Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference

Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference
Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference
CC5-RAVE • CompactPCI ® FC-PGA 370 CPU
Document No. 2632 • Preliminary Edition 1
06-2002
Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Contents
About this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edition History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trade Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal Disclaimer - Liability Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
4
5
5
5
5
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Power-On Self-Test (POST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The BIOS User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Setup Screen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Basic CMOS Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Date/Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NumLock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Drive Assignment Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boot Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Floppy Drive Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring IDE Drive Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typematic Delay/Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seek at Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show "Hit Del" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Config Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F1 Error Wait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parity Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Test Tick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INT 3 Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Debugger Hex Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
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14
14
14
14
15
Features Configuration Setup Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACPI & Advanced Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphical/Audio POST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Management Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POST Memory Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Management BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
16
17
17
18
18
Custom Configuration Setup Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Processor Throttle Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scan PCI Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L2 Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show BIOS Messages, Delay After Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
19
19
20
20
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Behaviour after Initializing Expansion ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Primary VGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Ethernet BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital DVI Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BIOS Standard I/O Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
20
21
21
21
22
22
IDE Configuration Setup Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary IDE Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UDMA66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master/Slave Timing Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IORDY Sampling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recovery Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secondary IDE Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
23
23
24
24
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24
Password Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Burn-In Diagnostics Routines Setup Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
System BIOS Debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Console Redirection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Addendum A: Embedded BIOS POST Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Addendum B: Embedded BIOS Beep & Blink Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
About this Manual
This manual describes some of the setup functions incorporated in the on-board BIOS, provided
with the CC5-RAVE. It is intended for the experienced user only. As the BIOS will be undergoing
future development, information provided herein may differ from the actual appearance.
This manual is valid from BIOS build 1.00 off. For BIOS builds 0.94 and older please refer to the
"BIOS Quick Reference CC5-RAVE", EKF document no. 2508. The particular BIOS version in use
can be obtained from the starting screen when switching system power on (hit 'break key').
Edition History
EKF
Document
Text # 2632
Ed.
1
Contents/Changes
1. Edition Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick
Reference CC5-RAVE, English
Preliminary edition, to be completed later on
Author
Date
jj
3 June 2002
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Related Documents
For a description of the CC5-RAVE printed circuit board see the document "CC5-RAVE User
Guide", available by download at http://www.ekf.de/c/ccpu/cc5/cc5.html.
Nomenclature
Numbers followed by a ‘h’ or with a ‘0x’ prefix represent hexadecimal values.
Trade Marks
Some terms used herein are property of their respective owners, e.g.
Pentium, Celeron, Socket 370: ® Intel, CompactPCI : ® PICMG, Windows 98, Windows NT,
Windows 2000: ® Microsoft
General Software™, the GS Logo, Embedded BIOS™, Embedded BIOS™ 2000, BIOStart™, and
Embedded DOS™ are trademarks or registered trademarks of General Software, Inc.
EKF does not claim this list to be complete.
Legal Disclaimer - Liability Exclusion
This manual has been edited as carefully as possible. We apologize for any potential mistake.
Information provided herein is designated exclusively to the proficient user (system integrator,
engineer). EKF can accept no responsibility for any damage caused by the use of this manual.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Overview
The CC5-RAVE board is licensed with a single copy of Embedded BIOS 2000 software from
General Software, Inc. General Software may be reached on the web at http://www.gensw.com.
The BIOS has been adapted to the particular CC5-RAVE hardware by EKF. BIOS updates will be
available by download at http://www.ekf.de/c/ccpu/cc5/cc5.html. E-Mail support can be
obtained directly by support@ekf.de. Please also report any issue to EKF.
The system’s pre-boot environment of Embedded BIOS includes POST, Setup Screen System,
Manufacturing Mode, Console Redirection, and Integrated BIOS Debugger. A REFLASH tool is
also available to update the BIOS image with new builds of Embedded BIOS. Before using the
system, please read the following to properly configure CMOS settings, and learn how to use
the embedded features of the pre-boot firmware, Embedded BIOS. The last two sections of this
manual provide the BIOS POST Codes and Beep codes.
This manual does not cover reprogramming of the Flash BIOS. Please download the latest BIOS
version and the programming tool from http://www.ekf.de/c/ccpu/cc5/firmware/, un-zip the
package and follow thoroughly the instructions provided within the readme.txt.
General Software’s EMBEDDED BIOS brand BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) pre-boot firmware
is the industry’s standard product used by most designers of embedded X86 computer
equipment in the world today. Its superior combination of configurability and functionality
enables it to satisfy the most demanding ROM BIOS needs for embedded designers. Its modular
architecture and high degree of configurability make it the most flexible BIOS in the world.
EMBEDDED BIOS offers a high degree of compatibility with past and current BIOS standards,
allowing it to run off-the-shelf operating system software and application software. EMBEDDED
BIOS has been tested with all industry standard operating systems, including versions of
Windows, Linux, DOS, and real time operating systems. EMBEDDED BIOS is rigorously tested
with programs such as AMI Diag, MSD, Check-It, Manifest, Q/A Plus, and so on, ensuring its
compatibility with established desktop application standards. In addition to its standard data
structures and programming interfaces, EMBEDDED BIOS provides support for industry-standard
initiatives, including ACPI, APM, El Torito, Legacy USB, MP, PCI, PMM, PXE, and SMBIOS
(formerly DMI).
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Power-On Self-Test (POST)
When the system is powered on, Embedded BIOS tests and initializes the hardware and
programs, the chipset and other peripheral components. During this time, POST progress codes
are written by the system BIOS to I/O port 80H, allowing the user to monitor the progress with
a suitable emulator equipment. “Embedded BIOS POST Codes” in addendum A lists the POST
codes and their meanings. During early POST, no video is available to display error messages
should a critical error be encountered; therefore, POST uses beeps on the speaker (if the CC6ACID super I/O board is attached) and the floppy drive LED (if there is one) to indicate the failure
of a critical system component during this time. Consult “Embedded BIOS Beep Codes” on the
addendum B pages for a list of Beep codes used by the system’s BIOS.
The BIOS User Interface
The system BIOS can use the standard keyboard and video device, or use console redirection to
demonstrate headless operation. For headless operation, remove the standard keyboard and
screen devices and the system will boot unattended. If an RS232 cable is attached to COM1, a
PC/ATstyle character-based POST is available from HyperTerminal, PROCOMM, or any other
terminal emulator software that supports VT100 emulation.
When a keyboard and video device are attached, the CC5-RAVE can display either a traditional
character-based PC BIOS display with memory count-up, or it can display a graphical POST with
splash screen and progress icons. Both POST displays accept a <DEL> key press to enter the
setup screen, and both display boot-time progress activity displays. The graphical display shows
the status of file system devices, but omits character-based PCI resource display. The text-based
POST displays the memory count-up and the PCI resource assignment table.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
The figure below shows the format of the text-based POST display. The display is very similar if
console redirection through a COM port is used instead. PCI Bus numbers 00 and 01 belong to
devices on the CC5-RAVE, while numbers from 02 off are related to components on the CPCI
backplane and CPCI I/O modules. The screen image shown differs slightly after a system warm
start, e.g. caused by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Del.
If the graphical version of POST has been activated, the BIOS decompresses the main image, and
can display multiple overlaid graphics at various points in POST. EKF could define the entire
sequence and control the timing of the system for an embedded application, and can arrange
to have different graphics displayed on each successive boot of the system. This feature is ideal
for embedded systems that must show evidence of operation during startup, while the
application loads underneath the splash screen. Once the application begins writing to the
screen, the splash screen relinquishes control, providing a seamless graphical progression for the
end user. Please contact EKF in order to arrange a custom specific splash screen (mail to
support@ekf.de). When the system is powered on for the first time, you’ll need to configure the
system through the Setup Screen System (described later) before peripherals, such as disk drives,
are recognized by the BIOS. The information is written to battery-backed CMOS RAM on the
board’s Real Time Clock. Should the board’s battery fail, this information will be lost and the
board will need to be reconfigured. The Basic Setup Screen provides an option to disable the
graphical POST and switch to the legacy text-based version. This feature may not permanently
disable the graphical POST if the BIOS adaptation calls for reverting to the graphical form after
so many boots. If you find that the graphical POST comes back after several boots, it is because
this option is enabled for this platform. EKF can arrange to control whether Setup can be used
to dictate the policy, and whether it is permanent or temporary.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Setup Screen System
Without user interaction, the Embedded BIOS 2000 will display a short status message, and
then attempts to boot from an available data source (see figure below). The suitable behaviour
(boot device) can be selected from the BIOS Setup Screen System, among many other
parameters.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
The computer system (here CC5-RAVE) is configured from within the Setup Screen System,
which is a series of menus that can be invoked from POST by pressing the <DEL> key. Once in
the Setup Screen System, the user can navigate with the UP and DOWN arrow keys. Pressing
ENTER opens the selected sub-menu screen (highlighted option, marked with an arrow).
Within the sub-menu screens, TAB and ENTER are used in addition to the cursor keys to advance
to the next field, and ‘+’ and ‘-’ keys (or PgUp/PgDn) cycle through values, such as those in the
Basic Configuration Screen, or the IDE Configuration Screen. Press ESC in order to return to the
main menu screen. Modified BIOS adjustments can be either permanently saved (‘Write to
CMOS and Exit’), or abandoned (‘Exit without changing CMOS’).
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Basic CMOS Configuration Screen
The system’s drive types, boot activities, and POST optimizations are configured from the Basic
Setup Screen. In order to use disk drives with your system, you must select appropriate
assignments of drive types in the left-hand column. Then, if you are using true floppy and IDE
drives (not memory disks that emulate these drives), you need to configure the drive types
themselves in the Floppy Drive Types and IDE Drive Geometry sections. Finally, you’ll need to
configure the boot sequence in the middle of the screen. Once these selections have been
made, your system is ready to use.
Date/Time
This section lets you set the real-time clock of the system. If the clock stands still, the buffer
accumulator of the CMOS is probably depleted (or needs to be simply recharged). In this case
exchange the accumulator (or set the board under power in order to recharge the accumulator)
and set the RTC again. When detecting a failure in the CMOS CRC, caused by an exhausted
accumulator, all CMOS options are automatically loaded from the BIOS Flash (factory default
parameters) and have to be reconfigured (if necessary) by the user.
NumLock
Parameter NumLock defines the state of the <Num> key during boot.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Configuring Drive Assignment Order
Embedded BIOS 2000 allows the user to map a different file system to each drive letter. The
BIOS allows file systems for each floppy (Floppy 0 and Floppy 1), and each IDE drive (Primary IDE
Master, Primary IDE Slave), and the on-board CompactFlash socket (Secondary IDE Master). The
figure above shows how the first floppy drive (Floppy 0) is assigned to drive A: in the system,
and then how the first IDE drive (Primary IDE Master) is assigned to drive C: in the system. To
switch two floppy disks around or two hard disks around, just map Floppy 0 to B: and Floppy 1
to A:, and for hard disks map the Primary IDE Master to D: and the Primary IDE Slave to C:. If
you want the system to boot from the CompactFlash ATA card, it must be previously assigned
one of the drive letters C: or D:, because the boot order options are currently restricted to drive
letters A: - D: (see section "Boot Order").
Configuring is necessary for floppy disk drives, hard disk drives, and ATA CompactFlash cards.
There is no need to configure CDROM drives. If the CDROM device is attached e.g. to the
Primary IDE Slave port, select the option "Drive D: <none>", in our given example.
Caution: Take care to not skip drive A: when making floppy disk assignments, as well as drive C:
when making hard disk assignments. The first floppy should be A:, and the first hard drive
should be C:. Also, do not assign the same file system to more than one drive letter. Thus,
Floppy 0 should not be used for both A: and B:. The BIOS permits this to allow embedded
devices to alias drives, but desktop operating systems may not be able to maintain cache
coherency with such a mapping in place.
Boot Order
This section defines the order in which the logical drives are scanned during the boot procedure.
To avoid unnecessary delays of the boot procedure, you should only enter logical drives that are
assigned to physical drives. Embedded BIOS supports up to five different user-defined steps in
the boot sequence. When the entire system has been initialized, POST executes these steps in
order until an operating system successfully loads. In addition, other pre-boot features can be
run before, after, or between operating system load attempts. The following actions can be
used:
Drive A: - D: or CDROM: Boot the operating system from specified drive. If “Loader” (see ‘Drive
Assignment Order’) is set to “BootRecord” or “Unused”, then the standard boot record will be
invoked, causing DOS, Windows95/98, Windows NT, or other industry-standard operating
systems to load (currently the loader option is preset to ‘Unused’ an cannot be changed by the
user). If you want the system to boot from the CompactFlash ATA card, it must be previously
assigned to one of the drive letters C: or D: (see section "Drive Assignment Order").
Debugger Launch the integrated BIOS Debugger. To return to the boot process from the
debugger environment, type “G” at the debugger prompt and press ENTER.
None No action; POST proceeds to the next activity in the sequence.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Configuring Floppy Drive Types
If true floppy drive file systems (and not their emulators, such as ROM, RAM, or flash disks) are
mapped to drive letters, then the floppy drives themselves must be configured in this section.
Floppy 0 refers to the first floppy disk drive on the drive ribbon cable (normally drive A:), and
Floppy 1 refers to the second drive (drive B:). If a floppy drive is not present, you must select
"None", otherwise there will be long delays during the POST and system boot, caused by
timeouts in the corresponding disk I/O routines.
Configuring IDE Drive Geometry
If true IDE disk file systems are mapped to drive letters, then the IDE drives themselves must be
configured in this section. The following table shows the drive assignments for Ide 0 - Ide 3:
File System Name (Typical Usage)
Controller
Master/Slave
Ide 0 (external HD drive)
Primary (1f0h)
Master
Ide 1 (external device, HDD, DVD etc.)
Primary (1f0h)
Slave
Ide 2 (on-board CompactFlash)
Secondary (170h)
Master
To use the primary master IDE drive in your system (the typical case), just configure Ide 0 in this
section, and map Ide 0 to drive C: in the Configuring Drive Assignments section. The IDE Drive
Types section lets you select the type for each of the four IDE drives: Not Installed, User,
Physical, LBA, or Phoenix/CHS.
User - This type allows the user to select the maximum cylinders, heads, and sectors per track
associated with the IDE drive. This method is now rarely used since LBA is now in common use.
Physical - This type instructs the BIOS to query the drive’s geometry from the controller on each
POST. No translation on the drive’s geometry is performed, so this type is limited to drives of
512 Mbytes or less. Commonly, this is used with embedded ATA PC Cards.
LBA - This type instructs the BIOS to query the drive’s geometry from the controller on each
POST, but then translate the geometry according to the industry-standard LBA convention. This
supports up to 16-Gbyte drives. Use this method for all new drives.
Phoenix (CHS) - This type instructs the BIOS to query the drive’s geometry from the controller on
each POST, but then translate the geometry according to the Phoenix CHS convention. Using
this type on a drive previously formatted with LBA or Physical geometry might show data as
being missing or corrupted.
Geometry can either be entered directly in format cylinder/head/sector or can be automatically
recognized, if this is supported. Automatical recognition supports physical addressing, LBA
addressing and addressing according to Phoenix standard. For IDE drives smaller than 504MB
and CD-ROM drives you should select option "AUTOCONFIG, PHYSICAL", for bigger drives select
"AUTOCONFIG, LBA". Option "AUTOCONFIG, PHOENIX" is not in common use any more. Select
"Not installed" for drives that are not installed.
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Miscellaneous Settings
Typematic Delay/Rate
These parameters configure the keyboard interface and define the repetition rate of the
characters. Normally you do not need to change these parameters.
Seek at Boot
This option defines drives to which drive a "SEEK" command is sent before the boot procedure.
You can select ‘NONE’ (no drive), ‘FLOPPY’ (floppy drive A), ‘IDE’ (IDE drive C) and ‘BOTH’
(floppy and IDE drive). The default setting is ‘NONE’ to make the boot procedure as short as
possible.
Show "Hit Del"
If this option is active, you have the choice to enter the Setup menu during the power-on self
test. To do this, press the <Del> key (with monitor/keyboard) or <Ctrl> + <C> (with
terminal).
Config Box
This option determines whether or not the configuration table is displayed on the boot console.
F1 Error Wait
If this option is active, the power-on self test will halt when detecting an error, and will prompt
you to determine how to proceed. If you press <F1> the POST will continue despite the error,
if you press <Del> you will enter the Setup menu and can check the configuration.
Parity Checking
This menu item is not used. It has no function.
Memory Test Tick
If this option is active, a click signal will be output on the speaker during the power on self test.
INT 3 Instruction
If your version of DOS, an application, or any OEM-supplied BIOS extensions have debugging
code (i.e., “INT 3” instructions) remaining, then these would invoke the debugger automatically,
if ‘INT 3 instruct.’ is set to ‘Call Dbg’. To continue, use the “G” command. Normally this option
is set to ‘Ignored’.
Debugger Hex Case
Determines whether the debugger function outputs hexadecimal numbers as lower case or
upper case letters.
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Memory Test
On POST, when testing the random access memory, there are several testing intensity options.
Deeper testing requires more time, and vice versa.
Low Memory (0-640KB)
Extended Memory 1-256MB
FastLo
FastHi
StdLo
FastHi
FullLo
FastHi
FastLo
StdHi
StdLo
StdHi
FullLo
StdHi
FastLo
FullHi
StdLo
FullHi
FullLo
FullHi
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Features Configuration Setup Screen
ACPI & Advanced Power Management
EMBEDDED BIOS 2000 provides support for power-sensitive applications by being compatible
with the Advanced Power Management and Control (ACPI) Specification 2.0, and the older
legacy PC Microsoft Advanced Power Management (APM) Specification 1.2. Please note that
power management is restricted to the hardware capacities of the CC5-RAVE.
ACPI (Modern OS-Based Power Management)
ACPI gives control to the OS for a variety of functions that have been traditionally handled by
BIOS or 3rd party software. The most commonly talked about of these uses is power
management. With ACPI, the OS can control power flow, making sure that devices do not
overheat, or that the battery maintains its life for as long as possible. APM also provides these
functions, but in APM the BIOS really controls most aspects, while in ACPI it is the OS that does
this, thus requiring one less step to go through to make sure everything works. More
importantly, APM controls only power management, while ACPI truly gives all sorts of control to
the OS. Operating systems that support ACPI include Windows 98 SE, Windows 2000, and
Windows XP. The OS learns what it needs to know for ACPI by looking at information passed to
it from the BIOS. The BIOS stores this information at the very top of physical memory, and in a
format defined by the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface Specification. EMBEDDED
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BIOS 2000 complies with both version 1.0 of this spec, and version 2.0, which is the most recent
as of the release of this manual.
APM (Older Style Legacy PC Power Management)
If APM is enabled in the BIOS, the operating system and application may access APM BIOS
services that can be used to control the power-consumption state of the system.
Graphical/Audio POST
Another facility, the Splash Screen, provides a graphical (and auditory) user interface that
provides the end user with the impression that the system is booting immediately, and then
transitions easily to the graphical environment of the run-time operating system. The Splash
Screen supports animation, OEM branding, and even updates of sections of the Splash Screen
graphics in the field through a BRAND.EXE utility.
System Management Mode
The Pentium III CPU supports three processor modes: real mode, protected mode, and system
management mode (SMM). This third mode runs transparently to the other modes’ execution,
and can be entered only by a special interrupt which has no interrupt level assignment through
the PICs. Instead, this interrupt is generated (typically) by the southbridge and is wired directly
to an SMI# pin on the CPU. This means that the CPU enters and leaves SMM without allowing
the operating system or application software to become aware of it. EMBEDDED BIOS provides
a way to harness SMM to perform firmware-level work without the complexities of SMM mode
programming, chipset programming, and assembly language programming. The SMM manager
in the core BIOS, if enabled, calls the underlying Board Personality Module and Chipset
Personality Module to program the SMM hardware, initializing it, and loading the protected
SMRAM with an SMM operating environment, Firmbase. This run-time kernel provides a flat,
32-bit, protected mode environment within the protective envelope of SMM execution, and
enables the OEM to create 32-bit firmware applications that run in this environment, completely
transparently to the foreground operating system and its applications. Real applications for
Firmbase include Legacy USB stacks, OS system death detection, remote access and control, and
many other functions. The theory of operation of Firmbase, as well as the practical aspects of
programming for that environment, are beyond the scope of this manual. A separate Firmbase
SDK provides these details. For more information about Firmbase, contact General Software.
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POST Memory Manager
The Address Manager supports other memory managers in the system BIOS, including the POST
Memory Manager (PMM), a subsystem that is called by PXE and other POST-time option ROMs
to request memory from low or extended memory.
System Management BIOS
EMBEDDED BIOS provides the SMBIOS support necessary to support the Intel Preboot Execution
Environment (PXE) firmware used in remote management and booting applications. System
Management BIOS, or SMBIOS (also formerly known as Desktop Management Interface, or
DMI), is a way for a system to return low level information about itself to the OS or to
application level programs. Many attributes of a system are known only to the BIOS, yet may be
useful to OS or application software. SMBIOS provides a standard interface for returning this
information. This implementation conforms to the SMBIOS v2.3.1 spec.
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Custom Configuration Setup Screen
The system’s hardware-specific features are configured with the Custom Setup Screen. All
features are straightforward except for the Redirect Debugger I/O option, which is an extra
embedded feature that allows the user to select whether the Integrated BIOS Debugger should
use standard keyboard and video or RS232 console redirection for interaction with the user. If
no video is available, the debugger is always redirected.
Processor Throttle Mode
This option allows to reduce considerably the CPUs power consumption, useful for low power
applications, or when high ambient temperatures can occur. If the full processor performance
is not needed, the CPU can be throttled back either on a fixed or temperature controlled (future
option) base, to 12.5/25/37.5/50/62.5/75/87.5%. Switch the throttle mode off if the full CPU
performance is required.
Scan PCI Buses
On POST, the BIOS scans the PCI bus for attached devices. If this option is set to ‘ALL’, any PCI
device is detected, also those components which are behind several PCI to PCI bridges. Setting
the scan to ‘0 only’ limits the enumerating procedure to the local CC5-RAVE chipset and speeds
up the POST process. A value of 0-1 additionally includes scanning of local devices as the
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RAVE on the backplane, that are attached directly w/o an additional PCI bridge on the I/O
module. If the I/O module is equipped with a PCI bridge, detecting of devices behind this bridge
(bus 3) would require setting of this option to ‘ALL’.
L2 Cache
For maximum performance, leave the CPU second level cache enabled. Disabling the cache will
slow down code processing dramatically, so this is merely a feature for testing and debugging.
Show BIOS Messages, Delay After Messages
This parameter can be adjusted to the value that most fits your needs. From ‘Few’ to ‘Normal’
or ‘More’, select the verbosity of BIOS messages you prefer. The ‘DbgMode’ is suitable when
using the internal debugger. The amount of delay inserted after outputting each message to the
screen can be controlled by the parameters ‘Normal’, ‘FastBoot’ and ‘DbgMode’.
Behaviour after Initializing Expansion ROM
This parameter controls the action method which takes place when detecting external BIOS code
on POST, typically provided on bootable I/O boards as SCSI adapters and networking interface
controllers. You can select here to continue POST (‘Normal’), or to append a ‘5s delay’, or to
wait for pressing a key (‘Press key’), or to enter the ‘Debugger’.
Select Primary VGA
<
<
<
<
<
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The CC5-RAVE is equipped with an i810 internal video display controller. Select
‘CC5/i810' in order to use the boards DVI-I connector as primary display. In order to
select an external video graphics adapter card, set the parameter value to 1.PCI ... 10.PCI
accordingly. A setting of ‘Legacy’ establishes the VGA adapter as primary, which has
been scanned as last video device during the enumeration of PCI components. The
selectable options follow here in detail:
CC5/i810 (factory default): Selects the VGA on CC5 (i810 internal graphics device) as the
primary VGA device
Legacy (old GS algorithm): In previous BIOS versions that VGA device became the primary
VGA device which was found on the highest PCI bus. If more than one VGA device was
found on that bus, the VGA device with the highest device number became primary
VGA.
1. PCI: Primary VGA device becomes that VGA device which is found on the lowest PCI
bus above CC5 (on CC5 systems this is always the first CompactPCI bus). If more than
one VGA device is found on that bus, the VGA device with the lowest device number
becomes primary VGA
2. -9. PCI: ....
10. PCI: Primary VGA device becomes that VGA device which is found on the highest PCI
bus. If more than one VGA device is found on that bus, the VGA device with the highest
device number becomes primary VGA
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Select Ethernet BIOS
Booting from the network requires the on-board Ethernet controller BIOS to be activated. For
connecting to Linux servers, EtherBoot (GPL) is a suitable selection. The Intel PXE currently is
restricted to the 82559 Ethernet controller chip, which is available on the CC5-RAVE on special
request only (normally, the 82559ER is stuffed, which contains a 82559 subset). The BootMng
option requires additional third-party software.
Digital DVI Support
The digital part of the DVI connector (DVI-D) is enabled in the BIOS. This includes initialization
of the i810 GMCH and the PanelLink Transmitter. The entry "Digital DVI (-D) support" in the
setup screen "Custom Configuration" allows to control this feature.
The available options are:
CoreBIOS : DVI-D is enabled by the core-BIOS (i.e. code written by EKF)
VideoBIOS: DVI-D is enabled by Video BIOS (Intel Video BIOS with AIM)
Disabled: DVI-D output is switched off
Please note:
Use of the option CoreBIOS is highly recommended. There have been issues observed with the
Intel Video BIOS (option VideoBIOS). As a workaround, EKF has written own DVI-D initialization
code (enabled with option CoreBIOS, which is also the factory default). The only disadvantage
of CoreBIOS is that under Windows 2000 the Intel graphics driver (PV6.6 and older) always
disables DVI-D when Windows starts. This effect should not occur when using the Intel Video
BIOS (says Intel, although in fact it does, as of current). Therefore, to reenable DVI-D under
Windows, EKF has written a software module (windvi), which can be downloaded from EKF's
website. It should be unpacked and copied to the autostart folder, in order to compensate the
erroneous Intel graphics driver, until VideoBIOS is available bug-free. Linux and DOS both don't
disable DVI-D, hence there is no need for executing the windvi utility after OS start.
BIOS Standard I/O Port
Operation of the CC5-RAVE as a desktop PC requires monitor and keyboard to be attached
(CC6-ACID needed for KBD). As an alternative, I/O might be redirected to the ‘COM1' or ‘COM2'
serial interfaces (also requires CC6-ACID super I/O board). Attach a VT100 like ASCII terminal (or
PC equipped with a terminal emulation program) to the selected port. Standard I/O redirection
will be aborted on pressing any key on the PS/2 keyboard (the CMOS parameter itself is not
changed).
BIOS Setup I/O Port
In a likewise manner as the standard I/O redirection, the BIOS setup procedure might be
redirected to the ‘COM1' or ‘COM2' serial interfaces. Setup I/O redirection will be aborted on
pressing any key on the PS/2 keyboard (the CMOS parameter itself remains unchanged).
BIOS Debugger I/O Port
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In a likewise manner as the standard I/O redirection, the debugger operation might be
redirected to the ‘COM1' or ‘COM2' serial interfaces. The BIOS is provided with an integrated
debugger. The ‘VGA/KEYB’ mode requires the graphics hardware to work properly, and - more
important - overwrites screen contents generated by the application which has to be debugged.
Debugger I/O redirection cannot be aborted on pressing any key on the PS/2 keyboard
Call Debugger During POST
The integrated debugger can be invoked During POST. There are several levels available for
selection:
Disabled: Do not invoke the debugger
Level 1: Invoke the debugger immediately before boot
Level 2: Invoke the debugger before ATA/IDE initializations (includes Level 1)
Level 3: Invoke the debugger after VGA initialization (includes Level 1 and 2)
Parallel Port Configuration
The parallel port can be configured by several parameters. If disabled, the settings of the
remaining parameters have no meaning. If enabled, the parallel port IRQ (Level 5/7), address
(278h, 378h, 3BCh), and operation mode (legacy centronics printer, SPP/EPP1.7, ECP/EPP1.7,
SPP, SPP/EPP1.9, ECP, ECP/EPP1.9) can be configured to meet your individual needs.
Serial Port Configuration
The UART COM1/2 ports can be both individually disabled/enabled and configured with respect
to their I/O addresses and IRQ levels. The available addressing range is 220h, 228h, 238h, 2E8h,
2F8h, 338h, 3E8h, 3F8h). You can select either of IRQ 3/4/5/7. If in doubt, select 3F8h IRQ 4 for
UART1 (COM1) and 2F8h IRQ 3 for UART2 (COM2).
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IDE Configuration Setup Screen
This screen provides for configuration of both the Primary IDE and the Secondary IDE interfaces.
Each port can be individually enabled/disabled.
Primary IDE Port
UDMA66
On the CC5-RAVE, the primary IDE port is dedicated to the harddisk (master) and CD-ROM
(slave) drives. Normally, this port must be enabled. You can select the method how the disk
operating system will detect attached drives at the Primary IDE interface as Ultra ATA/66. You
will have to distinct between two hardware configurations:
1. The CC5-RAVE comes without the super-I/O companion board CC6-ACID. The UDMA options
at your choice are ‘Dis’ (disable, never allow UDMA disk operation) and ‘Auto’ (the IDE cable
type in use, 40- or 80-pos., is detected in order to check if UDMA operation could be allowed).
2. The CC5-RAVE is accompanied by the CC6-ACID Low-Pin-Count super-I/O interface board,
usually with the harddisk being mounted directly to this card. The available options are ‘Dis’
(never allow UDMA), ‘Auto’ (for auto-detecting of 80-pos. IDE cables), and ‘Ena’ (for simulating
the 80-pos. IDE cable being present - this option is required for an HDD directly mounted on the
CC6-ACID).
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The UDMA capability is passed to the operating system. The actual data transfer mode however
depends on the drives built in UDMA features and the treatment of the operating system (e.g.
DOS will not be able to activate the UDMA mode). The BIOS itself does not use UDMA during
POST.
Master/Slave Timing Mode
Individually selectable for master and slave, this 3-bit (0-7) parameter controls various access
modes to the drives. Detailed information can be derived from the Intel IDE Programmer’s
Reference Manual at http://developer.intel.com/design/chipsets/manuals/298236.htm.
IORDY Sampling Point
Individually selectable for master and slave, this parameter controls a delay time for the drives
IORDY signal (3-5 clock cycles). Detailed information see above.
Recovery Time
Individually selectable for master and slave, this parameter controls delays to recover from drive
access (1-4 clock cycles). Detailed information see above.
Secondary IDE Port
This port is reserved for the ATA CompactFlash drive on the CC5-RAVE. The options are identical
to the primary IDE port but the UDMA parameter. No IDE slave device is attached.
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Password Configuration
This screen allows to define a password for the system, that is requested anytime before
proceeding to either the BIOS Setup or the OS boot, if password checking is enabled. This
feature therefore adds some level of security to the system in preventing unauthorized people
from altering the BIOS setup parameters and starting the OS.
The factory default password is ‘none’ (simply enter <CR>, if password checking has been
enabled without prior defining a user password). The option ‘Change Password’ allows to define
a user specific key.
If you can’t remember the password, there are two possible solutions to this problem: Either
enter the debug mode (the integrated debugger can be invoked prior to entering the unknown
password). Now alter the content of CMOS memory cells at the addresses 39h and 3Ah to 0
(this resets the password to 0000h = ‘none’). When resetting the system, a CMOS Bad
Checksum situation is detected, which causes the BIOS to replace the CMOS parameters to its
factory defaults.
The second, harder way would be to carefully remove (soldering iron needed) the accumulator
from the CC5-RAVE, which is responsible for data retention in the CMOS RAM. After a few
seconds, insert (solder) the accumulator again. When switching on the system, the BIOS detects
a checksum failure due to deleted data and installs the factory default parameters. All previous
settings will be gone lost, e.g. date and time. You will have to reconfigure all BIOS settings now.
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Burn-In Diagnostics Routines Setup Screen
Embedded systems may require automated burn-in testing in the development cycle. This facility
is provided directly in the system’s BIOS through the Burn-In Diagnostics routines setup screen.
To use the system, selectively enable or disable features to be tested, and then enable the “Tests
Begin on ESC?” option to cause the system test suite to be invoked. To repeat the system test
battery continuously, you should also enable the “Continuous Testing” option. When continuous
testing is started, the system will continue until an error is encountered. Caution: The disk I/O
diagnostics perform write operations on those drives; therefore, only spare drives should be used
which do not contain data that could be harmed by the test. Caution: The keyboard test may fail
when in fact the hardware is operating within reasonable limits. This is because although the
device may produce occasional errors, the BIOS retries operations when failures occur during
normal operation of the system.
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System BIOS Debugger
The Embedded BIOS Integrated Debugger may be invoked from the Setup Screen main menu, or
on encountering selected levels of the POST code (see the Custom Configuration Setup Screen ‘Call Debugger dur. POST’ options), or by pressing <CTRL><SHIFT>! at any time. Once invoked,
the debugger will display the debugger prompt:
EB43DBG:
and await debugger commands. To resume back to the Setup Screen main menu, type the
following command, which instructs the debugger to “go”:
EB43DBG: G <ENTER>
The debugger can be a valuable tool to aid the board verification process on new designs similar
to the evaluation board. It supports a DOS SYMDEB-style command line interface, and can be
used on the main console’s keyboard and screen, or over a redirected connection to a terminal
program (see “Console Redirection”).
To activate the debugger at any time from the main console, press the left shift and the control
keys together. A display will appear, containing the title, “Embedded BIOS Debugger Breakpoint
Trap” and a snapshot of the processor general registers. To leave the debugger and resume the
interrupted activity (whether POST, BIOS, DOS, Windows, or an application program), enter the
“G” command (short for “go”) and press ENTER. If you were at a DOS prompt when you entered
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the debugger, then DOS will still be waiting for its command, and will not prompt again until
you press ENTER again. The debugger can also be entered from the Setup Screen System, and as
a boot activity (see “Basic CMOS Configuration Screen”), as a last ditch effort during board
bring-up and development if no bootable device is available. If your version of DOS, an
application, or any OEM-supplied BIOS extensions have debugging code (i.e., “INT 3”
instructions) remaining, then these will invoke the debugger automatically as an option. To
continue, use the “G” command. The debugger will respond on INT 3 instructions only if
enabled (see the Basic CMOS Configuration Setup Screen). Normally this option is set to
‘Ignored’, so that debugging code in the application will not cause the debugger to be invoked.
A complete discussion of the debugger is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, complete
documentation is available from General Software.
Console Redirection
The system can operate either with a standard PC/AT or PS/2 keyboard and VGA video monitor,
or with a special emulation of a console over an RS232 cable connected to a host computer
running a terminal program. When using the Console Redirection feature, the BIOS automatically
switches its keyboard and screen functions to serial I/O over COM1/COM2 on the board (CC6ACID required in addition to the CC5-RAVE). The hardware connection to the host computer
requires a null modem cable.
Console redirection can be activated by means of the Custom Configuration Setup Screen.
Individual selection of the best suited physical port for BIOS Standard I/O, Setup I/O and
Debugger I/O is provided.
The software on the target can be any terminal emulation program that supports ANSI terminal
mode, using 9600 baud, no parity, and one stop bit (Note: This can be modified by EKF during
BIOS adaptation.) The program must be set to not use flow control, or the console may seem to
stall or not accept input.
Caution if using HYPERTERMINAL from a PC: HYPERTERMINAL’s default setting is to use flow
control, which will render the console inoperative. To change this, create a new session, change
the flow control setting to “none”, save the session, and exit HYPERTERMINAL. Then reinvoke
HYPERTERMINAL with the session and it will operate with the new flow control setting.
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Addendum A: Embedded BIOS POST Codes
Embedded BIOS writes progress codes, also known as POST codes, to I/O port 80H during POST,
in order to provide information to system integrators and developers about system faults. These
POST are not displayed on the screen. However, the POST codes can be displayed by means of
additional emulator equipment. For more information about POST codes, contact General
Software.
Mnemonic Code Code System Progress Report
POST_STATUS_START 00h Start POST (BIOS is executing).
POST_STATUS_CPUTEST 01h Start CPU register test.
POST_STATUS_DELAY 02h Start power-on delay.
POST_STATUS_DELAYDONE 03h Power-on delay finished.
POST_STATUS_KBDBATRDY 04h Keyboard BAT finished.
POST_STATUS_DISABSHADOW 05h Disable shadowing & cache.
POST_STATUS_CALCCKSUM 06h Compute ROM CRC, wait for KBC.
POST_STATUS_CKSUMGOOD 07h CRC okay, KBC ready.
POST_STATUS_BATVRFY 08h Verifying BAT command to KB.
POST_STATUS_KBDCMD 09h Start KBC command.
POST_STATUS_KBDDATA 0ah Start KBC data.
POST_STATUS_BLKUNBLK 0bh Start pin 23,24 blocking & unblocking.
POST_STATUS_KBDNOP 0ch Start KBC NOP command.
POST_STATUS_SHUTTEST 0dh Test CMOS RAM shutdown register.
POST_STATUS_CMOSDIAG 0eh Check CMOS checksum.
POST_STATUS_CMOSINIT 0fh Initialize CMOS contents.
POST_STATUS_CMOSSTATUS 10h Initialize CMOS status for date/time.
POST_STATUS_DISABDMAINT 11h Disable DMA, PICs.
POST_STATUS_DISABPORTB 12h Disable Port B, video display.
POST_STATUS_BOARD 13h Initialize board, start memory bank detection.
POST_STATUS_TESTTIMER 14h Start timer tests.
POST_STATUS_TESTTIMER2 15h Test 8254 T2, for speaker, port B.
POST_STATUS_TESTTIMER1 16h Test 8254 T1, for refresh.
POST_STATUS_TESTTIMER0 17h Test 8254 T0, for 18.2Hz.
POST_STATUS_MEMREFRESH 18h Start memory refresh.
POST_STATUS_TESTREFRESH 19h Test memory refresh.
POST_STATUS_TEST15US 1ah Test 15usec refresh ON/OFF time.
POST_STATUS_TEST64KB 1bh Test base 64KB memory.
POST_STATUS_TESTDATA 1ch Test data lines.
POST_STATUS_TESTADDR 20h Test address lines.
POST_STATUS_TESTPARITY 21h Test parity (toggling).
POST_STATUS_TESTMEMRDWR 22h Test Base 64KB memory.
POST_STATUS_SYSINIT 23h Prepare system for IVT initialization.
POST_STATUS_INITVECTORS 24h Initialize vector table.
POST_STATUS_8042TURBO 25h Read 8042 for turbo switch setting.
POST_STATUS_POSTTURBO 26h Initialize turbo data.
POST_STATUS_POSTVECTORS 27h Modification of IVT.
POST_STATUS_MONOMODE 28h Video in monochrome mode verified.
POST_STATUS_COLORMODE 29h Video in color mode verified.
POST_STATUS_TOGGLEPARITY 2ah Toggle parity before video ROM test.
POST_STATUS_INITBEFOREVIDEO 2bh Initialize before video ROM check.
POST_STATUS_VIDEOROM 2ch Passing control to video ROM.
POST_STATUS_POSTVIDEO 2dh Control returned from video ROM.
POST_STATUS_CHECKEGAVGA 2eh Check for EGA/VGA adapter.
POST_STATUS_TESTVIDEOMEMORY 2fh No EGA/VGA found, test video memory.
POST_STATUS_RETRACE 30h Scan for video retrace signal.
POST_STATUS_ALTDISPLAY 31h Primary retrace failed.
POST_STATUS_ALTRETRACE 32h Alternate found.
POST_STATUS_VRFYSWADAPTER 33h Verify video switches.
POST_STATUS_SETDISPMODE 34h Establish display mode.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40A 35h Initialize ROM BIOS data area.
POST_STATUS_SETCURSOR 36h Set cursor for power-on msg.
POST_STATUS_PWRONDISPLAY 37h Display power-on message.
POST_STATUS_SAVECURSOR 38h Save cursor position.
POST_STATUS_BIOSIDENT 39h Display BIOS identification string.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
POST_STATUS_HITDEL 3ah Display "Hit <DEL> to ..." message.
POST_STATUS_VIRTUAL 40h Prepare protected mode test.
POST_STATUS_DESCR 41h Prepare descriptor tables.
POST_STATUS_ENTERVM 42h Enter virtual mode for memory test.
POST_STATUS_ENABINT 43h Enable interrupts for diagnostics mode.
POST_STATUS_CHECKWRAP1 44h Initialize data for memory wrap test.
POST_STATUS_CHECKWRAP2 45h Test for wrap, find total memory size.
POST_STATUS_HIGHPATTERNS 46h Write extended memory test patterns.
POST_STATUS_LOWPATTERNS 47h Write conventional memory test patterns.
POST_STATUS_FINDLOWMEM 48h Find low memory size from patterns.
POST_STATUS_FINDHIMEM 49h Find high memory size from patterns.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40B 4ah Verify ROM BIOS data area again.
POST_STATUS_CHECKDEL 4bh Check for <DEL> pressed.
POST_STATUS_CLREXTMEM 4ch Clear extended memory for soft reset.
POST_STATUS_SAVEMEMSIZE 4dh Save memory size.
POST_STATUS_COLD64TEST 4eh Cold boot: Display 1st 64KB memtest.
POST_STATUS_COLDLOWTEST 4fh Cold boot: Test all of low memory.
POST_STATUS_ADJUSTLOW 50h Adjust memory size for EBDA usage.
POST_STATUS_COLDHITEST 51h Cold boot: Test high memory.
POST_STATUS_REALMODETEST 52h Prepare for shutdown to real mode.
POST_STATUS_ENTERREAL 53h Return to real mode.
POST_STATUS_SHUTDOWN 54h Shutdown successful.
POST_STATUS_DISABA20 55h Disable A20 line.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40C 56h Check ROM BIOS data area again.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40D 57h Check ROM BIOS data area again.
POST_STATUS_CLRHITDEL 58h Clear "Hit <DEL>" message.
POST_STATUS_TESTDMAPAGE 59h Test DMA page register file.
POST_STATUS_VRFYDISPMEM 60h Verify from display memory.
POST_STATUS_TESTDMA0BASE 61h Test DMA0 base register.
POST_STATUS_TESTDMA1BASE 62h Test DMA1 base register.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40E 63h Checking ROM BIOS data area again.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40F 64h Checking ROM BIOS data area again.
POST_STATUS_PROGDMA 65h Program DMA controllers.
POST_STATUS_INITINTCTRL 66h Initialize PICs.
POST_STATUS_STARTKBDTEST 67h Start keyboard test.
POST_STATUS_KBDRESET 80h Issue KB reset command.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSTUCKKEYS 81h Check for stuck keys.
POST_STATUS_INITCIRCBUFFER 82h Initialize circular buffer.
POST_STATUS_CHECKLOCKEDKEYS 83h Check for locked keys.
POST_STATUS_MEMSIZEMISMATCH 84h Check for memory size mismatch.
POST_STATUS_PASSWORD 85h Check for password or bypass setup.
POST_STATUS_BEFORESETUP 86h Password accepted.
POST_STATUS_CALLSETUP 87h Entering setup system.
POST_STATUS_POSTSETUP 88h Setup system exited.
POST_STATUS_DISPPWRON 89h Display power-on screen message.
POST_STATUS_DISPWAIT 8ah Display "Wait..." message.
POST_STATUS_ENABSHADOW 8bh Shadow system & video BIOS.
POST_STATUS_STDCMOSSETUP 8ch Load standard setup values from CMOS.
POST_STATUS_MOUSE 8dh Test and initialize mouse.
POST_STATUS_FLOPPY 8eh Test floppy disks.
POST_STATUS_CONFIGFLOPPY 8fh Configure floppy drives.
POST_STATUS_IDE 90h Test hard disks.
POST_STATUS_CONFIGIDE 91h Configure IDE drives.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40G 92h Checking ROM BIOS data area.
POST_STATUS_CHECKSEG40H 93h Checking ROM BIOS data area.
POST_STATUS_SETMEMSIZE 94h Set base & extended memory sizes.
POST_STATUS_SIZEADJUST 95h Adjust low memory size for EBDA.
POST_STATUS_INITC8000 96h Initialize before calling C800h ROM.
POST_STATUS_CALLC8000 97h Call ROM BIOS extension at C800h.
POST_STATUS_POSTC8000 98h ROM C800h extension returned.
POST_STATUS_TIMERPRNBASE 99h Configure timer/printer data.
POST_STATUS_SERIALBASE 9ah Configure serial port base addresses.
POST_STATUS_INITBEFORENPX 9bh Prepare to initialize coprocessor.
POST_STATUS_INITNPX 9ch Initialize numeric coprocessor.
POST_STATUS_POSTNPX 9dh Numeric coprocessor initialized.
POST_STATUS_CHECKLOCKS 9eh Check KB settings.
POST_STATUS_ISSUEKBDID 9fh Issue keyboard ID command.
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Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
POST_STATUS_RESETID 0a0h KB ID flag reset.
POST_STATUS_TESTCACHE 0a1h Test cache memory.
POST_STATUS_DISPSOFTERR 0a2h Display soft errors.
POST_STATUS_TYPEMATIC 0a3h Set keyboard typematic rate.
POST_STATUS_MEMWAIT 0a4h Program memory wait states.
POST_STATUS_CLRSCR 0a5h Clear screen.
POST_STATUS_ENABPTYNMI 0a6h Enable parity and NMIs.
POST_STATUS_INITE000 0a7h Initialize before calling ROM at E000h.
POST_STATUS_CALLE000 0a8h Call ROM BIOS extension at E000h.
POST_STATUS_POSTE000 0a9h ROM extension returned.
POST_STATUS_DISPCONFIG 0b0h Display system configuration box.
POST_STATUS_INT19BOOT 00h Call INT 19h bootstrap loader.
POST_STATUS_LOWMEMEXH 0b1h Test low memory exhaustively.
POST_STATUS_EXTMEMEXH 0b2h Test extended memory exhaustively.
POST_STATUS_PCIENUM 0b3h Enumerate PCI buses.
- 31 EKF Elektronik GmbH * Philipp-Reis-Str. 4 * D-59065 HAMM (Germany)
Tel. +49 (0)2381/6890-0 * Fax. +49 (0)2381/6890-90 * E-Mail info@ekf.de * Internet http://www.ekf.de
Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
Addendum B: Embedded BIOS Beep & Blink Codes
Embedded BIOS tests much of the system hardware early in POST before messages can be
displayed on the screen. When system failures are encountered at these early stages, POST uses
beep codes (a sequence of tones on the speaker) and blinking sequences (visual signals, output
to the floppy drive LED) to identify the source of the error. The following is a comprehensive list
of POST beep & blink codes for the system BIOS. BIOS extensions, such as VGA ROMs and SCSI
adapter ROMs, may use their own beep codes, including short/long sequences, or possibly beep
codes that sound like the ones below. When diagnosing a system failure, remove these adapters
if possible before making a final determination of the actual POST test that failed.
Mnemonic Code
Beep
Count
Description of Problem
POST_BEEP_REFRESH
1
Memory refresh is not working
POST_BEEP_PARITY
2
Parity error found in 1st 64KB of memory
POST_BEEP_BASE64KB
3
Memory test of 1st 64KB failed
POST_BEEP_TIMER
4
T1 timer test failed
POST_BEEP_CPU
5
CPU test failed
POST_BEEP_GATEA20
6
Gate A20 test failed
POST_BEEP_DMA
7
DMA page/base register test failed
POST_BEEP_VIDEO
8
Video controller test failed
POST_BEEP_KEYBOARD
9
Keyboard test failed
POST_BEEP_SHUTDOWN
10
CMOS shutdown register test failed
POST_BEEP_CACHE
11
External cache test failed
POST_BEEP_BOARD
12
General board initialization failed
POST_BEEP_LOWMEM
13
Exhaustive low memory test failed
POST_BEEP_EXTMEM
14
Exhaustive extended memory test failed
POST_BEEP_CMOS
15
CMOS restart byte test failed
POST_BEEP_ADDRESS_LINE
16
Address line test failed
POST_BEEP_DATA_LINE
17
Data line test failed
POST_BEEP_INTERRUPT
18
Interrupt controller test failed
POST_BEEP_PASSWORD
1
Incorrect password used to access SETUP
- 32 EKF Elektronik GmbH * Philipp-Reis-Str. 4 * D-59065 HAMM (Germany)
Tel. +49 (0)2381/6890-0 * Fax. +49 (0)2381/6890-90 * E-Mail info@ekf.de * Internet http://www.ekf.de
Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
- 33 EKF Elektronik GmbH * Philipp-Reis-Str. 4 * D-59065 HAMM (Germany)
Tel. +49 (0)2381/6890-0 * Fax. +49 (0)2381/6890-90 * E-Mail info@ekf.de * Internet http://www.ekf.de
Embedded BIOS 2000 Quick Reference • CC5-RAVE
EKF Elektronik GmbH
Philipp-Reis-Str. 4
D-59065 HAMM
(Germany)
Internet http://www.ekf.de
Fax. +49 (0)2381/6890-90
Tel. +49 (0)2381/6890-0
E-Mail sales@ekf.de
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