2, Mirroring a Volume Group in smit.
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Figure 2‐2: Mirroring a Volume Group in smit
10.
At the command prompt, type syncvg –v <volume group
name> and press [Enter]. This synchronizes the mirror.
11.
If mirroring the root volume group, type bosboot –a at the next prompt and press [Enter]. This places the boot image on all the disks that belong to rootvg.
12.
If mirroring the root volume group, you must update the boot list. Type bootlist –m normal fd0 cd0 hdisk0 hdisk1 and press [Enter]. This command tells the system to try booting first from the floppy, then from the CD, and finally from the hard drives. This is necessary if you need to boot into maintenance mode. 13.
To confirm the mirror of your volume group, type lsvg –l
<volume group name> and press [Enter]. You should see results similar to Table 2‐1, Results of Mirror.
Table 2‐1: Results of Mirror
# lsvg -l rootvg
rootvg:
86
LV NAME
TYPE
LPs
PPs
PVs
LV STATE
MOUNT POINT
hd5
boot
1
2
2
closed/syncd
N/A
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Table 2‐1: Results of Mirror
hd6
paging
48
96
2
open/syncd
N/A
hd8
jfslog
1
2
2
open/syncd
N/A
hd4
jfs
8
16
2
open/syncd
/
hd2
jfs
48
96
2
open/syncd
/usr
hd9var
jfs
11
22
2
open/syncd
/var
hd3
jfs
2
4
2
open/syncd
/tmp
hd1
jfs
98
196
2
open/syncd
/home
Notice the physical partition column (PPs) has two physical partitions for a solitary logical partition (LP), thus indicating a mirrored copy. More than one physical volume (PVs) can rep‐
resent striped data as well. Mirroring a Volume Group in SCO/UnixWare
SCO and UnixWare systems are often mirrored through hardware, and an adapter handles the array.
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Removing a Volume Group
If you find it necessary to remove a volume group, follow the instruc‐
tions here.
Warning
Be absolutely sure you no longer need the volume group, or that you
have backed up the information elsewhere if you need to do so, before
you remove the volume group.
Removing a Volume Group in AIX
1.
Type smitty vg at the command prompt and press [Enter].
2.
At the Remove a Volume Group screen, type the name of the volume group to remove, or use [F4] to generate a list of options.
Warning
Do not remove the rootvg.
3.
Press [Enter] to erase the volume group.
4.
Press [F10] to exit the smit screens when you have finished. Removing the volume group also removes the logical volumes associated with the volume group. The physical volumes are then available for use in other volume groups or a new volume group.
Removing a Volume Group in SCO/UnixWare
SCO OpenServer and UnixWare operating systems do not have the volume group storage structure.
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Removing a Physical Volume
Even within the best systems, there may be faulty equipment. Hard drives can fail. Perhaps you wish to remove the older, slower drive and get a newer, faster drive with more storage capacity.
Before you remove a physical volume, however, it may be necessary to move the contents of that physical volume to another location.
AIX
Moving the contents of a Physical Volume in AIX
1.
To enter the System Management screen, type smit at the command prompt and press [Enter].
2.
Select System Storage Management and press [Enter].
3.
Select Logical Volume Manager and press [Enter].
4.
Select Physical Volumes and press [Enter].
5.
Select Move Contents of a Physical Volume and press [Enter].
6.
Enter the Source physical volume name, or press [F4] to view a listing of physical volume names.
7.
Enter the Destination physical volume(s). You may also select a specific logical volume. 8.
Press [Enter] to move the data. This process may take several hours to complete, depending upon the volume of data to be moved. When the data migration is finished, press [F10] to exit the smit screens.
Removing a Physical Volume in AIX
Once you have decided what to do with the data on the physical vol‐
ume, you can remove the physical volume from the volume group.
1.
To enter the System Management screen, type smit at the command prompt and press [Enter].
2.
Select System Storage Management and press [Enter].
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3.
Select Logical Volume Manager and press [Enter].
4.
Select Volume Groups and press [Enter].
5.
Select Set Characteristics of a Volume Group and press [Enter].
6.
Select Remove a Physical Volume from a Volume Group and press [Enter].
7.
Enter the name of the Volume Group in the appropriate field, or select the name from the list by pressing [F4]. Press [Enter].
8.
Once you have entered the name of the volume group, you must specify the Physical Volume name(s) that you wish to remove. You can select the volume(s) by pressing [F4] for a list.
9.
Press [Enter] to remove the physical volume(s). Use [F10] to exit the smit screens.
SCO/UnixWare
Determining the Disk Number in SCO/UnixWare
When you invoke the df –k command, you may notice a listing simi‐
lar to the following:
/dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0s0 15486660 6430511 9056149 42%
/coins
c0b0t1d0s0 is the disk number in this instance. An explanation of this number is as follows:
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C
The SCSI adapter board or IDE controller in the system.
May contain a value from 0 to 31.
B
The HBA bus number, ranging from 0 to 7 (or 0 for IDE
disks).
T
The SCSI target controller number. For IDE, this is 0 for
the first target and 1 for the second target. The value for
T may fall between 0 and 31.
D
The logical unit number of the disk device. This value is
0 for IDE. The value for D may also fall within the range
of 0 and 31.
S
The slice number. This ranges from 0 to b7 in
hexadecimal format.
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P
The partition number, which ranges from 0 to 4 to
specify an entry in the fdisk partition table. The value
0 refers to the whole disk, p1 to p4 refer to partitions as
they are displayed by the fdisk command.
Moving the contents of a Physical Volume in SCO/UnixWare
To copy the contents of a hard drive, you must first determine which file systems occupy the drive. (See above for information on disks cor‐
responding to file systems.) Once the file systems are determined, you can copy them using the cpio command.
1.
Type cd /<file system> and press [Enter] to enter the file sys‐
tem you wish to copy (i.e., cd /home).
2.
Type find . –print |cpio –pdm <destination directory> and press [Enter]. This does not actually remove the contents from a hard drive; it copies the data to a new location.
Removing a Physical Volume in SCO/UnixWare
1.
Type diskrm <disknumber> and press [Enter]. For exam‐
ple, to remove the disk described in the above section, you would type diskrm c0b0t1d0s0. This command updates the /etc/vfstab file.
2.
To verify the disk number, use the prtvtoc command. This command is a disk information utility. Type prtvtoc
/dev/rdsk/c0b0t1d0s0 |more and press [Enter] to view information on the disk.
3.
The disk may now be physically removed from the system. UnixWare auto‐configuration removes the disk from the kernel upon rebooting if it is not physically available.
Note
The disk c0b0t0d0 is not removable. Also, for OpenServer 5
users, there are no /dev devices for file systems in UnixWare. The
/etc/vfstab file associates file systems with the slices in
/dev/dsk and /dev/rdsk. Visit www.sco.com for more infor‐
mation.
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Adding a Logical Volume
A logical volume is, for all intents and purposes, a defined empty space waiting to be formatted for use. Usually you first define the logi‐
cal volume, and then create a file system in that space. This gives you the greatest management of disk space.
Determining Physical Partition size in AIX
The first step in creating a logical volume is to determine how many logical partitions the volume needs. To decide upon this number, you must first figure out the physical partition size of the volume group where the new logical volume will reside.
1.
Type lsvg at a command prompt and press [Enter] to view a listing of the volume groups available on your system. Deter‐
mine the volume group to which you are adding the logical volume.
2.
At a command prompt, type lsvg <volume group name> and press [Enter].
3.
Note the number following the PP SIZE label. See Figure 2‐3, Determining Physical Partition size for clarification.
Figure 2‐3: Determining Physical Partition size
Adding a Logical Volume in AIX
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1.
Type smit at the root prompt and press [Enter] at the com‐
mand prompt to enter the System Management screen.
2.
Select the System Storage Management option and press [Enter].
3.
Select Logical Volume Manager and press [Enter].
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4.
Select Logical Volumes and press [Enter] from the following menu.
5.
Select Add a Logical Volume and press [Enter].
6.
Press [F4] to get a list of volume groups, or type the name of the volume group where you are adding the logical volume.
7.
Type the name of the Logical Volume. This name is usually the same as the file system that resides in the logical volume.
8.
To determine the number of Logical Partitions, divide the desired size of the logical volume by the physical partition size determined in the section above (i.e., for a 320 MB file system, you would need 20 16MB logical partitions or 10 32MB logical partitions). Refer to Figure 2‐4, Adding a Logical Volume for an example.
9.
Type [F10] to exit the smit screens.
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The PHYSICAL VOLUME name allows you to enter the physical volumes you want to use for this logical volume. If you do not specify a physical volume, then the first physi‐
cal volume in the system is used.
•
The parameter for POSITION on the physical volume spec‐
ifies where the data is located on the drive. In this example, placing the data in the middle of the drive cuts down on the movement of the read/write head and makes disk access time more efficient.
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Figure 2‐4: Adding a Logical Volume
Adding a Logical Volume in SCO/UnixWare
SCO/UnixWare does not have this capability.
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Adding a File System
A file system is essentially a group of files and directories. The inher‐
ent file system type is a journaled file system (JFS) for AIX. Each jour‐
naled file system resides on a separate logical volume, defined as outlined above. The default file system type for SCO/UnixWare is Ver‐
itas.
Adding a File System in AIX
1.
Type smit at the command prompt and press [Enter].
2.
Select System Storage Management from the screen that appears and press [Enter].
3.
Select File Systems and press [Enter].
4.
Select Add/Change/Show/Delete File Systems from the next menu and press [Enter].
5.
Select Journaled File Systems and press [Enter].
6.
Select Add a Journaled File System on a Previously Defined Logical Volume and press [Enter]. A logical volume must be defined. See the previous section entitled, Adding a Logical Vol‐
ume in AIX.
7.
Select Add a Standard Journaled File System from the final screen and press [Enter].
8.
Type in the name of the Logical Volume determined in the previous section, or press [F4] to select the appropriate Logical Volume from the list.
9.
For the mount point, type a forward slash, [/], and the name of the logical volume as previously determined (i.e., the logical volume progress has a mount point of /progress).
10.
It is *very important* to select Yes for the Mount AUTO‐
MATICALLY at system restart option. Use the [Tab] key to make this selection.
11.
Press [Enter] to save your changes. Use [F10] to leave the smit screen. See Figure 2‐5, Adding a File System for an example.
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Figure 2‐5: Adding a File System
12.
At the root prompt, type mount <mount point> and press [Enter] (i.e., mount /progress) to make your file system available.
Adding a File System in SCO/UnixWare
SCO/UnixWare has a few types of file systems. The only file system that is backwards compatible from UnixWare 7 to OpenServer 5 is the System 5 file system (s5). Examples of some file systems are:
96
vxfs
VERITAS file system (default root file system)
cdfs
CDROM file system
NFS
Network file system
bfs
Boot file system (mounted to /stand)
memfs
Memory file system (volatile)
s5
System 5 file system
ufs
Extended System 5 file system
sfs
Secure file system
dosfs
DOS file system (provides DOS capabilities)
fd
File Descriptor file system (mounted to /dev/fd)
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1.
To create a file system, type mkfs –F <file system type>
<disk> <size> and press [Enter]. You may enter the size in megabytes or gigabytes as long as you designate it with either an M or G, i.e., mkfs –F vxfs /dev/dsk/c0b0t0d0s0
256 M.
2.
Type mount </file system> and press [Enter] to mount your file system.
3.
To check your file system type, type fstyp <file system
name> and press [Enter] (for example, fstyp /u). The fstyp command does not work for memfs, nfs, or pseudo‐file sys‐
tems.
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Changing the Size of a File System
Changing the size of a File System in AIX
1.
Determine how much memory you wish to add to your file system.
2.
From the command line, type chfs –a size=<new size>
/<file system name> and press [Enter]. This command changes the size of the file system named to the size listed in 512‐byte blocks. For example, chfs –a size=24576
/progress would set the /progress file system to 12 MB. You cannot make the file sys‐
tem smaller than already defined.
3.
To increase the file system size without defining an exact new size, type chfs –a size=+<size increment> /<file system
name> and press [Enter]. This command increases the size of the named file system by the increment listed in 512‐byte blocks. For example, chfs –a size=+24576 /progress would add 12 MB to the current size of the file system.
Changing the size of a File System in SCO/UnixWare
The administrative utilities of SCO/UnixWare do not allow for this option.
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Removing a File System
Removing a File System in AIX
1.
To remove a file system, you must first unmount it by typing unmount <file system name> at the command prompt and pressing [Enter], i.e., unmount /coins. Make sure you are not located in the file system that you are unmounting, and you may wish to change directory to root (cd /). 2.
Type mount and press [Enter] at the prompt to ensure that the file system has been successfully unmounted.
3.
To enter the smit screens specifically for the removal of a file system, type smit rmjfs and press [Enter].
4.
At the Remove a Journaled File System screen, type the name of the file system to remove, or press [F4] for a listing. 5.
Use the [Tab] key to switch the Remove Mount Point selection to yes. Press [Enter] to complete the command.
Removing a File System in SCO/UnixWare
1.
To remove a file system, you must first unmount it by typing unmount <file system name> at the command prompt and pressing [Enter]. Make sure you are not located in the file system that you are unmounting, and you may wish to change directory to root (cd /).
2.
Type scoadmin at the prompt and press [Enter].
3.
From the list provided, select Filesystem Manager, then arrow over to the Mount menu.
4.
Select Remove Mount Configuration from the Mount menu. Click Yes at the prompt. This removes the mount information from the Filesystem Manager list.
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Progress
Introduction
This section demonstrates how you can employ Progress utilities to maintain your database and diagnose problems, how you can perform an index rebuild to repair your database, and how you can install Progress version 9 on your server from CD.
Progress Monitor
One Progress utility, the Progress Monitor, provides you with a vari‐
ety of options that display information about the database. Most of these options can be used to view statistics about the database that can help you troubleshoot problems. For more information on any of these options, please refer to your Progress System Administration Guide.
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1.
In order to use the Progress Monitor, the database must be in use, and you must run the command from the directory where the database is located. At the command prompt, type promon <database name> and press [Enter]. 2.
A menu similar to Figure 2‐6, Progress Monitor appears.
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Figure 2‐6: Progress Monitor
3.
In the sections that follow, each option provided by the Progress Monitor is outlined. Refer to your Progress System Administration Guide for more detailed instructions.
Option 1 - User Control
The User Control option displays information for each database pro‐
cess. From this option, you can see which users are logged into the database and what type of process they are running (server, broker, etc.). Also provided are the login date and time. This option can be useful if you want to see how many people are logged into a particular database.
1.
After selecting this option, another menu appears, allowing you to select this tool for all entries, a user number, or a range of user numbers. Table 2‐2, User Control ‐ All Entries gives you a small sample of what may appear after selecting the option for all entries.
Table 2‐2: User Control ‐ All Entries
User Control:
Usr Name
Type
Wait
Trans
PID
Sem
Srv
Login
Time
0 root
BROK
--
0
153522
3
0
02/14/10
1
12:03
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Table 2‐2: User Control ‐ All Entries
1 billsmith
MON
--
0
0
159334
4
0
02/20/10
1
11:30
RETURN - repeat, U - continue uninterrupted, Q - quit:
2.
The Type column normally contains the values BROK for a bro‐
ker process, MON for a monitor process, REMC for a remote client, or SHUT for a database shutdown process. A user usu‐
ally has a SELF type. This column tells you what is going on with the database. 3.
The PID column displays the process identifier, assigned by the operating system. 4.
The Sem column shows the number of the semaphore the pro‐
cess is using. Each process uses one semaphore. For example, user billsmith is running the Progress Monitor using sema‐
phore number 4.
5.
The Srv column is for remote clients (designated in the Type column by REMC) and is the user number of the server against which the client is running.
Option 2 - Locking and Waiting Statistics
This option displays information about record/transaction/schema locks and the time a process waits to obtain the locks for each database process. The first two lines display information about all users. This option shows the number of record locks obtained per user.
1.
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You may select this tool for all entries, a user number, or a range of user numbers. See Figure 2‐7, Locking and Waiting ‐ All Entries for a sample of output for all entries.
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Figure 2‐7: Locking and Waiting ‐ All Entries
2.
The Record column holds the number of record locks obtained and the number of times a user had to wait to obtain a record lock.
3.
The Trans column displays the number of times a transaction lock was issued and the number of times the user had to wait before accessing or skipping a record marked for deletion by an unfinished transaction.
4.
The Schema column shows the total number of times a schema lock was obtained and the number of times the user had to wait to obtain the lock. Since there is only one schema lock, only one user at a time can update any part of the schema.
Option 3 - Block Access
This third menu option displays statistics about the buffer pool; there is also information about the –B parameter. The first line displays information for all users. The Read/Write columns show information about disk input/output; reads and writes are always one block (block size varies from system to system but is usually 512 bytes). Figure 2‐8, Block Access shows output from this option. If there are too many disk reads, you can consider raising the value of the –B parameter to speed things up. Remember, disk input/output is the slowest part of any sys‐
tem.
Figure 2‐8: Block Access
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1.
The DB Reqst column presents information on the number of times the database buffer system was searched to find a block.
2.
The DB/BI/AI Read columns show the number of disk block reads for the database, before‐image file, and after‐image file, respectively.
3.
The DB/BI/AI Write columns show the number of database, before‐image file, and after‐image file block writes to disk, respectively. Option 4 - Record Locking Table
The Record Locking Table option contains entries for record locks, index locks, records with the NO‐LOCK option, and requests for record locks that are in use elsewhere. The size of the record locking table is set with the –L parameter. See Table 2‐3, Record Locking Table Example for an example of this utility.
Table 2‐3: Record Locking Table Example
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Usr
Name
Chain
#
Rec-id
Lock
1
johnd
REC
1
5234
SHR
1
johnd
REC
3
5876
EXCL
2
jdoe
REC
1
5543
NOLK
2
jdoe
REC
4
3456
EXCL
Flags
Q
1.
The Chain type is REC (record lock chain). The # column shows the record lock chain number. Rec‐id is the record ID, i.e., the records locked by each database process. The locking table has many chains to improve performance. Chains 0‐15 are used for record locks.
2.
The Lock column may have one of three values: SHR for Share‐
Lock, EXCL for Exclusive‐Lock, or NOLK for No‐Lock.
3.
The Flags column may contain one of four possible values:
L
Limbo lock. The client released the record but the
transaction is not completed.
P
Purged lock. The lock is no longer held.
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Q
Queued lock. A request for a lock held by another
process.
U
Upgrade request. The client wishes to upgrade a
lock from SHR to EXCL but is waiting for the process
that holds the lock to finish.
You should be aware of the L flag. A user with an L flag can hold up transactions for other users. If this is the case, skip ahead to the section entitled Option L ‐ Resolve Limbo Transac‐
tions on page 109.
Option 5 - Activity
This option shows the total number of events that have occurred on the system and displays the number of events per second. Figure 2‐9, Progress Monitor Activity Option gives you an example of this informa‐
tion.
Figure 2‐9: Progress Monitor Activity Option
1.
While many of the options should be self‐explanatory, Table 2‐4, Event Types gives a brief description of the Event Types you may see. The last line of the report is a summary.
Table 2‐4: Event Types
Event Type
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Table 2‐4: Event Types
106
Commits
Number of transactions committed
Undos
Number of transactions rolled back
Record Updates
Number of records updated
Record Reads
Number of records read
Record Creates
Number of records created
Record Deletes
Number of records deleted
DB Writes
Number of database blocks written to disk
DW Reads
Number of database blocks read from disk
BI Writes
Number of before-image blocks written to disk
BI Reads
Number of before-image blocks read from disk
AI Writes
Number of after-image blocks written to disk
Record Locks
Number of record locks used
Record Waits
Number of times spent waiting to access a
locked record
Checkpoints
Number of checkpoints performed
Buffers Flushed
Number of database buffers flushed during
checkpoints
Buffer Hits
Number of times a record is located in the buffer
pool and does not have to be read from disk. A
value above 85% is good. A value above 95% is
superfluous.
FR Chain
Number of blocks on the database’s free chain
of empty database blocks
RM Chain
Number of blocks on the database’s recordmanagement chain of partially filled database
blocks
Shared Memory
Amount of shared memory used, in kilobytes
Segments
Number of shared memory segments allocated
by Progress
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Option 6 - Shared Resources
1.
The Shared Resources option displays usage statistics and startup parameter settings. Figure 2‐10, Progress Monitor’s Shared Resources Option is a sample of possible output from the shared resources option.
Figure 2‐10: Progress Monitor’s Shared Resources Option
2.
One statistic to be aware of is the Number of semaphores used. The maximum number of semaphores allocated for this database is set in your operating system’s kernel configuration. It is possible to exceed this number.
3.
You should be aware of the Current size of locking table (‐L) statistic. This represents the number of records that can be accessed. Each record, accessed by any user, takes one entry. It is possible to have a lock table overflow for very large transac‐
tions. If this occurs, or you receive a lock table too small error, you need to increase the –L parameter.
Option 7 - Database Status
This option shows database block usage and status information. See Figure 2‐11, Progress Monitor Status Option for possible results from this option.
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Figure 2‐11: Progress Monitor Status Option
Most of these statistics are self‐explanatory; for more information, however, refer to your Progress System Administration Guide. One statis‐
tic of particular note is Record blocks with free space. This free space is created when records are deleted or when the database grows to a new block but does not use the entire new block. If this free space number becomes too large, you can return space to the operating system by dumping and reloading the database.
Option 8 - Shut Down Database
This option is used if you need to shut down a database or disconnect a specific user.
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1.
After choosing this option, a second menu appears that allows you to disconnect a user, perform an unconditional shutdown, or perform an emergency shutdown.
2.
When you select an emergency shutdown, the database is shut down without performing a cleanup, and all connected pro‐
cesses are stopped.
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Option T - Transactions Control
This option displays information about distributed transactions in a database. If there are no limbo transactions, nothing displays. If you do have limbo transactions, you must either abort them or commit them so they do not interfere with other transactions. See the next section entitled Option L ‐ Resolve Limbo Transactions on page 109. The Limbo Transactions Example below is a sample of what you may see in that case.
Figure 2‐12: Limbo Transactions Example
Usr
Name
Trans
Login
Time
R-comm?
Limbo?
Crd?
Coord
Crd-task
3
john
232
02/23/01
2:23
yes
yes
no
db1
245
1.
The R‐comm? column represents ready‐to‐commit processes. If the value is yes, the transaction is halfway done.
2.
The Limbo? column displays transactions that must be resolved.
3.
Crd? indicates whether this database is the coordinator.
4.
The Coord column actually names the coordinator database.
5.
The Crd‐task column displays the number of the coordinator database.
Option L - Resolve Limbo Transactions
This option allows you to resolve a transaction that is in limbo. You can see if a process is in limbo by using the Transaction Control option (Option T) discussed in the previous section.
1.
You can select to Abort a Limbo Transaction and end it, or you can choose to Commit a Limbo Transaction.
Option C - Coordinator Information
This option allows you to determine whether a limbo transaction was committed. You can run promon on the coordinator database for the transaction determined by the Transaction Control option.
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Option M - Modify Defaults
The final option (M) in the Progress Monitor allows you to modify default parameters. See Figure 2‐13, Progress Monitor Modify Defaults Option for a list of parameters you can change.
Figure 2‐13: Progress Monitor Modify Defaults Option
Table 2‐5, Modifiable Parameters describes some of the modifiable parameters.
Table 2‐5: Modifiable Parameters
110
Parameter
Description
Page size
Number of lines on the terminal screen
Clear screen…
A value of yes clears the screen before the main
menu and every subsequent list
Short pause…
The delay (seconds) between pages of output
Long pause…
The delay after the last page of output
Monitoring…
The interval (seconds) at which promon samples
data
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Performing an Index Rebuild
A common fix for damaged databases is to run an index rebuild. Some of the more common errors that may be repaired by an index rebuild are listed below:
1124
Wrong dbkey in block
762
bkaddr called with negative blkaddr
450
Incorrect recid
49
Memory violation
3636
Attempt to read block above high water mark
1.
Truncate the bi file by typing proutil <database>
-C truncate bi –G 0 and pressing [Enter].
2.
From the command prompt, type proutil <database name>
-C idxbuild –G 0 and press [Enter].
3.
Select to rebuild All or Some of the indexes. See Figure 2‐14, Index Rebuild Menu.
Figure 2‐14: Index Rebuild Menu
4.
5.
If you type All and press [Enter], you are asked if you have enough disk space for the index sorting. This is the choice used most often to fix errors. Type y to continue the index rebuild.
At the end of the index rebuild, the following message appears: Index rebuild complete X error(s) encountered. The number of errors found in your database replaces the X.
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Installing Progress v9 on Your Server
Progress version 9 is the next Progress installation you are likely to install from CD ROM to your server. This section leads you through the installation procedure. Make sure of the following:
‹ Your operating system is compatible with Progress 9.
‹ The Java Virtual Machine is installed.
‹ You have enough space in your /progress file system. New installations can take anywhere from 160 MB to over 300 MB, depending on products to be installed.
Be patient; this is a slow process due to the need for Progress to refresh the menus.
Note
When using the Linux system, the CD automatically mounts when
you place it in the drive.
Mount the CD File System on AIX
1.
Place the Progress CD in the CD drive.
2.
At the command prompt, type smit and press [Enter].
3.
From the screen that appears, select System Storage Manage‐
ment and press [Enter].
4.
At the next screen, select File Systems and press [Enter].
5.
Select Mount a File System and press [Enter].
6.
At the Mount a File System screen, press [F4] to bring up a list‐
ing of file system names. Select /dev/cd0 from the list.
7.
At the next line down, press [F4] to bring up a listing for the directory over which to mount the file system. Look for the name cd0 and the file system type cdrfs. See below for an example.
/cdr
8.
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/dev/cd0
cdrfs
--
Press [Tab] to change Mount as a READ‐ONLY system to yes. Press [Enter] to save changes.
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9.
If you receive a message that the mount failed, try entering smit. Select System Storage Management ‐> File Systems ‐> Add/Change/Show/Delete File Systems ‐> CDROM File Sys‐
tem. Press [F4] for Device name and select cd0. For a mount point, type /mnt and press [Enter]. Once this has been added, press [F10] to exit the smit screens.
10.
At the command prompt, type mount /<directoryname> and press [Enter], i.e., mount /cdrom, mount /cdr0, or mount /mnt.
Mount the CD File System on SCO/UnixWare
1.
On a UnixWare machine, at the command line, type mount
–F cdfs –r –o nmconv=lm,fperm=555,dperm=555
/dev/cdrom
/cdrom1 /mnt and press [Enter].
Note
Do not add spaces after the commas.
2.
Using SCO OpenServer, type mount -r -f HS,lower
/dev/cd0 /mnt or mount –r –o lower /dev/cd0
/mnt at the command prompt and press [Enter].
Note
Do not add spaces after the commas.
Start the Progress Installation on AIX and
SCO/UnixWare
1.
At the command prompt, type /<directory name>/proinst and press [Enter].
2.
Enter the Product Confirmation Data, i.e., Company Name, Serial Number, and Control Number. Press [Enter]. All this information is found on the green sheet in the Progress box. a. Once the information is confirmed and accepted for all products, press [CTRL][E] to signify that you are done.
b. At the message, Are you sure you are done with
Progress products?, type Y.
3.
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You must now Select Server Engines.
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a. Select Both from 4GL, SQL, or Both and press [Enter].
b. Select Continue with Installation and press [Enter].
4.
If you are prompted for a Java Home Path on SCO/UnixWare machines, type /opt/jdk-1.1.7 and press [Enter]. To determine if this is the correct path, open a new session, type cd /opt, and press [Enter]. List the directory contents by typing ls and pressing [Enter].
Note
If Java is installed on your machine, there should be a listing
for jdk (the Java Development Kit). Use the name of the direc‐
tory there for the Java Home Path.
5.
Select Type, Device & Destination.
a. Select Complete Install as the Type of installation and press [Enter].
b. For the Destination Path, type /progress/dlc91b and press [Enter].
c. For the working Directory Path, type /coins and press [Enter]. If you do not have a /coins directory, use the directory contained in the $COINSDIR environmental vari‐
able. You may need to quit the Progress installation to return to a command prompt if you do not have multiple sessions. To determine this directory, type echo $COINSDIR at a command prompt and press [Enter]. Use the directory returned by this command as the working direc‐
tory.
d. Select Continue with Installation and press [Enter].
6.
When the Language Selection screen appears, do the follow‐
ing:
a. Scroll down, almost to the bottom, select English‐Ameri‐
can, and press [Enter].
b. Select Make Default and press [Enter]. Scroll through the list to find this.
c. Scroll to the very end of the list and select Continue with Installation. Press [Enter].
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7.
Select International Settings from the next screen.
a. Select Character Set, Collation, Case, and press [Enter].
b. Scroll to find and select American, United_States, ISO8859‐1, Basic, Basic. Press [Enter].
c. Select Date Format and press [Enter].
•
Select mdy and press [Enter]. It is very important that you select the mdy format.
d. Select Number Format and press [Enter].
•
Select 1,234.56 (comma, period) and press [Enter].
e. Select Continue with Installation and press [Enter].
8.
Select Complete the Installation when prompted.
a. Confirm that you wish to complete installation by selecting Yes and pressing [Enter].
b. When you are asked if you want to Copy Scripts, select No and press [Enter].
c. Wait while Progress is Installing Files.
d. After the installation is complete, you must wait while Progress is Tailoring Files.
e. Once all is complete, End the Progress Installation.
9.
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Type unmount /<directory name> at the command line to unmount the CD ROM and press [Enter].
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Installing Progress v9 on Your PC
Not only should you install Progress v9 on your server, but you also need to install it on your PC for use with programs such as eDocu‐
ments and GUI Dispatch. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) on page 126 section of this manual deals with these programs.
Follow the instructions in the Progress Installation Guide to perform a complete installation. You must include the installation information listed below.
116
1.
On the Type and Destination screen, select Complete Install. In the Path Name, type DLC91.
2.
On the Group and Item Properties screen, change PROGRESS to PROGRESS91. Complete the Item Working Directory as follows: Drive is C:\ and Path is SHAKER. Answer Yes when you are prompted to create that directory.
3.
Complete the Progress installation and restart the PC.
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Multi-volume Databases
Introduction
Multi‐volume databases have numerous advantages over single vol‐
ume databases. With a multi‐volume database, your database has room for growth. Single volume databases are usually restrained to 1.65 gigabytes due to operating system limitations. Multi‐volume databases can easily exceed that size. Multi‐volume databases also improve performance by having the database grow within a pre‐allo‐
cated structure. If using Progress version 9, your databases must be multi‐volume.
Create a Multi-volume Database
Creating a structure file
1.
Using a text editor such as vi, you must create a structure file for your multi‐volume database. This file outlines information about the data extents of your database: where they are located, their size, and the type of extent.
2.
Structure files take some thought. If your single volume data‐
base is currently 800 megabytes, you may wish to create a structure file outlining a database of a gigabyte or more to make room for growth.
3.
Using vi commands, create a file similar to the following:
•
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The first column determines whether the extent is to be a data extent (d) or an extent of the before‐image file (b). You must add the line for the before‐image file at the end of the file.
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•
The second column lists the path and extent name of the database. In this case, database coinsx1 is located in the coinsdb file system.
•
The third column displays the type of extent, either fixed (f) or variable (no marking). Based on this, you can determine that coinsx1 has four fixed extents and one variable extent, as well as a variable before‐image extent.
•
The final column lists the size in kilobytes; in this example, fixed extents are 250 megabytes. Thus, the database is allo‐
cated a gigabyte of memory (250 megabytes x 4), plus 1024 bytes for a variable length extent.
Both COINS USA and Progress recommend fixed extents to fall within the 200 to 250 MB range.
4.
Type [Esc] and :wq to save and quit the file.
Creating the database
1.
Once you have created your structure file, you can create a multi‐volume database in a number of ways:
a. To create a new multi‐volume database from an existing one (copy a multi‐volume database), type prostrct create
<database name> <structure file name> and press [Enter]. Then type procopy <old database name>
<new database name> and press [Enter].
b. To create a new multi‐volume database from a backed up copy, type prostrct create <database name> <structure file name> and press [Enter]. Then type prorest
<database name> <backup name> and press [Enter].
c. To create a new, empty, multi‐volume database, type prodb <database name> empty and press [Enter].
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Networks
Introduction
It is important to secure your network to protect the information on your UNIX server. This section is dedicated to network security, net‐
work tuning, and gathering network statistics pertaining to your server.
Network Security
It would be impossible to delineate security methods for various types of networks in this manual; this section is therefore devoted to provid‐
ing you with the resources necessary to research vulnerabilities spe‐
cific to your network. Table 2‐6, Security Internet Sites is a list of links to internet sites with security as the main focus.
Table 2‐6: Security Internet Sites
www.cert.org
The CERT® Coordination Center (CERT/CC) is a
center of Internet Expertise that studies Internet
security vulnerabilities and publishes security
alerts.
www.first.org
The Forum of Incident Response and Security
Teams (FIRST) accumulates a variety of computer
security incident response teams from government,
commercial, and academic organizations.
www.securityfocus.com
Assembles information from the security
community. It is also known for the Bugtraq
vulnerability database, which lists security issues.
www.atstake.com/research
@stake.com is a site dedicated to the
documentation of security flaws in operating
systems, network protocols, application software,
and hardware devices.
www.securityportal.com
Gathers news from other sites such as wired.com,
Microsoft.com, ZDNet.com, and more. It is also
searchable for security articles on UNIX, AIX, SCO,
and UnixWare.
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Table 2‐6: Security Internet Sites
120
www.stanford.edu/group/itss-ccs/security/
Stanford University’s site on security policies,
including information on UNIX and Microsoft
security.
techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/support/
Information about IBM/AIX security and tech
support.
www.sco.com/support/security/
Security information about SCO Open Server and
UnixWare Security bulletins and advisory
information.
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Network Statistics
Network Statistics in AIX and Linux
You can use the netstat command to determine specifics about active sockets, the contents of the network data structure, network buffer cache, number of packets dropped and received, routing tables, and more. This command comes with several options for a more detailed analysis of your system. By monitoring these statistics, you can troubleshoot problems with your network.
1.
To determine the network definition for your server, type netstat –rn and press [Enter] at a root prompt. You should receive output similar to Screen 2‐1, Routing Tables.
Screen 2‐1: Routing Tables
Routing tables
Destination
Gateway
Flags
Refs
Use
If PMTU
Groups
Route Tree for Protocol Family 2 (Internet):
99/8
99.7.2.100
U
3
8474
127/8
127.0.0.1
U
2
146
Route Tree for Protocol Family 24 (Internet v6):
::1
::1
UH
0
0
Exp
en0
lo0
-
lo0 16896
-
-
This defines the server adapter (en0) as having an IP address of 99.7.2.100.
2.
At the next root prompt, type ifconfig <interface> and press [Enter] (i.e., ifconfig en0). The ifconfig command con‐
figures or displays network interface parameters for a network using TCP/IP. 3.
Another useful command is netstat. View Table 2‐7, Netstat Commands for explanations of netstat and the options avail‐
able for use with this command.
Table 2‐7: Netstat Commands
netstat –i
To view errors and collisions
netstat –m
To list the contents of the data structure
netstat –D
To learn the number of packets
dropped/received
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Table 2‐7: Netstat Commands
netstat –c
To view the network buffer cache size
netstat –r
To view the routing table
netstat –v
To see information about communications
adapters
netstat –f inet | more
To view the state of the connection between
the server and foreign addresses, PCs
connected to the server. Use [Spacebar] to
page through the entries.
Once you have these statistics, there are some indications that a prob‐
lem exists with your network, such as:
‹ The network interface (en0) may have an asterisk near it (en0*), indicating that your network is not functioning. You can use the ifconfig command to reestablish your network connection.
‹ You may notice that there are many collisions or failed packets.
Network Statistics in SCO/UnixWare
SCO/UnixWare has a few tools available to determine the state of your system.
1.
To check the configuration of network interfaces, you can type ifconfig –a and press [Enter] at the root prompt.
2.
To trace the route a packet takes and to determine at what point a route is broken, use the command traceroute <host
IP address> and press [Enter]. You may receive output such as the following:
# traceroute 123.4.5.678
traceroute to 123.4.5.678 (123.4.5.678), 30 hops max, 80 byte packets
1 coinshost (123.4.5.678) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
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Network Tuning
Tuning in AIX
1.
In AIX, there is a parameter named thewall that specifies the maximum amount of memory, in kilobytes, allocated to the memory pool.
2.
To determine the value of thewall in kilobytes, type no –a
|grep thewall and press [Enter]. The no command represents network options.
3.
For AIX version 4.3.1 and above, thewall is set to half of real memory, or 131072, whichever value is smaller.
4.
To determine if the value of thewall is set too low, use the command netstat –m and press [Enter]. If the value is too low, the output from the command contains one or more of the following:
5.
•
Non‐zero entries in the failed column.
•
Non‐zero entries in the delayed column (AIX 4.3.3 only).
•
Non‐zero entries in the number of high priority mblk fea‐
tures.
•
Non‐zero entries in the number of medium priority mblk failures.
•
Non‐zero entries in the number of low priority mblk fail‐
ures.
To temporarily change the value of thewall until the next sys‐
tem reboot, type no –o thewall=<new value> and press [Enter].
Example
Type no –o thewall=65536 to set thewall to 64 megabytes.
6.
To permanently change the value of thewall, you must edit the /etc/rc.net file. Type vi /etc/rc.net and press [Enter] to edit the file. Press [Shift][G] to go to the end of the file.
7.
Type o, then type the following lines, being sure to replace the <new value> with the actual new size value (e.g., 65536):
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if [-f /usr/sbin/no] ; then
/usr/sbin/no –o thewall=<new value>
>>/dev/null 2>&1
fi
8.
Press [Esc] and :wq!, then press [Enter] to save the file.
Tuning in SCO/UnixWare
No specific network parameters can be easily tuned in SCO/UnixWare. The kernel usually needs to be rebuilt after such changes are made. As a result, it is difficult to add instructions on how parameters can be modified. Instead, this section discusses the System Monitor utility.
Scoadmin for graphical UnixWare provides a graphical report about system performance. Character‐based systems do not have this option.
1.
At the command prompt, type scoadmin and press [Enter].
2.
Select System from the menu that appears.
3.
Select System Monitor. This may take a few minutes to load. A screen similar to the image shown in Figure 2‐15, System Moni‐
tor should appear.
Figure 2‐15: System Monitor
4.
124
From the List of System Monitor options section in the lower left‐hand corner of the screen, select the area you wish to moni‐
tor (e.g., the Process Switching/ per sec). You may also select the scale of your choice. For ease of use, you may graph more than one option at a time and make each line a different color.
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5.
Results should immediately appear in a graphical form and be refreshed every 5 seconds. See Figure 2‐16, System Monitor Pro‐
cess Switching for an example of monitoring Process switch‐
ing/per sec.
Figure 2‐16: System Monitor Process Switching
6.
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Once you are finished, exit scoadmin by selecting Exit from the Actions menu and each subsequent menu.
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Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Introduction
This section is dedicated to information necessary to install GUI prod‐
ucts such as eDocuments, Call Entry Dispatch, and the Human Resources Suite onto your PC(s). Included is information on trouble‐
shooting and configuration files.
GUI Installation
All GUI installations have two things in common:
1.
You must meet the minimum system requirements (see Mini‐
mum Requirements for GUI Installations on page 126); and
2.
You must edit the PC services file (see Editing the PC services file on page 127).
Minimum Requirements for GUI Installations
Table 2‐8, Minimum PC Requirements provides a general guideline for the PC minimum requirements for GUI installations.
Note
The more megahertz, RAM, and available disk space, the better
and faster COINS Ti and CMS run.
Table 2‐8: Minimum PC Requirements
Requirements
Recommendation
Processor speed
1 GHz processor
Memory
512 MB RAM
Free disk space
200 MB of disk space available
Operating System Windows 2000 ("standard" scheme) or Windows XP
and Software
("classic" scheme) Operating System
PROGRESS Client Networking Version 9.1c
COINS Ti
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Hardware
Network card that supports an Ethernet connection
Monitor with 1024 x 768 resolution
CD-ROM drive
Modem or Internet connection for support
These requirements can change. Check with COINS USA to make sure the requirements are still valid.
Editing the PC services file
1.
Various Windows operating systems put the services file in dif‐
ferent locations. For Windows 95 and Windows 98, the services file is located in c:\windows. 2.
If you do not already know where the file is located, the easiest way to find it is to do a Find or Search from the Start menu. 3.
In the Search box, type services. If several results appear for this search, select the file without any extensions (see the icon below).
4.
Open the services file using a simple text editor, such as Note‐
pad.
5.
At the bottom of the file, add a line containing your database and port number information. Each service entry must be unique.
Example
rbdb
6.
2500/tcp
Service entry naming conventions for COINS version 6 differ from COINS version 7.
COINS version 6
coinsco7
2107/tcp
#company 7 entry
rbdb
2500/tcp
#edocuments database
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COINS version 7
coinsa7
3007/tcp
#company a7 entry
rbdb
2500/tcp
#edocuments database
coinsadm
4200/tcp
#admin database entry
7.
Leave one blank line at the bottom of the services file.
8.
Save your changes and then exit the text editing program.
GUI Troubleshooting
Occasionally, you may run into a problem during a GUI product install. This section gives you a troubleshooting process to go through to determine where the problem resides. See Figure 2‐17, Troubleshoot‐
ing Flowchart.
Figure 2‐17: Troubleshooting Flowchart
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This procedure assumes that your PC(s) can communicate with the UNIX server using telnet. Thus, the UNIX service file has been edited, the database parameters have been established, and the PC ser‐
vices file has been edited.
The following steps refer to the Troubleshooting Flowchart.
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Step 1
Is this a first time installation covered by a contract?
Yes: Call Technical Services and/or proceed to Step 3.
No: Proceed to Step 2.
Step 2
Does any machine setup for client‐server applications work?
Yes: Go to Step 4.
No: Go to Step 3.
Step 3
Verify the database is set up on the UNIX server for client‐server applications as fol‐
lows. Databases that are properly set up send you into a Progress editor. Improp‐
erly set up databases yield error messages. See Screen 2‐2, Error message, on page 130 for an example.
Step 4
Is the UNIX database server set up cor‐
rectly?
Yes: Proceed to Step 6 to verify the PC setup.
No: Proceed to Step 5 for assistance.
Step 5
Call Technical Services to help set up the UNIX database server. Then return to Step 4.
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Step 6
Verify the PC setup by viewing the Win‐
dows services file. See the previous section entitled Editing the PC services file on page 127.
Verify the existence of a hosts file if it is required, and check to see if it has an entry for the UNIX machine. This step is not nec‐
essary if the database connection screen uses an IP address of the UNIX server rather than the name, or if the company uses a Domain Name Server (DNS). You are less likely to have trouble with host names if you use the IP address rather than the server name.
Step 7
Are the connection parameters set up cor‐
rectly in the GUI application?
Yes: Skip to Step 9.
No: Continue to Step 8.
Step 8
Add the necessary connection parameters, as referenced in the documentation pro‐
vided on the CD. Return to Step 6.
Step 9
Does the Client‐Server application work?
Yes: Congratulations! You are finished.
No: Contact Technical Services for further assistance.
Screen 2‐2: Error message
1.
You must verify that the database is set up for client‐server applications. Version 6
Type mpro coinsco<#> -S coinsco<#> -H <hostname>
-N TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
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Version 7
Type mpro coins<#> -S coins<#> -H <hostname> -N
TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
2.
For Version 7, you must verify that the administrative database is set up for client‐server applications. Type mpro coinsadm
–S coinsadm –H <hostname> -N TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
3.
You may also need to verify a Human Resources database for client‐server applications.
Version 6
Type mpro hrd<#> -S hrd<#> -H <hostname> -N TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
Version 7
Type mpro hr<#> -S hr<#> -H <hostname> -N TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
4.
If you have BI Squared, you must verify that database for cli‐
ent‐server applications.
Versions 6 and 7
Type mpro sfd<#> -S sfd<#> -H <hostname> -N TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
5.
For eDocuments, you must verify the Report Builder database for client‐server applications.
Versions 6 and 7
Type mpro rbdb –S rbdb –H <hostname> -N TCP and press [Enter] at a root prompt.
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Saving the Configuration File
A file named dispdb.cfg is created whenever a connection is estab‐
lished for a GUI program. You should always back up this file before you install program updates. It should be backed up in the COINS USA directory created when Progress is installed. The dispdb.cfg file contains your connection information. It can be copied from PC to PC, thus eliminating the necessity of running through the connection procedure for each PC installed with a specific GUI product. This file also saves you some hassle if your machine crashes and you lose your connection information.
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Index
Symbols
# column 104
$COINSDIR/.coinsprofile 20
$HOME/.profile 17
.coinsprofile file 20
.profile AIX UNIX template 23
.profile file 17, 23
lines of code 18
.profile Linux 23
.profile SCO UNIX template 23
.profile UnixWare templates 23
/bin/false 28
/etc/passwd 24
/etc/profile file 17
/etc/security/profile 23
/home directory 27
/usr/lib/mkuser/sh/ 23
/usr/users directory 27
A
Activity option 105
adapter board 90
Add a Volume Group screen 80
Add new users
AIX system 28
Linux system 30
SCO UNIX system 28
UnixWare system 29
Adding
a file system 95
a logical volume 92
a physical volume 82
a volume group 80
new users 23
AIX
operating system backup 35
performance tuning 67
AIX system
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Add new user 28
Auto‐mount at reboot 84
B
Backup user 33
BackupEdge
Linux backup 40
Unix backup 40
BackupEdge Unix backup
procedure 40
Backups
BackupEdge Linux 40
BackupEdge Unix 40
COINS 33, 48
Commitment 31
Disaster recovery plan 31
Economic implications 31
EdgeBackup 79
Guidelines 32, 48
clean tape drives 32
offsite 32
perform recovery 32
replace tapes 32
rotate 32
Late 33
Operating system 49
Scheduled 33
SMIT 79
SMIT AIX 37
SMIT GUI 35
Test Plan 50
User 33
verifying 33
Basic operating system commands 66
before‐image file extent 117
bfs 96
BIDIR variable 22
Block Access option 103
Boot file system 96
133
Business Continuity Service. See Internet Business Continuity Service.
C
cdfs file system 96
CDROM file system 96
CERT Coordination Center 119
Chain column 104
Changing the size of a file system 98
character‐based terminal emulator 14
Check system errors
AIX 54, 55
Linux 54
SCO Unix 54
UnixWare 55
Checking database sizes 63
Close command 42
COINS backups 33, 48
Guidelines 48
Late 33
scheduled 33
Version 6 34
Version 7 33
COINS Portal 14
COINS settings in a sample .profile file 18
COINS USA services 67
AIX performance tuning 67
Business Continuity Service 68
Internet Business Continuity Service 68
Oxygen program 67
System Monitoring program 68
COINSDIR variable 21
Columns
# 104
%idle 60
%sys 60
%usr 60
%wio 60
chain 104
Coord 109
Crd? 109
Crd‐task 109
DB reqst 104
DB/BI/AI read 104
DB/BI/AI write 104
134
flags 104
Limbo? 109
lock 104
PID 102
R‐comm? 109
Read/Write 103
rec‐id 104
record 103
schema 103
sem 102
srv 102
trans 103
type 102
Commands 66
Close 42
cpio 91
cpio ‐ovB 33
df ‐k 90
dfspace 63
diskadd 83
edgemenu 41
errpt 51, 54, 55
ifconfig 121
lspv 80, 82
lsvg 92
mkuser 28
mount 96
netstat 121
netstat ‐m 121
passwd 28
plng 14
procopy 118
prodb 118
promon 100, 109
prtvtoc 91
ps 66
scoadmin 28, 124
smit 35, 82, 89, 92, 95, 112
smitty 37
smitty vg 85
System 66
traceroute 122
uname ‐n 14
unmount 99
uptime 58, 66
who 66
confirm volume group mirror 86
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Coord column 109
Coordinator Information option 109
cpio command 91
cpio ‐ovB command 33
Crd? column 109
Crd‐task column 109
Creating a multi‐volume database 117
creating a structure file 117
creating the database 118
Creating a structure file
final column 118
first column 117
second column 118
third column 118
Creating the database
copy a multi‐volume database 118
new multi‐volume database from
backed up copy 118
new, empty multi‐volume database
118
Current size of locking table 107
D
Daily COINS backups 48
data extent 117
DATA variable 22
Database log files 55
Check for errors 51
inspecting 56
listing 56
opening 56
possible errors 56
Database size 63
check growth 63
understanding 65
Database Status option 107
DB Reqst column 104
DB/BI/AI Read columns 104
DB/BI/AI Write columns 104
Determining
network server definition 121
DEVICENAME variable 22
df ‐k command 90
dfspace command 63
Disabling accounts 28
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Disaster recovery 48
Service 51
Disaster recovery plan 31
Dry run 31
Questions to ask 31
Disconnect specific user 108
disk mirroring 85
Disk number
determining in SCO/UnixWare 90
Disk space
Importance of available 61
Maximum used space 61
Show available in AIX or Linux 62
Show available in SCO UNIX or Unix‐
Ware 62
diskadd command 83
dispdb.cfg file 132
DLC variable 21
DOS file system 96
dosfs file system 96
Dumb terminals 13
E
echo 20
EdgeBackup 79
edgemenu command 41
emergency shutdown 108
environment variables in .coinsprofile 21
Environmental factors 49
Dust 50
Human 50
Humidity 49
Power stresses 50
Restricted air flow 50
Smoke/fire 49
Temperature 49
Water 49
error 893 57
Error logs
AIX 54, 55
SCO Unix 54
Error reports
AIX 54, 55
Linux 54
purpose of 53
135
SCO UNIX 54
UnixWare 55
Errors
lock table too small 107
Permanent hardware 54
errpt command 51, 54
Event types 105
AI writes 106
BI reads 106
BI writes 106
buffer hits 106
buffers flushed 106
checkpoints 106
commits 106
DB writes 106
DW reads 106
FR chain 106
record creates 106
record deletes 106
record locks 106
record reads 106
record updates 106
record waits 106
RM chain 106
segments 106
shared memory 106
undos 106
EXCL. See Exclusive‐Lock.
Exclusive‐Lock 104
Extended System 5 file system 96
F
fd file system 96
File descriptor 96
File Descriptor file system 96
File system 95
adding 95
adding in AIX 95
adding in SCO/UnixWare 96
boot 96
cdfs 96
CDROM 96
Changing the size of a 98
DOS 96
dosfs 96
136
extended system 5 96
fd 96
memfs 96
memory 96
network 96
removing 99
removing in AIX 99
removing in SCO/UnixWare 99
s5 96
secure 96
sfs 96
system 5 96
ufs 96
VERITAS 96
vxfs 96
File system size 98
changing in AIX 98
changing in SCO/UnixWare 98
FIRST 119
fixed extent 118
Flags column 104
Force at next login 29, 30
G
GID. See Numeric group identifier.
Graphical User Interface 14, 126
introduction 126
Grouping users 24
GUI installation 126
editing PC services file 127
minimum requirements 126
GUI troubleshooting 128
flowchart steps 129
GUI. See Graphical User Interface.
H
Hard drives
adding 82
description 67
Hardware
error reports 51
maintenance agreement 52
redundancy 51
HBA bus number 90
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Home directories 27
HP JetDirect 72
I
IDE controller 90
ifconfig command 121
Index rebuild 111
common errors 111
Installing GUI products 126
Installing Progress v9
on your PC 116
on your server 112
Internet Business Continuity Service 68
IP address 14
J
Java Development Kit 114
Java home path 114
JDK. See Java Development Kit.
JFS. See Journaled File System.
Journaled File System 95
K
Knowledgebase 57
L
L flag 104
Late backups 33
COINS 33
important command 33
Limbo
column 109
lock 104
transactions 109
Limbo lock 104
lines of code for .profile 18
Linux
Adding new users 23, 30
Backup procedures 40
Checking error reports 54
Reboot machine 59
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Shutting server down 58
Lock column 104
Locking and Waiting Statistics option 102
Logical partition 87
determining number 93
logical unit number 90
Logical volume
adding 92
adding in SCO/UnixWare 94
definition 92
Login
name 24
name format 25
shell 28
Login files and processes 17
LP. See Logical partition.
lspv command 80, 82
lsvg command 92
M
Maintenance agreement 52
Maximum used space 61
memfs file system 96
Memory file system 96
Mirror sync mode 85
Mirroring a volume group 85
in AIX 85
in SCO/UnixWare 87
mkuser command 28
Modify Defaults option 110
Mount CD file system
on AIX 112
on Linux 112
on SCO/UnixWare 113
mount command 96, 99, 113
MultiView 2000 14
Multi‐volume Databases 117
introduction 117
N
netstat command 121
netstat ‐m command 121, 123
Network file system 96
Network printers 72
137
setting up
SCO 74
setting up in UnixWare 75
setting up with HP JetDirect 72
Network security 119
Network statistics 119, 121
in AIX and Linux 121
in SCO/UnixWare 122
Network tuning 119, 123
in AIX 123
in SCO/UnixWare 124
Networks 119
introduction 119
New users
Adding 23
directory 23
grouping 24
website 24
NFS 96
NOLK. See No‐Lock.
No‐Lock 104
option 104
Number of semaphores used 107
Numeric group identifier 24
Numeric user identifier 24
O
Operating system 35
backups 35, 48, 49
commands 66
OS backup
purpose of 35
OS. See Operating system.
Oxygen 67
P
P flag 104
Parallel printers 71
setting up 71
setting up in AIX 71
setting up in SCO UNIX or UnixWare
71
Parameters 110
clear screen 110
138
long pause 110
monitoring 110
page size 110
short pause 110
partition number 91
passwd command 28
Passwords 26
Guidelines 26
acronyms 27
Change 27
Combinations 26
Easy to remember 26
Maximum 27
Minimum 26
No words 27
No words and number 27
Quick to type 26
Performing an index rebuild 111
Permanent hardware errors 54
Physical partition
determining size in AIX 92
size 92
Physical partition column 87
Physical volume 93
adding 82
adding AIX 82
adding from command line 82
adding from smit 82
adding SCO/UnixWare 83
before removing 89
moving contents in AIX 89
moving contents in SCO/UnixWare 91
position 93
removing 89
removing in AIX 89
removing in SCO/UnixWare 91
physical volume 87
PID column 102
plng command 14
Position on physical volume 93
PPs. See Physical partition column.
Printer security 76
Printers
network 72
parallel 71
serial 69
types of 69
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procopy command 118
prodb command 118
PROGDIR variable 22
Progress 100
introduction 100
Monitor 100
Using 100
Version 9 installation 112
Version 9 PC Installation 116
Progress Monitor options 100
Activity 105
Block Access 103
Coordinator Information 109
Database Status 107
Locking and Waiting Statistics 102
Modify Defaults 110
Record Locking Table 104
Resolve Limbo Transactions 109
Shared Resources 107
Shut Down Database 108
Transactions Control 109
User Control 101
Progress version 9 installation 112
Requirements 112
promon command 100, 109
PROTERMCAP variable 22
prtvtoc command 91
ps command 66
PS1 variable 22
Purged lock 104
PV. See Physical volume.
Q
Q flag 105
Queued lock 105
R
RAID. See Redundant Array of Indepen‐
dent Disks.
R‐comm? column 109
Read/Write columns 103
Reboot server 51, 59
AIX 59
SCO UNIX or UnixWare 59
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April 2008
tasks performed 59
Rec‐id column 104
Record blocks with free space 108
Record column 103
Record Locking Table option 104
RecoverEDGE 44
Recovery test plan 50
Redundant Array of Independent Disks 85
Remove a
Journaled File System screen 99
Physical Volume from a Volume
Group 90
Removing a file system 99
Removing a physical volume 89
Removing a volume group 88
in AIX 88
in SCO/UnixWare 88
Replacement computer equipment
ordering 51
Resolve Limbo Transactions option 109
S
s5 file system 96
SAR 60
SAR. See System Activity Report.
Saving configuration file 132
Scheduled backups
COINS 33
Schema column 103
SCO
open server security 120
OpenServer 79
operating system 79
SCO UNIX
Add new user 28, 29
SCO/UnixWare tuning 124
scoadmin command 28, 124
SCSI
adapter board 90
target controller number 90
Secure file system 96
Securing your network 119
Security
internet sites 119
Network 119
139
Printer 76
UnixWare 120
Select Server Engines option 113
Sem column 102
Separate disks 67
Serial printers 69
setting up
UnixWare 70
setting up in AIX 69
setting up in SCO UNIX or UnixWare
70
Server shutdown 58
before 58
in AIX 58
in Linux 58
in SCO UNIX and UnixWare 58
rebooting 59
Servers
Environmental factors 49
Service entry naming conventions 127
services file 127
Setting a variable in UNIX 20
sfs file system 96
Shared Resources option 107
Share‐Lock 104
Show available disk space
AIX 62
SCO UNIX 62
SHR. See Share‐Lock.
Shut Down Database option 108
shutdown command
AIX 58
Linux 58
Reboot COINS server 59
SCO UNIX 58
single volume databases 117
slice number 90
SMIT AIX backup 37
procedure 37
SMIT backup 79
smit command 35, 82, 89, 92, 95, 112
SMIT GUI backup 35
procedure 35
smitty command 37
smitty vg command 85
SPL variable 22
Srv column 102
140
Start progress installation 113
Statistics
current size of locking table 107
number of semaphores used 107
Storage Management 79
introduction 79
structure file 117
System
activity report 53
commands 66
Maintenance 51
System 5 file system 96
System integrity
benefits 53
maintaining 53
monitoring tools 53
System Monitoring program 68
T
Tape drives
cleaning schedule 51
target controller number 90
telnet 129
Terminal emulation
Dumb terminals 13
Introduction to 13
Test plan for recovery 50
text editor 117
thewall parameter 123
traceroute command 122
Trans column 103
Transactions Control option 109
Type column 102
Typographical conventions 9
U
U flag 105
ufs file system 96
UID. See Numeric user identifier.
uname ‐n command 14
unconditional shutdown 108
Understanding size of a file 65
Uninterruptible Power Supply 48
UNIX
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April 2008
Add new user 28, 29
storage structure 79
UNIX account 24
Characteristics 24
UnixWare security 120
unmount command 99, 115
update boot list 86
Upgrade request 105
UPS. See Uninterruptible Power Supply.
uptime command 58, 66
Used space maximum percent 61
User
disconnect a specific 108
home directory 27
name 24
User Control option 101
User name guidelines 25
usr/adm/messages 54
usr/log/messages 54
V
variable extent 118
Verifying backups 33
Veritas 95
VERITAS file system 96
Viewing a variable’s value 20
Volume group 80
add using scoadmin 81
add using smit (AIX) 80
adding 80
mirroring 85
removing 88
vxfs file system 96
W
Weekly server shutdown 58
who command 66
www.sco.com 83, 91
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